Sample records for ebna2 regulates stat3

  1. Epstein-Barr virus-derived EBNA2 regulates STAT3 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Togi, Sumihito; Kamitani, Shinya [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo 409-3898 (Japan); Harada, Shizuko [Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Oritani, Kenji [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)], E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

    2009-01-16

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latency protein EBNA2 is a nuclear transcriptional activator that is essential for EBV-induced cellular transformation. Here, we show that EBNA2 interacts with STAT3, a signal transducer for an interleukin-6 family cytokine, and enhances the transcriptional activity of STAT3 by influencing its DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, EBNA2 cooperatively acts on STAT3 activation with LMP1. These data demonstrate that EBNA2 acts as a transcriptional coactivator of STAT3.

  2. The NP9 protein encoded by the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) negatively regulates gene activation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2).

    PubMed

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Pfuhl, Thorsten; Willnecker, Vivienne; Spurk, Andreas; Gurtsevitch, Vladimir; Sauter, Marlies; Hu, Bin; Noessner, Elfriede; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A

    2011-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human tumour virus that efficiently growth-transforms primary human B-lymphocytes in vitro. The viral nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for immortalisation of B-cells and stimulates viral and cellular gene expression through interaction with DNA-bound transcription factors. Like its cellular homologue Notch, it associates with the DNA-bound repressor RBPJ? (CSL/CBF1) thereby converting RBPJ? into the active state. For instance, both EBNA2 and Notch activate the cellular HES1 promoter. In EBV-transformed lymphocytes, the RNA of the NP9 protein encoded by human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) Type 1 is strongly up-regulated. The NP9 protein is detectable both in EBV-positive Raji cells, a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, and in IB4, an EBV-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. NP9 binds to LNX that forms a complex with the Notch regulator Numb. Therefore, the function of NP9 vis-à-vis Notch and EBNA2 was analysed. Here, we show that NP9 binds to EBNA2 and negatively affects the EBNA2-mediated activation of the viral C- and LMP2A promoters. In contrast, NP9 did neither interfere in the activation of the HES1 promoter by Notch nor the induction of the viral LMP1 promoter by EBNA2. In an electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, NP9 reduced the binding of EBNA2 to DNA-bound RBPJ? by about 50%. The down-regulation of EBNA2-activity by NP9 might represent a cellular defence mechanism against viral infection or could, alternatively, represent an adaptation of the virus to prevent excessive viral protein production that might otherwise be harmful for the infected cell. PMID:21710493

  3. Interleukin-21 regulates expression of key Epstein-Barr virus oncoproteins, EBNA2 and LMP1, in infected human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konforte, Danijela [Division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: danijela.konforte@utoronto.ca; Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J. [Division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A8 (Canada)

    2008-04-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for the life of the host by accessing the long-lived memory B cell pool. It has been proposed that EBV uses different combinations of viral proteins, known as latency types, to drive infected B cells to make the transition from resting B cells to memory cells. This process is normally antigen-driven. A major unresolved question is what factors coordinate expression of EBV latency proteins. We have recently described novel type III latency EBV{sup +} B cell lines (OCI-BCLs) that were induced to differentiate into late plasmablasts/early plasma cells in culture with interleukin-21 (IL-21), mimicking normal B cell development. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-21-mediated signals also regulate the expression of key EBV latent proteins during this window of development. Here we show that IL-21-reduced gene and protein expression of growth-transforming EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) in OCI-BCLs. By contrast, the expression of CD40-like, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) strongly increased in these cells suggesting an EBNA2-independent mode of regulation. Same results were also observed in Burkitt's lymphoma line Jijoye and B95-8 transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The effect of IL-21 on EBNA2 and LMP1 expression was attenuated by a pharmacological JAK inhibitor indicating involvement of JAK/STAT signalling in this process. Our study also shows that IL-21 induced transcription of ebna1 from the viral Q promoter (Qp)

  4. The exon-junction complex proteins, Y14 and MAGOH regulate STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Muromoto, Ryuta; Taira, Naohisa; Ikeda, Osamu; Shiga, Kaname; Kamitani, Shinya; Togi, Sumihito; Kawakami, Shiho; Sekine, Yuichi; Nanbo, Asuka; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2009-04-24

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is activated by cytokines and growth factors, mediates biological actions in many physiological processes. In a previous study, we found that Y14, a core component of the exon-junction complex (EJC) bound to STAT3 and upregulated the transcriptional activity of STAT3 by influencing its DNA-binding activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that STAT3 endogenously interacts with Y14. In addition, we found that MAGOH, a Y14 partner in the EJC, inhibits the STAT3-Y14 complex formation. Furthermore, small-interfering RNA-mediated reduction of MAGOH expression enhanced interleukin-6-induced gene expression. These results indicate that MAGOH regulates the transcriptional activation of STAT3 by interfering complex formation between STAT3 and Y14. PMID:19254694

  5. Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Zou, Yuhua; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2013-10-01

    Cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the regrowth of damaged axons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that KLF4 physically interacts with STAT3 upon cytokine-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) on STAT3. This interaction suppresses STAT3-dependent gene expression by blocking its DNA-binding activity. The deletion of KLF4 in vivo induces axon regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT3 signalling. This regeneration can be greatly enhanced by exogenous cytokine treatment, or removal of an endogenous JAK-STAT3 pathway inhibitor called suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3). These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS.

  6. STAT3 regulation the expression of VEGF-D in HGC-27 gastric cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingyu; Cui, Jingli; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Rupeng; Zhang, Li; Hao, Xishan; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) contribution to the lymphangiogenesis was regulated by the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Methods: We detected the expression in GC tissue, adjacent non-tumor tissue, GC cell lines (AGS, SUN-1, KATO-III, BGC-823, MGC-803, SGC-7901, and HGC-27), and GES-1 cell line. STAT3 siRNA transfection and genome microarray were applied to demonstrate whether the expression of VEGF-D was mediated by the STAT3 in GC. Results: We showed the STAT3, pSTAT3, and VEGF-D expression in GC tissue was significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissue, respectively. In addition, both STAT3 and VEGF-D mRNA expression was much higher in each GC cell line than those in GES-1 cell line. With STAT3 siRNA transfection, we demonstrated that VEGF-D expression level decreased significantly in HGC-27 cell by using the genome microarray representing STAT3 potential regulation the VEGF-D expression. Conclusion: STAT3, a novel signal transducer inactivating in the GC cell, can contribute to the lymph node metastasis by promoting lymphangiogenesis via up-regulation expression of VEGF-D. PMID:25628786

  7. A Single Amino Acid in EBNA-2 Determines Superior B Lymphoblastoid Cell Line Growth Maintenance by Epstein-Barr Virus Type 1 EBNA-2

    PubMed Central

    Tzellos, Stelios; Correia, Paulo B.; Karstegl, Claudio Elgueta; Cancian, Laila; Cano-Flanagan, Julian; McClellan, Michael J.; West, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequence differences in the EBNA-2 protein mediate the superior ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to transform human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines compared to that of type 2 EBV. Here we show that changing a single amino acid (S442D) from serine in type 2 EBNA-2 to the aspartate found in type 1 EBNA-2 confers a type 1 growth phenotype in a lymphoblastoid cell line growth maintenance assay. This amino acid lies in the transactivation domain of EBNA-2, and the S442D change increases activity in a transactivation domain assay. The superior growth properties of type 1 EBNA-2 correlate with the greater induction of EBV LMP-1 and about 10 cell genes, including CXCR7. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, type 1 EBNA-2 is shown to associate more strongly with EBNA-2 binding sites near the LMP-1 and CXCR7 genes. Unbiased motif searching of the EBNA-2 binding regions of the differentially regulated cell genes identified an ETS-interferon regulatory factor composite element motif that closely corresponds to the sequences known to mediate EBNA-2 regulation of the LMP-1 promoter. It appears that the superior induction by type 1 EBNA-2 of the cell genes contributing to cell growth is due to their being regulated in a manner different from that for most EBNA-2-responsive genes and in a way similar to that for the LMP-1 gene. IMPORTANCE The EBNA-2 transcription factor plays a key role in B cell transformation by EBV and defines the two EBV types. Here we identify a single amino acid (Ser in type 1 EBV, Asp in type 2 EBV) of EBNA-2 that determines the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce a key group of cell genes and the EBV LMP-1 gene, which mediate the growth advantage of B cells infected with type 1 EBV. The EBNA-2 binding sites in these cell genes have a sequence motif similar to the sequence known to mediate regulation of the EBV LMP-1 promoter. Further detailed analysis of transactivation and promoter binding provides new insight into the physiological regulation of cell genes by EBNA-2. PMID:24850736

  8. STAT3 inhibition suppresses proliferation of retinoblastoma through down-regulation of positive feedback loop of STAT3/miR-17-92 clusters

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Cho, Chang Sik; Cho, Young-Lai; Jun, Hyoung Oh; Yu, Young Suk; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children, is characterized by the loss of both functional alleles of RB1 gene, which however alone cannot maintain malignant characteristics of retinoblastoma cells. Nevertheless, the investigation of other molecular aberrations such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and miRNAs is still lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3 is activated in retinoblastoma cells, Ki67-positive areas of in vivo orthotopic tumors in BALB/c nude mice, and human retinoblastoma tissues of the advanced stage. Furthermore, target genes of STAT3 including BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, and MMP9 are up-regulated in retinoblastoma cells compared to other retinal constituent cells. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition by targeted siRNA suppresses the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and the formation of in vivo orthotopic tumors. In line with these results, STAT3 siRNA effectively induces down-regulation of target genes of STAT3. In addition, miRNA microarray analysis and further real-time PCR experiments with STAT3 siRNA treatment show that STAT3 activation is related to the up-regulation of miR-17-92 clusters in retinoblastoma cells via positive feedback loop between them. In conclusion, we suggest that STAT3 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach in retinoblastoma through the suppression of tumor proliferation. PMID:25359779

  9. Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through STAT3 but appear to do so through different modules, perhaps localized to different cell types. PMID:25025494

  10. Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively in epidermal growth factor signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xinmin

    2003-01-01

    EGF (epidermal growth factor) binding to its receptor (EGFR) induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of the receptor at multiple tyrosine residues, which serve as docking sites for recruitment of proteins with SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that activate multiple downstream signalling pathways. The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-binding protein 2) binds to EGFR, which leads to activation of Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. The latent transcription factors, STAT (signal transduction and activator of transcription), can also be activated by EGF in certain cell types. Since Ras-MAPK and STAT pathways are simultaneously stimulated by EGF, and Tyr-1086 and Tyr-1068 of EGFR are reported to be the binding sites for both Grb2 and Stat3, we investigated the possible regulatory role of Grb2 in STAT activation. In the present study, we report that transient expression of Grb2 specifically down-regulates EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, which leads to a repression of Stat3 transcriptional activity. In contrast, depletion of Grb2 by RNA interference substantially increases Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by EGF. The inhibition is neither mediated by a direct interaction between Grb2 and Stat3 nor via activation of tyrosine phosphatases. However, the repression was abolished by a mutation in the SH2 domain, but not the SH3 domains of Grb2, suggesting that inhibition involves binding of the receptor. Indeed, Grb2 inhibits the interaction between Stat3 and EGFR by competitive binding to the EGFR. On the other hand, Grb2 does not interact with the same sites as Stat3 on the interleukin-6 receptor and, therefore, has no effect on interleukin-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in EGF signalling, Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively at the receptor level. PMID:14498832

  11. JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Arata, E-mail: anishimo@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Li, Tao-Sheng [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hamano, Kimikazu [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target genes. Furthermore, the expression level of nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity between COLO205 and LoVo cells. Taken together, these results suggest that nuclear JAB1 positively regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cell line COLO205.

  12. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus-induced growth proliferation by a nuclear antigen EBNA2-TAT peptide

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Christopher J.; Lee, Jae Myun; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Cebrat, Marek; Cole, Philip A.; Hayward, S. Diane

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancers in immunocompromised populations. Antiviral drugs targeted against lytic viral replication have limited efficacy in these disease settings. EBV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells induces growth proliferation and the EBV latency Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen (EBNA)2 transcriptional transactivator (TAT) is essential for this response. EBNA2 targets the cellular DNA-binding protein CBF1 to mimic activated Notch signaling. A 10-aa peptide from the CBF1 interaction domain of EBNA2 was synthesized as a fusion with the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT. The EBNA2-TAT peptide blocked EBNA2-CBF1 interaction in an in vitro GST affinity assay and labeling with fluorescein confirmed that the EBNA2-TAT peptide efficiently entered cultured B cells. Neither EBNA2-TAT, nor a mutant peptide with a 2-aa substitution that was unable to block the EBNA2-CBF1 interaction, significantly affected the growth of non-EBNA2-expressing EBV(-) B cells or Burkitt's lymphoma Akata cells. However, treatment of an EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell line with the EBNA2-TAT peptide stopped cell growth and reduced cell viability. RT-PCR analyses of gene expression in the peptide-treated lymphoblastoid cell line cultures revealed that EBNA2-TAT treatment down-regulated the EBNA2-responsive viral LMP1 and LMP2 genes and cellular CD23, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, BATF, and Cdk1 genes while up-regulating expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. EBV-induced outgrowth of B cells from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also blocked in a dose-responsive manner by the EBNA2-TAT peptide. This study suggests that cell-permeable EBNA2 peptides may have potential as novel anti-EBV therapeutics. PMID:15070768

  13. VEGF-Mediated STAT3 Activation Inhibits Retinal Vascularization by Down-Regulating Local Erythropoietin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Byfield, Grace; Jiang, Yanchao; Smith, George Wesley; McCloskey, Manabu; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Avascular, hypoxic retina has been postulated to be a source of angiogenic factors that cause aberrant angiogenesis and intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV) in retinopathy of prematurity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor involved. However, VEGF is also required for normal retinal vascular development, which raises concerns about inhibiting its activity to treat IVNV in retinopathy of prematurity. Therefore, understanding the effects that VEGF has on other factors in the development of avascular retina is important to prevent aberrant angiogenesis and IVNV. Here, we show that STAT3 was activated by increased retinal VEGF in the rat 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model. Phospho-STAT3 colocalized with glutamine synthetase-labeled Müller cells. Inhibition of STAT3 reduced avascular retina and increased retinal erythropoietin (Epo) expression. Epo administered exogenously also reduced avascular retina in the model. In an in vitro study, hypoxia-induced VEGF inhibited Epo gene expression by STAT3 activation in rat Müller cells. The mechanism by which activated STAT3 regulated Epo was by inhibition of Epo promoter activity. Together, these findings show that increased retinal VEGF contributes to avascular retina by regulating retinal Epo expression through Janus kinase/STAT signaling. Our results suggest that rescuing Epo expression in the retina before the development of IVNV may promote normal developmental angiogenesis and, therefore, reduce the stimulus for later pathologic IVNV. PMID:22230249

  14. IL-10 regulates adult neurogenesis by modulating ERK and STAT3 activity

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leticia; Font-Nieves, Miriam; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Planas, Anna M.; Pozas, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) contains Nestin+ progenitors that differentiate mainly into neuroblasts. Our previous data showed that interleukin-10 (IL-10) regulates SVZ adult neurogenesis by up-regulating the expression of pro-neural genes and modulating cell cycle exit. Here we addressed the specific mechanism through which IL-10 carries out its signaling on SVZ progenitors. We found that, in vitro and in vivo, IL-10 targets Nestin+ progenitors and activates the phosphorylation of ERK and STAT3. The action of IL-10 on Nestin+ progenitors is reversed by treatment with a MEK/ERK inhibitor, thus restoring neurogenesis to normal levels. Silencing STAT3 expression by lentiviral vectors also impaired neurogenesis by blocking the effects of IL-10. Our findings unveil ERK and STAT3 as effectors of IL-10 in adult SVZ neurogenesis.

  15. EGF regulates claudin-2 and -4 expression through Src and STAT3 in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Vicky; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Verdejo-Torres, Odette; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Gariglio, Patricio; Contreras, Rubén G

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a key regulator of epithelial paracellular permeability, a property that depends on tight junctions (TJ) and can be evaluated through the measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). EGF increases the TER of MDCK monolayers by inducing ERK1/2-dependent downregulation of claudin-2 (CLDN-2) and upregulation of claudin-4 (CLDN-4). Because either increments or decrements in TER often involve Src activation and epithelial cell differentiation occasionally depends on STAT3, here we investigated whether EGF might control CLDN-2 downregulation and CLDN-4 upregulation through those proteins. We found that EGF induces Src activation necessary for the reduction of CLDN-2 at the TJ, the degradation of this CLDN, the reduction of the cellular levels of its mRNA and the resulting increase of TER. EGF-induced changes on CLDN-2 protein and mRNA also depend on STAT3 activity. This growth factor increases the levels of STAT3 phosphorylated at Y705 in the nucleus, a process that depends on Src activation. Interestingly, Src and STAT3 activation do not exclusively mediate the EGF-induced downregulation of CLDN-2, but they are also implicated in the EGF-induced CLDN-4 transcription, translation, and exocytic fusion into TJ. Our results indicate that EGF controls the levels of CLDN-2 and -4 proteins and mRNAs through Src and STAT3 activity. PMID:24909426

  16. Tyk2 and Stat3 Regulate Brown Adipose Tissue Differentiation and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Derecka, Marta; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Koralov, Sergei B.; Szczepanek, Karol; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Sisler, Jennifer; Zhang, Qifang; Otero, Dennis; Cichy, Joanna; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shimoda, Kazuya; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Pellegrini, Sandra; Harris, Thurl E.; Seale, Patrick; Russell, Aaron P.; McAinch, Andrew J.; O’Brien, Paul E.; Keller, Susanna R.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Kordula, Tomasz; Larner, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active form of the transcription factor Stat3 (CAStat3) restores differentiation in Tyk2?/? brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, Tyk2?/? mice expressing CAStat3 transgene in BAT also show improved BAT development, normal levels of insulin and significantly lower body weights. Stat3 binds to PRDM16, a master regulator of BAT differentiation, and enhances the stability of PRDM16 protein. These results define Tyk2 and Stat3 as critical determinants of brown fat-lineage and suggest that altered levels of Tyk2 are associated with obesity in both rodents and humans. PMID:23217260

  17. Tyk2 and Stat3 regulate brown adipose tissue differentiation and obesity.

    PubMed

    Derecka, Marta; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Koralov, Sergei B; Szczepanek, Karol; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Sisler, Jennifer; Zhang, Qifang; Otero, Dennis; Cichy, Joanna; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shimoda, Kazuya; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Pellegrini, Sandra; Harris, Thurl E; Seale, Patrick; Russell, Aaron P; McAinch, Andrew J; O'Brien, Paul E; Keller, Susanna R; Croniger, Colleen M; Kordula, Tomasz; Larner, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high-fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active form of the transcription factor Stat3 (CAStat3) restores differentiation in Tyk2(-/-) brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, Tyk2(-/-) mice expressing CAStat3 transgene in BAT also show improved BAT development, normal levels of insulin, and significantly lower body weights. Stat3 binds to PRDM16, a master regulator of BAT differentiation, and enhances the stability of PRDM16 protein. These results define Tyk2 and Stat3 as critical determinants of brown fat lineage and suggest that altered levels of Tyk2 are associated with obesity in both rodents and humans. PMID:23217260

  18. STAT3 regulates steady-state expression of synaptopodin in cultured mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Abkhezr, Mousa; Dryer, Stuart E

    2015-02-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and circulating factors in many cell types. Synaptopodin (Synpo) is a cytoskeleton regulatory protein expressed in podocyte foot processes that regulates the dynamics of actin filaments and the stability of small GTPases. Here we show that inhibition of STAT3 signaling using the small-molecule inhibitor benzo[b]thiophene,6-nitro-,1,1-dioxide (Stattic), or by STAT3 knockdown by small interfering RNA, caused a decrease in Synpo mRNA and protein in an immortalized mouse podocyte cell line. This loss of Synpo, which occurred in 30-80 minutes, was also seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. The loss of Synpo protein after Stattic or cycloheximide treatment did not occur when podocytes were simultaneously exposed to 1-[N-[(l-3-trans-carboxyoxirane-2-carbonyl)-l-leucyl]amino]-4-guanidinobutane (E-64), an inhibitor of thiol proteases such as cathepsin L. Treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and evoked a parallel increase in Synpo levels in podocytes. The stimulatory effect of IL-6 on Synpo was completely inhibited by pretreatment with Stattic. By contrast, 30-60-minute exposure to angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibited STAT3 signaling and concurrently reduced Synpo protein levels. The Ang II-evoked loss of Synpo was prevented by E-64 but not by inhibition of calcineurin or blockade of transient receptor potential cation channels. Inhibition of STAT3 by Stattic caused marked changes in the distribution of podocyte actin filaments, and caused a nearly complete suppression of the migration of these cells in wound assays, consistent with the loss of Synpo. Stattic treatment also caused loss of RhoA protein. PMID:25425624

  19. 14-3-3? interacts with stat3 and regulates its constitutive activation in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Chen, Fangjin; Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3?, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3? interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3? interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3? interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3?/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3? protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3? is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3? binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3? serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

  20. 14-3-3? Interacts with Stat3 and Regulates Its Constitutive Activation in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3?, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3? interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3? interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3? interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3?/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3? protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3? is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3? binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3? serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

  1. STAT3 controls IL6-dependent regulation of serotonin transporter function and depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eryan; Sucic, Sonja; Monje, Francisco J; Savalli, Giorgia; Diao, Weifei; Khan, Deeba; Ronovsky, Marianne; Cabatic, Maureen; Koban, Florian; Freissmuth, Michael; Pollak, Daniela D

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests a role for the immune system in the pathophysiology of depression. A specific involvement of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) in both, patients suffering from the disease and pertinent animal models, has been proposed. However, it is not clear how IL6 impinges on neurotransmission and thus contributes to depression. Here we tested the hypothesis that IL6-induced modulation of serotonergic neurotransmission through the STAT3 signaling pathway contributes to the role of IL6 in depression. Addition of IL6 to JAR cells, endogenously expressing SERT, reduced SERT activity and downregulated SERT mRNA and protein levels. Similarly, SERT expression was reduced upon IL6 treatment in the mouse hippocampus. Conversely, hippocampal tissue of IL6-KO mice contained elevated levels of SERT and IL6-KO mice displayed a reduction in depression-like behavior and blunted response to acute antidepressant treatment. STAT3 IL6-dependently associated with the SERT promoter and inhibition of STAT3 blocked the effect of IL6 in-vitro and modulated depression-like behavior in-vivo. These observations demonstrate that IL6 directly controls SERT levels and consequently serotonin reuptake and identify STAT3-dependent regulation of SERT as conceivable neurobiological substrate for the involvement of IL6 in depression. PMID:25760924

  2. Bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-Tian; Tang, Jia-Yin; Du, Wan; Zhao, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Sheng-Li; Chen, Hao-Yan; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, and it is downregulated in human gastric cancer and levels correlate with tumor progression and time of survival. However, the mechanism of its dysregulation in gastric cancer is little known. Here we investigate its regulatory mechanism and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 in gastric carcinogenesis. TMEFF2 expression was decreased after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in vivo and in vitro. STAT3 directly binds to the promoter of TMEFF2 and regulates H. pylori-induced TMEFF2 downregulation in normal gastric GES-1 cells and gastric cancer AGS cells. Conversely, TMEFF2 may suppress the phosphorylation of STAT3 and TMEFF2-induced downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation may depend on SHP-1. A highly inverse correlation between the expression of TMEFF2 and pSTAT3 was also revealed in gastric tissues. We now show the deregulation mechanism of TMEFF2 in gastric carcinogenesis and identify TMEFF2 as a new target gene of STAT3. The phosphorylation of STAT3 may be negatively regulated by TMEFF2, and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:24996057

  3. An essential role for Stat3 in regulating IgG immune complex-induced pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huifang; Yan, Chunguang; Cao, Jay; Sarma, J. Vidya; Haura, Eric B.; Wu, Min; Gao, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 may play an important regulatory role during inflammation. However, the function of Stat3 in acute lung injury (ALI) is largely unknown. In the current study, by using an adenoviral vector expressing a dominant-negative Stat3 isoform (Ad-Stat3-EVA), we determined the role of Stat3 in IgG immune complex (IC)-induced inflammatory responses and injury in the lung from C57BL/6J mice. We show that IgG IC-induced DNA binding activity of Stat3 in the lung was significantly inhibited by Stat3-EVA. We demonstrate that both lung vascular permeability (albumin leak) and lung myeloperoxidase accumulation in the Ad-Stat-EVA treated mice were substantially reduced when compared with values in mice receiving control virus (Ad-GFP) during the injury. Furthermore, intratracheal administration of Ad-Stat3-EVA caused significant decreases in the contents of neutrophils, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6), chemokines [keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, and MIP-1?], and complement component C5a in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Using Stat3-specific small interfering RNA, we show that knocking down Stat3 expression in alveolar macrophages (MH-S cells) significantly reduced the production of proinflammatory mediators on IgG IC stimulation. These data suggest that Stat3 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of IgG IC-induced ALI by mediating the acute inflammatory responses in the lung and alveolar macrophages.—Tang, H., Yan, C., Cao, J., Sarma, J. V., Haura, E. B., Wu, M., Gao, H. An essential role for Stat3 in regulating IgG immune complex-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMID:21859893

  4. FoxO1 negatively regulates leptin-induced POMC transcription through its direct interaction with STAT3.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Fuentes, Gloria; Shi, Xiaohe; Verma, Chandra; Radda, George K; Han, Weiping

    2015-03-01

    FoxO1, which is up-regulated during early stages of diet-induced leptin resistance, directly interacts with STAT3 and prevents STAT3 from binding to specificity protein 1 (SP1)-pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter complex, and thereby inhibits STAT3-mediated regulation of POMC transcription. FoxO1 also binds directly to the POMC promoter and negatively regulates its transcription. The present study aims to understand the relative contribution of the two interactions in regulating POMC expression. We studied the structural requirement of FoxO1 for its interaction with STAT3 and POMC promoter, and tested the inhibitory action of FoxO1 mutants by using biochemical assays, molecular biology and computer modelling. FoxO1 mutant with deletion of residues Ala137-Leu160 failed to bind to STAT3 or inhibit STAT3-mediated POMC activation, although its binding to the POMC promoter was unaffected. Further analysis mapped Gly140-Leu160 to be critical for STAT3 binding. The identified region Gly140-Leu160 was conserved among mammalian FoxO1 proteins, and showed a high degree of sequence identity with FoxO3, but not FoxO4. Consistently, FoxO3 could interact with STAT3 and inhibit POMC promoter activity, whereas FoxO4 could not bind to STAT3 or affect POMC promoter activity. We further identified that five residues (Gln145, Arg147, Lys148, Arg153 and Arg154) in FoxO1 were necessary in FoxO1-STAT3 interaction, and mutation of these residues abolished its interaction with STAT3 and inhibition of POMC promoter activity. Finally, a FoxO1-STAT3 interaction interface model generated by computational docking simulations confirmed that the identified residues of FoxO1 were in close proximity to STAT3. These results show that FoxO1 inhibits STAT3-mediated leptin signalling through direct interaction with STAT3. PMID:25510553

  5. TRPM7 channels regulate glioma stem cell through STAT3 and Notch signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingli; Inoue, Koichi; Leng, Tiandong; Guo, Shanchun; Xiong, Zhi-gang

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with median survival time of 14.6 months. A small fraction of cancer stem cells (CSC) initiate and maintain tumors thus driving glioma tumorigenesis and being responsible for resistance to classical chemo- and radio-therapies. It is desirable to identify signaling pathways related to CSC to develop novel therapies to selectively target them. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7, also known as TRPM7 is a ubiquitous, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) permeable ion channels that are special in being both an ion channel and a serine/threonine kinase. In studies of glioma cells silenced for TRPM7, we demonstrated that Notch (Notch1, JAG1, Hey2, and Survivin) and STAT3 pathways are down regulated in glioma cells grown in monolayer. Furthermore, phospho-STAT3, Notch target genes and CSC markers (ALDH1 and CD133) were significantly higher in spheroid glioma CSCs when compared with monolayer cultures. The results further show that tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 binds and activates the ALDH1 promoters in glioma cells. We found that TRMP7-induced upregulation of ALDH1 expression is associated with increases in ALDH1 activity and is detectable in stem-like cells when expanded as spheroid CSCs. Finally, TRPM7 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. These demonstrate that TRPM7 activates JAK2/STAT3 and/or Notch signaling pathways and leads to increased cell proliferation and migration. These findings for the first time demonstrates that TRPM7 (1) activates a previously unrecognized STAT3?ALDH1 pathway, and (2) promotes the induction of ALDH1 activity in glioma cells. PMID:25192910

  6. Noncanonical STAT3 Activation Regulates Excess TGF-?1 and Collagen I Expression in Muscle of Stricturing Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Iness, Audra; Yoon, Jennifer; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S; Kellum, John M; Kuemmerle, John F

    2015-04-01

    Increased TGF-?1 and TGF-?1-dependent Collagen I production in intestinal mesenchymal cells result in fibrosis in patients with Montreal B2 fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. Numerous cytokines, including IL-6, are produced by activated mesenchymal cells themselves and activate STAT3. The aim of the current study was to determine the mechanisms by which STAT-3 activation might result in intestinal fibrosis. Cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. STAT3 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 protein levels were measured by immunoblot, STAT3-TGFB1 DNA-binding activity by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and TGFB1 transcriptional activity by luciferase reporter assay. TGF-?1 (TGFB1), Collagen1?1, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The role of STAT3 activation was determined using STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic, and by transfection of STAT3 mutants. Autocrine production of cytokines was increased in muscle cells of B2 phenotype patients from strictures and normal intestine in the same patient and compared with other Crohn's phenotypes, ulcerative colitis, and non-Crohn's patients. A unique pattern of STAT3 phosphorylation emerged: high STAT3(S727) and low STAT3(Y705) in strictures and the opposite in unaffected intestine. TGFB1 transcriptional activity was regulated by phospho-STAT3(S727) and was decreased by Stattic or dominant-negative STAT3(S727A). TGF-?1, COL1A1, and CTGF expression was inhibited by Stattic or dominant-negative STAT3(S727A). Treatment of normal muscle cells with IL-6 or expression of constitutively active STAT3(S727E) phenocopied muscle cells from strictured intestine. Neutralization of autocrine IL-6 reversed STAT3 phosphorylation and normalized expression of TGF-?1 in strictured intestinal muscle. The ability of Stattic to improve development of fibrosis was confirmed in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis. We observed a unique phospho-STAT3(S727) response in patients with Montreal B2 Crohn's disease, particularly in response to IL-6 leading to increased TGF-?1, collagen, and CTGF production in ileal strictures. PMID:25740948

  7. ROLE OF PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN NEURON STAT3 IN REGULATING ARTERIAL PRESSURE AND MEDIATING THE CHRONIC EFFECTS OF LEPTIN

    PubMed Central

    Dubinion, John H.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Adi, Ahmad; Hamza, Shereen; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Hall, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key second messenger by which leptin regulates appetite and body weight, its role in specific neuronal populations in metabolic regulation and in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure are unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that Stat3 signaling in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates the chronic effects of leptin on mean arterial pressure (MAP) as well as on glucose regulation, energy expenditure, and food intake. Stat3flox/flox mice were crossed with POMC-Cre mice to generate mice with Stat3 deletion specifically in POMC neurons (Stat3flox/flox/POMC-Cre). Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide respiration (VCO2), motor activity, heat production, food intake and MAP were measured 24hrs/day. After baseline measurements, leptin was infused (4?g/kg/min, IP) for 7 days. Stat3flox/flox/POMC-Cre mice were hyperphagic, heavier, and had increased respiratory quotients compared to control Stat3flox/flox mice. Baseline MAP was not different between the groups and chronic leptin infusion reduced food intake similarly in both groups (27 vs. 29%). VO2, VCO2, and heat production responses to leptin were not significantly different in control and Stat3flox/flox/POMC-Cre mice. However, leptin-mediated increases in MAP were completely abolished and blood pressure responses to acute air-jet stress were attenuated in male Stat3flox/flox/POMC-Cre mice. These results indicate that Stat3 signaling in POMC neurons is essential for leptin-mediated increases in MAP but not for leptin’s anorexic or thermogenic effects. PMID:23529161

  8. FTO contributes to hepatic metabolism regulation through regulation of leptin action and STAT3 signalling in liver

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, but its function is still largely unknown. A link between leptin receptor-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (LepR-STAT3) signalling pathway and FTO was recently suggested in the hypothalamus. Because of the presence of FTO in liver and the role of LepR-STAT3 in the control of hepatic metabolism, we investigated both in vitro and in vivo the potential interrelationship between FTO and LepR-STAT3 signalling pathway in liver and the impact of FTO overexpression on leptin action and glucose homeostasis in liver of mice. Results We found that FTO protein expression is regulated by both leptin and IL-6, concomitantly to an induction of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, in leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing HuH7 cells. In addition, FTO overexpression in vitro altered both leptin-induced Y705 and S727 STAT3 phosphorylation, leading to dysregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression and mitochondrial density, respectively. In vivo, liver specific FTO overexpression in mice induced a reducetion of Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3 in nuclear fraction, associated with reduced SOCS3 and LepR mRNA levels and with an increased G6P expression. Interestingly, FTO overexpression also induced S727 STAT3 phosphorylation in liver mitochondria, resulting in an increase of mitochondria function and density. Altogether, these data indicate that FTO promotes mitochondrial recruitment of STAT3 to the detriment of its nuclear localization, affecting in turn oxidative metabolism and the expression of leptin-targeted genes. Interestingly, these effects were associated in mice with alterations of leptin action and hyperleptinemia, as well as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Altogether, these data point a novel regulatory loop between FTO and leptin-STAT3 signalling pathways in liver cells, and highlight a new role of FTO in the regulation of hepatic leptin action and glucose metabolism. PMID:24410832

  9. Contribution of STAT3 and SMAD4 pathways to the regulation of hepcidin by opposing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua; Constante, Marco; Layoun, Antonio; Santos, Manuela M.

    2010-01-01

    Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is a small antimicrobial peptide produced by the liver that regulates intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling by macrophages. Hepcidin is stimulated when iron stores increase and during inflammation and, conversely, is inhibited by hypoxia and augmented erythropoiesis. In many pathologic situations, such as in the anemia of chronic disease (ACD) and iron-loading anemias, several of these factors may be present concomitantly and may generate opposing signaling to regulate hepcidin expression. Here, we address the question of dominance among the regulators of hepcidin expression. We show that erythropoiesis drive, stimulated by erythropoietin but not hypoxia, down-regulates hepcidin in a dose-dependent manner, even in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or dietary iron-loading, which may act additively. These effects are mediated through down-regulation of phosporylation of Stat3 triggered by LPS and of Smad1/5/8 induced by iron. In conclusion, hepcidin expression levels in the presence of opposing signaling are determined by the strength of the individual stimuli rather than by an absolute hierarchy among signaling pathways. Our findings also suggest that erythropoietic drive can inhibit both inflammatory and iron-sensing pathways, at least in part, via the suppression of STAT3 and SMAD4 signaling in vivo. PMID:19204324

  10. ERK1\\/2 contributes negative regulation to STAT3 activity in HSS-transfected HepG2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ze Jun TIAN; Wei AN

    2004-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a recently characterized transcription factor which is essential to liver regeneration. We have previously reported that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS), a novel growth-promoting substance, phosphorylated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and activated downstream Ras-MAP kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, ERK1\\/2) cascade. However, whether HSS signal is related to STAT3 pathway remains

  11. 14-3-3? Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinguang; Han, Yongfu; Jiao, Huifeng; Jie, Yaqiong

    2015-02-28

    Ectopic expression of 14-3-3? has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3? in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3? is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3? is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3? knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3? introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3? knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3? and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3? in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3? may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC. PMID:25556369

  12. 14-3-3? Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinguang; Han, Yongfu; Jiao, Huifeng; Jie, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic expression of 14-3-3? has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3? in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3? is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3? is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3? knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3? introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3? knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3? and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3? in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3? may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC. PMID:25556369

  13. Regulation of adipose tissue T cell subsets by Stat3 is crucial for diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Priceman, Saul J.; Kujawski, Maciej; Shen, Shudan; Cherryholmes, Gregory A.; Lee, Heehyoung; Zhang, Chunyan; Kruper, Laura; Mortimer, Joanne; Jove, Richard; Riggs, Arthur D.; Yu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased proinflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Tregs), contributes to obesity-associated insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown, however. Here we show a crucial role for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in T cells in skewing adaptive immunity in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thereby contributing to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance. Stat3 activity is elevated in obese VAT and in VAT-resident T cells. Functional ablation of Stat3 in T cells reduces DIO, improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and suppresses VAT inflammation. Importantly, Stat3 ablation reverses the high Th1/Treg ratio in VAT of DIO mice that is likely secondary to elevated IL-6 production, leading in turn to suppression of Tregs. In addition, Stat3 in T cells in DIO mice affects adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and M2 phenotype. Our study identifies Stat3 in VAT-resident T cells as an important mediator and direct target for regulating adipose tissue inflammation, DIO, and its associated metabolic dysfunctions. PMID:23878227

  14. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 regulates microRNA gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Approximately 1,000 microRNAs (miRs) are present in the human genome; however, little is known about the regulation of miR transcription. Because miR levels are deregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is constitutively activated in CLL, we sought to determine whether STAT3 affects the transcription of miR genes in CLL cells. Methods We used publically available data from the ENCODE project to identify putative STAT3 binding sites in the promoters of miR genes. Then we transfected CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA or with an empty vector, and to determine which miRs are differentially expressed, we used a miR microarray approach followed by validation of the microarray results for 6 miRs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results We identified putative STAT3 binding sites in 160 promoter regions of 200 miRs, including miR-21, miR-29, and miR-155, whose levels have been reported to be upregulated in CLL. Levels of 72 miRs were downregulated (n = 63) or upregulated (n = 9). qRT-PCR confirmed the array data in 5 of 6 miRs. Conclusions The presence of activated STAT3 has a profound effect on miR expression in CLL cells. PMID:23725032

  15. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Protein Suppresses Adenoma-to-carcinoma Transition in Apcmin/+ Mice via Regulation of Snail-1 (SNAI) Protein Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongdae; Kim, Joanna C. K.; Lee, Shee-Eun; Quinley, Christine; Kim, HyeRi; Herdman, Scott; Corr, Maripat; Raz, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    STAT3 was recently reported to suppress tumor invasion in Apcmin/+ mice. We investigated the mechanisms by which STAT3 inhibits intestinal epithelial tumors using Apcmin/+/Stat3IEC-KO mice (intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of STAT3 in the Apcmin/+ background) to determine the role of STAT3 in carcinogenesis in vivo as well as colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro. To inhibit invasion of IEC tumors, STAT3 functions as a molecular adaptor rather than a transcription factor. Accordingly, the tumors in Apcmin/+/Stat3IEC-KO mice undergo adenoma-to-carcinoma transition and acquire an invasive phenotype. Similarly, STAT3 knockdown in a colorectal cell line enhances IEC invasion. We demonstrate that STAT3 down-regulates SNAI (Snail-1) expression levels and hence suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells. Mechanistically, STAT3 facilitates glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3?-mediated degradation of SNAI by regulating phosphorylation of GSK3?. Our data identified a new role for STAT3 in the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence of intestinal tumors. PMID:22496368

  16. The Ashwell-Morell receptor regulates hepatic thrombopoietin production via JAK2-STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Grozovsky, Renata; Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Liu, Kaifeng; Visner, Gary; Hartwig, John H; Falet, Hervé; Hoffmeister, Karin M

    2015-01-01

    The hepatic Ashwell-Morell receptor (AMR) can bind and remove desialylated platelets. Here we demonstrate that platelets become desialylated as they circulate and age in blood. Binding of desialylated platelets to the AMR induces hepatic expression of thrombopoietin (TPO) mRNA and protein, thereby regulating platelet production. Endocytic AMR controls TPO expression through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the acute phase response signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in vivo and in vitro. Recognition of this newly identified physiological feedback mechanism illuminates the pathophysiology of platelet diseases, such as essential thrombocythemia and immune thrombocytopenia, and contributes to an understanding of the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia observed with JAK1/2 inhibition. PMID:25485912

  17. The Ashwell-Morell receptor regulates hepatic thrombopoietin production via JAK2-STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Grozovsky, Renata; Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Liu, Kaifeng; Visner, Gary; Hartwig, John H.; Falet, Hervé; Hoffmeister, Karin M.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatic Ashwell-Morell receptor (AMR) can bind and remove desialylated platelets. We demonstrate that platelets become desialylated as they circulate and age in blood. Binding of desialylated platelets to the AMR induces hepatic thrombopoietin (TPO) gene transcription and translation, thereby regulating platelet production. The highly conserved endocytic AMR signals through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the acute phase response signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in vivo and in vitro. Recognition of this novel physiological feedback mechanism illuminates the pathophysiology of platelet diseases, such as Essential Thrombocythemia and Immune Thrombocytopenia, and contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia observed with JAK1/2 inhibition. PMID:25485912

  18. Roles of STAT3 and ZEB1 proteins in E-cadherin down-regulation and human colorectal cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hua; Hong, Jie; Du, Wan; Lin, Yan-wei; Ren, Lin-lin; Wang, Ying-chao; Su, Wen-yu; Wang, Ji-lin; Cui, Yun; Wang, Zhen-hua; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2012-02-17

    The progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to invasive and metastatic disease may involve localized occurrences of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, mechanisms of the EMT process in CRC progression are not fully understood. We previously showed that knockdown of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) up-regulated E-cadherin (a key component in EMT progression) in CRC. In this study, we examined the roles of STAT3 in CRC EMT and ZEB1, an EMT inducer, in STAT3-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin and vimentin expressions in highly invasive LoVo CRC cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of STAT3 significantly reduced E-cadherin and enhanced N-cadherin and vimentin expressions in weakly invasive SW1116 CRC cells. Activation of STAT3 significantly increased CRC cell invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis. Knockdown of STAT3 dramatically enhanced chemosensitivity of CRC cells to fluorouracil. STAT3 regulated ZEB1 expression in CRC cells, and the STAT3-induced decrease in E-cadherin and cell invasion depended on activation of ZEB1 in CRC cells. Additionally, pSTAT3(Tyr-705) and ZEB1 expressions were significantly correlated with TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastasis stages) (p < 0.01). In conclusion, STAT3 may directly mediate EMT progression and regulate ZEB1 expression in CRC. ZEB1 may participate in STAT3-induced cell invasion and E-cadherin down-regulation in CRC cells. The expressions of pSTAT3(Tyr-705) and ZEB1 may be positively associated with CRC metastasis. Our data may provide potential targets to prevent and/or treat CRC invasion and metastasis. PMID:22205702

  19. A novel role for histone deacetylase 6 in the regulation of the tolerogenic STAT3/IL-10 pathway in APCs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fengdong; Lienlaf, Maritza; Wang, Hong-Wei; Perez-Villarroel, Patricio; Lee, Calvin; Woan, Karrune; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sahakian, Eva; Woods, David; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Kalin, Jay; Tao, Jianguo; Hancock, Wayne; Kozikowski, Alan; Seto, Edward; Villagra, Alejandro; Sotomayor, Eduardo M

    2014-09-15

    APCs are critical in T cell activation and in the induction of T cell tolerance. Epigenetic modifications of specific genes in the APC play a key role in this process, and among them histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as key participants. HDAC6, one of the members of this family of enzymes, has been shown to be involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, to our knowledge we show for the first time that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of HDAC6 in macrophages and dendritic cells results in diminished production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and induction of inflammatory APCs that effectively activate Ag-specific naive T cells and restore the responsiveness of anergic CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, we have found that HDAC6 forms a previously unknown molecular complex with STAT3, association that was detected in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of the APC. By using HDAC6 recombinant mutants we identified the domain comprising amino acids 503-840 as being required for HDAC6 interaction with STAT3. Furthermore, by re-chromatin immunoprecipitation we confirmed that HDAC6 and STAT3 are both recruited to the same DNA sequence within the Il10 gene promoter. Of note, disruption of this complex by knocking down HDAC6 resulted in decreased STAT3 phosphorylation--but no changes in STAT3 acetylation--as well as diminished recruitment of STAT3 to the Il10 gene promoter region. The additional demonstration that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor disrupts this STAT3/IL-10 tolerogenic axis points to HDAC6 as a novel molecular target in APCs to overcome immune tolerance and tips the balance toward T cell immunity. PMID:25108026

  20. A novel regulation of VEGF expression by HIF-1? and STAT3 in HDM2 transfected prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rathinavelu, Appu; Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Muthumani, Praneetha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract On the basis of increasing roles for HDM2 oncoprotein in cancer growth and progression, we speculated that HDM2 might play a major role in hypoxia-induced metastatic process. For verification of this hypothesis, wild-type LNCaP prostate cancer cells and HDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST (HDM2 stably transfected) cells were studied. The data obtained from our experiments revealed that the HDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST cells possessed an ability to multiply rapidly and show distinct morphological features compared to non-transfected LNCaP cells. During exposures to hypoxia HDM2 expression in the LNCaP and LNCaP-MST cells was significantly higher compared to the normoxic levels. The LNCaP-MST cells also expressed higher levels of HIF-1? (hypoxia-inducible factor-1?) and p-STAT3 even under the normoxic conditions compared to the non-transfected cells. The HIF-1? and p-STAT3 expressions were increased several fold when the cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions. The HIF-1? and p-STAT3 protein expressions observed in HDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST cells were 20 and 15 folds higher, respectively, compared to the non-transfected wild-type LNCaP cells. These results demonstrate that HDM2 may have an important regulatory role in mediating the HIF-1? and p-STAT3 protein expression during both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression that is typically regulated by HIF-1? and p-STAT3 was also increased significantly by 136% (P < 0.01) after HDM2 transfection. The overall results point towards a novel ability of HDM2 in regulating HIF-1? and p-STAT3 levels even in normoxic conditions that eventually lead to an up-regulation of VEGF expression. PMID:22004076

  1. The nuclear localization of SOCS6 requires the N-terminal region and negatively regulates Stat3 protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Mi-Na [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Chan-Hee [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kyong-Ah [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Sook [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr

    2007-08-24

    We determined that endogenous- and overexpressed- SOCS6 was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The localization of SOCS6 depended on amino acids 1-210 in the N-terminal region of the protein, which contains an unidentified domain. GFP-tagged SOCS6 or the N-terminal region, was exclusively localized and widely distributed throughout the entire nucleus, whereas the C-terminal region displayed a nuclear omission pattern. We also demonstrated that the SOCS6 protein could decrease the levels of the Stat3 protein in the nucleus, and that its negative regulation of the Stat3 protein level was dependent on its C-terminal region. These observations suggest that SOCS6 is composed of at least two functional domains required for its biological role in localizing and degrading Stat3 in the nucleus.

  2. Different Associations of CD45 Isoforms with STAT3, PKC and ERK Regulate IL-6-Induced Proliferation in Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xu; Li, Allison S.; Zheng, Huanyu; Zhao, Dongmei; Guan, Dagang; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    In response to interleukin 6 (IL-6) stimulation, both CD45RO and CD45RB, but not CD45RA, translocate to lipid rafts. However, the significance of this distinct translocation and the downstream signals in CD45 isoforms-participated IL-6 signal are not well understood. Using sucrose fractionation, we found that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and STAT1 were mainly localized in lipid rafts in response to IL-6 stimulation, despite both STAT3 and STAT1 localizing in raft and non-raft fractions in the presence or absence of IL-6. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK were localized in non-raft fractions regardless of the existence of IL-6. The rafts inhibitor significantly impeded the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 and nuclear translocation, but had little effect on (and only postponing) the phosphorylation of ERK. This data suggests that lipid raft-dependent STAT3 and STAT1 pathways are dominant pathways of IL-6 signal in myeloma cells. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 but not STAT1 in CD45+ cells was significantly higher compared to that of CD45- cells, while the phosphorylation level of ERK in CD45+ myeloma cells was relatively low. Furthermore, exogenously expressed CD45RO/RB significantly enhanced STAT3, protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream NF-?B activation; however, CD45RA/RB inhibited IL-6-induced ERK phosphorylation. CD45 also enhanced the nuclear localization of STAT3 but not that of STAT1. In response to IL-6 stimulation, CD45RO moved into raft compartments and formed a complex with STAT3 and PKC in raft fraction, while CD45RA remained outside of lipid rafts and formed a complex with ERK in non-raft fraction. This data suggests a different role of CD45 isoforms in IL-6-induced signaling, indicating that while CD45RA/RB seems inhibit the rafts-unrelated ERK pathway, CD45RO/RB may actually work to enhance the rafts-related STAT3 and PKC/NF-?B pathways. PMID:25781885

  3. miR-125b suppresses the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells through down-regulation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li-hong; Li, Hui; Li, Jin-ping; Zhong, Hui; Zhang, Han-chon; Chen, Jia [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China); Xiao, Tao, E-mail: xiaotaoxyl@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic restoration of miR-125b suppresses cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 can bind to the promoter region of miR-125b and serves as a transactivator. -- Abstract: There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in development and tumor progression. Abnormally expressed miR-125b was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer; however, whether miR-125b participates in regulating the initiation and progress of osteosarcoma still remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. The ectopic restoration of miR-125b expression in human osteosarcoma cells suppresses proliferation and migration in vitro and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. We further identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Interestingly, we discovered that the expression of miR-125b is regulated by STAT3 at the level of transcription. STAT3 binds to the promoter region of miR-125b in vitro and serves as a transactivator. Taken together, our findings point to an important role in the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma and suggest that miR-125b is a potential target in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  4. Halofuginone-induced amino acid starvation regulates Stat3-dependent Th17 effector function and reduces established autoimmune inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Thaddeus J.; Pellerin, Alex; Djuretic, Ivana M.; Trivigno, Catherine; Koralov, Sergei B.; Rao, Anjana; Sundrud, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The IL-23 pathway is genetically linked to autoimmune disease in humans and is required for pathogenic Th17 cell functions in mice. However, as IL-23R-expressing mature Th17 cells are rare and poorly defined in mice at steady-state, little is known about IL-23 signaling. Here we show that the endogenous CCR6+ memory T cell compartment present in peripheral lymphoid organs of unmanipulated mice expresses Il23r ex vivo, displays marked pro-inflammatory responses to IL-23 stimulation in vitro, and is capable of transferring experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, halofuginone (HF), blocks IL-23-induced Stat3 phosphorylation and IL-23-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in endogenous CCR6+ Th17 cells via activation of the amino acid starvation response (AAR) pathway. In vivo, HF shows therapeutic efficacy in EAE, reducing both established disease progression and local Th17 cell effector function within the CNS. Mechanistically, AAR activation impairs Stat3 responses downstream of multiple cytokine receptors via selective, post-transcriptional suppression of Stat3 protein levels. Thus, our study reveals latent pathogenic functions of endogenous Th17 cells that are regulated by both IL-23 and AAR pathways, and identifies a novel regulatory pathway targeting Stat3 that may underlie selective immune regulation by the AAR. PMID:24489094

  5. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA2) binds to a component of the human SNF-SWI complex, hSNF5/Ini1.

    PubMed

    Wu, D Y; Kalpana, G V; Goff, S P; Schubach, W H

    1996-09-01

    Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), one of the six viral nuclear proteins expressed in latently infected B lymphocytes, is essential to the immortalization of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBNA2 promotes transcriptional transactivation of viral and cellular genes by acting as an adapter molecule that binds to cellular sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, JK recombination signal-binding protein (RBP-JK), and PU.1 and engages multiple members of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex. In the present study, we show that EBNA2 also interacts with hSNF5/Ini1, the human homolog of the yeast transcription factor SNF5. Gel filtration fractionation of partially purified EBV-positive lymphocyte nuclear extracts shows that a fraction of EBNA2 coelutes with both hSNF5/Ini1 and BRG1, a human homolog of SWI/SNF2, in the high-molecular-mass region (1.5 to 2.0 MDa) of a Superose 6 chromatogram. An affinity-purified rabbit antibody directed against hSNF5/Ini1 coimmunoprecipitates EBNA2 from this high-molecular-mass nuclear protein fraction, demonstrating that EBNA2 and hSNF5/Ini1 interact in vivo. This interaction is restricted to a subpopulation of phosphorylated viral EBNA2. Deletion mutation analysis of EBNA2 shows that the proline-rich aminoterminal end and a domain within the divergent region of EBNA2 mediate EBNA2-hSNF5/Ini1 interaction. Since the SNF-SWI complex participates in gene regulation through the alteration of nucleosome configuration and may be a component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, the EBNA2-hSNF5/Ini1 interaction supports the hypothesis that EBNA2 facilitates transcriptional transactivation by acting as a transcription adapter molecule. We postulate that EBNA2 engages the hSNF-SWI complex to generate an open chromatin conformation at the EBNA2-responsive target genes, thereby potentiating the function of the RBP-JK-EBNA2-polymerase II transcription complex. PMID:8709224

  6. The STAT3 Pathway

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David S. Aaronson (Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Immunobiology Center REV)

    2003-08-26

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is widely expressed and activated by various growth-regulating signals, as well as diverse cytokines, that activate gp130 signaling receptors. Hence, STAT3 is critical for embryonic development and stem cell biology, as well as inflammation, growth regulation, and multiple immune regulatory and homeostatic functions. STAT3 is also found in its activated state in a large number of human cancers and has been correlated with oncogenic activity and tumor maintenance in several systems. The Connections Map highlights activation of STAT3 by interleukin 6 and shows that STAT3 serves as an integration point for components in multiple signaling pathways in addition to those involving JAKs, for example, the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G proteins) of the Gi/o family, and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Science Viewpoint D. S. Aaronson, C. M. Horvath, A road map for those who don't know JAK-STAT. Science 296, 1653-1655 (2002). [Abstract] [Full Text

  7. Oncostatin-M Differentially Regulates Mesenchymal and Proneural Signature Genes in Gliomas via STAT3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Natesh, Kumar; Bhosale, Dipali; Desai, Aarti; Chandrika, Goparaju; Pujari, Radha; Jagtap, Jayashree; Chugh, Ashish; Ranade, Deepak; Shastry, Padma

    2015-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant of the brain tumors is classified on the basis of molecular signature genes using TCGA data into four subtypes- classical, mesenchymal, proneural and neural. The mesenchymal phenotype is associated with greater aggressiveness and low survival in contrast to GBMs enriched with proneural genes. The proinflammatory cytokines secreted in the microenvironment of gliomas play a key role in tumor progression. The study focused on the role of Oncostatin-M (OSM), an IL-6 family cytokine in inducing mesenchymal properties in GBM. Analysis of TCGA and REMBRANDT data revealed that expression of OSMR but not IL-6R or LIFR is upregulated in GBM and has negative correlation with survival. Amongst the GBM subtypes, OSMR level was in the order of mesenchymal > classical > neural > proneural. TCGA data and RT-PCR analysis in primary cultures of low and high grade gliomas showed a positive correlation between OSMR and mesenchymal signature genes-YKL40/CHI3L1, fibronectin and vimentin and a negative correlation with proneural signature genes-DLL3, Olig2 and BCAN. OSM enhanced transcript and protein level of fibronectin and YKL-40 and reduced the expression of Olig2 and DLL3 in GBM cells. OSM-regulated mesenchymal phenotype was associated with enhanced MMP-9 activity, increased cell migration and invasion. Importantly, OSM induced mesenchymal markers and reduced proneural genes even in primary cultures of grade-III glioma cells. We conclude that OSM-mediated signaling contributes to aggressive nature associated with mesenchymal features via STAT3 signaling in glioma cells. The data suggest that OSMR can be explored as potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25748242

  8. HLA-G regulates the invasive properties of JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells by controlling STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Gu, W; Li, X

    2013-11-01

    The expression of human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in trophoblasts plays a crucial role in successful embryonic implantation, and reduced HLA-G expression might contribute to adverse obstetric outcomes. In this study, we silenced HLA-G expression using RNA interference in JEG-3 cells, resulting in a notably attenuated invasion capacity of the cells in a Transwell assay; however, no alterations in cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed. The down-regulation of HLA-G dampened the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), whereas the up-regulation of HLA-G promoted STAT3 activation and invasion in JEG-3 cells treated with human galectin-1. Most importantly, interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not galectin-1, was shown to rescue invasion deficiency in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we demonstrate that HLA-G is able to regulate JEG-3 cell invasion by influencing STAT3 activation, which may underlie the implantation defects accompanying HLA-G hypo-expression in pre-eclampsia. PMID:24054889

  9. Platelet factor 4 induces cell apoptosis by inhibition of STAT3 via up-regulation of SOCS3 expression in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Pei; Cheng, Suk Hang; Cheng, Chi Keung; Lau, Kin Mang; Lin, Shek Ying; Chow, Eudora Y.D.; Chan, Natalie P.H.; Ip, Rosalina K.L.; Wong, Raymond S.M.; Ng, Margaret H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is an angiostatic chemokine that suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. We previously revealed frequent transcriptional silencing of PF4 in multiple myeloma, but the functional roles of this chemokine are still unknown. We studied the apoptotic effects of PF4 on myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma in vitro, and investigated the involved signaling pathway. The in vivo effects were also studied using a mouse model. PF4 not only suppressed myeloma-associated angiogenesis, but also inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in myeloma cells. We found that PF4 negatively regulated STAT3 and concordantly inhibited constitutive and interleukin-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, and down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes (Mcl-1, survivin and VEGF). Overexpression of constitutively activated STAT3 could rescue PF4-induced apoptotic effects. Furthermore, we found that PF4 induced the expression of SOCS3, a STAT3 inhibitor, and gene silencing of SOCS3 abolished its ability to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a critical role of SOCS3 in PF4-induced STAT3 inhibition. Knockdown of LRP1, a putative PF4 receptor, could also abolish PF4-induced apoptosis and STAT3 inhibition. Finally, the tumor growth inhibitory effect of PF4 was confirmed by in vivo mouse models. Immunostaining of rabbit bone xenografts from PF4-treated mice showed induction of apoptosis of myeloma cells and inhibition of angiogenesis, which was associated with suppression of STAT3 activity. Together, our preclinical data indicate that PF4 may be a potential new targeting agent for the treatment of myeloma. PMID:22929979

  10. MicroRNA-18a modulates STAT3 activity through negative regulation of PIAS3 during gastric adenocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, W; Takanashi, M; Borjigin, N; Ohno, S-i; Fujita, K; Hoshino, S; Osaka, Y; Tsuchida, A; Kuroda, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: MicroRNA (miRNA, miR)-18a is a member of the miR-17–92 cluster, an important locus that is markedly overexpressed in several cancers and associated with cancer development and progression. However, the mechanism of action of the miR-17–92 cluster and its individual miRNAs are largely unknown. Methods and Results: In this study, we investigated the expression of the miR-17–92 cluster by in situ hybridisation (ISH) assay and copy-number analysis in gastric tissue microarray (TMA) specimens. We determined that miR-18a was present at higher levels than the other five miRNAs in the cluster. In addition, we identified Protein Inhibitor of Activated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (PIAS3) as a direct target of miR-18a in gastric cancer. miR-18a level was positively correlated with levels of Survivin, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc, which are downstream transcriptional targets of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3-induced transcription can be negatively regulated by PIAS3; consistent with this, PIAS3 level was negatively correlated with levels of Survivin, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that miR-18a acts as an oncogene and plays a role in gastric adenocarcinogenesis, at least in part by negatively regulating PIAS3 and thereby modulating expression of STAT3 target genes. PMID:23322197

  11. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells via STAT3/Snail signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Jin; Lim, Jihyun; Yang, Young; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2014-11-01

    Although NDRG2 has recently been found to be a candidate tumor suppressor, its precise role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that NDRG2 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated the expression of Snail, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a key regulator of EMT, as well as the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an oncogenic transcription factor that is activated in many human malignancies including breast cancer. In addition, we confirmed that the expression of Snail and phospho-STAT3 was recovered when NDRG2 was knocked down by siRNA in MCF7 cells in which NDRG2 is endogenously expressed. Interestingly, MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells showed remarkably decreased Snail expression after treatment with JSI-124 (also known as cucurbitacin I) or Stattic, STAT3 inhibitors, compared to MDA-MB-231-mock cells. Moreover, STAT3 activation by EGF treatment induced higher Snail expression, and NDRG2 overexpression resulted in the inhibition of Snail expression in MDA-MB-231 cells stimulated by EGF in the absence or presence of STAT3 inhibitor. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with STAT3 inhibitor led to a moderate decrease in wound healing and migration capacity, whereas STAT3 inhibitor treatment of MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells resulted in a significant attenuation of migration in both resting and EGF-stimulated cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by NDRG2 suppresses EMT progression of EMT via the down-regulation of Snail expression. PMID:25153349

  12. The Synthetic Tryptanthrin Analogue Suppresses STAT3 Signaling and Induces Caspase Dependent Apoptosis via ERK Up Regulation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Anup S.; Kumar, Suresh; Guru, Santosh K.; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Aithagani, Sravan K.; Singh, Parvinder P.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz

    2014-01-01

    Tryptanthrin is a natural product which has been reported to have several medicinal properties. In this study, we tried to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of its bromo analogue (TBr), a potent cytotoxic agent in the induction of cancer cell death. It was found that TBr primarily targets STAT3 and ERK signaling during the induction of apoptosis in several human leukemia cell lines. In HL-60 cells, TBr treatment caused early down regulation of p-STAT3 with concomitant up regulation of p-ERK which led to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The mechanism of TBr mediated inhibition of p-STAT3 was found to be due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of tyrosine 705 and serine 727 p-STAT3. As IL-6 is the main driver of the STAT3 pathway, the effect of TBr on cell death was subdued when treated in the combination with IL-6 in HL60 cells. Interestingly, PD98059 significantly reduced the apoptotic effects of TBr, thus showing the direct involvement of p-ERK in TBr mediated cell death. It was further shown that apoptotic protein Bax silencing in HL-60 cells resists TBr mediated ERK dependent apoptosis. In summary, for the first time we report the mechanism of TBr mediated cell death in human leukemia cell lines by targeting STAT3 and ERK pathways. PMID:25383546

  13. Regulation of Human Endometrial Stromal Proliferation and Differentiation by C/EBP? Involves Cyclin E-cdk2 and STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Taylor, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    During each menstrual cycle, the human uterus undergoes a unique transformation, known as decidualization, which involves endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation. During this process, the stromal cells are transformed into decidual cells, which produce factors that prepare the uterus for potential embryo implantation. We previously identified the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)? as a regulator of endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation in mice. In this study, we addressed the role of C/EBP? in human endometrial decidualization. Using small interfering RNA targeted to C/EBP? mRNA, we demonstrated that C/EBP? controls the proliferation of primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) by regulating the expression of several key cell cycle-regulatory factors during the G1-S phase transition. Additionally, loss of C/EBP? expression blocked the differentiation of HESCs in response to estrogen, progesterone, and cyclic AMP. Gene expression profiling of normal and C/EBP?-deficient HESCs revealed that the receptor for the cytokine IL-11 and its downstream signal transducer signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are targets of regulation by C/EBP?. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that C/EBP? controls the expression of STAT3 gene by directly interacting with a distinct regulatory sequence in its 5?-flanking region. Attenuation of STAT3 mRNA expression in HESCs resulted in markedly reduced differentiation of these cells, indicating an important role for STAT3 in decidualization. Gene expression profiling, using STAT3-deficient HESCs, showed an extensive overlap of pathways downstream of STAT3 and C/EBP? during stromal cell differentiation. Collectively, these findings revealed a novel functional link between C/EBP? and STAT3 that is a critical regulator of endometrial differentiation in women. PMID:23097472

  14. Astrocyte response to motor neuron injury promotes structural synaptic plasticity via STAT3-regulated TSP-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Tyzack, Giulia E.; Sitnikov, Sergey; Barson, Daniel; Adams-Carr, Kerala L.; Lau, Nike K.; Kwok, Jessica C.; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J. M.; Karadottir, Ragnhildur T.; Fawcett, James W.; Lakatos, András

    2014-01-01

    The role of remote astrocyte (AC) reaction to central or peripheral axonal insult is not clearly understood. Here we use a transgenic approach to compare the direct influence of normal with diminished AC reactivity on neuronal integrity and synapse recovery following extracranial facial nerve transection in mice. Our model allows straightforward interpretations of AC–neuron signalling by reducing confounding effects imposed by inflammatory cells. We show direct evidence that perineuronal reactive ACs play a major role in maintaining neuronal circuitry following distant axotomy. We reveal a novel function of astrocytic signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 regulates perineuronal astrocytic process formation and re-expression of a synaptogenic molecule, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), apart from supporting neuronal integrity. We demonstrate that, through this new pathway, TSP-1 is responsible for the remote AC-mediated recovery of excitatory synapses onto axotomized motor neurons in adult mice. These data provide new targets for neuroprotective therapies via optimizing AC-driven plasticity. PMID:25014177

  15. miR-146a is directly regulated by STAT3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and involved in anti-tumor immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Zhaohua; Han, Qiuju; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in tumorigenesis, but their role in tumor-induced immune suppression is largely unknown. STAT3 signaling, a key pathway mediating immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment, is responsible for the transcription of several important miRNAs. In this study, we observed that miR-146a, a known important regulator of immune responses, was downregulated by blocking activated STAT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Furthermore, miR-146a inhibition in HCC cells not only altered the STAT3 activation-associated cytokine profile but also reversed HCC-induced NK cell dysfunction in vitro and improved the anti-tumor effect of lymphocytes in vivo. Importantly, ChIP and luciferase reporter assays confirmed that STAT3 directly bound to the miR-146a promoter and induced miR-146a expression. These findings indicated that miR-146a expression was regulated by aberrantly activated STAT3 in HCC cells and exerted negative effects on anti-tumor immune response, which resulted in the upregulation of cytokines such as TGF-?, IL-17, VEGF and downregulation of type I IFN to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. This further insight into understanding the mechanism responsible for tumor-induced immune suppression highlights the potential application of miR-146a as a novel immunotherapeutic target for HCC. PMID:25607648

  16. Touched and Moved by STAT3

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S. Paul Gao (New York NY; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center REV)

    2006-07-11

    STAT3, a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, is a known regulator of cell motility through its transcriptional activating functions. However, new evidence suggests a novel role for non–tyrosine-phosphorylated and cytoplasmically localized STAT3 in mediating cell migration by disrupting an interaction between microtubules and one of its partners, stathmin. The association of STAT3 with stathmin potentiates microtubule polymerization and cell movement.

  17. The cytokine IL-6 reactivates breast stromal fibroblasts through transcription factor STAT3-dependent up-regulation of the RNA-binding protein AUF1.

    PubMed

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2014-11-01

    The development and spread of mammary carcinomas require synergetic interplay between tumor cells and their microenvironment through paracrine secretions, which are still not well defined. We have shown here that interleukin-6 (IL-6), either recombinant or secreted from highly invasive breast cancer cells, down-regulates the tumor suppressor proteins p16(INK4A), p21(WAF1), and p53 and activates breast stromal fibroblasts in a paracrine manner. The formation of myofibroblasts requires p16(INK4A) down-regulation and the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Indeed, the transcription factor STAT3 positively controls the expression of the three major myofibroblast markers, SDF-1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and TGF-?1, and mediates IL-6-related down-regulation of p16(INK4A), p21(WAF1), and p53 as well as the activation of stromal fibroblasts. Importantly, these effects were mediated through STAT3-dependent up-regulation of the mRNA-binding protein AUF1, whose promoter contains three canonical STAT3 binding sites. AUF1 binds the SDF-1, ?-SMA, TGF-?1, and IL-6 mRNAs and reduces their turnover. Consequently, specific AUF1 down-regulation inhibits IL-6-dependent activation of breast stromal fibroblasts, whereas AUF1 ectopic expression of p37(AUF1) activated these cells and enhanced their paracrine induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells, which shows a non-cell-autonomous oncogenic function of AUF1. Together, these results demonstrate a major role of IL-6 in activating breast stromal fibroblasts through STAT3-dependent AUF1 induction. PMID:25231991

  18. Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Napolitano, Jessica R.; Burris, Dara L.; Yu, Lianbo; Tridandapani, Susheela; Knoell, Daren L.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis rapidly activates the host inflammatory response and acute phase response. Severe sepsis, complicated by multiple organ failure, is associated with overwhelming inflammation and high mortality. We previously observed that zinc (Zn) deficiency significantly increases mortality in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis due to over-activation of the inflammatory response. In order to identify potential mechanisms that account for Zn-responsive effects, we generated whole exome expression profiles from the lung tissue of septic mice that were maintained on Zn modified diets. Based on systems analysis, we observed that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response and particularly the JAK-STAT3 pathway, resulting in increased serum amyloid A production. In vitro studies of primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells substantiated that Zn-deficiency augments serum amyloid A production through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 and NF-?B pathways. In contrast, Zn inhibited STAT3 activation through the up-regulation of SHP1 activity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 pathway, thereby perpetuating increased inflammation that may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in response to sepsis. PMID:24732911

  19. Curcumin and Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibit the Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype via Down-regulation of STAT3–NF?B signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seyung S.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The cancer stem cell (CSC) model postulates the existence of a small proportion of cancer cells capable of sustaining tumor formation, self-renewal and differentiation. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is known to be selectively activated in breast CSC population. However, it is yet to be determined which molecular mechanisms regulate STAT3 signaling in CSCs and what chemopreventive agents are effective for suppressing CSC growth. The aim of this study was to examine the potential efficacy of curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) against CSC and to uncover molecular mechanisms of their anticancer effects. Materials and methods To suppress CSC phenotype, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells transfected with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) breast cancer cell lines were treated with curcumin (10 ?M) with/without EGCG (10 ?M) for 48 hours. We used tumor-sphere formation and wound-healing assays to determine CSC phenotype. To quantify CSC populations, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting profiling was monitored. STAT3 phosphorylation and interaction with Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB) were analyzed performing western blot and immunoprecipitation assays. Results Combined curcumin and EGCG treatment reduced the cancer stem-like Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) positive cell population. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that curcumin and EGCG specifically inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3-NFkB interaction was retained. Conclusion This study suggests curcumin and EGCG function as antitumor agents for suppressing breast CSCs. STAT3 and NF?B signaling pathways could serve as targets for reducing CSCs leading to novel targeted-therapy for treating breast cancer. PMID:25550533

  20. STAT3 Genotypic Variation and Cellular STAT3 Activation and Colon Leukocyte Recruitment in Pediatric Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Tara A.; Kuhn, Benjamin R.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Gerad, Shaina; Moon, David; Bonkowski, Erin; Carey, Rebecca; Collins, Margaret; Xu, Huan; Jegga, Anil G.; Guthery, Stephen L.; Denson, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Genotypic variation in STAT3 increases risk for IBD, and STAT3 dependent inflammatory networks are induced in the colon in these patients. We hypothesized that STAT3 “A” risk allele carriage would be associated with increased cellular STAT3 activation and colon leukocyte recruitment. Methods Colonic expression of genes regulating STAT3 signaling and leukocyte recruitment and function was measured in pediatric CD patients stratified by STAT3 genotype. The frequency of colonic pSTAT3+ and CXCR2+ neutrophils was determined using immunohistochemistry. STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation (pSTAT3) was measured in circulating leukocytes by flow cytometry, and mechanisms regulating STAT3 activation were tested in IBD EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBL). Results Colonic expression of IL-6, the STAT3 target gene SOCS3, the neutrophil chemo-attractants IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL3, and the neutrophil products S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 were increased in patients carrying the STAT3 “A” risk allele. The frequency of neutrophils expressing the cognate receptor for IL-8, CXCR2, was increased in colonic biopsies from patients carrying the risk allele, and the frequency of pSTAT3+ or CXCR2+ neutrophils correlated with histologic severity. The frequency of CD4+ lymphocytes and granulocytes expressing pSTAT3 was increased in patients carrying the STAT3”A” risk allele. EBL's from patients carrying the STAT3”A” risk allele exhibited increased basal and IL-6 stimulated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, increased transcription of STAT3 and SOCS3 after IL-6 stimulation, and increased membrane localization of the IL-6 receptor, GP130, and JAK2. Conclusions The STAT3 “A” risk allele is associated with increased cellular STAT3 activation and up-regulation of pathways which promote recruitment of CXCR2+ neutrophils to the gut. PMID:22197944

  1. Leptin signaling regulates hypothalamic expression of nescient helix-loop-helix 2 (Nhlh2) through signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3).

    PubMed

    Al Rayyan, Numan; Zhang, Jinhua; Burnside, Amy S; Good, Deborah J

    2014-03-25

    Mice with a deletion of the hypothalamic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nhlh2 display adult onset obesity. We have previously shown that Nhlh2 expression is induced by leptin. In this study, we identify a small proximal leptin-responsive promoter region in the Nhlh2 gene. This 163bp promoter contains five putative binding sites for the leptin-activated Stat3 transcription factor, and two putative binding sites for the NF?B transcription factor. Results of mutagenesis studies reveal that deletion of the NF?B sites have little effect, mutagenesis of the third Stat3 site eliminates both leptin-induced and basal expression of Nhlh2. Mutagenesis of the 4th and 5th sites eliminates leptin-induced expression, and increases basal expression above the WT promoter. Stat3 can be preferentially pulled down from leptin-treated mouse hypothalamic chromatin extracts. This study identifies leptin-induced Stat3 transcription factor as the major transcriptional regulator of Nhlh2. As Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates genes within the melanocortin pathway, these findings have implications for human body weight control. PMID:24486192

  2. Leptin Signaling Regulates Hypothalamic Expression of Nescient helix-loop-helix 2 (Nhlh2) Through Signal Transducer and Activator 3 (Stat3)

    PubMed Central

    Rayyan, Numan AL; Zhang, Jinhua; Burnside, Amy S.; Good, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Mice with a deletion of the hypothalamic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nhlh2 display adult onset obesity. We have previously shown that Nhlh2 expression is induced by leptin. In this study, we identify a small proximal leptin-responsive promoter region in the Nhlh2 gene. This 163 bp promoter contains five putative binding sites for the leptin-activated Stat3 transcription factor, and two putative binding sites for the NF?B transcription factor. Results of mutagenesis studies reveal that deletion of the NF?B sites have little effect, mutagenesis of the third Stat3 site eliminates both leptin-induced and basal expression of Nhlh2. Mutagenesis of the 4th and 5th sites eliminates leptin-induced expression, and increases basal expression above the WT promoter. Stat3 can be preferentially pulled down from leptin-treated mouse hypothalamic chromatin extracts. This study identifies leptin-induced Stat3 transcription factor as the major transcriptional regulator of Nhlh2. As Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates genes within the melanocortin pathway, these findings have implications for human body weight control. PMID:24486192

  3. Constitutive Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) and Nuclear Factor ?B Signaling in Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells Regulates the Notch Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Jo Meagan; Fan, Meiyun; Yang, Chuan He; Du, Ziyun; Sims, Michelle; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are locally aggressive, highly vascular tumors that have a dismal prognosis, and present therapies provide little improvement in the disease course and outcome. Many types of malignancies, including glioblastoma, originate from a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are able to initiate and maintain tumors. Although CSCs only represent a small fraction of cells within a tumor, their high tumor-initiating capacity and therapeutic resistance drives tumorigenesis. Therefore, it is imperative to identify pathways associated with CSCs to devise strategies to selectively target them. In this study, we describe a novel relationship between glioblastoma CSCs and the Notch pathway, which involves the constitutive activation of STAT3 and NF-?B signaling. Glioma CSCs were isolated and maintained in vitro using an adherent culture system, and the biological properties were compared with the traditional cultures of CSCs grown as multicellular spheres under nonadherent culture conditions. Interestingly, both adherent and spheroid glioma CSCs show constitutive activation of the STAT3/NF-?B signaling pathway and up-regulation of STAT3- and NF-?B-dependent genes. Gene expression profiling also identified components of the Notch pathway as being deregulated in glioma CSCs, and the deregulated expression of these genes was sensitive to treatment with STAT3 and NF-?B inhibitors. This finding is particularly important because Notch signaling appears to play a key role in CSCs in a variety of cancers and controls cell fate determination, survival, proliferation, and the maintenance of stem cells. The constitutive activation of STAT3 and NF-?B signaling pathways that leads to the regulation of Notch pathway genes in glioma CSCs identifies novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of glioma. PMID:23902772

  4. The iron chelator Dp44mT inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis via N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2)/gp130/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabei; Yin, Dalong; Xie, Changming; Zheng, Tongsen; Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Lu, Zhaoyang; Song, Xuan; Song, Ruipeng; Yang, Haiyan; Sun, Boshi; Bhatta, Nishant; Meng, Xianzhi; Pan, Shangha; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

    2014-09-30

    Here we showed that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with high metastatic potential had low levels of NDRG2. The iron chelator Dp44mT up-regulated NDRG2, suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited tumor metastasis in HCC having high metastatic potential. Also Dp44mT attenuated the TGF-?1-induced EMT in HCC having low metastatic potential. In agreement, silencing endogenous NDRG2 with shNDRG2 in HCC cells attenuated the effect of Dp44mT. We showed that the NDRG2/gp130/STAT3 pathway can mediate Dp44mT effects. In agreement, we found that a combination of NDRG2 expression and p-STAT3 levels is a strong predictor of prognosis in HCC patients. We suggest that up-regulation of NDRG2 by Dp44mT is a promising therapeutic approach in HCC. PMID:25261367

  5. The iron chelator Dp44mT inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis via N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2)/gp130/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Lu, Zhaoyang; Song, Xuan; Song, Ruipeng; Yang, Haiyan; Sun, Boshi; Bhatta, Nishant; Meng, Xianzhi; Pan, Shangha; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

    2014-01-01

    Here we showed that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with high metastatic potential had low levels of NDRG2. The iron chelator Dp44mT up-regulated NDRG2, suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited tumor metastasis in HCC having high metastatic potential. Also Dp44mT attenuated the TGF-?1-induced EMT in HCC having low metastatic potential. In agreement, silencing endogenous NDRG2 with shNDRG2 in HCC cells attenuated the effect of Dp44mT. We showed that the NDRG2/gp130/STAT3 pathway can mediate Dp44mT effects. In agreement, we found that a combination of NDRG2 expression and p-STAT3 levels is a strong predictor of prognosis in HCC patients. We suggest that up-regulation of NDRG2 by Dp44mT is a promising therapeutic approach in HCC. PMID:25261367

  6. Characterization of the CBF2 Binding Site within the Epstein-Barr Virus Latency C Promoter and Its Role in Modulating EBNA2-Mediated Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.; Ling, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA2 protein is a transcriptional activator that regulates viral and cellular gene expression and is also essential for EBV-driven immortalization of B lymphocytes. The EBNA2-responsive enhancer in the viral latency C promoter (Cp) binds two cellular factors, CBF1 and CBF2. The precise role of the CBF2 protein for Cp enhancer function is presently unclear. CBF2 does not appear to interact with EBNA2 and binds just downstream of CBF1 between positions ?339 and ?368 in the Cp EBNA2 enhancer. Within this region an 8-bp sequence, CAGTGCGT, can be found, and a similar sequence is also located downstream of CBF1 binding sites in other EBNA2-responsive promoters. Previous studies have indicated that mutations and methylation in this sequence affect EBNA2 responsiveness. To investigate the requirements for CBF2 binding, we synthesized a series of oligonucleotides carrying double transversion mutations spanning both the conserved core sequence and outside flanking sequences. Surprisingly, mutations outside of the conserved core sequence in 4 bases immediately flanking the 5? end, GGTT, had the most deleterious effect on CBF2 binding. Mutations in the conserved core had a gradient effect, with those near the 5? end having the most deleterious effects on CBF2 binding. In addition, the affinities of CBF2 for binding to the LMP-1, LMP-2, and CD23 promoters were also measured. These promoters contain the conserved core but lack the 5? flanking GGTT motif and bound CBF2 weakly or not at all. Using Cp reporter plasmids containing CBF2 mutant binding sites, we were also able to show that at lower doses of EBNA2, Cp transactivation required a functional CBF2 binding site but that higher doses of EBNA2 transactivated CBF2 mutant promoters to 40% of wild-type levels. These assays indicate that CBF2 is important for EBNA2-mediated transactivation of the viral latency Cp. In addition, CBF2 activity was found to be associated with two polypeptides of 27 and 33 kDa. PMID:9420275

  7. Oncostatin-M Differentially Regulates Mesenchymal and Proneural Signature Genes in Gliomas via STAT3 Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Natesh, Kumar; Bhosale, Dipali; Desai, Aarti; Chandrika, Goparaju; Pujari, Radha; Jagtap, Jayashree; Chugh, Ashish; Ranade, Deepak; Shastry, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant of the brain tumors is classified on the basis of molecular signature genes using TCGA data into four subtypes- classical, mesenchymal, proneural and neural. The mesenchymal phenotype is associated with greater aggressiveness and low survival in contrast to GBMs enriched with proneural genes. The proinflammatory cytokines secreted in the microenvironment of gliomas play a key role in tumor progression. The study focused on the role of Oncostatin-M (OSM), an IL-6 family cytokine in inducing mesenchymal properties in GBM. Analysis of TCGA and REMBRANDT data revealed that expression of OSMR but not IL-6R or LIFR is upregulated in GBM and has negative correlation with survival. Amongst the GBM subtypes, OSMR level was in the order of mesenchymal > classical > neural > proneural. TCGA data and RT-PCR analysis in primary cultures of low and high grade gliomas showed a positive correlation between OSMR and mesenchymal signature genes-YKL40/CHI3L1, fibronectin and vimentin and a negative correlation with proneural signature genes-DLL3, Olig2 and BCAN. OSM enhanced transcript and protein level of fibronectin and YKL-40 and reduced the expression of Olig2 and DLL3 in GBM cells. OSM-regulated mesenchymal phenotype was associated with enhanced MMP-9 activity, increased cell migration and invasion. Importantly, OSM induced mesenchymal markers and reduced proneural genes even in primary cultures of grade-III glioma cells. We conclude that OSM-mediated signaling contributes to aggressive nature associated with mesenchymal features via STAT3 signaling in glioma cells. The data suggest that OSMR can be explored as potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25748242

  8. Akt Regulates IL-10 Mediated Suppression of TNF?-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Upregulating Stat3 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Sanjiv; Bagchi, Ashim K.; Ludke, Ana L.; Sharma, Anita K.; Singal, Pawan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background We have already reported that TNF-? increases cardiomyocyte apoptosis and IL-10 treatment prevented these effects of TNF-?. Present study investigates the role of Akt and Jak/Stat pathway in the IL-10 modulation of TNF-? induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methodology/Principal findings Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to TNF-? (10 ng/ml), IL-10 (10 ng/ml) and TNF-?+IL-10 (ratio 1) for 4 h. Exposure to TNF-? resulted in an increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis as measured by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. IL-10 by itself had no effect, but it prevented TNF-? induced apoptosis. IL-10 treatment increased Akt levels within cardiomyocytes and this change was associated with an increase in Jak1 and Stat3 phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of cells to Akt inhibitor prevented IL-10 induced Stat3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, in the presence of Akt or Stat3 inhibitor, IL-10 treatment was unable to block TNF-? induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Conclusion It is suggested that IL-10 modulation of TNF-? induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by Akt via Stat3 activation. PMID:21949832

  9. Neurotensin signaling regulates stem-like traits of glioblastoma stem cells through activation of IL-8/CXCR1/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Yi, Liang; Ouyang, Qing; Xu, Lunshan; Cui, Hongjuan; Xu, Minhui

    2014-12-01

    We recently found that neurotensin (NTS) and its primary receptor NTSR1 play a crucial role in glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion. However, very little is known regarding the functional role of NTS/NTSR1 signaling in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Here, we showed that NTSR1 is highly expressed in GSCs than its non-GSC counterparts. Pharmacological blockade with SR48692 or lentivirus mediated knockdown of NTSR1 efficiently reduced the sphere-forming ability and expression of stem cell markers such as nestin and Sox2 in GSCs isolated from glioblastoma cell line and glioblastoma tissues. Conversely, treated GSCs with NTS led to increase of tumor sphere formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that EGFR-dependent enhancement of IL-8 secretion is responsible for the effect of NTS signaling in the regulation of stem-like traits. Finally, we showed that NTSR1 or IL-8 knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of transcriptional factor STAT3 at Tyr705, which is a major transcription factor implicated in the regulation of GSC stem-like traits. Although both CXCR1 and CXCR2 inhibition reduced the tumor sphere formation, we found that CXCR1, but not CXCR2, is primarily responsible for STAT3 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that NTS/IL-8/CXCR1/STAT3 signaling is crucial for the maintenance of stem-like traits in GSCs and provides a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma therapy. PMID:25200966

  10. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons.

    PubMed

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emmanuelle; Giorgio, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  11. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  12. STAT3 Regulates Proliferation and Survival of CD8+ T Cells: Enhances Effector Responses to HSV-1 Infection, and Inhibits IL-10+ Regulatory CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M.; Lee, Yong-Jun; Frank, Gregory M.; Egwuagu, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 regulates CD4+ T cell survival and differentiation. However, its effects on CD8+ T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that in comparison to WT CD8+ T cells, STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit a preactivated memory-like phenotype, produce more IL-2, proliferate faster, and are more sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD). The enhanced proliferation and sensitivity to AICD correlated with downregulation of class-O forkhead transcription factors (FoxO1, FoxO3A), p21waf1, p27KIP1, Bcl-2, OX-40, and upregulation of FasL, Bax, and Bad. We examined whether STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells can mount effective response during herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Compared to WT mice, HSV-1-infected STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3KO) produced less IFN-? and virus-specific KLRG-1+ CD8+ T cells. STAT3KO mice are also resistant to EAU and produced less IL-17-producing Tc17 cells. Resistance of STAT3KO to EAU correlated with marked expansion of IL-10-producing regulatory CD8+ T cells (CD8-Treg) implicated in recovery from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, increases of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation observed during inflammation may inhibit expansion of CD8-Tregs, thereby impeding recovery from uveitis. These results suggest that STAT3 is a potential therapeutic target for upregulating CD8+ T cell-mediated responses to viruses and suggest the successful therapeutic targeting of STAT3 as treatment for uveitis, derived, in part, from promoting CD8-Treg expansion. PMID:24204098

  13. Stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization

    E-print Network

    Sargeant, Timothy J.; Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Resemann, Henrike K.; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Skepper, Jeremy; Watson, Christine J.

    2014-10-05

    that Stat3 drives a series of biological events in the regressing mammary gland that amplifies the lysosomal system at a time of increased demand and stress, while concurrently exploiting this to mediate lysosomal-dependent cell death. We have explored... of cell death during regression of hormone- dependent tissues. We then focussed our studies on these presumptive lysosomal vesicles in the regressing mammary gland. Cathepsin D is co-ordinately upregulated with cathepsins B and L at 24-48h involution...

  14. Targeting constitutively-activated STAT3 in hypoxic ovarian cancer, using a novel STAT3 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Georgia A.; Naidu, Shan; Rath, Kellie S.; Bid, Hemant K.; Tierney, Brent J.; Suarez, Adrian; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Zhang, Jianying; Hideg, Kálmán; Houghton, Peter; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Cohn, David E.; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia, a feature of many solid tumors including ovarian cancer, is associated with resistance to therapies. We previously demonstrated that hypoxic exposure results in increased expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3). We hypothesized the activation of STAT3 could lead to chemotherapeutic resistance in ovarian cancer cells in hypoxic conditions. In this study, we demonstrate the level of pSTAT3 Tyr705 is increased in the hypoxic regions of human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) specimens, as determined by HIF-1? and CD-31 staining. In vitro mutagenesis studies proved that pSTAT3 Tyr705 is necessary for cell survival and proliferation under hypoxic conditions. In addition, we show that S1PR1, a regulator of STAT3 transcription via the JAK/STAT pathway, is highly expressed in hypoxic ovarian cancer cells (HOCCs). Knock down of S1PR1 in HOCCs reduced pSTAT3 Tyr705 levels and was associated with decreased cell survival. Treatment of HOCCs with the STAT3 inhibitor HO-3867 resulted in a rapid and dramatic decrease in pSTAT3 Tyr705 levels as a result of ubiquitin proteasome degradation. STAT3-target proteins Bcl-xL, cyclin D2 and VEGF showed similar decreases in HO-3867 treated cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of STAT3 Tyr705 promotes cell survival and proliferation in HOCCs, and that S1PR1 is involved in the initiation of STAT3 activation. Targeting hypoxia-mediated STAT3 activation represents a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. PMID:25594014

  15. Quercetin Down-regulates IL-6/STAT-3 Signals to Induce Mitochondrial-mediated Apoptosis in a Nonsmall- cell Lung-cancer Cell Line, A549

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. Methods: In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results: Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/ Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax) ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3) signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-?B expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells.

  16. A STAT3-decoy oligonucleotide induces cell death in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line by blocking nuclear transfer of STAT3 and STAT3-bound NF-?B

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is frequently activated in tumor cells. Activated STAT3 forms homodimers, or heterodimers with other TFs such as NF-?B, which becomes activated. Cytoplasmic STAT3 dimers are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation; they interact with importins via a nuclear localization signal (NLS) one of which is located within the DNA-binding domain formed by the dimer. In the nucleus, STAT3 regulates target gene expression by binding a consensus sequence within the promoter. STAT3-specific decoy oligonucleotides (STAT3-decoy ODN) that contain this consensus sequence inhibit the transcriptional activity of STAT3, leading to cell death; however, their mechanism of action is unclear. Results The mechanism of action of a STAT3-decoy ODN was analyzed in the colon carcinoma cell line SW 480. These cells' dependence on activated STAT3 was verified by showing that cell death is induced by STAT3-specific siRNAs or Stattic. STAT3-decoy ODN was shown to bind activated STAT3 within the cytoplasm, and to prevent its translocation to the nucleus, as well as that of STAT3-associated NF-?B, but it did not prevent the nuclear transfer of STAT3 with mutations in its DNA-binding domain. The complex formed by STAT3 and the STAT3-decoy ODN did not associate with importin, while STAT3 alone was found to co-immunoprecipitate with importin. Leptomycin B and vanadate both trap STAT3 in the nucleus. They were found here to oppose the cytoplasmic trapping of STAT3 by the STAT3-decoy ODN. Control decoys consisting of either a mutated STAT3-decoy ODN or a NF-?B-specific decoy ODN had no effect on STAT3 nuclear translocation. Finally, blockage of STAT3 nuclear transfer correlated with the induction of SW 480 cell death. Conclusions The inhibition of STAT3 by a STAT3-decoy ODN, leading to cell death, involves the entrapment of activated STAT3 dimers in the cytoplasm. A mechanism is suggested whereby this entrapment is due to STAT3-decoy ODN's inhibition of active STAT3/importin interaction. These observations point to the high potential of STAT3-decoy ODN as a reagent and to STAT3 nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in tumor cells as a potential target for effective anti-cancer compounds. PMID:21486470

  17. The Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine IL-22 Up-Regulates Keratin 17 Expression in Keratinocytes via STAT3 and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaowei; Jin, Liang; Feng, Zhenzhen; Hu, Lei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the regulation of K17 expression by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-22 in keratinocytes and its important role in our previously hypothesized “K17/T cell/cytokine autoimmune loop” in psoriasis. Materials and Methods K17 expression was examined in the IL-22-treated keratinocytes by real-time quantitative PCR, ELISA, Western blot and Immunofluorescence. In addition, the signaling pathways involved in K17 regulation were investigated with related inhibitors and siRNAs. In addition, K17 expression was examined in the epidermis of IL-22-injected mouse skin. Results IL-22-induced K17 expression was confirmed in keratinocytes and the epidermis of IL-22-injected mouse skin at both mRNA and protein levels, which is an important complement to the autoimmune loop. We further investigated the regulatory mechanisms and found that both STAT3 and ERK1/2 were involved in the up-regulation of K17 expression induced by IL-22. Conclusion IL-22 up-regulates K17 expression in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner through STAT3- and ERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. These findings indicated that IL-22 was also involved in the K17/T cell/cytokine autoimmune loop and may play an important role in the progression of psoriasis. PMID:22808266

  18. The EBNA2 polyproline region is dispensable for Epstein-Barr virus-mediated immortalization maintenance.

    PubMed

    Gordadze, Alexey V; Poston, David; Ling, Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is required for EBV-mediated immortalization of primary human B cells and is a direct transcriptional activator of viral and cellular genes. The prototype EBNA2 protein contains a unique motif in which 43 out of 45 amino acids are prolines (polyproline region [PPR]). Previous genetic analysis has shown that deletion of the PPR resulted in viruses unable to immortalize B cells, although the protein did appear transcriptionally functional (R. Yalamanchili, S. Harada, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 70:2468-2473, 1996). The PPR's uniqueness and requirement for immortalization make it an attractive therapeutic target. However, the role of this highly unusual motif for immortalization remains enigmatic. We have recently developed a transcomplementation assay that allows both genetic and functional analyses of EBNA2 in EBV-mediated immortalization maintenance (A. V. Gordadze, R. Peng, J. Tan, G. Liu, R. Sutton, B. Kempkes, G. W. Bornkamm, and P. D. Ling, J. Virol. 75:5899-5912, 2001). Surprisingly, we found that DeltaPPR-EBNA2 was able to support B-cell proliferation similar to that of wild-type EBNA2 in this assay, indicating that deletion of the PPR from EBNA2 does not result in a loss of function required for immortalization maintenance. Further analysis of this mutant EBNA2 revealed that it consistently activated the viral LMP1 and LMP2A promoters severalfold better than wild-type EBNA2 in transient cotransfection assays. In addition, one striking difference between lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing wild-type EBNA2 from those expressing DeltaPPR-EBNA2 is that the latter cells have significantly reduced EBV genomic levels. The data are consistent with a model in which lower EBNA2 target gene dosage may be selected for in DeltaPPR-EBNA2-dependent cell lines to compensate for hyperactive stimulation of viral genes, such as LMP-1, which is cytostatic for B cells when overexpressed. It is conceivable that the hyperactivity rather than the loss of function, as hypothesized previously, could be responsible for the inability of recombinant DeltaPPR-EBNA2 EBVs to immortalize B cells. PMID:12072534

  19. Knockdown of Stat3 activity in vivo prevents diabetic glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ting-Chi; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Feng, Xiaobei; Chuang, Peter Y.; Fang, Wei; Shen, Yuhong; Levy, David E.; Xiong, Huabao; Chen, Nan; He, John Cijiang

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Stat3, a transcription factor that mediates cytokine signaling, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Complete Stat3 gene knockout is embryonic lethal; therefore, we crossed Stat3+/– mice with Stat3 mutant mice (SA/SA) that lack full Stat3 activity. This strategy generated Stat3SA/– mice (25% activity) and Stat3SA/+ mice (75% activity), which were made diabetic using streptozotocin in order to define the role of Stat3 in diabetic kidney disease. While the glomerular number was not different between these two groups of mice, the diabetic SA/– mice had significantly less proteinuria, mesangial expansion, glomerular cell proliferation, and macrophage infiltration than the diabetic SA/+ mice. The reduction in Stat3 activity did not affect glomerular hyperfiltration seen after the induction of diabetes, as it was increased to the same degree in both groups of mice. Phosphorylation of Stat3 was markedly increased in the glomeruli of diabetic SA/+ mice compared to diabetic SA/– mice. The expression of inflammatory markers, IL-6, MCP-1, and activated NF-?B; type IV collagen, TGF-?, and ICAM-1 mRNA; or type IV collagen and TGF-? protein, were all found to be significantly less in glomeruli isolated from diabetic SA/– mice, as compared with diabetic SA/+ mice. Our study shows that Stat3 plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and abnormal matrix synthesis at an early stage of DN. PMID:19357722

  20. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

  1. Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Jennifer; Byun, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Woo, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA. PMID:25147435

  2. An RNA biding protein, Y14 interacts with and modulates STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Taira, Naohisa; Kawakami, Shiho; Togi, Sumihito; Sato, Noriko; Ikeda, Osamu; Kamitani, Shinya; Muromoto, Ryuta; Sekine, Yuichi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2008-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which mediates biological actions in many physiological processes, is activated by cytokines and growth factors via specific tyrosine-phosphorylation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of STAT3 activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Y14, an RNA-binding protein, as a novel STAT3 binding partner. Y14 bound to STAT3 through the C-terminal region of STAT3 in vivo. Importantly, small-interfering RNA-mediated reduction of endogenous Y14 expression decreased IL-6-induced tyrosine-phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and DNA-binding activity of STAT3, as well as IL-6/STAT3-dependent gene expression. These results indicate that Y14 interacts with STAT3 and regulates the transcriptional activation of STAT3 by influencing the tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT3. PMID:18503751

  3. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract–Mediated Regulation of STAT3 Proteins Contributes to Treg Differentiation and Attenuates Inflammation in a Murine Model of Obesity-Associated Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jae Kyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yang, Eun Ji; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Hong, Yeon Sik; Min, Jun Ki; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Cho, Mi-La

    2013-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural flavonoid that exerts anti-inflammatory properties. Obesity is an inflammatory condition and inflammatory cells and their secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by inflammation of joints lined by synovium. Previously, we demonstrated that obesity augmented arthritis severity in collagen induced arthritis (CIA), a murine model of human RA. Here, we investigated whether oral administration of GSPE showed antiobesity and anti-arthritic effects in high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and in obese CIA mice, respectively. The pathophysiologic mechanisms by which GSPE attenuates weight gain and arthritis severity in vivo were also investigated. In DIO mice, GSPE administration significantly inhibited weight gain, reduced fat infiltration in liver and improved serum lipid profiles. The antiobesity effect of GSPE was associated with increased populations of regulatory T (Treg) cells and those of decreased Th17 cells. Decrease of Th17 cells was associated with significant inhibition of their key transcriptional factors, pSTAT3Tyr705 and pSTAT3Ser727. On the contrary, GSPE-induced Treg induction was associated with enhanced pSTAT5 expression. To identify the anti-arthritis effects of GSPE, GSPE was given orally for 7 weeks after type II collagen immunization. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the development of autoimmune arthritis in obese CIA model. In line with DIO mice, GSPE administration decreased Th17 cells and reciprocally increased Treg cells by regulating STAT proteins in autoimmune arthritis model. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrotyrosine in synovium were significantly inhibited by GSPE treatment. Taken together, GSPE functions as a reciprocal regulator of T cell differentiation – suppression of Th17 cells and induction of Tregs in both DIO and obese CIA mice. GSPE may act as a therapeutic agent to treat immunologic diseases related with enhanced STAT3 activity such as metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24223854

  4. mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Susann [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Renaud, Stephen J. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Schleussner, Ekkehard [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Graham, Charles H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Markert, Udo R., E-mail: markert@med.uni-jena.de [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2009-06-10

    The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

  5. Bovine Lactoferricin-induced Anti-inflammation Is, in Part, via Up-regulation of Interleukin-11 by Secondary Activation of STAT3 in Human Articular Cartilage*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dongyao; Kc, Ranjan; Chen, Di; Xiao, Guozhi; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), a multifunctional peptide, was recently demonstrated to be anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory in human articular cartilage. LfcinB blocks IL-1-mediated proteoglycan depletion, matrix-degrading enzyme expression, and pro-inflammatory mediator induction. LfcinB selectively activates ERK1/2, p38 (but not JNK), and Akt signaling. However, the relationship between these pathways and LfcinB target genes has never been explored. In this study, we uncovered the remarkable ability of LfcinB in the induction of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-11. LfcinB binds to cell surface heparan sulfate to initiate ERK1/2 signaling and activate AP-1 complexes composed of c-Fos and JunD, which transactivate the IL-11 gene. The induced IL-11 functions as an anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective cytokine in articular chondrocytes. Our data show that IL-11 directly attenuates IL-1-mediated catabolic and inflammatory processes ex vivo and in vitro. Moreover, IL-11 activates STAT3 signaling pathway to critically up-regulate TIMP-1 expression, as a consecutive secondary cellular response after IL-11 induction by LfcinB-ERK-AP-1 axis in human adult articular chondrocytes. The pathological relevance of IL-11 signaling to osteoarthritis is evidenced by significant down-regulation of its cognate receptor expression in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Together, our results suggest a two-step mechanism, whereby LfcinB induces TIMP-1 through an IL-11-dependent pathway involving transcription factor AP-1 and STAT3. PMID:24036113

  6. Selective oral ROCK2 inhibitor down-regulates IL-21 and IL-17 secretion in human T cells via STAT3-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Nyuydzefe, Melanie S.; Chen, Wei; Scher, Jose U.; Mo, Rigen; Depoil, David; Rao, Nishta; Liu, Ben; Wei, Jianlu; Lucas, Sarah; Koslow, Matthew; Roche, Maria; Schueller, Olivier; Weiss, Sara; Poyurovsky, Masha V.; Tonra, James; Hippen, Keli L.; Dustin, Michael L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Liu, Chuan-ju; Waksal, Samuel D.

    2014-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) regulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of autoimmunity in mice. Data from a phase 1 clinical trial demonstrate that oral administration of KD025, a selective ROCK2 inhibitor, to healthy human subjects down-regulates the ability of T cells to secrete IL-21 and IL-17 by 90% and 60%, respectively, but not IFN-? in response to T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro. Pharmacological inhibition with KD025 or siRNA-mediated inhibition of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, significantly diminished STAT3 phosphorylation and binding to IL-17 and IL-21 promoters and reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and nuclear hormone RAR-related orphan receptor ?t protein levels in T cells derived from healthy subjects or rheumatoid arthritis patients. Simultaneously, treatment with KD025 also promotes the suppressive function of regulatory T cells through up-regulation of STAT5 phosphorylation and positive regulation of forkhead box p3 expression. The administration of KD025 in vivo down-regulates the progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice via targeting of the Th17-mediated pathway. Thus, ROCK2 signaling appears to be instrumental in regulating the balance between proinflammatory and regulatory T-cell subsets. Targeting of ROCK2 in man may therefore restore disrupted immune homeostasis and have a role in the treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:25385601

  7. Stat3 enhances transactivation of steroid hormone receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Miguel, Fernando; Lee, Soo Ok; Onate, Sergio A; Gao, Allen C

    2003-01-01

    Background Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are members of the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate many biological processes. Co-regulators act as bridging molecules between the SHR and general transcription factors to enhance transactivation of target genes. Previous studies demonstrated that Stat3 is constitutively activated in prostate cancer and can enhance prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression and promote androgen independent growth. In this study, we investigate whether Stat3 can enhance steroid hormone receptors activation. Methods CV-1 cells in which plasmids expressing androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR) or estrogen receptor (ER) were cotransfected with a constitutively active STAT3 mutant. Results Stat3 stimulates the transcriptional activity of all four SHR tested, AR, GR, PR and ER, in a hormone-dependent manner. Stat3 acts in a synergistic fashion with other coactivators such as SRC-1, pCAF, CBP, and TIF-2 on the transcriptional activity of these SHR. In addition, Stat3 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of androgen receptor in response to androgen. STAT3 did not affect the specificity of AR for other steroid hormones other than androgen or binding of AR to other hormone responsive elements. Conclusions These findings suggest that Stat3 can enhance the transactivation of AR, GR, PR and ER, and activated Stat3 could have a role in the development or progression of a hypersensitive AR. PMID:12904256

  8. Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Disrupts Interleukin-6 Signaling by Sequestering STAT3 in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Reitsma, Justin M.; Sato, Hiromi; Nevels, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection. PMID:23903834

  9. Syndecan-1 (CD138) modulates triple-negative breast cancer stem cell properties via regulation of LRP-6 and IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sherif A; Hassan, Hebatallah; Vilardo, Laura; Kumar, Sampath Katakam; Kumar, Archana Vijaya; Kelsch, Reinhard; Schneider, Cornelia; Kiesel, Ludwig; Eich, Hans Theodor; Zucchi, Ileana; Reinbold, Rolland; Greve, Burkhard; Götte, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (CD138), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a coreceptor for growth factors and chemokines and is a molecular marker associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during development and carcinogenesis. Resistance of Syndecan-1-deficient mice to experimentally-induced tumorigenesis has been linked to altered Wnt-responsive precursor cell pools, suggesting a potential role of Syndecan-1 in breast cancer cell stem function. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still elusive. Here, we decipher the functional impact of Syndecan-1 knockdown using RNA interference on the breast cancer stem cell phenotype of human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and hormone receptor-positive MCF-7 cells in vitro employing an analytical flow cytometric approach. Successful Syndecan-1 siRNA knockdown was confirmed by flow cytometry. Side population measurement by Hoechst dye exclusion and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity revealed that Syndecan-1 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly reduced putative cancer stem cell pools by 60% and 27%, respectively, compared to controls. In MCF-7 cells, Syndecan-1 depletion reduced the side population by 40% and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 by 50%, repectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) phenotype decreased significantly by 6% upon siRNA-mediated Syndecan-1 depletion. Intriguingly, IL-6, its receptor sIL-6R, and the chemokine CCL20, implicated in regulating stemness-associated pathways, were downregulated by >40% in Syndecan-1-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed a dysregulated response to IL-6-induced shifts in E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, activation of STAT-3 and NFkB transcription factors and expression of a coreceptor for Wnt signaling, LRP-6, were reduced by >45% in Syndecan-1-depleted cells compared to controls. At the functional level, Syndecan-1 siRNA reduced the formation of spheres and cysts in MCF-7 cells grown in suspension culture. Our study demonstrates the viability of flow cytometric approaches in analyzing cancer stem cell function. As Syndecan-1 modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via regulation of the Wnt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, it emerges as a promising novel target for therapeutic approaches. PMID:24392029

  10. Counteracting effects of cellular Notch and Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2: implications for stromal effects on virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Martin; Raithatha, Sweta; Shannon-Lowe, Claire

    2014-10-01

    A number of diverse environmental cues have been linked to B lymphocyte differentiation and activation. One such cue, Notch-2, may be particularly relevant to the biology of infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which colonizes the B cell compartment. Activated Notch and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) both function as transcriptional activators by virtue of their interactions with the transcription factor RBP-J?. Although EBNA2 and activated Notch appear to have partially overlapping functions, we now report that activated Notch counteracts a crucial EBNA2 function both in newly infected primary B cells and in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). EBNA2 is directly responsible for the initiation of transcription of the majority of EBV proteins associated with type III latency, leading to the outgrowth of LCLs. One of the key proteins driving this outgrowth is latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which is regulated by an EBNA2-responsive element within its ED-L1 promoter. Activation of Notch-2 via Delta-like ligand 1 inhibits EBNA2-mediated initiation of LMP1 transcription. Furthermore, ligated Notch-2 also efficiently turns off LMP1 expression from the ED-L1 promoter in LCLs already expressing LMP1. Modulation of EBV gene expression by Notch was not confined to EBNA2-dependent events. Activated Notch-2 also inhibited EBV entry into the lytic cycle in a B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma line by upregulating the cellular transcription factor Zeb2, which represses the transcription of BZLF1. These results support the concept that in vivo, cumulative signals from the microenvironment downregulate EBV gene expression in B cells to the latency 0 gene expression profile observed in B cells entering the peripheral blood. Importance: Experimental infection of resting B cells by Epstein-Barr virus leads to the growth transformation program of virus gene expression and the outgrowth of lymphoblastoid cell lines. Previous studies at the single-cell level revealed complex cellular and viral signaling networks regulating transcription of the viral genome. This study demonstrates that viral gene expression can also be radically altered by molecules expressed on stromal cells in the microenvironment of lymphoid tissue, specifically, Delta-like ligand 1 on stromal cells ligating Notch-2 on infected B cells. Activation of Notch interferes with the transactivation function of EBNA2, downregulates the expression of LMP1 and LMP2a, and inhibits the activation of lytic virus replication in a B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma line by preventing expression of BZLF1. The significance of these observations is that they indicate new mechanisms whereby the microenvironment in normal lymphoid tissue may facilitate the repression of viral gene expression, enabling establishment of true latency in memory B cells. PMID:25122803

  11. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Ling, Min [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Liang, Xiao [Mental Health Center of Xuhui-CDC, Shanghai 200232 (China); Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Bian, Qian [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  12. STAT3 Target Genes Relevant to Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery, the STAT3 transcription factor has been extensively studied for its function as a transcriptional regulator and its role as a mediator of development, normal physiology, and pathology of many diseases, including cancers. These efforts have uncovered an array of genes that can be positively and negatively regulated by STAT3, alone and in cooperation with other transcription factors. Through regulating gene expression, STAT3 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in many cellular processes including oncogenesis, tumor growth and progression, and stemness. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that STAT3 may behave as a tumor suppressor by activating expression of genes known to inhibit tumorigenesis. Additional evidence suggested that STAT3 may elicit opposing effects depending on cellular context and tumor types. These mixed results signify the need for a deeper understanding of STAT3, including its upstream regulators, parallel transcription co-regulators, and downstream target genes. To help facilitate fulfilling this unmet need, this review will be primarily focused on STAT3 downstream target genes that have been validated to associate with tumorigenesis and/or malignant biology of human cancers. PMID:24743777

  13. STAT3: An Anti-Invasive Factor in Colorectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Mo, Ji-Hun; Harris, Alexandra R.; Lee, Jongdae; Raz, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in a majority of cancers, and promotes tumorigenesis and even metastasis through transcriptional activation of its target genes. Recently, we discovered that STAT3 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and thus metastasis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC), while it did not affect the overall tumor burden. Furthermore, we found that STAT3 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) suppresses EMT by regulating stability of an EMT inducer, SNAI-1 (Snail-1). Here, STAT3 functions as an adaptor rather than a transcription factor in the post-translational modification of SNAI-1. In this review, we discuss the unexpected and contradictory role of STAT3 in metastasis of CRC and its clinical implications. PMID:24995503

  14. Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6-JAK2-STAT3 that in concert with NF-{kappa}B regulated protection against TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

  15. Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bingliang

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24662938

  16. Signal Integration and Gene Induction by a Functionally Distinct STAT3 Phosphoform

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; Willard, Belinda; Tee, Thomas L.; Hsieh, Jason K.; Przybycin, Christopher G.; Rini, Brian I.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor STAT3 is a major driver of solid tumor progression and pathological angiogenesis. STAT3 activity is regulated by numerous posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including Tyr705 phosphorylation, which is widely used as an indicator of canonical STAT3 function. Here, we report a noncanonical mechanism of STAT3 activation that occurs independently of Tyr705 phosphorylation. Using quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we have discovered and characterized a novel STAT3 phosphoform that is simultaneously phosphorylated at Thr714 and Ser727 by glycogen synthase kinase 3? and -? (GSK-3?/?). Both Thr714 and Ser727 are required for STAT3-dependent gene induction in response to simultaneous activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in endothelial cells. In this combinatorial signaling context, preventing formation of doubly phosphorylated STAT3 by depleting GSK-3?/? is sufficient to disrupt signal integration and inhibit STAT3-dependent gene expression. Levels of doubly phosphorylated STAT3 but not of Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 are remarkably elevated in clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma relative to adjacent normal tissue, suggesting that the GSK-3?/?–STAT3 pathway is active in the disease. Collectively, our results describe a functionally distinct, noncanonical STAT3 phosphoform that positively regulates target gene expression in a combinatorial signaling context and identify GSK-3?/?–STAT3 signaling as a potential therapeutic target in renal-cell carcinoma. PMID:24615012

  17. Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rainio, Eeva-Marja [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 20520 Turku (Finland); Ahlfors, Helena [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Carter, Kara L. [Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ruuska, Marja [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Matikainen, Sampsa [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki (Finland); Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Koskinen, Paeivi J. [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: paivi.koskinen@btk.fi

    2005-03-15

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth.

  18. STAT5A-mediated SOCS2 expression regulates Jak2 and STAT3 activity following c-Src inhibition in head and neck squamous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Banibrata; Peng, Shaohua; Woods, Denise M.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Bell, Diana; El-Nagar, Adel; Lai, Stephen Y.; Johnson, Faye M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The inhibition of c-Src results in a striking reduction in cancer cell invasion, but the effect on cell survival is modest. Defining mechanisms that limit apoptosis following c-Src inhibition could result in an ideal therapeutic approach that both inhibits invasion and leads to apoptosis. In this regard, we discovered a novel feedback loop that results in STAT3 reactivation following sustained c-Src inhibition. Here we define the mechanism underlying this feedback loop and examine the effect of inhibiting it in vivo. Methods We measured levels and activity of pathway components using PCR, Western blotting, and kinase assays following their manipulation using both molecular and pharmacologic approaches. We utilized a heterotransplant animal model in which human oral squamous cancer is maintained exclusively in vivo. Results Following c-Src inhibition, STAT5 is durably inhibited. The inhibition of STAT5A, but not STAT5B, subsequently reduces the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2). SOCS2 inhibits Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) activity and Jak2-STAT3 binding. SOCS2 expression is necessary for STAT3 inhibition by c-Src inhibitors. Overexpression of SOCS2 is adequate to prevent STAT3 reactivation and to enhance the cytotoxic effects of c-Src inhibition. Likewise, the combination of Jak and c-Src inhibitors led to significantly more apoptosis than either agent alone in vivo. Conclusions To our knowledge, ours is the first study that fully defines the mechanism underlying this feedback loop, in which sustained c-Src inhibition leads to diminished SOCS2 expression via sustained inhibition of STAT5A, allowing activation of Jak2 and STAT3, Jak2-STAT3 binding, and survival signals. PMID:22090359

  19. Helicobacter pylori-induced STAT3 activation and signalling network in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei; Go, Minnie Y.; Tong, Joanna HM.; Ng, Enders KW.; Chiu, Philip WY.; Cheng, Alfred SL.; To, Ka Fai; Sung, Joseph JY.; Yu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important gastric carcinogen. However, the mechanisms of H. pylori induced gastric carcinogenesis through STAT3 activation are largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of H. pylori infection on STAT3 activation and dissected the signalling network of STAT3 in H. pylori- infected gastric carcinogenesis. Methods The expression of phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Gene expression array and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to dissect the STAT3 signalling network on H. pylori co-cultured AGS. Results pSTAT3 was significantly higher in H. pylori -positive gastritis than in H. pylori -negative gastritis ( P = 0.003). In addition, 98% of H. pylori positive intestinal metaplasia specimens showed STAT3 activation, whereas pSTAT3 was significantly decreased in all 43 specimens one year after H. pylori eradication ( P < 0.001). Moreover, pSTAT3 was only detected in the H. pylori -infected gastric tissues of mice but not in control mice. We further identified 6 candidates ( BRUNOL4, FGFR1, SHOX2, JAK3, MAPK8, and PDPN ) were directly up-regulated by H. pylori induced STAT3 activation. Conclusion H. pylori infection triggers the activation of STAT3 and de-regulates multitude of tumorigenic genes which may contribute to the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. PMID:25594045

  20. A membrane penetrating peptide aptamer inhibits STAT3 function and suppresses the growth of STAT3 addicted tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Borghouts, Corina; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Weiss, Astrid; Mack, Laura; Lucks, Peter; Groner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by the aberrant activation of signaling pathways governing proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, migration and immune evasion. These processes are partially regulated by the transcription factor STAT3. This factor is inappropriately activated in diverse tumor types. Since tumor cells can become dependent on its persistent activation, STAT3 is a favorable drug target. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinant STAT3 inhibitor, rS3-PA. This inhibitor is based on a 20 amino acid peptide which specifically interacts with the dimerization domain of STAT3. It is integrated into a thioredoxin scaffold and fused to a protein transduction domain. Protein gel blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that rS3-PA is efficiently taken up by cells via an endocytosis independent mechanism. Intracellularly, it reduces the phosphorylation of STAT3 and enhances its degradation. This leads to the downregulation of STAT3 target gene expression on the mRNA and protein levels. Subsequently, tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration and the induction of angiogenesis are inhibited. In contrast, normal cells remain unaffected. Systemic administration of rS3-PA at doses of 7.5 mg/kg reduced P-STAT3 levels and significantly inhibited tumor growth up to 35% in a glioblastoma xenograft mouse model. PMID:24058750

  1. Critical analysis of the potential for targeting STAT3 in human malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Peyser, Noah D; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of proteins was originally discovered in the context of normal cell biology where they function to transduce intracellular and extracellular signals to the nucleus, ultimately leading to transcription of specific target genes and downstream phenotypic effects. It was quickly appreciated that the STATs, especially STAT3, play a fundamental role in human malignancy. In contrast to normal biology in which transient STAT3 signaling is strictly regulated by a tightly coordinated network of activators and deactivators, STAT3 is constitutively activated in human malignancies. Constitutive STAT3 signaling has been associated with many cancerous phenotypes across nearly all human cancers, including the upregulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and motility, among others. Studies involving candidate preclinical STAT3 inhibitors have further demonstrated that the reversal of these phenotypes results from pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of STAT3, suggesting that STAT3 may be a promising target for clinical interventions. Indeed, a Phase 0 clinical trial involving a STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide demonstrated that STAT3 is a drug-gable target in human tumors. Because of the ubiquity of overactive STAT3 in cancer, its role in promoting a wide variety of cancerous phenotypes, and the strong clinical and preclinical studies performed to date, STAT3 represents a promising target for the development of inhibitors for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:23935373

  2. Exploring the IL-21-STAT3 axis as therapeutic target for Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Fits, Leslie; Out-Luiting, Jacoba J; Tensen, Cornelis P; Zoutman, Willem H; Vermeer, Maarten H

    2014-10-01

    Sézary syndrome is an aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The malignant cells (Sézary cells) are present in skin, lymph nodes, and blood, and express constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. STAT3 can be activated by IL-21 in vitro and the IL-21 gene itself is a STAT3 target gene, thereby creating an autocrine positive feedback loop that might serve as a therapeutic target. Sézary cells underwent apoptosis when incubated with Stattic, a selective STAT3 inhibitor. STAT3 activation in Sézary cells did not affect expression of the supposed anti-apoptotic STAT3 target genes BCL2, BCL-xL, and SURVIVIN, whereas expression of (proto)oncogenes miR-21, TWIST1, MYC, and PIM1 was significantly increased. CD3/CD28-mediated activation of Sézary cells induced IL-21 expression, accompanied by STAT3 activation and increased proliferation. Blocking IL-21 in CD3/CD28-activated cells had no effects, whereas Stattic abrogated IL-21 expression and cell proliferation. Thus, specific inhibition of STAT3 is highly efficient in the induction of apoptosis of Sézary cells, likely mediated via the regulation of (proto)oncogenes. In contrast, blocking IL-21 alone seems insufficient to affect STAT3 activation, cell proliferation, or apoptosis. These data provide further insights into the pathogenic role of STAT3 in Sézary syndrome and strengthen the notion that STAT3 represents a promising therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:24756111

  3. Inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signalling induces colorectal cancer cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wan; Hong, Jie; Wang, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wang, Ping; Su, Wen-Yu; Lin, Yan-Wei; Lu, Rong; Zou, Wei-Ping; Xiong, Hua; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Abnormalities in the JAK2/STAT3 pathway are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), including apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism by which dysregulated JAK2/STAT3 signalling contributes to the apoptosis has not been clarified. To investigate the role of both JAK2 and STAT3 in the mechanism underlying CRC apoptosis, we inhibited JAK2 with AG490 and depleted STAT3 with a small interfering RNA. Our data showed that inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signalling induced CRC cellular apoptosis via modulating the Bcl-2 gene family, promoting the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and the increase of reactive oxygen species. In addition, our results demonstrated that the translocation of cytochrome c (Cyt c), caspase activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were present in apoptotic CRC cells after down-regulation of JAK2/STAT3 signalling. Moreover, inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signalling suppressed CRC xenograft tumour growth. We found that JAK2/STAT3 target genes were decreased; meanwhile caspase cascade was activated in xenograft tumours. Our findings illustrated the biological significance of JAK2/STAT3 signalling in CRC apoptosis, and provided novel evidence that inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Therefore, JAK2/STAT3 signalling may be a potential target for therapy of CRC. PMID:22050790

  4. STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated on serine 727 residues, binds DNA, and activates transcription in CLL cells

    PubMed Central

    Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Liu, Jie; Li, Ping; Chen, Xiaomin; Shanker, Sreejesh; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western hemisphere, but its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation (p) of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 occurs in several solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. In CLL, however, STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated on serine 727, not tyrosine 705, residues. Because the biologic significance of serine pSTAT3 in CLL is not known, we studied peripheral blood cells of 106 patients with CLL and found that, although tyrosine pSTAT3 was inducible, serine pSTAT3 was constitutive in all patients studied, regardless of blood count, disease stage, or treatment status. In addition, we demonstrated that constitutive serine pSTAT3 translocates to the nucleus by the karyopherin-? nucleocytoplasmic system and binds DNA. Dephosphorylation of inducible tyrosine pSTAT3 did not affect STAT3-DNA binding, suggesting that constitutive serine pSTAT3 binds DNA. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with lentiviral STAT3-small hairpin RNA reduced the expression of several STAT3-regulated survival and proliferation genes and induced apoptosis, suggesting that constitutive serine pSTAT3 initiates transcription in CLL cells. Taken together, our data suggest that constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 on serine 727 residues is a hallmark of CLL and that STAT3 be considered a therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:20154216

  5. Sphingosine Phosphate Lyase Regulates Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Pluripotency through an S1P2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gaelen S.; Kumar, Ashok; Saba, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that activates a family of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) implicated in mammalian development, angiogenesis, immunity and tissue regeneration. S1P functions as a trophic factor for many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P. We found SPL to be highly expressed in murine ESCs (mESCs). To investigate the role of SPL in mESC biology, we silenced SPL in mESCs via stable transfection with a lentiviral SPL-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct. SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) mESCs showed a 5-fold increase in cellular S1P levels, increased proliferation rates and high expression of cell surface pluripotency markers SSEA1 and OCT4 compared to vector control cells. Compared to control mESCs, SPL-KD cells showed robust activation of STAT3 and a 10-fold increase in S1P2 expression. Inhibition of S1P2 or STAT3 reversed the proliferation and pluripotency phenotypes of SPL-KD mESCs. Further, inhibition of S1P2 attenuated, in a dose-dependent fashion, the high levels of OCT4 and STAT3 activation observed in SPL-KD mESCs. Finally, we showed that SPL-KD cells are capable of generating embryoid bodies from which muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, can be isolated. These findings demonstrate an important role for SPL in ESC homeostasis and suggest that SPL inhibition could facilitate ex vivo ESC expansion for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24619572

  6. Sphingosine Phosphate Lyase Regulates Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Pluripotency through an S1P2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gaelen S; Kumar, Ashok; Saba, Julie D

    2013-06-24

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that activates a family of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) implicated in mammalian development, angiogenesis, immunity and tissue regeneration. S1P functions as a trophic factor for many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P. We found SPL to be highly expressed in murine ESCs (mESCs). To investigate the role of SPL in mESC biology, we silenced SPL in mESCs via stable transfection with a lentiviral SPL-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct. SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) mESCs showed a 5-fold increase in cellular S1P levels, increased proliferation rates and high expression of cell surface pluripotency markers SSEA1 and OCT4 compared to vector control cells. Compared to control mESCs, SPL-KD cells showed robust activation of STAT3 and a 10-fold increase in S1P2 expression. Inhibition of S1P2 or STAT3 reversed the proliferation and pluripotency phenotypes of SPL-KD mESCs. Further, inhibition of S1P2 attenuated, in a dose-dependent fashion, the high levels of OCT4 and STAT3 activation observed in SPL-KD mESCs. Finally, we showed that SPL-KD cells are capable of generating embryoid bodies from which muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, can be isolated. These findings demonstrate an important role for SPL in ESC homeostasis and suggest that SPL inhibition could facilitate ex vivo ESC expansion for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24619572

  7. Mechanisms of STAT3 activation in the liver of FXR knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guodong; Zhu, Yan; Tawfik, Ossama; Kong, Bo; Williams, Jessica A.; Zhan, Le; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is essential in maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis, and FXR?/? mice develop cholestasis, inflammation, and spontaneous liver tumors. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to regulate liver growth, and STAT3 is feedback inhibited by its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Strong activation of STAT3 was detected in FXR?/? mouse livers. However, the mechanism of STAT3 activation with FXR deficiency remains elusive. Wild-type (WT) and FXR?/? mice were used to detect STAT3 pathway activation in the liver. In vivo BA feeding or deprivation was used to determine the role of BAs in STAT3 activation, and in vitro molecular approaches were used to determine the direct transcriptional regulation of SOCS3 by FXR. STAT3 was activated in FXR?/? but not WT mice. BA feeding increased, but deprivation by cholestyramine reduced, serum inflammatory markers and STAT3 activation. Furthermore, the Socs3 gene was determined as a direct FXR target gene. The elevated BAs and inflammation, along with reduced SOCS3, collectively contribute to the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway in the liver of FXR?/? mice. This study suggests that the constitutive activation of STAT3 may be a mechanism of liver carcinogenesis in FXR?/? mice. PMID:24091600

  8. STAT3 is required for proliferation and maintenance of multipotency in glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Maureen M.; Reeves, Andrew; Wu, Julian K.; Cochran, Brent H.

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates diverse cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and is frequently activated during tumorigenesis. Recently, putative glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SC) have been isolated and characterized. These cells can self-renew indefinitely in culture, are highly tumorigenic, and retain the ability to differentiate in culture. We have found that treatment of GBM-SC with two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors of STAT3 DNA-binding inhibits cell proliferation and the formation of new neurospheres from single cells. Genetic knockdown of STAT3 using an shSTAT3-containing lentivirus also inhibits GBM-SC proliferation and neurosphere formation, confirming that these effects are specific to STAT3. While STAT3 inhibition can induce apoptosis in serum-derived GBM cell lines, this effect was not observed in GBM-SC grown in stem cell media. Markers of neural stem cell multipotency also decrease upon STAT3 inhibition, suggesting that STAT3 is required for maintenance of the stem-like characteristics of these cells. Strikingly, even a transient inhibition of STAT3 leads to irreversible growth arrest and inhibition of neurosphere formation. These data suggest that STAT3 regulates the growth and self-renewal of GBM-SC and is thus a potential target for cancer stem cell-directed therapy of glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:19658181

  9. A novel inhibitor of the STAT3 pathway induces apoptosis in malignant glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Iwamaru; S Szymanski; E Iwado; H Aoki; T Yokoyama; I Fokt; K Hess; C Conrad; T Madden; R Sawaya; S Kondo; W Priebe; Y Kondo

    2007-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in a variety of cancer types, including malignant gliomas. STAT3 is activated by phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue, after which it dimerizes and translocates into the nucleus. There it regulates the expression of several genes responsible for proliferation and survival at the transcriptional level. A selective inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation,

  10. STAT3 and metabolism: how many ways to use a single molecule?

    PubMed

    Demaria, Marco; Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

    2014-11-01

    The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 has been considered as a potential anticancer target since its first description as an oncogene in 1999, recently leading to STAT3 inhibitors been brought to clinical trial for the treatment of solid tumors. However, the past 14 years of intense basic research have uncovered novel STAT3-mediated pathways that could affect the outcome of the designed therapies while at the same time help designing function-specific inhibitors. Particularly intriguing are the recent findings that suggest profound implications of STAT3 with the regulation of cellular metabolism in both canonical, that is transcriptional, and non-canonical ways. Here, after a short description of the main known features of STAT3 signaling and function, we review the recent literature on the role of STAT3 in regulating cellular metabolism and discuss the potential consequences on the therapeutic approaches currently under clinical experimentation. PMID:24500994

  11. Serine-727 Phosphorylation Activates Hypothalamic STAT-3 Independently From Tyrosine-705 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Breit, Andreas; Besik, Valeria; Solinski, Hans Jürgen; Muehlich, Susanne; Glas, Evi; Yarwood, Stephen J; Gudermann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) is a key element in the central regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis. Activation of hypothalamic STAT-3 has been attributed to cytokine-promoted phosphorylation at tyrosine-705 (Tyr-705). In nonhypothalamic cells, STAT-3 is also phosphorylated at serine-727 (Ser-727), but the functional significance of Ser-727 in the regulation of hypothalamic STAT-3 is not known. We used 2 hypothalamic cell lines and analyzed the effects of various hormones on STAT-3-dependent reporter gene activity and observed that IFN-?, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and bradykinin (BK) induce similar STAT-3 reporter activation. EGF and BK solely increased Ser-727 and IFN-? increased Tyr-705 phosphorylation of STAT-3. Specific inhibition of ERK-1/2 activity blocked EGF- and BK-induced STAT-3 activation and Ser-727 phosphorylation. BK-induced ERK-1/2 activation occurred via EGF receptor transactivation. Consequently, the BK-mediated effects on STAT-3 were blocked by a specific EGF receptor antagonist. Next, we analyzed the effects of IFN-? and EGF on the expression of the STAT-3-dependent genes thyroliberin-releasing hormone and suppressors of cytokine signaling-3. EGF but not IFN-? enhanced thyroliberin-releasing hormone expression via STAT-3. With regard to suppressors of cytokine signaling-3, we observed prolonged expression induced by IFN-? and a transient effect of EGF that required coactivation of the activator protein-1. Thus, EGF-promoted Ser-727 phosphorylation by ERK-1/2 is not only sufficient to fully activate hypothalamic STAT-3, but, in terms of targeted genes and required cofactors, entails distinct modes of STAT-3 actions compared with IFN-?-induced Tyr-705 phosphorylation. PMID:25584415

  12. Modulation of STAT3 Folding and Function by TRiC/CCT Chaperonin

    PubMed Central

    Kasembeli, Moses; Lau, Wilson Chun Yu; Roh, Soung-Hun; Eckols, T. Kris; Frydman, Judith; Chiu, Wah; Tweardy, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transduces signals of many peptide hormones from the cell surface to the nucleus and functions as an oncoprotein in many types of cancers, yet little is known about how it achieves its native folded state within the cell. Here we show that Stat3 is a novel substrate of the ring-shaped hetero-oligomeric eukaryotic chaperonin, TRiC/CCT, which contributes to its biosynthesis and activity in vitro and in vivo. TRiC binding to Stat3 was mediated, at least in part, by TRiC subunit CCT3. Stat3 binding to TRiC mapped predominantly to the ?-strand rich, DNA-binding domain of Stat3. Notably, enhancing Stat3 binding to TRiC by engineering an additional TRiC-binding domain from the von Hippel-Lindau protein (vTBD), at the N-terminus of Stat3, further increased its affinity for TRiC as well as its function, as determined by Stat3's ability to bind to its phosphotyrosyl-peptide ligand, an interaction critical for Stat3 activation. Thus, Stat3 levels and function are regulated by TRiC and can be modulated by manipulating its interaction with TRiC. PMID:24756126

  13. Transcription Factor STAT3 as a Novel Molecular Target for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ailian; Yang, Zhengduo; Shen, Yicheng; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 has a critical role in the development of multiple cancer types. Because it is constitutively activated during disease progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, STAT3 has promise as a drug target for cancer therapeutics. Recently, STAT3 was found to have an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells in vitro and in mouse tumor models, suggesting STAT3 is integrally involved in tumor initiation, progression and maintenance. STAT3 has been traditionally considered as nontargetable or undruggable, and the lag in developing effective STAT3 inhibitors contributes to the current lack of FDA-approved STAT3 inhibitors. Recent advances in cancer biology and drug discovery efforts have shed light on targeting STAT3 globally and/or specifically for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the potential importance of STAT3 as a novel target for cancer prevention and of STAT3 inhibitors as effective chemopreventive agents. PMID:24743778

  14. Mitochondrial Localized Stat3 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth via Phosphorylation of Serine 727*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifang; Raje, Vidisha; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Yacoub, Adly; Szczepanek, Karol; Meier, Jeremy; Derecka, Marta; Chen, Qun; Hu, Ying; Sisler, Jennifer; Hamed, Hossein; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Valerie, Kristoffer; Dent, Paul; Larner, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key mediator in the development of many cancers. For 20 years, it has been assumed that Stat3 mediates its biological activities as a nuclear localized transcription factor activated by many cytokines. However, recent studies from this laboratory and others indicate that Stat3 has an independent function in the mitochondria (mitoStat3) where it controls the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and mediates Ras-induced transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The actions of mitoStat3 in controlling respiration and Ras transformation are mediated by the phosphorylation state of serine 727. To address the role of mitoStat3 in the pathogenesis of cells that are transformed, we used 4T1 breast cancer cells, which form tumors that metastasize in immunocompetent mice. Substitution of Ser-727 for an alanine or aspartate in Stat3 that has a mitochondrial localization sequence, MLS-Stat3, has profound effects on tumor growth, complex I activity of the ETC, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727A) display slower tumor growth, decreased complex I activity of the ETC, and increased ROS accumulation under hypoxia compared with cells expressing MLS-Stat3. In contrast, cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727D) show enhanced tumor growth and complex I activity and decreased production of ROS. These results highlight the importance of serine 727 of mitoStat3 in breast cancer and suggest a novel role for mitoStat3 in regulation of ROS concentrations through its action on the ETC. PMID:24019511

  15. Mitochondrial localized Stat3 promotes breast cancer growth via phosphorylation of serine 727.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qifang; Raje, Vidisha; Yakovlev, Vasily A; Yacoub, Adly; Szczepanek, Karol; Meier, Jeremy; Derecka, Marta; Chen, Qun; Hu, Ying; Sisler, Jennifer; Hamed, Hossein; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Valerie, Kristoffer; Dent, Paul; Larner, Andrew C

    2013-10-25

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key mediator in the development of many cancers. For 20 years, it has been assumed that Stat3 mediates its biological activities as a nuclear localized transcription factor activated by many cytokines. However, recent studies from this laboratory and others indicate that Stat3 has an independent function in the mitochondria (mitoStat3) where it controls the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and mediates Ras-induced transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The actions of mitoStat3 in controlling respiration and Ras transformation are mediated by the phosphorylation state of serine 727. To address the role of mitoStat3 in the pathogenesis of cells that are transformed, we used 4T1 breast cancer cells, which form tumors that metastasize in immunocompetent mice. Substitution of Ser-727 for an alanine or aspartate in Stat3 that has a mitochondrial localization sequence, MLS-Stat3, has profound effects on tumor growth, complex I activity of the ETC, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727A) display slower tumor growth, decreased complex I activity of the ETC, and increased ROS accumulation under hypoxia compared with cells expressing MLS-Stat3. In contrast, cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727D) show enhanced tumor growth and complex I activity and decreased production of ROS. These results highlight the importance of serine 727 of mitoStat3 in breast cancer and suggest a novel role for mitoStat3 in regulation of ROS concentrations through its action on the ETC. PMID:24019511

  16. STAT3 Association with Microtubules and Its Activation Are Independent of HDAC6 Activity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Xie, Songbo; Liu, Zhu; Luo, Youguang; Zhou, Jun; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min

    2015-04-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important oncogenic transcription factor residing in the cytoplasm in the resting cells. Upon stimulation, STAT3 is activated and translocated to the nucleus to regulate target genes. Although the canonical transcriptional function of STAT3 has been intensively studied, less is known about its cytoplasmic localization. In this study, by immunoprecipitation, microtubule cosedimentation, and immunofluorescence assays, we present the first evidence that cytoplasmic STAT3 interacts with both tubulin and microtubules. By using small-molecule inhibitor approaches, we further demonstrate that the localization of STAT3 on microtubules and its activation are independent of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) activity. In addition, disruption of microtubule dynamics does not alter the activation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in response to interleukin-6 treatment. These findings reveal that cytoplasmic STAT3 is physically associated with microtubules, whereas its activation and nuclear translocation are independent of microtubule dynamics, implicating that the association of STAT3 with microtubules might be involved in the regulation of noncanonical functions of STAT3 in the cytoplasm. PMID:25621430

  17. Nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibits the activity of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Xiaoai; Yang, Juntao; Wu, Guangzhou; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yanzhi; Jin, Chaozhi [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chang, Zhijie [Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian@nic.bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmyang2@nic.bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); He, Fuchu, E-mail: hefc@nic.bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2009-09-18

    STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a key transcription factor of the JAK-STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of STAT3 is under tight regulation, and yet the different signaling pathways and the mechanisms that regulate its activity remain to be elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} that interacts in a novel way with STAT3. This physical interaction was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction regions were mapped to the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 and the C-terminal of I{kappa}B-{zeta}. Overexpression of I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibited the transcriptional activity of STAT3. It also suppressed cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in SRC-simulated cells, which is partially mediated by down-regulation of expression of a known STAT3 target gene, MCL1. Our results suggest that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is a negative regulator of STAT3, and demonstrate a novel mechanism in which a component of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway inhibits the activation of STAT3.

  18. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Oh, Seo Jin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Akira, Shizuo; Ku, Bon Jeong; Lydon, John P.; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is required for decidualization, interacting with progesterone receptor (PR) in uterus. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that crosstalk between STAT3 and PR signaling is required for successful implantation. To identify the interaction between STAT3 and PR isoforms, we performed immunoprecipitation following transient cotransfection and found that STAT3 physically interacted with PR-A, which is known to be important for uterine development and function, but not with PR-B. To further investigate the role of Stat3 in uterine function, Stat3 was conditionally ablated only in the PR-positive cells (PRcre/+ Stat3f/f; Stat3d/d). Our studies revealed that ovarian function and uterine development of Stat3d/d mice were normal. However, Stat3d/d female mice were infertile due to defective embryo implantation. Unlike Stat3f/f mice, Stat3d/d mice exhibited an unclosed uterine lumen. Furthermore, uteri of Stat3d/d mice were unable to undergo a well-characterized hormonally induced decidual reaction. The expression of stromal PR was decreased during decidualization and preimplantation period in Stat3d/d mice, and PR target genes were significantly down-regulated after progesterone induction. Our results suggest that STAT3 and PR crosstalk is required for successful implantation in the mouse uterus.—Lee, J. H., Kim, T. H., Oh, S. J., Yoo, J.-Y., Akira, S., Ku, B. J., Lydon, J. P., Jeong, J.-W. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus. PMID:23531596

  19. Stat3 activation in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongwei; Guo, Ren-Feng; Speyer, Cecilia L; Reuben, Jayne; Neff, Thomas A; Hoesel, L Marco; Riedemann, Niels C; McClintock, Shannon D; Sarma, J Vidya; Van Rooijen, Nico; Zetoune, Firas S; Ward, Peter A

    2004-06-15

    Stat3 plays diverse roles in biological processes including cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. Very little is known regarding its activation and function in the lung during acute inflammation. We now show that Stat3 activation was triggered in lungs and in alveolar macrophages after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes in rats. Low levels of constitutive Stat3 were observed in normal rat lungs as determined by the EMSA. Stat3 activity in whole lung extracts increased 2 h after initiation of IgG immune complex deposition, reaching maximal levels by 4 h, whereas Stat3 activation was found in alveolar macrophages as early as 30 min after onset of injury. Expression and activation of Stat3 mRNA, protein, and protein phosphorylation was accompanied by increased gene expression of IL-6, IL-10, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in whole lung tissues. Both Tyr(705) and Ser(727) phosphorylation were involved in Stat3 activation as assessed in whole lung extracts. C5a (complement 5, fragment a) per se can induce phosphorylation of Ser(727) of Stat3. In vivo, Stat3 activation was dramatically suppressed by depletion of neutrophils or lung macrophages, resulting in reduced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in whole lung tissues. Using blocking Abs to IL-6, IL-10, and C5a, Stat3 activation induced by IgG immune complexes was markedly diminished. These data suggest in the lung injury model used that activation of Stat3 in lungs is macrophage dependent and neutrophil dependent. IL-6, IL-10, and C5a contribute to Stat3 activation in inflamed rat lung. PMID:15187153

  20. EBNA2 Binds to Genomic Intervals Associated with Multiple Sclerosis and Overlaps with Vitamin D Receptor Occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Ricigliano, Vito A. G.; Handel, Adam E.; Sandve, Geir K.; Annibali, Viviana; Ristori, Giovanni; Mechelli, Rosella; Cader, M. Zameel; Salvetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a non-heritable factor that associates with multiple sclerosis (MS). However its causal relationship with the disease is still unclear. The virus establishes a complex co-existence with the host that includes regulatory influences on gene expression. Hence, if EBV contributes to the pathogenesis of MS it may do so by interacting with disease predisposing genes. To verify this hypothesis we evaluated EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2, a protein that recent works by our and other groups have implicated in disease development) binding inside MS associated genomic intervals. We found that EBNA2 binding occurs within MS susceptibility sites more than expected by chance (factor of observed vs expected overlap [O/E] = 5.392-fold, p < 2.0e-05). This remains significant after controlling for multiple genomic confounders. We then asked whether this observation is significant per se or should also be viewed in the context of other disease relevant gene-environment interactions, such as those attributable to vitamin D. We therefore verified the overlap between EBNA2 genomic occupancy and vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites. EBNA2 shows a striking overlap with VDR binding sites (O/E = 96.16-fold, p < 2.0e-05), even after controlling for the chromatin accessibility state of shared regions (p <0.001). Furthermore, MS susceptibility regions are preferentially targeted by both EBNA2 and VDR than by EBNA2 alone (enrichment difference = 1.722-fold, p = 0.0267). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that EBV participates in the gene-environment interactions that predispose to MS. PMID:25853421

  1. Identification of STAT3 as a substrate of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase T

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Guo, Ailan; Yu, Jianshi; Possemato, Anthony; Chen, Yueting; Zheng, Weiping; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Velculescu, Victor E.; Wang, Zhenghe John

    2007-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) receptor T (PTPRT) is the most frequently mutated PTP in human cancers. However, the cell signaling pathways regulated by PTPRT have not yet been elucidated. Here, we report identification of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a substrate of PTPRT. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine at amino acid Y705 is essential for the function of STAT3, and PTPRT specifically dephosphorylated STAT3 at this position. Accordingly, overexpression of normal PTPRT in colorectal cancer cells reduced the expression of STAT3 target genes. These studies illuminate a mechanism regulating the STAT3 pathway and suggest that this signaling pathway plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:17360477

  2. STAT3 Revs Up the Powerhouse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy C. Reich (Stony Brook University; Molecular Genetics and Microbiology REV)

    2009-09-29

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) promotes their dimerization and ability to bind target genes in the nucleus. However, evidence shows that one member of the STAT family, STAT3, has an additional property independent of its classical role in the nucleus. STAT3 modifed by serine phosphorylation augmented oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and supported cellular transformation by oncogenic Ras.

  3. Antagonism of the Stat3Stat3 Protein Dimer with Salicylic Acid Based Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Steven; Page, Brent D. G.; Zhang, Xialoei; Yue, Peibin; Li, Zhi Hua; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Singh, Jagdeep; Zhao, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Trudel, Suzanne; Turkson, James; Gunning, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 new inhibitors of the oncogenic Stat3 protein were identified through a structure–activity relationship (SAR) study based on the previously identified inhibitor S3I-201 (IC50 = 86 µm, Ki > 300 µm). A key structural feature of these inhibitors is a salicylic acid moiety, which, by acting as a phosphotyrosine mimetic, is believed to facilitate binding to the Stat3 SH2 domain. Several of the analogues exhibit higher potency than the lead compound in inhibiting Stat3 DNA binding activity, with an in vitro IC50 range of 18.7–51.9 µm, and disruption of Stat3–pTyr peptide interactions with Ki values in the 15.5–41 µm range. One agent in particular exhibited potent inhibition of Stat3 phosphorylation in both breast and multiple myeloma tumor cells, suppressed the expression of Stat3 target genes, and induced antitumor effects in tumor cells harboring activated Stat3 protein. PMID:21618433

  4. Structural perspective of ARHI mediated inhibition of STAT3 signaling: An insight into the inactive to active transition of ARHI and its interaction with STAT3 and importin?.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Kannan; Panneerselvam, Manivel; Topno, Nishith Saurav; Jayaraman, Manikandan; Ramadas, Krishna

    2015-04-01

    ARHI, a putative tumor suppressor protein with unique 32 amino acid extension in the N-terminal region, differs from oncogenes Ras and Rap, negatively regulates STAT3 signaling and inhibits the migration of ovarian cancer cells. ARHI associates directly with STAT3, also forms complex with importin?, and prevents formation of RanGTPase-importin? complex, which is essential for transporting STAT3 into the nucleus. Hence, the structural aspects pertaining to ARHI mediated inhibition of STAT3 translocation can provide hints on the regulation of STAT3 signaling mechanism. Accordingly, in the present study, the structure of ARHI was predicted and its transition from inactive to active state studied using MD simulations and free energy landscape analysis. The transition of ARHI is marked by the movement of switch I region towards ?-phosphate of GTP, in addition, the hydrophobic interaction between N-terminal helix and switch II region of ARHI accounts for its low intrinsic GTPase activity. Further, the protein-protein interaction studies reveal that the residues of N-terminal helix, effector domain, P-loop and G box motif of ARHI actively form polar and non-polar interaction with NTD of STAT3 and make them compact thereby rendering STAT3 inaccessible for Ran-importin? mediated translocation. On the other hand, ARHI competes with RanGTPase and interacts with importin? via basic-acidic patch interaction, which leads to inhibition of STAT3 translocation. The interacting residues involved for this structural mechanism would be instrumental in designing inhibitors for STAT3, which mimics ARHI thereby leading to the suppression of cancer cell growth. PMID:25499977

  5. The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jennifer L.; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed. PMID:24722453

  6. Disruption of Astrocyte STAT3 Signaling Decreases Mitochondrial Function and Increases Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sarafian, Theodore A.; Montes, Cindy; Imura, Tetsuya; Qi, Jingwei; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Sofroniew, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Astrocytes exert a wide variety of functions in health and disease and respond to a wide range of signaling pathways, including members of the Janus-kinase signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak-STAT) family. We have recently shown that STAT3 is an important regulator of astrocyte reactivity after spinal cord injury in vivo [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we used both a conditional gene deletion strategy that targets the deletion of STAT3 selectively to astrocytes (STAT3-CKO), and a pharmacological inhibitor of JAK-2, AG490, in cultured astrocytes in vitro, to investigate potential functions and molecules influenced by STAT3 signaling in relation to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our findings show that the absence of STAT3 signaling in astrocytes leads to (i) increased production of superoxide anion and other reactive oxygen species and decreased level of glutathione, (ii) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP production, and (iii) decreased rate of cell proliferation. Many of the differences observed in STAT3-CKO astrocytes were distinctly altered by exposure to rotenone, suggesting a role for complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Gene expression microarray studies identified numerous changes in STAT3-CKO cells that may have contributed to the identified deficits in cell function. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these STAT3-dependent alterations in cell function and gene expression have relevance to both reactive gliosis and to the support and protection of surrounding cells in neural tissue. PMID:20224768

  7. Stat3-Efemp2a modulates the fibrillar matrix for cohesive movement of prechordal plate progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Yin, Chaoran; Qiao, Liangjun; Jing, Lulu; Li, Hongda; Xiao, Chun; Luo, Ning; Lei, Song; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Jin; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

    2014-11-01

    Recently, emerging evidence has shown that Stat3 controls tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat3 controls the cell movement remain largely unknown. Embryonic gastrula progenitors display coordinated and orientated migration, called collective cell migration. Collective cell migration is the simultaneous movement of multiple cells and is universally involved in physiological and pathological programs. Stat3 activity is required for the migration of gastrula progenitors, but it does not affect cell specification, thus suggesting that gastrula movements are an excellent model to provide insight into Stat3 control of cell migration in vivo. In this study, we reveal a novel mechanism by which Stat3 modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly to control the coherence of collective migration of prechordal plate progenitors during zebrafish embryonic gastrulation. We show that Stat3 regulates the expression of Efemp2a in the prechordal plate progenitors that migrate anteriorly during gastrulation. Alteration of Stat3-Efemp2a signaling activity disrupted the configuration of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) matrices, resulting in defective coherence of prechordal plate progenitor movements in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrate that Efemp2a acts as a downstream effector of Stat3 to promote ECM configuration for coherent collective cell migrations in vivo. PMID:25371367

  8. Essential role of IL-10/STAT3 in chronic stress-induced immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Wan, Lei; Chen, Michael; Caudle, Yi; LeSage, Gene; Li, Qinchuan; Yin, Deling

    2013-01-01

    Stress can either enhance or suppress immune functions depending on a variety of factors such as duration of stressful condition. Chronic stress has been demonstrated to exert a significant suppressive effect on immune function. However, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. Here, male C57BL/6 mice were placed in a 50-ml conical centrifuge tube with multiple punctures to establish a chronic restraint stress model. Serum IL-10 levels, IL-10 production by the splenocytes, and activation of STAT3 in the mouse spleen were assessed. We demonstrate that IL-10/STAT3 axis was remarkably activated following chronic stress. Moreover, TLR4 and p38 MAPK play a pivotal role in the activation of IL-10/STAT3 signaling cascade. Interestingly, blocking antibody against IL-10 receptor and inhibition of STAT3 by STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 attenuates stress-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Inhibition of IL-10/STAT3 dramatically inhibits stress-induced reduction in IL-12 production. Furthermore, disequilibrium of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance caused by chronic stress was also rescued by blocking IL-10/STAT3 axis. These results yield insight into a new mechanism by which chronic stress regulates immune functions. IL-10/STAT3 pathway provides a novel relevant target for the manipulation of chronic stress-induced immune suppression. PMID:24513872

  9. Functional regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shirish; Mahata, Sutapa; Shishodia, Gauri; Pandey, Arvind; Tyagi, Abhishek; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Basir, Seemi F; Das, Bhudev C; Bharti, Alok C

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor constitutively active and aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer. However, the functional role of STAT3 in regulation of HPV's viral oncogene expression and downstream events associated with cervical carcinogenesis is not known. Our present study performed on HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa and CaSki) and primary tumor tissues revealed a strong positive correlation of constitutively active STAT3 with expression of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and a negative association with levels of p53 and pRB. Pharmacologic targeting of STAT3 expression in cervical cancer cell lines either by STAT3-specific siRNA or blocking its tyrosine phosphorylation by AG490 or curcumin led to dose-dependent accumulation of p53 and pRb in cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, the suppression of STAT3 expression or activation was associated with the gradual loss of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression and was accompanied by loss of cell viability. The viability loss was specifically high in HPV16-positive cells as compared to HPV negative C33a cells. These findings substantiate the regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. Leads obtained from the present study provide a strong rationale for developing novel STAT3-based approaches for therapeutic interventions against HPV infection to control cervical cancer. PMID:23874455

  10. STAT3 activation is required for interleukin-6 induced transformation in tumor-promotion sensitive mouse skin epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Lihua; Khaletskiy, Alexander; Farrar, William L; Larner, Andrew; Colburn, Nancy H; Li, Jian Jian

    2002-06-01

    STAT3, a member of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) originally discovered as mediators in cytokine signaling pathways, plays an active role in oncogenesis. However, the function of STAT3 in signaling multistage carcinogenesis, especially in transformation of tumor-promotion sensitive epithelial cells has not been elucidated. The present study demonstrates that STAT3 is activated in interleukin-6 induced transformation in mouse skin epithelial cells. DNA binding and transcriptional activities of STAT3 were significantly increased by interleukin-6. This induced anchorage-independent transformation in tumor-promotion sensitive JB6 mouse skin P+ cells but not in the resistant variant P- cells. Two forms of dominant negative STAT3 (mutant of transcriptional domain, mF, or DNA-binding domain, mD) were stably transfected into P+ cells. Activation of STAT3 was abolished and importantly, interleukin-6 induced anchorage-independent growth was absent in both mutant STAT3 transfectants. To determine the genes targeted by STAT3, three matrix metalloproteinase proteins linked with carcinogenesis of epithelial cells were analysed. Both basal and interleukin-6 induced expression of collagenase I and stromelysin I, but not gelatinase A, were inhibited in the mutant STAT3 transfectants. Furthermore, transfection of a wild type STAT3 restored STAT3 transactivation and response to interleukin-6 induced transformation in mutant STAT3 transfectants, which up-regulated collagenase I and stromelysin I as well. Together, these results provide the first evidence that STAT3 activation is required in the progression of multistage carcinogenesis of mouse skin epithelial cells, and matrix metalloproteinases are actively involved in STAT3-mediated cell transformation. PMID:12037677

  11. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Feracci, Helene [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France)] [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France); Raptis, Leda, E-mail: raptisl@queensu.ca [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  12. CYLD Enhances Severe Listeriosis by Impairing IL-6/STAT3-Dependent Fibrin Production

    PubMed Central

    Nishanth, Gopala; Deckert, Martina; Wex, Katharina; Massoumi, Ramin; Schweitzer, Katrin; Naumann, Michael; Schlüter, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) may cause severe infection in humans and livestock. Control of acute listeriosis is primarily dependent on innate immune responses, which are strongly regulated by NF-?B, and tissue protective factors including fibrin. However, molecular pathways connecting NF-?B and fibrin production are poorly described. Here, we investigated whether the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, which is an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent immune responses, regulated these protective host responses in murine listeriosis. Upon high dose systemic infection, all C57BL/6 Cyld?/? mice survived, whereas 100% of wildtype mice succumbed due to severe liver pathology with impaired pathogen control and hemorrhage within 6 days. Upon in vitro infection with Lm, CYLD reduced NF-?B-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, and control of bacteria in macrophages. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that CYLD impaired STAT3-dependent fibrin production in cultivated hepatocytes. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CYLD interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and strongly reduced K63-ubiquitination of STAT3 in IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, CYLD diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 activity by reducing nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3. In vivo, CYLD also reduced hepatic STAT3 K63-ubiquitination and activation, NF-?B activation, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA production as well as fibrin production in murine listeriosis. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 by anti-IL-6 antibody, STAT3 by siRNA, and fibrin by warfarin treatment, respectively, demonstrated that IL-6-induced, STAT3-mediated fibrin production significantly contributed to protection in Cyld?/? mice. In addition, in vivo Cyld siRNA treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation, fibrin production, pathogen control and survival of Lm-infected WT mice illustrating that therapeutic inhibition of CYLD augments the protective NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and fibrin production. PMID:23825949

  13. The R(h)oads to Stat3: Stat3 activation by the Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Leda; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Turkson, James

    2011-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is a member of the STAT family of cytoplasmic transcription factors. Overactivation of Stat3 is detected with high frequency in human cancer and is considered a molecular abnormality that supports the tumor phenotype. Despite concerted investigative efforts, the molecular mechanisms leading to the aberrant Stat3 activation and Stat3-mediated transformation and tumorigenesis are still not clearly defined. Recent evidence reveals a crosstalk close relationship between Stat3 signaling and members of the Rho family of small GTPases, including Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA. Specifically, Rac1, acting in a complex with the MgcRacGAP (male germ cell RacGAP), promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 by the IL6-receptor family/Jak kinase complex, as well as its translocation to the nucleus. Studies have further revealed that the mutational activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 results in Stat3 activation, which occurs in part through the upregulation of IL6 family cytokines that in turn stimulates Stat3 through the Jak kinases. Interestingly, evidence also shows that the engagement of cadherins, cell to cell adhesion molecules, specifically induces a striking increase in Rac1 and Cdc42 protein levels and activity, which in turn results in Stat3 activation. In this review we integrate recent findings clarifying the role of the Rho family GTPases in Stat3 activation in the context of malignant progression. PMID:21619876

  14. STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The progression of disease- and age-dependent skeletal muscle wasting results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair1–10. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions11–13. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting14,15, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues16–19. Here we show that IL-6–activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

  15. STAT3 and epithelial–mesenchymal transitions in carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Michael K; Balanis, Nikolas; Carlin, Cathleen R; Schiemann, William P

    2014-01-01

    Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas. PMID:24843831

  16. Upregulation of TPX2 by STAT3: Identification of a Novel STAT3 Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Fabio; Chichiarelli, Silvia; Turano, Carlo; Eufemi, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    TPX2, a protein involved in mitosis, is considered a good marker for actively proliferating tissues, highly expressed in a number of cancer cells. We show the presence of high-affinity binding site for STAT3 in the 5?-flanking region of the Tpx2 gene, which is in vivo bound by activated STAT3. A specific STAT3 peptide inhibitor represses the expression of the Tpx2 gene and inhibits the binding of STAT3 to its consensus sequence in human cell lines where STAT3 is activated. These results indicate that activated STAT3 contributes to the over-expression of Tpx2 through the binding to an enhancer site. PMID:25401333

  17. Mouse mammary tumors display Stat3 activation dependent on leukemia inhibitory factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quaglino, Ana; Schere-Levy, Carolina; Romorini, Leonardo; Meiss, Roberto P; Kordon, Edith C

    2007-01-01

    Introduction It has been demonstrated that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induces epithelium apoptosis through Stat3 activation during mouse mammary gland involution. In contrast, it has been shown that this transcription factor is commonly activated in breast cancer cells, although what causes this effect remains unknown. Here we have tested the hypothesis that locally produced LIF can be responsible for Stat3 activation in mouse mammary tumors. Methods The studies were performed in different tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary cells. The expression of LIF and LIF receptor was tested by RT-PCR analysis. In tumors, LIF and Stat3 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, whereas Stat3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression and phosphorylation were studied by Western blot analysis. A LIF-specific blocking antibody was used to determine whether this cytokine was responsible for Stat3 phosphorylation induced by conditioned medium. Specific pharmacological inhibitors (PD98059 and Stat3ip) that affect ERK1/2 and Stat3 activation were used to study their involvement in LIF-induced effects. To analyze cell survival, assays with crystal violet were performed. Results High levels of LIF expression and activated Stat3 were found in mammary tumors growing in vivo and in their primary cultures. We found a single mouse mammary tumor cell line, LM3, that showed low levels of activated Stat3. Incidentally, these cells also showed very little expression of LIF receptor. This suggested that autocrine/paracrine LIF would be responsible for Stat3 activation in mouse mammary tumors. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of conditioned medium of mammary tumor primary cultures to induce Stat3 phosphorylation, activity that was prevented by pretreatment with LIF-blocking antibody. Besides, we found that LIF increased tumor cell viability. Interestingly, blocking Stat3 activation enhanced this effect in mammary tumor cells. Conclusion LIF is overexpressed in mouse mammary tumors, where it acts as the main Stat3 activator. Interestingly, the positive LIF effect on tumor cell viability is not dependent on Stat3 activation, which inhibits tumor cell survival as it does in normal mammary epithelium. PMID:17925034

  18. Monocytes Induce STAT3 Activation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Osteoblast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaidou, Vicky; Wong, Mei Mei; Redpath, Andia N.; Ersek, Adel; Baban, Dilair F.; Williams, Lynn M.; Cope, Andrew P.; Horwood, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    A major therapeutic challenge is how to replace bone once it is lost. Bone loss is a characteristic of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Cells and cytokines of the immune system are known to regulate bone turnover by controlling the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. However, less is known about the regulation of osteoblasts (OB), the bone forming cells. This study aimed to investigate whether immune cells also regulate OB differentiation. Using in vitro cell cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), it was shown that monocytes/macrophages potently induced MSC differentiation into OBs. This was evident by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after 7 days and the formation of mineralised bone nodules at 21 days. This monocyte-induced osteogenic effect was mediated by cell contact with MSCs leading to the production of soluble factor(s) by the monocytes. As a consequence of these interactions we observed a rapid activation of STAT3 in the MSCs. Gene profiling of STAT3 constitutively active (STAT3C) infected MSCs using Illumina whole human genome arrays showed that Runx2 and ALP were up-regulated whilst DKK1 was down-regulated in response to STAT3 signalling. STAT3C also led to the up-regulation of the oncostatin M (OSM) and LIF receptors. In the co-cultures, OSM that was produced by monocytes activated STAT3 in MSCs, and neutralising antibodies to OSM reduced ALP by 50%. These data indicate that OSM, in conjunction with other mediators, can drive MSC differentiation into OB. This study establishes a role for monocyte/macrophages as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation via OSM production and the induction of STAT3 signalling in MSCs. Inducing the local activation of STAT3 in bone cells may be a valuable tool to increase bone formation in osteoporosis and arthritis, and in localised bone remodelling during fracture repair. PMID:22802946

  19. Activation of acute phase response factor (APRF)/Stat3 transcription factor by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G S; Meyer, D J; Raz, R; Levy, D E; Schwartz, J; Carter-Su, C

    1995-02-24

    The mechanism by which the binding of growth hormone (GH) to its cell surface receptor elicits changes in gene transcription are largely unknown. The transcription factor Stat1/p91 has been shown to be activated by GH. Here we show that acute phase response factor or Stat3 f1p4an antigenically related protein), is also activated by GH. Stat3 has been implicated in the interleukin-6-dependent induction of acute phase response genes. GH promotes in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts the tyrosyl phosphorylation of a protein immunoprecipitated by antibodies to Stat3. This protein co-migrates with a tyrosyl phosphorylated protein from cells treated with leukemia inhibitory factor, a cytokine known to activate Stat3. Tyrosyl phosphorylated Stat3 is also observed in response to interferon-gamma. Stat3 is present in GH-inducible DNA-binding complexes that bind the sis-inducible element in the c-fos promoter and the acute phase response element in the alpha 2-macroglobulin promoter. The ability of GH to activate both Stat1 and Stat3 (i.e. increase their tyrosyl phosphorylation and ability to bind to DNA) suggests that gene regulation by GH involves multiple Stat proteins. Shared transcription factors among hormones and cytokines that activate JAK kinases provide an explanation for shared responses, while the ability of the different ligands to differentially recruit various Stat family members suggests mechanisms by which specificity in gene regulation could be achieved. PMID:7876144

  20. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3?-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  1. Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

    2014-03-31

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.72. PMID:24681959

  2. High-Content pSTAT3/1 Imaging Assays to Screen for Selective Inhibitors of STAT3 Pathway Activation in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Malabika; Hua, Yun; Camarco, Daniel; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The oncogenic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is hyperactivated in most cancers and represents a plausible therapeutic target. In the absence of STAT3-selective small-molecule inhibitors, we sought to develop pSTAT3/1 high-content imaging (HCS) assays to screen for selective inhibitors of STAT3 pathway activation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) tumor cell lines. Based on the expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)R? and gp130 subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex and STAT3, we selected the Cal33 HNSCC cell line as our model. After developing image acquisition and analysis procedures, we rigorously investigated the cytokine activation responses to optimize the dynamic ranges of both assays and demonstrated that the pan-Janus kinase inhibitor pyridone 6 nonselectively inhibited pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 activation with 50% inhibition concentrations of 7.19±4.08 and 16.38±8.45?nM, respectively. The optimized pSTAT3 HCS assay performed very well in a pilot screen of 1,726 compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and the National Institutes of Health clinical collection sets, and we identified 51 inhibitors of IL-6-induced pSTAT3 activation. However, only three of the primary HCS actives selectively inhibited STAT3 compared with STAT1. Our follow-up studies indicated that the nonselective inhibition of cytokine induced pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 activation by G-alpha stimulatory subunit-coupled G-protein-coupled receptor agonists, and forskolin was likely due to cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated up-regulation of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3. Azelastine, an H1 receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, and ocular conjunctivitis, was subsequently confirmed as a selective inhibitor of IL-6-induced pSTAT3 activation that also reduced the growth of HNSCC cell lines. These data illustrate the power of a chemical biology approach to lead generation that utilizes fully developed and optimized HCS assays as phenotypic screens to interrogate specific signaling pathways. PMID:24127660

  3. Binding of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) enhances viral LMP2A expression.

    PubMed

    Gross, Henrik; Hennard, Christine; Masouris, Ilias; Cassel, Christian; Barth, Stephanie; Stober-Grässer, Ute; Mamiani, Alfredo; Moritz, Bodo; Ostareck, Dirk; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Neuenkirchen, Nils; Fischer, Utz; Deng, Wen; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Noessner, Elfriede; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A

    2012-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG) repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively). EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN) and via the ADMA-RG-repeat to the NP9 protein of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K (HML-2) Type 1). The hypothesis of this work was that the methylated RG-repeat mimics an epitope shared with cellular proteins that is used for interaction with target structures. With monoclonal antibodies against the modified RG-repeat, we indeed identified cellular homologues that apparently have the same surface structure as methylated EBNA2. With the SDMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the Sm protein D3 (SmD3) which, like EBNA2, binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to SMN. With the ADMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). Specific binding of the ADMA- antibody to hnRNP K was demonstrated using E. coli expressed/ADMA-methylated hnRNP K. In addition, we show that EBNA2 and hnRNP K form a complex in EBV- infected B-cells. Finally, hnRNP K, when co-expressed with EBNA2, strongly enhances viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) expression by an unknown mechanism as we did not detect a direct association of hnRNP K with DNA-bound EBNA2 in gel shift experiments. Our data support the notion that the methylated surface of EBNA2 mimics the surface structure of cellular proteins to interfere with or co-opt their functional properties. PMID:22879910

  4. Diverse Targets of the Transcription Factor STAT3 Contribute to T Cell Pathogenicity and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Lydia; Watford, Wendy T.; Ramos, Haydeé L.; Laurence, Arian; Vahedi, Golnaz; Wei, Lai; Takahashi1, Hayato; Sun, Hong-Wei; Kanno, Yuka; Powrie, Fiona; O'Shea, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary STAT3, an essential transcription factor with pleiotropic functions, plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Despite recent data linking STAT3 with inflammatory bowel disease, exactly how it contributes to chronic intestinal inflammation is not known. Using a T cell transfer model of colitis, we found that STAT3 expression in T cells was essential for the induction of both colitis and systemic inflammation. STAT3 was critical in modulating the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells, as well as in promoting CD4+ T cell proliferation. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation and massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to define the genome-wide targets of STAT3 in CD4+ T cells. We found that STAT3 bound to multiple genes involved in Th17 cell differentiation, cell activation, proliferation, and survival, regulating both expression and epigenetic modifications. Thus, STAT3 orchestrates multiple critical aspects of T cell function in inflammation and homeostasis. PMID:20493732

  5. SOCS3 and STAT3, major controllers of the outcome of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Martin E; Carow, Berit

    2014-12-01

    In our review, we address the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, focusing on functions of these molecules in regulating the biology of myeloid and lymphoid cells. The STAT3 transcription factor has paradoxical roles: mainly activating an anti-inflammatory program in myeloid cells while promoting the differentiation and activation of inflammatory T cells. STAT3 is a major player in all phases of T cell responses, including T cell subset differentiation, T cell activation, and generation of memory. We review the roles of cytokines that activate, or are activated by, STAT3 during the infection with M. tuberculosis. SOCS3 inhibits STAT3 activation, by some but not all STAT3-activating cytokine receptors. Infection with M. tuberculosis also stimulates SOCS3 expression in phagocytes. Studies in different mouse models have proven the critical importance of SOCS3 in restraining inflammation and allowing optimal levels of protective immune responses against the infection. The accumulated data presented here suggest a relevant program coordinated by SOCS3 in different cell populations, which results in improved control of infection with M. tuberculosis. STAT3 and SOCS3 may thus be targeted to improve the control of infection with M. tuberculosis or the efficiency of vaccination. PMID:25458989

  6. MEK inhibition affects STAT3 signaling and invasion in human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Vultur, Adina; Villanueva, Jessie; Krepler, Clemens; Rajan, Geena; Chen, Quan; Xiao, Min; Li, Ling; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Wilson, Melissa; Hayden, James; Keeney, Frederick; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2013-01-01

    Elevated activity of the MAPK signaling cascade is found in the majority of human melanomas and is known to regulate proliferation, survival, and invasion. Current targeted therapies focus on decreasing the activity of this pathway; however, we do not fully understand how these therapies impact tumor biology, especially given that melanoma is a heterogeneous disease. Using a three-dimensional (3D), collagen-embedded spheroid melanoma model, we observed that MEK and BRAF inhibitors can increase the invasive potential of approximately 20% of human melanoma cell lines. The invasive cell lines displayed increased receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity and activation of the Src/FAK/STAT3 signaling axis, also associated with increased cell-to-cell adhesion and cadherin engagement following MEK inhibition. Targeting various RTKs, Src, FAK, and STAT3 with small molecule inhibitors in combination with a MEK inhibitor prevented the invasive phenotype, but only STAT3 inhibition caused cell death in the 3D context. We further show that STAT3 signaling is induced in BRAF-inhibitor resistant cells. Our findings suggest that MEK and BRAF inhibitors can induce STAT3 signaling, causing potential adverse effects such as increased invasion. We also provide the rationale for the combined targeting of the MAPK pathway along with inhibitors of RTKs, SRC, or STAT3 to counteract STAT3-mediated resistance phenotypes. PMID:23624919

  7. Characterization of STAT3-expressing cells in the postnatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gautron, Laurent; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Layé, Sophie

    2006-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor abundantly expressed in the postnatal brain that is involved in the differentiation of cultured astrocytes. Thus far, the cellular identity and anatomical distribution of STAT3-expressing cells in the postnatal brain is poorly known. This study identifies the cell type(s), anatomical location, and temporal distribution of STAT3-expressing cells by using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy on postnatal day 3 (P3), 10 (P10), and 21 (P21) rat brain sections. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of STAT3 on tyrosine and serine residues was analyzed at these different stages by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot. STAT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of many maturating astrocytes positive for nestin (at P3) or positive for GFAP (at P10) distributed throughout the white and grey matter. Moreover, robust nuclear immunoreactivity was observed in brainstem motoneurons. Phosphorylation on tyrosine and serine was observed at P3 and increased at P10, which suggests an augmented activation of STAT3 at the mid-postnatal period. At P21, STAT3 immunoreactivity dramatically decreased to remain visible only in the cytoplasm of white matter astrocytes and hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal groups. Furthermore, while the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues tended to decrease, that of serine residues further increased. In summary, our study reveals a complex regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation in the postnatal brain and provides in vivo evidence of the specific expression of STAT3 in maturating astrocytes and brainstem motoneurons. PMID:16764840

  8. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, LY5, inhibits cell viability, cell migration, and angiogenesis in medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-02-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-? (IFN-?) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-? and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling. PMID:25313399

  9. ?-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of the SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulwon; Cho, Somi K; Kapoor, Shweta; Kumar, Ansu; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2014-10-01

    Constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently observed and closely linked with proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated whether ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated primarily from the essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), can mediate its effect through interference with the STAT3 activation pathway in cancer cells. The effect of CPO on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and phosphatase, STAT3-regulated gene products and apoptosis was investigated using both functional proteomics tumor pathway technology platform and different tumor cell lines. We found that CPO suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM), breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with a significant dose- and time-dependent effects observed in MM cells. The suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases c-Src and JAK1/2. Also, vanadate treatment reversed CPO-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that CPO induced the expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that correlated with the down-regulation of constitutive STAT3 activation. Interestingly, deletion of SHP-1 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of CPO to inhibit STAT3 activation. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by CPO inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and abrogated the invasive potential of tumor cells. Our results suggest for the first time that CPO is a novel blocker of STAT3 signaling cascade and thus has an enormous potential for the treatment of various cancers harboring constitutively activated STAT3. PMID:23765383

  10. Effects of AG490 and S3I-201 on regulation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in relation to angiogenesis in TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    GURBUZ, VENHAR; KONAC, ECE; VAROL, NURAY; YILMAZ, AKIN; GUROCAK, SERHAT; MENEVSE, SEVDA; SOZEN, SINAN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in blocking the signaling pathway and the effects of this on the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) cells in vitro. LNCaP human CaP cell line was stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the presence/absence of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 (AG490), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [(STAT3) S3I-201] inhibitors and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Cytotoxic activity, the activation of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 protein, caspase (CASP) 3 activity at protein level, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGFC, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, STAT3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1), CASP8 and CASP9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined. Morphology and apoptosis were confirmed by DAPI staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. IL-6 rapidly induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a peak expression at 3 h at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. In addition, AG490 (50 ?M) and S3I-201 (300 ?M) inhibited STAT3 activation. Western blotting results revealed that p-STAT3 protein expression decreased significantly with AG490 and S3I-201 treatment in LNCaP cells. AG490 and S3I-201 induced the downregulation of VEGFA, MCL-1 and STAT3 and the upregulation of CASP8 and CASP9 mRNA transcription levels. In addition, the inhibitors increased the level of CASP3 protein. Combinations of AG490- and S3I-201-TRAIL did not result in an increase in this effect. Parallel results were found by DAPI staining and TUNEL assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the possible clinical use of AG490 or S3I-201, together with the reduced use of chemotherapeutic agents with high cytotoxicity, for their ability to exert an apoptotic effect, targeting the JAK/STAT3 pathway. PMID:24520293

  11. Distinct transcriptional regulatory modules underlie STAT3’s cell type-independent and cell type-specific functions

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Diez, Diego; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ahmad, Shandar; Jauch, Ralf; Tremblay, Michel Lucien; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding to short DNA sequence motifs, yet their binding specificities alone cannot explain how certain TFs drive a diversity of biological processes. In order to investigate the factors that control the functions of the pleiotropic TF STAT3, we studied its genome-wide binding patterns in four different cell types: embryonic stem cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages and AtT-20 cells. We describe for the first time two distinct modes of STAT3 binding. First, a small cell type-independent mode represented by a set of 35 evolutionarily conserved STAT3-binding sites that collectively regulate STAT3’s own functions and cell growth. We show that STAT3 is recruited to sites with E2F1 already pre-bound before STAT3 activation. Second, a series of different transcriptional regulatory modules (TRMs) assemble around STAT3 to drive distinct transcriptional programs in the four cell types. These modules recognize cell type-specific binding sites and are associated with factors particular to each cell type. Our study illustrates the versatility of STAT3 to regulate both universal- and cell type-specific functions by means of distinct TRMs, a mechanism that might be common to other pleiotropic TFs. PMID:23295670

  12. STAT3 activation in response to IL-6 is prolonged by the binding of IL-6 receptor to EGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxin; van Boxel-Dezaire, Anette H. H.; Cheon, HyeonJoo; Yang, Jinbo; Stark, George R.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of STAT3 by tyrosine phosphorylation, essential for normal development and for a normal inflammatory response to invading pathogens, is kept in check by negative regulators. Abnormal constitutive activation of STAT3, which contributes to the pathology of cancer and to chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, occurs when negative regulation is not fully effective. SOCS3, the major negative regulator of STAT3, is induced by tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 and terminates STAT3 phosphorylation about 2 h after initial exposure of cells to members of the IL-6 family of cytokines by binding cooperatively to the common receptor subunit gp130 and JAKs 1 and 2. We show here that when the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present and active, STAT3 is rephosphorylated about 4 h after exposure of cells to IL-6 or oncostatin M and remains active for many hours. Newly synthesized IL-6 drives association of the IL-6 receptor and gp130 with EGFR, leading to EGFR-dependent rephosphorylation of STAT3, which is not inhibited by the continued presence of SOCS3. This second wave of STAT3 activation supports sustained expression of a subset of IL-6-induced proteins, several of which play important roles in inflammation and cancer, in which both IL-6 secretion and EGFR levels are often elevated. PMID:24082147

  13. Ascochlorin, an isoprenoid antibiotic inhibits growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3 signaling cascade through the induction of PIAS3.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoyun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kim, Chulwon; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Ong, Tina H; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Li, Feng; Shi, Jizhong; Kumar, Alan Prem; Wang, Ling Zhi; Goh, Boon Cher; Magae, Junji; Hui, Kam M; Sethi, Gautam

    2015-04-01

    Deregulated activation of oncogenic transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a pivotal role in proliferation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, agents which can inhibit STAT3 activation may have an enormous potential for treatment of HCC patients. Hence, in the present report, we investigated the effect of ascochlorin (ASC), an isoprenoid antibiotic on STAT3 activation cascade in various HCC cell lines and orthotopic mouse model. We observed that ASC could substantially inhibit both constitutive and IL-6/EGF inducible STAT3 activation as well as reduce its DNA binding ability. ASC increased the expression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) which could bind to STAT3 DNA binding domain and thereby down-regulate STAT3 activation. Deletion of PIAS3 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of ASC to inhibit STAT3 activation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. ASC also modulated the expression of diverse STAT3-regulated oncogenic gene products. Finally, when administered intraperitoneally, ASC also inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic HCC mouse model and reduced STAT3 activation in tumor tissues. Overall our results indicate that ASC mediates its anti-tumor effects predominantly through the suppression of STAT3 signaling cascade, and can form the basis of novel therapy for HCC patients. PMID:25624051

  14. Viability and stress protection of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells involves overactivation of mitochondrial phosphoSTAT3Ser727

    PubMed Central

    Capron, C; Jondeau, K; Casetti, L; Jalbert, V; Costa, C; Verhoyen, E; Massé, J M; Coppo, P; Béné, M C; Bourdoncle, P; Cramer-Bordé, E; Dusanter-Fourt, I

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of functionally defective CD5-positive B lymphocytes. The clinical course of CLL is highly variable, ranging from a long-lasting indolent disease to an unpredictable and rapidly progressing leukemia requiring treatment. It is thus important to identify novel factors that reflect disease progression or contribute to its assessment. Here, we report on a novel STAT3-mediated pathway that characterizes CLL B cells-extended viability and oxidative stress control. We observed that leukemic but not normal B cells from CLL patients exhibit constitutive activation of an atypical form of the STAT3 signaling factor, phosphorylated on serine 727 (Ser727) in the absence of detectable canonical tyrosine 705 (Tyr705)-dependent activation in vivo. The Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 molecule (pSTAT3Ser727) is localized to the mitochondria and associates with complex I of the respiratory chain. This pSer727 modification is further controlled by glutathione-dependent antioxidant pathway(s) that mediate stromal protection of the leukemic B cells and regulate their viability. Importantly, pSTAT3Ser727, but neither Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 nor total STAT3, levels correlate with prolonged in vivo CLL B cells survival. Furthermore, STAT3 activity contributes to the resistance to apoptosis of CLL, but not normal B cells, in vitro. These data reveal that mitochondrial (Mt) pSTAT3Ser727 overactivity is part of the antioxidant defense pathway of CLL B cells that regulates their viability. Mt pSTAT3Ser727 appears to be a newly identified cell-protective signal involved in CLL cells survival. Targeting pSTAT3Ser727 could be a promising new therapeutic approach. PMID:25299776

  15. Phosphorylation of STAT3 serine-727 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is critical for nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hong; Paddon, Harry; Lee, Gloria; Cao, Xinmin; Pelech, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates cellular responses to diverse cytokines and growth factors by modulating the expression of specific target genes. While phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr-705 has been demonstrated to be a prerequisite for STAT3 dimerization, nuclear translocation, and activation of gene transcription, the role of Ser-727 in regulation of STAT3 activity is controversial. Kinetworks KPSS-1.1 phospho-site screening of nocodazole-treated HeLa cells revealed that STAT3 Ser-727 phosphorylation was enhanced during mitosis, and this correlated with a reduction of Tyr-705 phosphorylation. Overexpression of STAT3 mutants in which these phosphorylation sites were separately abolished revealed that phosphorylation at these sites appeared to be mutually antagonistic. The nocodazole-induced STAT3 Ser-727 phosphorylation was reduced by selective inhibition of CDK1 phosphotransferase activity, and CDK1 could directly phosphorylate GST-STAT3 Ser-727 in vitro and co-immunoprecipitate with STAT3 in vivo. Blocking Ser-727 phosphorylation enhanced STAT3 DNA-binding activity toward its target gene promoters, implying a negative effect of Ser-727 phosphorylation on its transcriptional activity. Interference of Ser-727 phosphorylation resulted in an exit from mitotic arrest induced by nocodazole treatment and a cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, as indicated by the accumulation of 2N cell population and enhanced expression of G1 cell cycle regulators including p21(CIP1/WAF1), p27(Kip1), and cyclin E. Taken together, our observations point to a novel role of STAT3 Ser-727 phosphorylation in control of the onset and maintenance of the M phase during the cell cycle through downregulation of CDK inhibitors. PMID:16669628

  16. The Import of the Transcription Factor STAT3 into Mitochondria Depends on GRIM-19, a Component of the Electron Transport Chain

    PubMed Central

    Tammineni, Prasad; Anugula, Chandrashekhar; Mohammed, Fareed; Anjaneyulu, Murari; Larner, Andrew C.; Sepuri, Naresh Babu Venkata

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a nuclear transcription factor, is also present in mitochondria and regulates cellular respiration in a transcriptional-independent manner. The mechanism of STAT3 import into mitochondria remains obscure. In this report we show that mitochondrial-localized STAT3 resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In vitro import studies show that the gene associated with retinoid interferon induced cell mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a complex I subunit that acts as a chaperone to recruit STAT3 into mitochondria. In addition, GRIM-19 enhances the integration of STAT3 into complex I. A S727A mutation in STAT3 reduces its import and assembly even in the presence of GRIM-19. Together, our studies unveil a novel chaperone function for GRIM-19 in the recruitment of STAT3 into mitochondria. PMID:23271731

  17. The import of the transcription factor STAT3 into mitochondria depends on GRIM-19, a component of the electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Tammineni, Prasad; Anugula, Chandrashekhar; Mohammed, Fareed; Anjaneyulu, Murari; Larner, Andrew C; Sepuri, Naresh Babu Venkata

    2013-02-15

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a nuclear transcription factor, is also present in mitochondria and regulates cellular respiration in a transcriptional-independent manner. The mechanism of STAT3 import into mitochondria remains obscure. In this report we show that mitochondrial-localized STAT3 resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In vitro import studies show that the gene associated with retinoid interferon induced cell mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a complex I subunit that acts as a chaperone to recruit STAT3 into mitochondria. In addition, GRIM-19 enhances the integration of STAT3 into complex I. A S727A mutation in STAT3 reduces its import and assembly even in the presence of GRIM-19. Together, our studies unveil a novel chaperone function for GRIM-19 in the recruitment of STAT3 into mitochondria. PMID:23271731

  18. Neuronal activity-dependent STAT3 localization to nucleus is dependent on Tyr-705 and Ser-727 phosphorylation in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Murase, Sachiko; McKay, Ronald D

    2014-02-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dramatically increases during the first post-natal week, and supports the survival of mature hippocampal neurons. Recently, we reported that chronic elevation of excitability leads to a loss of STAT3 signal, inducing vulnerability in neurons. The loss of STAT3 signal was due to impaired Erk1/2 activation. While overnight elevation of activity attenuated STAT3 signal, brief low-frequency stimuli, which induce long-term depression, have been shown to activate STAT3. Here we investigated how STAT3 responds to depolarization in mature neurons. A brief depolarization results in the transient activation of STAT3: it induces calcium influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which triggers activation of Src family kinases. Src family kinases are required for phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr-705 and Ser-727. PTyr-705 is Janus kinase (JAK)-dependent, while PSer-727 is dependent on Akt, the Ser/Thr kinase. Both PTyr-705 and PSer-727 are necessary for nuclear translocation of STAT3 in these neurons. Chronic elevation of spontaneous activity by an A-type potassium blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), also induced the transient phosphorylation of STAT3, which after 4 h fell to basal levels despite the presence of 4-AP. These results suggest that phasic and chronic neuronal activation induce distinct molecular pathways, resulting in opposing regulation of STAT3 signal. PMID:24199834

  19. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Complex between the Acidic Transactivation Domain of EBNA2 and the Tfb1/p62 Subunit of TFIIH

    PubMed Central

    Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Morse, Thomas; Arseneault, Genevieve; Archambault, Jacques; Omichinski, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can lead to a number of human diseases including Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas. The development of these EBV-linked diseases is associated with the presence of nine viral latent proteins, including the nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2). The EBNA2 protein plays a crucial role in EBV infection through its ability to activate transcription of both host and viral genes. As part of this function, EBNA2 associates with several host transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the Tfb1/p62 (yeast/human) subunit of the general transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and the histone acetyltransferase CBP(CREB-binding protein)/p300, through interactions with its C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD). In this manuscript, we examine the interaction of the acidic TAD of EBNA2 (residues 431–487) with the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH and CBP/p300 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) and transactivation studies in yeast. NMR studies show that the TAD of EBNA2 binds to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Tfb1 (Tfb1PH) and that residues 448–471 (EBNA2448–471) are necessary and sufficient for this interaction. NMR structural characterization of a Tfb1PH-EBNA2448–471 complex demonstrates that the intrinsically disordered TAD of EBNA2 forms a 9-residue ?-helix in complex with Tfb1PH. Within this helix, three hydrophobic amino acids (Trp458, Ile461 and Phe462) make a series of important interactions with Tfb1PH and their importance is validated in ITC and transactivation studies using mutants of EBNA2. In addition, NMR studies indicate that the same region of EBNA2 is also required for binding to the KIX domain of CBP/p300. This study provides an atomic level description of interactions involving the TAD of EBNA2 with target host proteins. In addition, comparison of the Tfb1PH-EBNA2448–471 complex with structures of the TAD of p53 and VP16 bound to Tfb1PH highlights the versatility of intrinsically disordered acidic TADs in recognizing common target host proteins. PMID:24675874

  20. Development of a STAT3 reporter prostate cancer cell line for high throughput screening of STAT3 activators and inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, My N. [Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Medical-Dental Building, Room C406B, 3900 Reservoir Road, Northwest, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Banerjee, Partha P. [Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Medical-Dental Building, Room C406B, 3900 Reservoir Road, Northwest, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)], E-mail: ppb@georgetown.edu

    2008-12-12

    STAT3 is constitutively activated in several cancers, including prostate cancer, and is therefore, a potential target for cancer therapy. DU-145 prostate cancer cells were stably co-transfected with STAT3 reporter and puromycin resistant plasmids to create a stable STAT3 reporter cell line that can be used for high throughput screening of STAT3 modulators. The applicability of this cell line was tested with two known activators and inhibitors of STAT3. As expected, EGF and IL-6 increased STAT3 reporter activity and enhanced the nuclear localization of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3); whereas Cucurbitacin I and AG490 decreased STAT3 reporter activity dose and time-dependently and reduced the localization of pSTAT3 in the nuclei of prostate cancer cells. Given the importance of STAT3 in cancer initiation and progression, the development of a stable STAT3 reporter cell line in prostate cancer cells provides a rapid, sensitive, and cost effective method for the screening of potential STAT3 modulators.

  1. Function of Mitochondrial Stat3 in Cellular Respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Wegrzyn; Ramesh Potla; Yong-Joon Chwae; Naresh B. V. Sepuri; Qifang Zhang; Thomas Koeck; Marta Derecka; Karol Szczepanek; Magdalena Szelag; Agnieszka Gornicka; Akira Moh; Shadi Moghaddas; Qun Chen; Santha Bobbili; Joanna Cichy; Jozef Dulak; Darren P. Baker; Alan Wolfman; Dennis Stuehr; Medhat O. Hassan; Xin-Yuan Fu; Narayan Avadhani; Jennifer I. Drake; Paul Fawcett; Edward J. Lesnefsky; Andrew C. Larner

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines such as interleukin-6 induce tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat3 that results in activation of Stat3-responsive genes. We provide evidence that Stat3 is present in the mitochondria of cultured cells and primary tissues, including the liver and heart. In Stat3-\\/- cells, the activities of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC) were significantly decreased. We identified

  2. Stat3 Activation links a C/EBP? to Myostatin Pathway to Stimulate Loss of Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Pan, Jenny; Dong, Yanjun; Tweardy, David J.; Dong, Yanlan; Garibotto, Giacomo; Mitch, William E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Catabolic conditions like chronic kidney disease (CKD) cause loss of muscle mass by unclear mechanisms. In muscle biopsies from CKD patients, we found activated Stat3 (p-Stat3) and hypothesized that p-Stat3 initiates muscle wasting. We created mice with muscle-specific knockout (KO) that prevents activation of Stat3. In these mice, losses of body and muscle weights were suppressed in models of CKD or acute diabetes. A small molecule that inhibits Stat3 activation produced similar responses suggesting a potential for translation strategies. Using C/EBP? KO mice and C2C12 myotubes with knockdown of C/EBP? or myostatin, we determined that p-Stat3 initiates muscle wasting via C/EBP?, stimulating myostatin, a negative muscle growth regulator. C/EBP? KO also improved survival of CKD mice. We verified that p-Stat3, C/EBP? and myostatin were increased in muscles of CKD patients. The pathway from p-Stat3 to C/EBP? to myostatin and muscle wasting could identify therapeutic targets that prevent muscle wasting. PMID:24011072

  3. Cancer Stem Cells Activate STAT3 the EZ Way

    PubMed Central

    Fouse, Shaun D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Activated STAT3 and increased expression of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 are independently associated with the most malignant subset of gliomas. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kim and colleagues discover that EZH2 enhances STAT3 activation by trimethylatinglysine 180 in STAT3 and does so preferentially in glioma stem-like cells. PMID:23763996

  4. Treatment of IL-21R-Fc control autoimmune arthritis via suppression of STAT3 signal pathway mediated regulation of the Th17/Treg balance and plasma B cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jun-Geol; Lee, Jennifer; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Park, Jin-Sil; Lee, Seon-Yeong; Moon, Young-Mee; Yoo, Seok-Ho; Park, Young-Woo; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La; Kim, Ho-Youn

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a T cell-derived cytokine modulating T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell responses. To determine whether IL-21 contributes to pathologic processes, recombinant IL-21 receptor (R) fusion protein (rhIL-21R-Fc) was examined in mice models of autoimmune arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis). DBA/1J mice were immunized with chicken type II collagen and then treated intraperitoneally with rhIL-21R-Fc, which was initiated after the onset of arthritis symptoms in 20% of the cohort. The mice were assessed 3 times per week for signs of arthritis and histologic features as well as serum immunoglobulin. Cytokine messenger RNA levels in the spleen were also examined. STAT3 phosphorylation is dose dependently activated by IL-21 and inhibited by rhIL-21R-Fc in vitro using T cells. Treatment of DBA/1J mice with rhIL-21R-Fc reduced the clinical and histologic signs of CIA. The IL-17 and STAT3-expressing CD4(+) splenocytes dramatically decreased in the rhIL-21R-Fc treated mice. IL-21R-Fc treated mice also decreased the production of IgG, STAT3 phosphorylation, and plasma cell transcription factor (Blimp1). These findings demonstrate a pathogenic role of IL-21 in animal models of RA, suggesting IL-21 as a promising therapeutic target among human RA. PMID:25447400

  5. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2012-05-01

    Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

  6. Silencing of the transcription factor STAT3 sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging drugs, but not to TNF?- and NK cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Dorota W. [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland); Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Carré, Thibault; Chouaib, Salem [Unité INSERM U753, Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif Cedex (France); Kaminska, Bozena, E-mail: bozenakk@nencki.gov.pl [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    Transcription factor STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) is persistently active in human tumors and may contribute to tumor progression. Inhibition of STAT3 expression/activity could be a good strategy to modulate tumor cell survival and responses to cancer chemotherapeutics or immune cytotoxicity. We silenced STAT3 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells to elucidate its role in cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics, TNF? and natural killer (NK)-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that STAT3 is not essential for basal survival and proliferation of A549 cancer cells. Stable silencing of STAT3 expression sensitized A549 cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in a p53-independent manner. Sensitization to DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics could be due to down-regulation of the Bcl-xL expression in STAT3 depleted cells. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 in cancer cells did not modulate responses to TNF? and NK-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that STAT3 depletion increased the NF?B activity likely providing the compensatory, pro-survival signal. The treatment with TNF?, but not doxorubicin, enhanced this effect. We conclude that STAT3 is not crucial for the control of basal cell proliferation and survival of lung carcinoma cells but modulates susceptibility to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics by regulation of intrinsic pro-survival pathways. - Highlights: ? STAT3 silencing is negligent for basal lung cancer cell viability and proliferation. ? STAT3 depletion sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics. ? STAT3 depletion has no effect on susceptibility to extrinsic apoptosis inducers. ? Increased pro-survival NF?B activity may compensate for STAT3 depletion.

  7. Two Naturally Occurring Terpenes, Dehydrocostuslactone and Costunolide, Decrease Intracellular GSH Content and Inhibit STAT3 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Butturini, Elena; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Carcereri de Prati, Alessandra; Darra, Elena; Rigo, Antonella; Shoji, Kazuo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Suzuki, Hisanori; Mariotto, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action ofdehydrocostuslactone (DCE) andcostunolide (CS), two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC50 of 10 µM with concomitantdown-regulation ofthe phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an ?-?-unsatured carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS), the reduced form of CS lacking only the ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE), the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function. PMID:21625597

  8. Peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3 form a redox relay for H2O2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Mirko C; Liou, Willy; Stöcker, Sarah; Talwar, Deepti; Oehler, Michael; Ruppert, Thomas; Scharf, Annette N D; Dick, Tobias P

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) acts as a signaling messenger by oxidatively modifying distinct cysteinyl thiols in distinct target proteins. However, it remains unclear how redox-regulated proteins, which often have low intrinsic reactivity towards H(2)O(2) (k(app) ?1-10 M(-1) s(-1)), can be specifically and efficiently oxidized by H(2)O(2). Moreover, cellular thiol peroxidases, which are highly abundant and efficient H(2)O(2) scavengers, should effectively eliminate virtually all of the H(2)O(2) produced in the cell. Here, we show that the thiol peroxidase peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), one of the most H(2)O(2)-reactive proteins in the cell (k(app) ?10(7)-10(8) M(-1) s(-1)), acts as a H(2)O(2) signal receptor and transmitter in transcription factor redox regulation. Prx2 forms a redox relay with the transcription factor STAT3 in which oxidative equivalents flow from Prx2 to STAT3. The redox relay generates disulfide-linked STAT3 oligomers with attenuated transcriptional activity. Cytokine-induced STAT3 signaling is accompanied by Prx2 and STAT3 oxidation and is modulated by Prx2 expression levels. PMID:25402766

  9. SIRT1 counteracted the activation of STAT3 and NF-?B to repress the gastric cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Qiming; Yang, Yuxia; Liu, Jingping; Ma, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) possesses apparently dual roles in regulation of tumor. Previous reports have documented the crosstalk between SIRT1 with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) signaling in leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In this study, the purpose was to survey the regulatory effects of SIRT1 on gastric cancer (GC) cells (AGS and MKN-45) and the relationships between SIRT1 and activation of STAT3 and NF-?B in GC cells. We found the SIRT1 activator (resveratrol RSV) contributed to the repression of viability and increase of senescence, which were rescued by SIRT1 inhibitor (nicotinamide NA) and SIRT1 depletion by CCK-8 assay and SA-?-gal assay respectively. Further study found SIRT1 activation (RSV supplement) not only inhibited the activation of STAT3 including STAT3 mRNA level, c-myc mRNA level phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) proteins and acetylizad STAT3 (acSTAT3) proteins, but also repression of pNF-?B p65 and acNF-?B p65. NA reversed the effects of RSV. In addition, either RSV or NA application could not change the cellular viability and senescence in MKN-45 cells with STAT3 knockdown or NF-?B knockdown. Overall, our findings suggested SIRT1 activation could induced the loss of viability and increases of senescence in GC in vitro. Moreover, our observations revealed SIRT1 displayed growth inhibitory activity in GC cells highly associated with causing repression of activation of STAT3 and NF-?B proteins via deacetylation. PMID:25664004

  10. SIRT1 counteracted the activation of STAT3 and NF-?B to repress the gastric cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Qiming; Yang, Yuxia; Liu, Jingping; Ma, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) possesses apparently dual roles in regulation of tumor. Previous reports have documented the crosstalk between SIRT1 with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) signaling in leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In this study, the purpose was to survey the regulatory effects of SIRT1 on gastric cancer (GC) cells (AGS and MKN-45) and the relationships between SIRT1 and activation of STAT3 and NF-?B in GC cells. We found the SIRT1 activator (resveratrol RSV) contributed to the repression of viability and increase of senescence, which were rescued by SIRT1 inhibitor (nicotinamide NA) and SIRT1 depletion by CCK-8 assay and SA-?-gal assay respectively. Further study found SIRT1 activation (RSV supplement) not only inhibited the activation of STAT3 including STAT3 mRNA level, c-myc mRNA level phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) proteins and acetylizad STAT3 (acSTAT3) proteins, but also repression of pNF-?B p65 and acNF-?B p65. NA reversed the effects of RSV. In addition, either RSV or NA application could not change the cellular viability and senescence in MKN-45 cells with STAT3 knockdown or NF-?B knockdown. Overall, our findings suggested SIRT1 activation could induced the loss of viability and increases of senescence in GC in vitro. Moreover, our observations revealed SIRT1 displayed growth inhibitory activity in GC cells highly associated with causing repression of activation of STAT3 and NF-?B proteins via deacetylation. PMID:25664004

  11. Arginine residues within the DNA binding domain of STAT3 promote intracellular shuttling and phosphorylation of STAT3.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Torsten; Fahrer, Jörg; Kröhnert, Ulrike; Fetz, Verena; Garrone, Alessio; Stauber, Roland H; Reichardt, Werner; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Kosan, Christian; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2014-08-01

    Acetylation-dependent inactivation of STAT1 can be mimicked by the exchange of its lysine residues K410 and K413 to glutamine residues. STAT3 harbors non-acetylatable arginine moieties at the corresponding sites R414 and R417. It is unclear whether the mutation of these sites to glutamine residues antagonizes STAT3 activation. Here, we show that an arginine-glutamine-exchange at the STAT3 moieties R414 and R417 (R414Q and R417Q) reduces cytokine-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. This inhibitory effect can be partially rescued by phosphatase inhibition. In addition, the R414Q and R417Q mutations enhance the nuclear accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3. STAT3 R414Q and STAT3 R417Q show a reduced response to cytokine stimulation emanating from the plasma membrane. Moreover, these STAT3 mutants have no direct inhibitory effect on the cytokine-induced activation of STAT1/STAT3-mediated gene expression. Since the mutations R414Q and R417Q reside within the STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD), the STAT3 R414Q and R417Q mutants also lack intrinsic activity as transcription factors. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type STAT3 they cannot compensate for a loss of STAT1 and they cannot promote STAT1/STAT3-dependent transcriptional activation. We further analyzed a STAT3 arginine-lysine-exchange mutant (R414K/R417K). This molecule mimics corresponding lysine residues found within the DBD of STAT1. Compared to wild-type STAT3, the STAT3 R414K/R417K mutant shows attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation and it is a less active transcription factor. In addition, STAT3 R414K/R417K is not activated by deacetylase inhibition. On the other hand, C-terminal acetylation of STAT3 is intact in STAT3 R414K/R417K. Our results suggest that the exchange of amino acid residues within the DBDs of STAT1/STAT3 affects their phosphorylation as well as their intracellular shuttling. PMID:24721162

  12. Cytoprotection by the Modulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain: The Emerging Role of Mitochondrial STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek, Karol; Chen, Qun; Larner, Andrew C.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The down regulation of mitochondrial electron transport is an emerging mechanism of cytoprotective intervention that is effective in pathologic settings such as myocardial ischemia and reperfusion when the continuation of mitochondrial respiration produces reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial calcium overload, and the release of cytochrome c to activate cell death programs. The initial target of deranged electron transport is the mitochondria themselves. In the first part of this review, we describe this concept and summarize different approaches used to regulate mitochondrial respiration by targeting complex I as a proximal site in the electron transport chain (ETC) in order to favor the cytoprotection. The second part of the review highlights the emerging role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the direct, non-transcriptional regulation of ETC, as an example of a genetic approach to modulate respiration. Recent studies indicate that a pool of STAT3 resides in the mitochondria where it is necessary for the maximal activity of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC). The over expression of mitochondrial-targeted STAT3 results in a partial blockade of electron transport at complexes I and II that does not impair mitochondrial membrane potential nor enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The targeting of transcriptionally-inactive STAT3 to mitochondria attenuates damage to mitochondria during cell stress, resulting in decreased production of ROS and retention of cytochrome c by mitochondria. The overexpression of STAT3 targeted to mitochondria unveils a novel protective approach mediated by modulation of mitochondrial respiration that is independent of STAT3 transcriptional activity. The limitation of mitochondrial respiration under pathologic circumstances can be approached by activation and over expression of endogenous signaling mechanisms in addition to pharmacologic means. The regulation of mitochondrial respiration comprises a cardioprotective paradigm to decrease cellular injury during ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:21930250

  13. Adenosine augments IL-10-induced STAT3 signaling in M2c macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Koscsó, Balázs; Csóka, Balázs; Kókai, Endre; Németh, Zoltán H.; Pacher, Pál; Virág, László; Leibovich, S. Joseph; Haskó, György

    2013-01-01

    The alternatively activated macrophage phenotype induced by IL-10 is called M2c. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that accumulates in the extracellular space in response to metabolic disturbances, hypoxia, inflammation, physical damage, or apoptosis. As adenosine is known to regulate classically activated M1 and IL4- and IL-13-activated M2a macrophages, the goal of the present study was to explore its effects on M2c macrophages. We found that adenosine augmented the IL-10-induced expression of TIMP-1 and arginase-1 by the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and by mouse BMDMs. The effects of AR stimulation on IL-10-induced TIMP-1 or arginase-1 expression were lacking in A2BAR KO macrophages. The role of A2BAR on TIMP-1 production of RAW 264.7 cells was confirmed with specific agonist BAY606583 and antagonist PSB0788. AR stimulation augmented IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in macrophages, and pharmacological inhibition or silencing of STAT3 using siRNA reduced the stimulatory effect of AR stimulation on TIMP-1 production. In contrast to its stimulatory effect on IL-10-induced STAT3 activation, adenosine inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and SAA3 expression. In conclusion, adenosine enhances IL-10-induced STAT3 signaling and M2c macrophage activation. PMID:23922379

  14. Hepatic oxidative stress activates the Gadd45b gene via degradation of the transcriptional repressor STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Qu, Aijuan; Reddy, Janardan K.; Gao, Bin; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta (GADD45b) plays an important role in many intracellular events, such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis and senescence. However, its mechanism of transcriptional regulation remains unclear. In this study, the mechanism of proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) ligand induction of the Gadd45b gene in mouse liver was investigated. Gadd45b mRNA was markedly induced by the PPAR? agonist, Wy-14,643, in wild-type mice but not in Ppara-null mice. STAT3 was found to be a repressor of the Gadd45b gene through binding to upstream regulatory elements. The role of STAT3 in control of Gadd45b was confirmed using liver-specific Stat3-null mice. Wy-14,643 treatment stimulated STAT3 ubiquitination leading to activation of the Gadd45b gene as a result of loss of Gadd45b repression by STAT3. STAT3 degradation was induced by forced overexpression of the PPAR? target gene-encoded enzyme ACOX1, that produces increased H2O2 as a by product of fatty acid ?-oxidation. H2O2 also stimulated expression of Gadd45b in cultured cells. These studies revealed that PPAR? indirectly induces the Gadd45b gene in liver through promoting degradation of the repressor STAT3 as a result of elevated oxidative stress. PMID:23939942

  15. Genome-wide uncovering of STAT3-mediated miRNA expression profiles in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jufeng; Luo, Xia; Li, Huiming; Deng, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies resulting in high mortality worldwide. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor which is frequently activated and aberrantly expressed in CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs which play important roles in many cancers. However, little is known about the global miRNA profiles mediated by STAT3 in CRC cells. In the present study, we applied RNA interference to inhibit STAT3 expression and profiled the miRNA expression levels regulated by STAT3 in CRC cell lines with deep sequencing. We found that 26 and 21 known miRNAs were significantly overexpressed and downexpressed, respectively, in the STAT3-knockdown CRC cell line SW480 (SW480/STAT3-siRNA) compared to SW480 transfected with scrambled siRNAs (SW480/siRNA-control). The miRNA expression profiling was then validated by quantitative real-time PCR for selected known miRNAs. We further predicted the putative target genes for the dysregulated miRNAs and carried out functional annotation including GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis for selected miRNA targets. This study directly depicts STAT3-mediated miRNA profiles in CRC cells, which provides a possible way to discover biomarkers for CRC therapy. PMID:25126546

  16. Genome-Wide Uncovering of STAT3-Mediated miRNA Expression Profiles in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jufeng; Luo, Xia; Li, Huiming; Deng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies resulting in high mortality worldwide. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor which is frequently activated and aberrantly expressed in CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs which play important roles in many cancers. However, little is known about the global miRNA profiles mediated by STAT3 in CRC cells. In the present study, we applied RNA interference to inhibit STAT3 expression and profiled the miRNA expression levels regulated by STAT3 in CRC cell lines with deep sequencing. We found that 26 and 21 known miRNAs were significantly overexpressed and downexpressed, respectively, in the STAT3-knockdown CRC cell line SW480 (SW480/STAT3-siRNA) compared to SW480 transfected with scrambled siRNAs (SW480/siRNA-control). The miRNA expression profiling was then validated by quantitative real-time PCR for selected known miRNAs. We further predicted the putative target genes for the dysregulated miRNAs and carried out functional annotation including GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis for selected miRNA targets. This study directly depicts STAT3-mediated miRNA profiles in CRC cells, which provides a possible way to discover biomarkers for CRC therapy. PMID:25126546

  17. STAT3 Inhibits Apoptosis of Human Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Induced by ATP Depletion\\/Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianzhong Wang; Chun Ouyang; Xiangmei Chen; Bo Fu; Yang Lu; Quan Hong

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Apoptosis has been implicated in renal ischemic injury, the regulating mechanism of which is still unclear. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) participate in inflammation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. In the in vitro model of renal ischemic injury, we explored the role of the STAT3, a major component of the STAT family, in apoptosis of human proximal tubular epithelial

  18. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  19. STAT3 in Cancer—Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The roles and significance of STAT3 in cancer biology have been extensively studied for more than a decade. Mounting evidence has shown that constitutive activation of STAT3 is a frequent biochemical aberrancy in cancer cells, and this abnormality directly contributes to tumorigenesis and shapes many malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from more recent experimental and clinicopathologic studies have suggested that STAT3 also can exert tumor suppressor effects under specific conditions. Importantly, some of these studies have demonstrated that STAT3 can function either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background or presence/absence of specific coexisting biochemical defects. Thus, in the context of cancer biology, STAT3 can be a friend or foe. In the first half of this review, we will highlight the “evil” features of STAT3 by summarizing its oncogenic functions and mechanisms. The differences between the canonical and non-canonical pathway will be highlighted. In the second half, we will summarize the evidence supporting that STAT3 can function as a tumor suppressor. To explain how STAT3 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we will discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT3?, one of the two STAT3 splicing isoforms. Taken together, it is clear that the roles of STAT3 in cancer are multi-faceted and far more complicated than one appreciated previously. The new knowledge has provided us with new approaches and strategies when we evaluate STAT3 as a prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. PMID:24995504

  20. Critical role for Stat3 in T-dependent terminal differentiation of IgG B cells

    PubMed Central

    Fornek, Jamie L.; Tygrett, Lorraine T.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Poli, Valeria; Rickert, Robert C.; Kansas, Geoffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Stat proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that are crucial in many aspects of mammalian development. In the immune system, Stat3 has distinct roles in T-cell, neutrophil, and macrophage function, but a role for Stat3 in B-cell development, particularly in the terminal differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells, has never been directly tested. In this study, we used the Cre/lox system to generate a mouse strain in which Stat3 was conditionally deleted in the B-cell lineage (Stat3fl/flCD19Cre/+). B-cell development, establishment of the peripheral B-cell compartment, and baseline serum antibody levels were unperturbed in Stat3fl/flCD19Cre/+ mice. Strikingly, Stat3fl/flCD19Cre/+ mice displayed profound defects in T-dependent (TD) IgG responses, but normal TD IgM, IgE, and IgA responses and T-independent (TI) IgM and IgG3 responses. In addition, germinal center (GC) formation, isotype switching, and generation of memory B cells, including IgG+ memory cells, were all intact in Stat3fl/flCD19Cre/+ mice, indicating that the requirement for Stat3 was limited to plasma cell differentiation. These results demonstrate a profound yet highly selective role for Stat3 in TD IgG plasma cell differentiation, and therefore represent a unique example of a transcription factor regulating isotype-specific terminal B-cell differentiation. PMID:16223771

  1. Cytokine-Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 (TNFR2) is Mediated by STAT3 in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Simmons, James G.; Ding, Shengli; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Lund, P. Kay

    2011-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3 and TNF?/NF?B pathways are emerging as critical mediators of inflammation-associated colon cancer. TNFR2 expression is increased in inflammatory bowel diseases, the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) model of colitis-associated cancer, and by combined IL-6 and TNF?. The molecular mechanisms that regulate TNFR2 remain undefined. This study used colon cancer cell lines to test the hypothesis that IL-6 and TNF? induce TNFR2 via STAT3 and/or NF?B. Basal and IL-6 + TNF?-induced TNFR2 were decreased by pharmacological STAT3 inhibition. NF?B inhibition had little effect on IL-6 + TNF?-induced TNFR2, but did inhibit induction of endogenous IL-6 and TNFR2 in cells treated with TNF? alone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed cooperative effects of IL-6 + TNF? to induce STAT3 binding to a -1578 STAT response element in the TNFR2 promoter, but no effect on NF?B binding to consensus sites. Constitutively active STAT3 was sufficient to induce TNFR2 expression. Over-expression of SOCS3, a cytokine-inducible STAT3 inhibitor, which reduces tumorigenesis in preclinical models of colitis-associated cancer, decreased cytokine-induced TNFR2 expression and STAT3 binding to the -1578 STAT response element. SOCS3 over-expression also decreased proliferation of colon cancer cells and dramatically decreased anchorage-independent growth of colon cancer cells, even cells over-expressing TNFR2. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that IL-6 and TNF?-induced TNFR2 expression in colon cancer cells is mediated primarily by STAT3, and provide evidence that TNFR2 may contribute to the tumor-promoting roles of STAT3. PMID:21994466

  2. Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Nishimura, Kohji; Uda, Atsushi; Mukai, Akira; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Kume, Manabu; Makimoto, Hiroo; Bito, Toshinori; Nishigori, Chikako; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori

    2014-01-01

    Hand–foot skin reaction is a most common multi-kinase inhibitor-related adverse event. This study aimed to examine whether the toxicity of sorafenib and sunitinib for human keratinocytes was associated with inhibiting signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We studied whether STAT3 activity affects sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition in HaCaT cells by WST-8 assay. Stattic enhanced the cell-growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of sorafenib and sunitinib. HaCaT cells transfected with constitutively-active STAT3 (STAT3C) were resistant to the sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. STAT3 activity decreased after short-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib in a dose-dependent manner and recovered after long-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib at low doses. Moreover, the expression of survivin and bcl-2 decreased after treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib was concomitant with variations in STAT3 activity. Sorafenib-induced STAT3 inhibition was mediated by regulation via MAPK pathways in HaCaT cells, while sunitinib-induced STAT3 inhibition was not. Thus, STAT3 activation mediating apoptosis suppressors may be a key factor in sorafenib and sunitinib-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity. PMID:25013907

  3. HO-3867, a STAT3 inhibitor induces apoptosis by inactivation of STAT3 activity in BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Brent J; McCann, Georgia A; Cohn, David E; Eisenhauer, Eric; Sudhakar, Meryl; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Hideg, Kálmán; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2012-07-01

    BRCA1 plays an important role in DNA damage and repair, homologous recombination, cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer often presents at an advanced stage, however, tend to have better response to platinum-based chemotherapy as compared with sporadic cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In spite of this, most patients will develop a recurrence and eventually succumb to the disease. Preclinical studies are currently investigating natural compounds and their analogs for tumor-directed targets in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the STAT3 inhibitor HO-3867, a novel curcumin analog, has a therapeutic effect on BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer. Our novel agent, HO-3867 and a commercial STAT3 inhibitor, STATTIC, significantly inhibited BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer cells in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer cells treated with HO-3867 exhibited a significant degree of apoptosis with elevated levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-7 and PARP. HO-3867 treatment induced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BRCA-mutated cells compared with wild-type cells, however, there was no increased ROS when benign ovarian surface epithelial cells were treated with HO-3867. BRCA1-mutated cancer cells had higher expression of Tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pTyr705) as compared with other STAT proteins. Furthermore, treatment of these cells with HO-3867 resulted in decreased expression of pTyr705 and its downstream targets cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and survivin. In addition, overexpression of STAT3 cDNA provided resistance to HO-3867-induced apoptosis. Our results show that HO-3867, a potent STAT3 inhibitor, may have a role as a biologically targeted agent for BRCA1-mutated cancers either as an adjunct to cytotoxic chemotherapy or as a single agent. PMID:22801507

  4. Interleukin 18 activates MAPKs and STAT3 but not NF-?B in hippocampal HT-22 cells.

    PubMed

    Alboni, Silvia; Montanari, Claudia; Benatti, Cristina; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Rigillo, Giovanna; Blom, Joan M C; Brunello, Nicoletta; Conti, Bruno; Pariante, M Carmine; Tascedda, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine previously demonstrated to participate in neuroinflammatory processes. Since the components of the IL-18 receptor complex are expressed in neurons throughout the brain, IL-18 is also believed to directly influence neuronal function. Here we tested this hypothesis on mouse hippocampal neurons by measuring the effects of IL-18 on three pathways previously shown to be regulated by this cytokine in non-neuronal cells: the MAPK pathways, p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs, STAT3 and NF-?B. Experiments were carried out in vitro using the immortalized hippocampal neuronal line HT-22 or in vivo following i.c.v. injection with recombinant mouse IL-18. We showed that IL-18 did not activate NF-?B in HT-22 cells whereas it induced a rapid (within 15min) activation of the MAPK pathways. Moreover, we demonstrated that IL-18 treatment enhanced P-STAT3 (Tyr705)/STAT3 ratio in the nucleus of HT-22 cells after 30-60min of exposure. A similar increase in P-STAT3 (Tyr705)/STAT3 ratio was observed in the whole hippocampus one hour after i.c.v. injection. These data demonstrate that IL-18 can act directly on neuronal cells affecting the STAT3 pathway; therefore, possibly regulating the expression of specific genes within the hippocampus. This effect may help to explain some of the IL-18-induced effects on synaptic plasticity and functionality within the hippocampal system. PMID:24603356

  5. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 Activates Nuclear Factor (NF)-?B in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiming; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David M.; Li, Ping; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-?B plays a major role in the pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasms. A broad array of mostly extracellular stimuli has been reported to activate NF-?B, to various degrees, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Because CLL cells harbor high levels of unphosphorylated (U) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 protein and U-STAT3 was reported to activate NF-?B, we sought to determine whether U-STAT3 activates NF-?B in CLL. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) we studied peripheral blood low-density cells from 15 patients with CLL and found that CLL cell nuclear extracts from all the samples bound to an NF-?B DNA probe, suggesting that NF-?B is constitutively activated in CLL. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that STAT3 bound NF-?B p65, and confocal microscopy studies detected U-STAT3/NF-?B complexes in the nuclei of CLL cells, thereby confirming these findings. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with retroviral STAT3-shRNA attenuated the binding of NF-?B to DNA, as assessed by EMSA, and downregulated mRNA levels of NF-?B-regulated genes, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, our data suggest that U-STAT3 binds to the NF-?B p50/p65 dimers and that the U-STAT3/NF-?B complexes bind to DNA and activate NF-?B-regulated genes in CLL cells. PMID:21364020

  6. Dimethylfumarate Suppresses Adipogenic Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes through Inhibition of STAT3 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Go, Younghoon; Oh, Chang Joo; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The excessive accumulation of adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. The interactions of several transcription factors, such as C/EBP?, PPAR?, C/EBP?, Nrf2, and STAT3, are required for adipogenic differentiation. Dimethylfumarate (DMF), an immune modulator and antioxidant, may function as an inhibitor of STAT3 and an activator of Nrf2. This study examined whether DMF inhibits adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by inhibiting STAT3 or activating Nrf2. DMF suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic genes, including C/EBP?, C/EBP?, PPAR?, SREBP-1c, FAS, and aP2, were significantly lower in DMF-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Suppression of adipogenic differentiation by DMF treatment resulted primarily from inhibition of the early stages of differentiation. DMF inhibits clonal expansion during adipogenic differentiation through induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Additionally, DMF regulates cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21, pRb, and cyclin D. DMF treatment markedly inhibited differentiation medium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activation of a reporter construct composed of four synthetic STAT3-response elements. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 activity using a dominant negative Nrf2 did not abolish the DMF-induced inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In summary, DMF is a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation based on its regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and cell cycle proteins. This negative regulation by DMF is mediated by STAT3 inhibition, but is unlikely to involve Nrf2 activation. PMID:23637829

  7. Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murano, Tatsuro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi, E-mail: rokamoto.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

  8. STAT3-silenced human dendritic cells have an enhanced ability to prime IFN? production by both ?? and ?? T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Isabella; Purificato, Cristina; Varano, Barbara; Conti, Lucia; Gessani, Sandra; Gauzzi, M Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of the immune system to enhance insufficient immune responses, such those occurring in cancer, or to dampen dangerous responses in allergic and autoimmune diseases. Main goal of this study was to manipulate human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) function by silencing STAT3, since this transcription factor plays a key role as a negative regulator of immune surveillance, and is strongly involved in inflammation. STAT3 silencing did not affect the immunophenotype of both immature and toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-matured DC. However, an altered cytokine secretion profile, characterized by lower IL10 and higher IL12 and TNF? levels, was observed in silenced DC with respect to control cells upon TLR triggering. Accordingly, STAT3 silenced MDDC promoted a higher IFN? production by CD4(+) naïve T cells. Furthermore, STAT3 silencing in MDDC favored the activation of ?? T lymphocytes, an immune cell population with important antitumor effector activities. This effect was at least in part mediated by the increased IL12 production by silenced cells. STAT3 silencing also increased the levels of CCL4, a CCR5-binding chemokine known to be involved in T helper 1 (Th1) cell recruitment. Altogether these results strengthen the role of STAT3 as a critical check point of the suppression of Th1 responses, unraveling its potential to dampen DC capability to both induce and recruit different IFN? producing T lymphocyte subsets. PMID:24674241

  9. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Degradation by Proteasome Controls a Developmental Switch in Neurotrophin Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal brains develop through a program that eliminates about half of the neurons. During this period, neurons depend on neurotrophins for their survival. Recently, we reported that, at the conclusion of the naturally occurring death period, neurons become neurotrophin-independent and, further, that this developmental switch is achieved by the emergence of a second survival pathway mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here I show that calcineurin plays a key role in controlling the developmental switch in mouse hippocampal neurons. Calcineurin promotes the degradation of STAT3 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Inhibition of calcineurin acutely increases total levels of STAT3 as well as its activated forms, resulting in decreased levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and its proapoptotic target, Bax. In vivo and in vitro, calcineurin regulates levels of STAT3 and neurotrophin dependence. TMF/ARA 160 (TATA element modulatory factor/androgen receptor co-activator 160), the key mediator of STAT3 ubiquitination, is required for calcineurin-dependent STAT3 degradation. Thus, these results show that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls the critical developmental switch of neurotrophin dependence in the newborn hippocampus. PMID:23733189

  10. Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Blocks Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Erika L.; Cross-Knorr, Sam; Brilliant, Kate; Bonavida, Benjamin; LaValle, Theresa; Yeung, Kam C.; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chin, Eugene; Chatterjee, Devasis

    2014-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein (PEBP) family that modulates the action of many kinases involved in cellular growth, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we described an inverse association between RKIP and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which RKIP regulates STAT3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RKIP over expression inhibited c-Src auto-phosphorylation and activation, as well as IL-6-, JAK1 and 2-, and activated Raf-mediated STAT3 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and subsequent activation. In MDA-231 breast cancer cells that stably over express RKIP, IL-6 treatment blocked STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Conversely, in RKIP knockdown MDA-231 cells: STAT3 phosphorylation and activation increased in comparison to parental MDA-231 cells. RKIP over expression resulted in constitutive physical interaction with STAT3 and blocked c-Src and STAT3 association. The treatment of DU145 prostate, but not PC3 prostate or MDA-231 breast, cancer cell lines with ENMD-1198 or MKC-1 dramatically increased expression of RKIP. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PC3 and MDA-231 cells to MTI-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MTI treatment resulted in a decrease in Src-mediated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by RKIP over expression. In stable RKIP over expressing MDA-231 cells, tumor xenograft growth induced by activated STAT3 is inhibited. RKIP synergizes with MTIs to induce apoptosis and inhibit STAT3 activation of breast and prostate cancer cells. RKIP plays a critical role in opposing the effects of pro-oncogenic STAT3 activation. PMID:24658061

  11. Withaferin A inhibits JAK/STAT3 signaling and induces apoptosis of human renal carcinoma Caki cells.

    PubMed

    Um, Hee Jung; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Dong Eun; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2012-10-12

    Withaferin A, the active component of Withania somnifera, causes cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cell lines. In this study, we show that withaferin A inhibits constitutive and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (on Tyr705), but not IFN-?-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. Withaferin A-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation is associated with a reduction in Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) activity. Withaferin A also down-regulates the expression of STAT3 regulated genes such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and survivin. The apoptotic effect of withaferin A in Caki human renal cancer cells was investigated. Withaferin A induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in Caki cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence that down-regulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. PMID:22982675

  12. Lipopolysaccharides upregulate hepcidin in neuron via microglia and the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhong-Ming; He, Xuan; Liang, Tuo; Wu, Ka-Chun; Yan, Yik-Chun; Lu, Li-Na; Yang, Guang; Luo, Qian Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2014-12-01

    Neuroinflammation is closely related to brain iron homeostasis. Our previous study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can regulate expression of iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin; however, the mechanism is undefined. Here, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of LPS in rat brain upregulated hepcidin and downregulated ferroportin 1 in the cortex and substantia nigra. LPS increased hepcidin expression in neurons only when they were co-cultured with BV-2 microglia, and the upregulation was suppressed by IL-6 neutralizing antibody in vitro. In addition, IL-6 but not IL-1?, IL-1?, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased hepcidin expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in cortical neurons and MES23.5 dopaminergic neurons. These effects were blocked by the STAT3 inhibitor, stattic. Our results show that neurons are the major source of increased hepcidin expression in response to LPS challenge but microglia play a key mediator role by releasing IL-6 and recruiting the STAT3 pathway. We conclude that LPS upregulates hepcidin expression in neurons via microglia and the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:24659348

  13. Determinants of the extent and duration of STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Groner, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms have been identified that are responsible for the deregulation of the quantitative aspects of JAK-STAT signaling. These mechanisms enhance the extent and the duration of, e.g., STAT3 activation and have profound consequences on the phenotypes of the affected cells. The fine tuning of STAT3 signaling is required to maintain its physiological functions and its deregulation is associated with diverse pathological states. Deregulation can be exerted by the gain of function of components mediating the activation of STAT3 or the loss of function of molecules involved in the deactivation steps of STAT3. Gain of function mutations can involve tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate STAT3, mutations in cytokine and growth factor receptors causing their ligand independent activation, mutations in STAT3 that enhance and prolong its tyrosine phosphorylation and the autocrine or paracrine production and secretion of cytokines, most notably IL-6. Diminished deactivation of phosphorylated STAT3 can be due to the reduced expression of tyrosine phosphatases, inactivating mutations in these enzymes, silencing or functional inactivation of SOCS molecules, post-transcriptional inhibition of PIAS3 expression or deletion mutations in the lymphocyte adaptor protein, LNK. STAT3 variants that exhibit autonomous transactivation potential have been detected in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia in clonally expanded CD8(+) T cells. These patients also were preferentially affected by neutropenia and rheumatoid disorders and the results suggest that activating STAT3 mutations in T lymphocytes could be a cause of autoimmune diseases. PMID:24058775

  14. STAT3 governs hyporesponsiveness and granzyme B-dependent suppressive capacity in human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Schmetterer, Klaus G; Neunkirchner, Alina; Wojta-Stremayr, Daniela; Leitner, Judith; Steinberger, Peter; Pickl, Winfried F

    2015-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) integrates key signals of cell surface immune receptors, yet its precise role in cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T cells is not well-established. Current research has indicated T-helper cell 17-inducing roles but also tolerogenic roles. To address this issue, human T cells were transduced with the constitutively active STAT3 mutant STAT3C. Following stimulation, STAT3C(+) T cells up-regulated IL-10 (4.1 ± 0.5-fold; P < 0.001) and granzyme B (2.5 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) secretion, combined with significantly reduced IFN-? (35 ± 5%), IL-2 (57 ± 4%), TNF-? (64 ± 8%), and IL-13 (89 ± 3%) secretion (P < 0.001). CD3/CD2- or CD3/CD28-activated STAT3C(+) T cells revealed reduced proliferation (53.4 ± 23.5% and 70.5 ± 10.4%, respectively), which was independent of IL-10 production and significantly suppressed effector T cell proliferation by 68.7 ± 10.6% and 65.9 ± 2.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). Phenotypically, STAT3C-transgenic CD4(+) T cells resembled effector T cells regarding expression of T regulatory cell markers, but up-regulated granzyme B expression levels by 2.4-fold (P < 0.05). Suppression was cell contact dependent and mediated by granzyme B-induced cell death, but was independent of IL-10 and TGF-?. Notably, peripheral blood CD4(+)CD45RA(-)lymphocyte activation gene-3(+)CD49(+) type 1 regulatory T cells revealed activation-induced hyperphosphorylation of STAT3. In agreement, pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activation partially reverted hyporesponsiveness of peripheral type 1 regulatory T cells (increasing their division index from 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.89 ± 0.04; P < 0.01). These observations indicate a clear-cut relation between activation of STAT3 and the acquisition of a tolerogenic program, which is also used by peripheral blood type 1 regulatory T cells.-Schmetterer, K. G., Neunkirchner, A., Wojta-Stremayr, D., Leitner, J., Steinberger, P., Pickl, W. F. STAT3 governs hyporesponsiveness and granzyme B-dependent suppressive capacity in human CD4(+) T cells. PMID:25398767

  15. Novel CD47: SIRP? Dependent Mechanism for the Activation of STAT3 in Antigen-Presenting Cell

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, Natan; Gur-Wahnon, Devorah; Ben-Yehuda, Adi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface CD47 interacts with its receptor, signal-regulatory-protein ? (SIRP?) that is expressed predominantly on macrophages, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. This “don’t eat me” signal is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRP? at the cytoplasmic ITIM motifs and the recruitment of the phosphatase, SHP-1. We previously revealed a novel mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 pathway and the regulation of human APC maturation and function that is based on cell:cell interaction. In this study, we present evidence supporting the notion that CD47:SIRP? serves as a cell surface receptor: ligand pair involved in this contact-dependent STAT3 activation and regulation of APC maturation. We show that upon co-culturing APC with various primary and tumor cell lines STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 expression are induced, and such regulation could be suppressed by specific CD47 siRNAs and shRNAs. Significantly, >50% reduction in CD47 expression abolished the contact-dependent inhibition of T cell activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association between SIRP? and STAT3. Thus, we suggest that in addition to signaling through the ITIM-SHP-1 complex that transmit an anti-phagocytotic, CD47:SIRP? also triggers STAT3 signaling that is linked to an immature APC phenotype and peripheral tolerance under steady state and pathological conditions. PMID:24073274

  16. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, Chandramu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Dontula, Ranadheer [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States)] [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States); Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Gujrati, Meena [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Lakka, Sajani S., E-mail: slakka@uic.edu [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation.

  17. Plumbagin, Vitamin K3 Analogue, Suppresses STAT3 Activation Pathway through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-1: Potential Role in Chemosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2009-01-01

    The activation of STAT3 has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), an analogue of Vitamin K and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, JAK1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1; and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and VEGF, activated caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and increased the sub-G1 population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20068065

  18. STAT3 signaling is activated preferentially in tumor-initiating cells in claudin-low models of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Tweardy, David J; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Landua, John; Petrovic, Ivana; Bu, Wen; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    In breast cancer, a subset of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) or "cancer stem cells" are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance, treatment resistance, and disease recurrence. While current breast cancer stem cell markers (e.g., CD44(high) /CD24(low/neg) , ALDH positive) have allowed enrichment for such cells, they are not universally expressed and may actually identify distinct TIC subpopulations in the same tumor. Thus, additional markers of functional stem cells are needed. The STAT3 pathway is a critical regulator of the function of normal stem cells, and evidence is accumulating for its important role in breast cancer stem cells. However, due to the lack of a method for separating live cells based on their level of STAT3 activity, it remains unknown whether STAT3 functions in the cancer stem cells themselves, or in surrounding niche cells, or in both. To approach this question, we constructed a series of lentiviral fluorescent (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) reporters that enabled flow cytometric enrichment of cells differing in STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity, as well as in vivo/in situ localization of STAT3 responsive cells. Using in vivo claudin-low cell line xenograft models of human breast cancer, we found that STAT3 signaling reporter activity (EGFP(+) ) is associated with a subpopulation of cancer cells enriched for mammosphere-forming efficiency, as well as TIC function in limiting dilution transplantation assays compared to negative or unsorted populations. Our results support STAT3 signaling activity as another functional marker for human breast cancer stem cells thus making it an attractive therapeutic target for stem-cell-directed therapy in some breast cancer subtypes. PMID:24891218

  19. Natural and synthetic STAT3 inhibitors reduce hepcidin expression in differentiated mouse hepatocytes expressing the active phosphorylated STAT3 form.

    PubMed

    Fatih, Nadia; Camberlein, Emilie; Island, Marie Laure; Corlu, Anne; Abgueguen, Emmanuelle; Détivaud, Lénaïck; Leroyer, Patricia; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    During the inflammatory process, hepcidin overexpression favours the development of anaemia of chronic diseases which represents the second most common form of anaemia worldwide. The identification of therapeutic agents decreasing hepcidin expression is therefore an important goal. The aim of this study was to target the STAT3 signalling involved in the development of increased hepcidin expression related to chronic inflammation. In a co-culture model associating mouse hepatocytes and rat liver epithelial cells, the mRNA levels of hepcidin1, albumin, aldolase B, Cyp3a4, Stat3, Smad4 and iron regulatory genes were measured by real-time PCR. STAT3 and phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 proteins were analysed by Western blot. At variance of hepatocyte pure culture, co-culture provided high levels of hepcidin1 mRNA, reaching 400% of the freshly isolated hepatocyte values after 6 days of culture. Hepcidin expression was associated with the maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype, STAT3 phosphorylation and functional BMP/SMAD pathway. Stat3 siRNAs inhibited the hepcidin1 mRNA expression. STAT3 inhibitors, including curcumin, AG490 and a peptide (PpYLKTK), reduced hepcidin1 mRNA expression even when cells were additionally exposed to IL-6. Hepcidin1 mRNA was expressed at high levels by hepatocytes in the co-culture model, and STAT3 pathway activation was controlled through STAT3 inhibitors. Such inhibitors could be useful to prevent anaemia related to hepcidin overexpression during chronic inflammation. PMID:20169331

  20. Deletion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell STAT3 Promotes T Lymphocyte STAT3 Activation and Chronic Colitis Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Tara A.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Collins, Margaret; Denson, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) Stat3 is required for wound healing following acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury. METHODS Colitis was induced in IEC-specific Stat3 deficient mice (Stat3?IEC) and littermate controls (Stat3Flx/Flx) with 4%DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined. RESULTS Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in Stat3?IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3+ cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in Stat3?IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480+pSTAT3+ macrophages and CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes were increased in Stat3?IEC mice as compared to Stat3Flx/Flx controls. In Stat3?IEC mice, colonic expression of Stat3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3? which mediate epithelial restitution were significantly decreased, while expression of IL-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at Day 28(p<.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Loss of intestinal epithelial Stat3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after one cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3+ lymphocytes and IL-17a expression. PMID:23429443

  1. Stat3 is involved in control of MASP2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberger, Claudia [Clinical Cooperation Group Inflammatory Lung Diseases - GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Asklepios Fachkliniken, Gauting (Germany); Hanson, Steven [Anthropology and Human Genetics, Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Munich (Germany); Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Klingenhoff, Andreas [Genomatix Software GmbH, Munich (Germany); Oesterle, Daniela [Anthropology and Human Genetics, Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Frankenberger, Marion [Clinical Cooperation Group Inflammatory Lung Diseases - GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Asklepios Fachkliniken, Gauting (Germany); Endo, Yuichi [Department of Biochemistry, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Matsushita, Misao [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka (Japan); Fujita, Teizo [Department of Biochemistry, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Schwaeble, Wilhelm [Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Weiss, Elisabeth H. [Anthropology and Human Genetics, Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems [Clinical Cooperation Group Inflammatory Lung Diseases - GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Asklepios Fachkliniken, Gauting (Germany); Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Stover, Cordula [Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cms13@le.ac.uk

    2007-12-28

    Little is known about determinants regulating expression of Mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), the effector component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the MASP2 promoter regions in human, mouse, and rat, revealed conservation of two putative Stat binding sites, termed StatA and StatB. Site directed mutagenesis specific for these sites was performed. Transcription activity was decreased 5-fold when StatB site was mutated in the wildtype reporter gene construct. Gel retardation and competition assays demonstrated that proteins contained in the nuclear extract prepared from HepG2 specifically bound double-stranded StatB oligonucleotides. Supershift analysis revealed Stat3 to be the major specific binding protein. We conclude that Stat3 binding is important for MASP2 promoter activity.

  2. SH2B1? Interacts with STAT3 and Enhances Fibroblast Growth Factor 1-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chen, Ching-Jen; Lin, Ming-Hsing; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Lee, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is an essential process during neuronal differentiation as well as neuroregeneration. Thus, understanding the molecular and cellular control of neurite outgrowth will benefit patients with neurological diseases. We have previously shown that overexpression of the signaling adaptor protein SH2B1? promotes fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced neurite outgrowth (W. F. Lin, C. J. Chen, Y. J. Chang, S. L. Chen, I. M. Chiu, and L. Chen, Cell. Signal. 21:1060–1072, 2009). SH2B1? also undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates a subset of neurotrophin-induced genes. Although these findings suggest that SH2B1? regulates gene expression, the nuclear role of SH2B1? was not known. In this study, we show that SH2B1? interacts with the transcription factor, signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in neuronal PC12 cells, cortical neurons, and COS7 fibroblasts. By affecting the subcellular distribution of STAT3, SH2B1? increased serine phosphorylation and the concomitant transcriptional activity of STAT3. As a result, overexpressing SH2B1? enhanced FGF1-induced expression of STAT3 target genes Egr1 and Cdh2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further reveal that, in response to FGF1, overexpression of SH2B1? promotes the in vivo occupancy of STAT3-Sp1 heterodimers at the promoter of Egr1 and Cdh2. These findings establish a central role of SH2B1? in orchestrating signaling events to transcriptional activation through interacting and regulating STAT3-containing complexes during neuronal differentiation. PMID:24396070

  3. ?A3/A1-crystallin is a critical mediator of STAT3 signaling in optic nerve astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Valapala, Mallika; Edwards, Malia; Hose, Stacey; Hu, Jianfei; Wawrousek, Eric; Lutty, Gerard A.; Zigler, Jr., J. Samuel; Qian, Jiang; Sinha, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that in the Nuc1 rat, which has a spontaneous mutation in Cryba1 (the gene encoding ?A3/A1-crystallin), astrocytes exhibit decreased Notch signaling, leading to reduced promoter activity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Interestingly, in both Nuc1 astrocytes and in wild type astrocytes following knockdown of Cryba1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion is decreased. This has led us to explore signaling mediators that could be regulated by ?A3/A1-crystallin to modulate both GFAP and VEGF. Several studies have shown that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the co-regulation of GFAP and VEGF. We show that STAT3 and ?A3/A1-crystallin may co-regulate each other in astrocytes. Such co-regulation would create a positive feedback circuit; i.e., in the cytosol of astrocytes, ?A3/A1-crystallin is necessary for the phosphorylation of STAT3, which then dimerizes and translocates to the nucleus to form DNA-binding complexes, activating transcription of Cryba1. This stoichiometric co-regulation of STAT3 and Cryba1 could potentiate expression of GFAP and secretion of VEGF, both of which are essential for maintaining astrocyte and blood vessel homeostasis in the retina. Consistent with this idea, Cryba1 knockout mice exhibit an abnormal astrocyte pattern and defective remodeling of retinal vessels. PMID:25736717

  4. The JAK2/STAT3 and mitochondrial pathways are essential for quercetin nanoliposome-induced C6 glioma cell death.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Wang, J J; Chen, X L; Du, S M; Li, D S; Pei, Z J; Lan, H; Wu, L B

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of quercetin nanoliposomes (QUE-NLs) has been shown to enhance QUE antitumor activity in C6 glioma cells. At high concentrations, QUE-NLs induce necrotic cell death. In this study, we probed the molecular mechanisms of QUE-NL-induced C6 glioma cell death and examined whether QUE-NL-induced programmed cell death involved Bcl-2 family and mitochondrial pathway through STAT3 signal transduction pathway. Downregulation of Bcl-2 and the overexpression of Bax by QUE-NL supported the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins upstream of C6 glioma cell death. In addition, the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 were altered following exposure to QUE-NLs in C6 glioma cells, suggesting that QUE-NLs downregulated Bcl-2 mRNAs expression and enhanced the expression of mitochondrial mRNAs through STAT3-mediated signaling pathways either via direct or indirect mechanisms. There are several components such as ROS, mitochondrial, and Bcl-2 family shared by the necrotic and apoptotic pathways. Our studies indicate that the signaling cross point of the mitochondrial pathway and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in C6 glioma cell death is modulated by QUE-NLs. In conclusion, regulation of JAK2/STAT3 and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway agonists alone or in combination with treatment by QUE-NLs could be a more effective method of treating chemical-resistant glioma. PMID:23907460

  5. Molecular mechanism of interaction of mitocurcumin-1 with Akt1 and STAT3: an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Vasagiri, Nagarjuna; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2014-08-01

    The bioavailability of curcumin is the limiting factor for its effective use in anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we reported a novel approach to enhance the cellular uptake by conjugating curcumin with triphenyl phosphonium, named mitocurcumin-1. We found that such conjugation significantly increased the uptake of curcumin in various cancer cells and caused cancer cell death by inducing apoptosis by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt1 (Thr308) and STAT3 (Tyr705). In this study, a molecular mechanistic model deciphering the regulation of phosphorylation of Akt1 and STAT3 by mitocurcumin-1 was investigated and compared with curcumin. The protein structures were obtained from protein data bank data base and protein-ligand interaction studies were performed with mitocurcumin-1 and curcumin. Docking interaction studies of mitocurcumin-1 with Akt1 and STAT3 active sites showed a strong binding affinity of -60.4107 Kcal/mol and -51.1734 Kcal/mol respectively, suggesting mitocurcumin-1 interacted with the residues at the active sites of phosphorylation of these molecules. Further, a Chi rotationary root mean square deviation of 1.468 angstroms and 3.965 angstroms at the active sites in Akt1 and STAT3, respectively indicated that changes in the conformation of protein structure at the active site resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of these molecules. To conclude, by using molecular modeling approaches for the first time, we demonstrated the inhibition of Akt1 and STAT3 phosphorylation by mitocurcumin-1. PMID:25296502

  6. Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

  7. New Insights into the Roles of Stat5a/b and Stat3 in T Cell Development and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lai; Laurence, Arian; O'Shea, John J.

    2009-01-01

    T cell development and differentiation is carefully orchestrated by a series of cytokines. The importance of STAT family proteins in mediating signals by these cytokines is well-known, but new information on the role of STATs in novel aspects of T cell function and new T cell subsets continues to accumulate. Recent studies have placed Stat5a/b and Stat3 center stage in T cell development and differentiation. Stat5a/b are indispensable in T regulatory (Treg) cell development and maintenance, and negatively regulate T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Conversely, Stat3 is essential for Th17 differentiation and inhibits Treg cells. The balance of Treg and Th17 cells is thought to be critical in maintaining immune tolerance, while preserving effective host defense. Therefore, Stat5a/b and Stat3 are emerging to be key players in T cell differentiation and homeostasis. PMID:18708155

  8. HIV-1 gp120 Activates the STAT3/Interleukin-6 Axis in Primary Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Del Cornò, Manuela; Donninelli, Gloria; Varano, Barbara; Da Sacco, Letizia; Masotti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are fundamental for the initiation of immune responses and are important players in AIDS immunopathogenesis. The modulation of DC functional activities represents a strategic mechanism for HIV-1 to evade immune surveillance. Impairment of DC function may result from bystander effects of HIV-1 envelope proteins independently of direct HIV-1 infection. In this study, we report that exposure of immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) to HIV-1 R5 gp120 resulted in the CCR5-dependent production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/NF-?B pathways. IL-6 in turn activated STAT3 by an autocrine loop. Concomitantly, gp120 promoted an early activation of STAT3 that further contributed to IL-6 induction. This activation paralleled a concomitant upregulation of the STAT3 inhibitor PIAS3. Notably, STAT3/IL-6 pathway activation was not affected by the CCR5-specific ligand CCL4. These results identify STAT3 as a key signaling intermediate activated by gp120 in MDDCs and highlight the existence of a virus-induced dysregulation of the IL-6/STAT3 axis. HIV-1 gp120 signaling through STAT3 may provide an explanation for the impairment of DC function observed upon HIV exposure. IMPORTANCE This study provides new evidence for the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 gp120 in human DCs in the absence of productive infection, emphasizing a role of aberrant signaling in early virus-host interaction, contributing to viral pathogenesis. We identified STAT3 as a key component in the gp120-mediated signaling cascade involving MAPK and NF-?B components and ultimately leading to IL-6 secretion. STAT3 now is recognized as a key regulator of DC functions. Thus, the identification of this transcription factor as a signaling molecule mediating some of gp120's biological effects unveils a new mechanism by which HIV-1 may deregulate DC functions and contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:25008924

  9. SC-2001 Overcomes STAT3-mediated Sorafenib Resistance through RFX-1/SHP-1 Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma???

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jung-Chen; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Hsu, Cheng-Yi; Tai, Wei-Tien; Li, Yong-Shi; Chen, I-Ting; Liu, Chun-Yu; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Shiau, Chung-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide. Sorafenib, a small multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. The clinical benefit of sorafenib is offset by the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Understanding of the molecular mechanism of STAT3 overexpression in sorafenib resistance is critical if the clinical benefits of this drug are to be improved. In this study, we explored our hypothesis that loss of RFX-1/SHP-1 and further increase of p-STAT3 as a result of sorafenib treatment induces sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective response effect, thereby, limiting sorafenib sensitivity and efficiency. We found that knockdown of RFX-1 protected HCC cells against sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and SHP-1 activity was required for the process. SC-2001, a molecule with similar structure to obatoclax, synergistically suppressed tumor growth when used in combination with sorafenib in vitro and overcame sorafenib resistance through up-regulating RFX-1 and SHP-1 resulting in tumor suppression and mediation of dephosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, sustained sorafenib treatment in HCC led to increased p-STAT3 which was a key mediator of sorafenib sensitivity. The combination of SC-2001 and sorafenib strongly inhibited tumor growth in both wild-type and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell bearing xenograft models. These results demonstrate that inactivation of RFX/SHP-1 induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through p-STAT3 up-regulation. These effects can be overcome by SC-2001 through RFX-1/SHP-1 dependent p-STAT3 suppression. In conclusion, the use of SC-2001 in combination with sorafenib may constitute a new strategy for HCC therapy. PMID:25047655

  10. Anticancer effect of salidroside on colon cancer through inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kuan-Xue; Xia, Hong-Wei; Xia, Rong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salidroside is considered to have anti-tumor properties. We investigate its effects on colon carcinoma SW1116 cells. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to determine the cell cycle by flow cytometry. The migration and invasion were detected by Transwell. Western blot was used to detect the expression of STAT3 signal related proteins. As the result, high concentrations of salidroside (10, 20. 50 ?g/ml) significantly inhibited proliferation of SW1116 cells in a parallelly, cell cycle arrest was increased at the G0/G1 phase after salidroside treatment. Furthermore, salidroside inhibited migration and invasion of SW1116 cells. Salidroside treatment decreased proteins expression of phosphorylation levels in JAK2/STAT3 signaling, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins levels were decreased and protein expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 were down-regulated. In Conclusion, salidroside inhibited proliferation, decreased the migration and invasion of SW1116 cells in JAK2/STAT3-dependent pathway, the specific mechanisms need further study. PMID:25755753

  11. Anticancer effect of salidroside on colon cancer through inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kuan-Xue; Xia, Hong-Wei; Xia, Rong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salidroside is considered to have anti-tumor properties. We investigate its effects on colon carcinoma SW1116 cells. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to determine the cell cycle by flow cytometry. The migration and invasion were detected by Transwell. Western blot was used to detect the expression of STAT3 signal related proteins. As the result, high concentrations of salidroside (10, 20. 50 ?g/ml) significantly inhibited proliferation of SW1116 cells in a parallelly, cell cycle arrest was increased at the G0/G1 phase after salidroside treatment. Furthermore, salidroside inhibited migration and invasion of SW1116 cells. Salidroside treatment decreased proteins expression of phosphorylation levels in JAK2/STAT3 signaling, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins levels were decreased and protein expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 were down-regulated. In Conclusion, salidroside inhibited proliferation, decreased the migration and invasion of SW1116 cells in JAK2/STAT3-dependent pathway, the specific mechanisms need further study. PMID:25755753

  12. ?-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tao; Cui, Xi-juan; Li, Wei; Lin, Wan-run; Lu, Hong-wei; Li, Yi-ming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin, a major xanthone identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901 were treated with ?-mangostin. The cell viability was measured with MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Results: Treatment with ?-mangostin (3–10 ?g/mL) inhibited the viability of both BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells in dose- and time-manners. Furthermore, ?-mangostin (7 ?g/mL) time-dependently increased the apoptosis index of the cancer cells, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cancer cells, and significantly increased the release of cytochrome c and AIF into cytoplasm. Moreover, the ?-mangostin treatment markedly suppressed the constitutive Stat3 protein activation, and Stat3-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 protein levels in the cancer cells. Conclusion: The anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro can be partly attributed to blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:24976157

  13. IL-6/STAT3 promotes regeneration of airway ciliated cells from basal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Tomomi; Wang, Yang; Barak, Larry S; Bai, Yushi; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2014-09-01

    The pseudostratified airway epithelium of the lung contains a balanced proportion of multiciliated and secretory luminal cells that are maintained and regenerated by a population of basal stem cells. However, little is known about how these processes are modulated in vivo, and about the potential role of cytokine signaling between stem and progenitor cells and their niche. Using a clonal 3D organoid assay, we found that IL-6 stimulated, and Stat3 inhibitors reduced, the generation of ciliated vs. secretory cells from basal cells. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies with cultured mouse and human basal cells suggest that IL-6/Stat3 signaling promotes ciliogenesis at multiple levels, including increases in multicilin gene and forkhead box protein J1 expression and inhibition of the Notch pathway. To test the role of IL-6 in vivo genetically, we followed the regeneration of mouse tracheal epithelium after ablation of luminal cells by inhaled SO2. Stat3 is activated in basal cells and their daughters early in the repair process, correlating with an increase in Il-6 expression in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha(+) mesenchymal cells in the stroma. Conditional deletion in basal cells of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, encoding a negative regulator of the Stat3 pathway, results in an increase in multiciliated cells at the expense of secretory and basal cells. By contrast, Il-6 null mice regenerate fewer ciliated cells and an increased number of secretory cells after injury. The results support a model in which IL-6, produced in the reparative niche, functions to enhance the differentiation of basal cells, and thereby acts as a "friend" to promote airway repair rather than a "foe." PMID:25136113

  14. IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun and STAT3 expression in B-CLL.

    PubMed

    Antosz, Halina; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Sajewicz, Joanna; Choroszy?ska, Dorota; Marzec-Kotarska, Barbara; Osiak, Magdalena; Paj?k, Natalia; Tomczak, Waldemar; Jargie??o-Baszak, Ma?gorzata; Baszak, Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of functionally abnormal, monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, resulting in a reduction count of normal immunocompetent cells and their impaired immune function. The defect in transmission of signals from various types of extracellular receptors, leading to aberrant cytokines and transcription factors gene expression, may underlie the basis of immune failure in B-CLL. The aim of the study was to assess of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 expression. In response to antigenic stimulation IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 proteins induce mutual activity. The subject of the study was subpopulations of leukemic lymphocytes (CD5+ CD19+) and CD19+ B cells from healthy donors (control group). Our results provide evidence that the regulation of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 gene expression in CLL B cells is clearly different from normal B lymphocytes. In B-CLL STAT3 expression in unstimulated lymphocytes is significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared with normal subpopulation of B cell. In contrast, IL-6, IL-10, and c-Jun mRNA expressions are statistically lower in B-CLL in comparison with the control group, in all cases (p<0.0001). When analyzing the relationship between c-Jun expression and B-CLL stage according Rai we revealed decreasing c-Jun expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, along with advancing stage of disease. PMID:25477266

  15. ?-Tocotrienol but not ?-tocopherol blocks STAT3 cell signaling pathway through induction of protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-10-22

    Although ?-tocotrienol (T3), a vitamin E isolated primarily from palm and rice bran oil, has been linked with anticancer activities, the mechanism of this action is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether ?-T3 can modulate the STAT3 cell signaling pathway, closely linked to inflammation and tumorigenesis. We found that ?-T3 but not ?-tocopherol, the most common saturated form of vitamin E, inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this inhibition was not cell type-specific. ?-T3 also inhibited STAT3 DNA binding. This correlated with inhibition of Src kinase and JAK1 and JAK2 kinases. Pervanadate reversed the ?-T3-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. When examined further, we found that ?-T3 induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of ?-T3 to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a vital role for SHP-1 in the action of ?-T3. Also ?-T3 down-modulated activation of STAT3 and induced SHP-1 in vivo. Eventually, ?-T3 down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) gene products; and this correlated with suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cells in sub-G(1) phase of the cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis. This vitamin also sensitized the tumor cells to the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib. Overall, our results suggest that ?-T3 is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway both in vitro and in vivo and thus may have potential in prevention and treatment of cancers. PMID:20720018

  16. Aberrantly expressed Fra-1 by IL-6/STAT3 transactivation promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness through epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Guoping; Wang, Tingyang; Chen, Yuexia; Gong, Chaoju; Bai, Yanfeng; Wang, Bo; Qi, Hongyan; Shen, Jing; Zhu, Lijun; Qian, Cheng; Lai, Maode; Shao, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in tumor microenvironment has been suggested to promote development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) plays a critical role in IL-6 induced CRC aggressiveness and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). In CRC cell lines, the expression of Fra-1 gene was found significantly upregulated during IL-6-driven EMT process. The Fra-1 induction occurred at transcriptional level in a manner dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), during which both phosphorylated and acetylated post-translational modifications were required for STAT3 activation to directly bind to the Fra-1 promoter. Importantly, RNA interference-based attenuation of either STAT3 or Fra-1 prevented IL-6-induced EMT, cell migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of Fra-1 markedly reversed the STAT3-knockdown effect and enhanced CRC cell aggressiveness by regulating the expression of EMT-promoting factors (ZEB1, Snail, Slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9). Furthermore, Fra-1 levels were positively correlated with the local invasion depth as well as lymph node and liver metastasis in a total of 229 CRC patients. Intense immunohistochemical staining of Fra-1 was observed at the tumor marginal area adjacent to inflammatory cells and in parallel with IL-6 secretion and STAT3 activation in CRC tissues. Together, this study proposes the existence of an aberrant IL-6/STAT3/Fra-1 signaling axis leading to CRC aggressiveness through EMT induction, which suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for the malignant disease. PMID:25750173

  17. Bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin obtained from grapefruit juice induces chemosensitization and apoptosis through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Moo; Lee, Jong Hyun; Sethi, Gautam; Kim, Chulwon; Baek, Seung Ho; Nam, Dongwoo; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2014-11-01

    Persistent activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been closely related to growth, survival, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of various cancer cells, and thus its inhibition can be considered a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the role of bergamottin (BGM) obtained from grapefruit juice in abrogating the constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This suppression was mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1/2 and c-Src. Pervanadate reversed the BGM induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, BGM induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of BGM to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a critical role for SHP-1 in the action of BGM. BGM also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as COX-2, VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, IAP-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl in MM cells. This correlated with induction of substantial apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and caspase-3 induced PARP cleavage. Also, this agent significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib and thalidomide in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that BGM is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway thus may have a potential in therapy of MM and other cancers. PMID:25130169

  18. A signal transducer and activator of transcription 3·Nuclear Factor ?B (Stat3·NF?B) complex is necessary for the expression of fascin in metastatic breast cancer cells in response to interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marylynn; Huang, Jianyun; Huang, Xin-Yun; Zhang, J Jillian

    2014-10-24

    IL-6 mediated activation of Stat3 is a major signaling pathway in the process of breast cancer metastasis. One important mechanism by which the IL-6/Stat3 pathway promotes metastasis is through transcriptional regulation of the actin-bundling protein fascin. In this study, we further analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the fascin gene promoter. We show that in addition to IL-6, TNF-? increases Stat3 and NF?B binding to the fascin promoter to induce its expression. We also show that NF?B is required for Stat3 recruitment to the fascin promoter in response to IL-6. Furthermore, Stat3 and NF?B form a protein complex in response to cytokine stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that an overlapping STAT/NF?B site in a highly conserved 160-bp region of the fascin promoter is sufficient and necessary to induce transcription in response to IL-6 and TNF-?. PMID:25213863

  19. Ginsenoside 20(S)?Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Le; Chen, Wei; Hou, Huilian; Ye, Zhongxue; Li, Xu

    2015-02-01

    Cancer cells prefer to metabolize glucose through aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. It plays a crucial role in proliferation and progression of cancer cells. However, the complete mechanism remains elusive. In recent studies, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling has been discovered to have roles in cancer?associated changes in metabolism. In this study, we find that the ginsenoside 20(S)?Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, inhibits glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells by regulating hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). We also show that 20(S)?Rg3 regulates HK2 through downregulation of p?STAT3 (Tyr705). Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells weakened the suppression of Warburg effect induced by 20(S)?Rg3. Importantly, 20(S)?Rg3 treatment represses HK2 expression in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results show that 20(S)?Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect by targeting STAT3/HK2 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, highlighting the potentiality of 20(S)?Rg3 to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PMID:25405516

  20. Interleukin-6-induced STAT3 transactivation and Ser727 phosphorylation involves Vav, Rac-1 and the kinase SEK-1/MKK-4 as signal transduction components.

    PubMed Central

    Schuringa, J J; Jonk, L J; Dokter, W H; Vellenga, E; Kruijer, W

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) Ser(727) phosphorylation and transactivation was investigated in relation to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members including extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-1 and p38 ('reactivating kinase') in response to interleukin (IL)-6 stimulation. Although IL-6 can activate ERK-1 in HepG2 cells, STAT3 transactivation and Ser(727) phosphorylation were not reduced by using the MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or by overexpression of dominant-negative Raf. IL-6 did not activate JNK-1 in HepG2 cells and STAT3 was a poor substrate for JNK-1 activated by anisomycin, excluding a role for JNK1 in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation. However, SEK-1/MKK-4 [where SEK-1 stands for stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/ERK kinase 1, and MKK-4 stands for MAP kinase kinase 4] was activated in response to IL-6 and overexpression of dominant-negative SEK-1/MKK-4(A-L) reduced both IL-6-induced STAT3 Ser(727) phosphorylation as well as STAT3 transactivation. Subsequently, the SEK-1/MKK-4 upstream components Vav, Rac-1 and MEKK were identified as components of a signal transduction cascade that leads to STAT3 transactivation in response to IL-6 stimulation. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 kinase activity with the inhibitor SB203580 did not block STAT3 Ser(727) phosphorylation but rather increased both basal as well as IL-6-induced STAT3 transactivation, indicating that p38 may act as a negative regulator of IL-6-induced STAT3 transactivation through a presently unknown mechanism. In conclusion, these data indicate that IL-6-induced STAT3 transactivation and Ser(727) phosphorylation is independent of ERK-1 or JNK-1 activity, but involves a gp130 receptor-signalling cascade that includes Vav, Rac-1, MEKK and SEK-1/MKK-4 as signal transduction components. PMID:10727406

  1. Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Deenick, Elissa K.; Avery, Danielle T.; Chan, Anna; Berglund, Lucinda J.; Ives, Megan L.; Moens, Leen; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D.; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Roesler, Joachim; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; French, Martyn A.; Fulcher, David A.; Cook, Matthew C.; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Klein, Christoph; Holland, Steven M.; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ma, Cindy S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell–dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10– and IL-21–mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21–induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells. PMID:24218138

  2. Curcumin suppresses invasiveness and vasculogenic mimicry of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, An; Huang, Jing-Juan; Jin, Xiao-Jie; Li, Ji-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Jia; Huang, Xin-Fang; Cui, Hui-Juan; Xu, Wei-Hua; Sun, Guang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway in invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HEp-2 cells were treated with 1 or 10 ?mol/L curcumin and AG490 (the inhibitor of JAK-2) for 48 h, the invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of tumor cells were tested with Transwell chamber test and tube formation experiment. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF. Western blot assay was employed to determine the expression of JAK-2, STAT3, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF. Compared to control group?there were less tumor cells permeating membrane and less formed tubes after curcumin or AG490 treatment, RT-PCR showed that the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF at mRNA level were decreased (P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated that the expression of JAK-2, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF at protein levels were decreased (P < 0.01), while that of STAT-3 protein had no difference among each group (P > 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the expression of eNOS was down-regulated (P < 0.01). Curcumin and AG490 significantly inhibits invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, and JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway promotes above processes. PMID:25628937

  3. The effect of STAT3 Inhibition on status epilepticus and subsequent spontaneous seizures in the Pilocarpine Model of Acquired Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Grabenstatter, H. L.; Angel, Y. Cruz Del; Carlsen, J.; Wempe, M. F.; White, A. M.; Cogswell, M.; Russek, S. J.; Brooks-Kayal, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), which results in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, activates the JAK/STAT pathway. In the current study, we evaluate whether brief exposure to a selective inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway (WP1066) early after the onset of SE effects the severity of SE or reduces later spontaneous seizure frequency via inhibition of STAT3-regulated gene transcription. Rats that received systemic WP1066 or vehicle at the onset of SE were continuously video-EEG monitored during SE and for one month to assess seizure frequency over time. Protein and/or mRNA levels for pSTAT3, and STAT3-regulated genes including: ICER, Gabra1, c-myc, mcl-1, cyclin D1, and bcl-xl were evaluated in WP1066 and vehicle-treated rats during stages of epileptogenesis to determine the acute effects of WP1066 administration on SE and chronic epilepsy. WP1066 (two 50 mg/kg doses) administered within the first hour after onset of SE results in transient inhibition of pSTAT3 and long-term reduction in spontaneous seizure frequency WP1066 alters the severity of chronic epilepsy without affecting SE or cell death. Early WP1066 administration reduces known downstream targets of STAT3 transcription 24 hours after SE including cyclin D1 and mcl-1 levels, known for their roles in cell-cycle progression and cell survival, respectively. These findings uncover a potential effect of the JAK/STAT pathway after brain injury that is physiologically important and may provide a new therapeutic target that can be harnessed for the prevention of epilepsy development and/or progression. PMID:24051278

  4. Expression of hepcidin at the choroid plexus in normal aging rats is associated with IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Bin; Wang, Rui; Dong, Miao-Wu; Gao, Xi-Ren; Yu, Feng

    2014-12-25

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that brain iron concentrations increase with aging, and the choroid plexus (CP) may be at the basis of iron-mediated toxicity and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging. The mechanism involves not only hepcidin, the key hormone in iron metabolism, but also iron-related proteins and signaling-transduction molecules, such as IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway and hepcidin at the CP in normal aging. Quantitative real time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the alterations in specific mRNA and corresponding protein changes at the CP at ages of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 months in Brown-Norway/Fischer (B-N/F) rats. The results demonstrated that hepcidin mRNA level at the CP kept stable in young rats (from 3 to 18 months), and increased with aging (from 21 to 36 months). The alterations of IL-6/p-Stat3 mRNA and protein expressions in normal aging were in accordance with that of hepcidin mRNA. Our data suggest that IL-6 may regulate hepcidin expression at the CP, upon interaction with the cognate cellular receptor, and through the Stat3 signaling transduction pathway. PMID:25516512

  5. Imaging of STAT3 signaling pathway during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Chan, Keith S; Cao, Feng; Huang, Mei; Li, Zongjin; Lee, Andrew; Weissman, Irving L; Wu, Joseph C

    2009-03-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic transcription factor involved in a variety of physiological processes. STAT3 acts as a key transcriptional determinant of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and plays a pivotal function in early mammalian embryogenesis because the development of many organs requires STAT3 activation. However, little is known about the role of STAT3 function during ES cell differentiation. To answer this question, we built a lentiviral construct with 7-repeat STAT3-binding sequence (enhancer) and minimal TA (promoter) driving renilla luciferase and monomeric red fluorescence protein (Rluc-mRFP), followed by a constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter driving green fluorescent protein as a selection marker. The specificity of our custom-designed 7-repeat STAT3 reporter construct was first confirmed by cotransfection with constitutively active version of STAT3 (STAT3C) into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Next, a mouse ES cell line stably transduced with STAT3 reporter construct was isolated. This ES cell line showed a tight response in reporter gene expression with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induction and was chosen as a developmental model for the STAT3 functional study. Using serial noninvasive bioluminescence imaging, we showed that the onset of embryoid body (EB) formation involved inhibition of STAT3 activity. However, during differentiation, STAT3 activity steadily increased from day 5 to 14 and was reduced by day 21. STAT3 activity was also confirmed separately by Western blots. Finally, phosphorylation of STAT3 was also found to correspond with cardiomyocyte differentiation. In summary, this is the first study to monitor real-time STAT3 activity during ES cell differentiation. This genetically modified line can be used to study the biological role of STAT3 during ES cell differentiation into different derivatives. PMID:18576943

  6. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  7. STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spitzner, Melanie; Ebner, Reinhard; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Wienands, Jürgen; Grade, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology. PMID:25268165

  8. Microtubule-targeted chemotherapeutic agents inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah R; Chaudhury, Mousumi; Nelson, Erik A; Frank, David A

    2010-11-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is inappropriately activated in the majority of breast tumors, especially in aggressive and invasive ones. In addition to driving the expression of genes promoting malignancy, STAT3 associates with tubulin and can promote cell migration. Because microtubule-targeted drugs are among the most active agents used in the treatment of breast cancer, we examined whether microtubule-based chemotherapy modulates STAT3 activity. When treated with paclitaxel or vinorelbine, breast cancer cells with constitutive activation of STAT3 display a loss of STAT3 phosphorylation, and paclitaxel disrupts the interaction of STAT3 with tubulin. Paclitaxel also inhibits cytokine-induced STAT3 activation. This effect is specific for microtubule-targeted agents, because other chemotherapeutic drugs, such as doxorubicin, have no effect on STAT3. The loss of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation is also reflected in an inhibition of expression of STAT3 target genes. This effect is not restricted to breast cancer, because similar effects are also seen in ovarian cancer and prostate cancer cells. Thus, in addition to their role in disrupting microtubule function, microtubule-targeted agents also suppress STAT3 signaling. This may be an important component of their activity, raising the possibility that microtubule targeted therapy may be particularly effective in tumors characterized by STAT3 activation. PMID:20693278

  9. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-?B, and WNT/?-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis. PMID:24662939

  10. Anti-cancer effect of tectochrysin in NSCLC cells through overexpression of death receptor and inactivation of STAT3.

    PubMed

    Oh, Saet-Byul; Hwang, Chul Ju; Song, Suk-Young; Jung, Yu Yeon; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Sok, Chang Hyun; Sung, Ha Chang; Yi, Jin-Mu; Park, Dong Hyun; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-10-10

    Phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives) are the most important pharmacologically active ingredients, and these compounds could inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells by inducing of apoptotic cell death. Here we focused on the anticancer effects of tectochrysin on human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its mechanism of action. We analysed the activity of tectochrysin on NSCLC cells (A549 and NCI-H460) by use of Western blot analysis for major apoptotic proteins and death receptor expression. We also used EMSA for effects on STAT3 DNA binding activity. Tectochrysin (0-80 ?M) suppressed the growth of A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells by inducing of apoptotic cell death in a concentration dependent manner. Expression of DR3 and Fas as well as DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax were concomitantly increased, but the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins; Bcl-2 was decreased in both cancer cells. In addition, tectochrysin treatment also inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. However, deletion of DR3 and Fas by small interfering RNA significantly reversed tectochrysin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 in A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Pull down assay and docking model showed interaction of tectochrysin with STAT3. We propose that tectochrysin leads to apoptotic cell death in NSCLC cells through activation of DR3 and Fas expression via inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. PMID:25083589

  11. Ginkgolide A reduces inflammatory response in high-glucose-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells through STAT3-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuping; Gao, Chuanyu; Cui, Zhifeng

    2015-04-01

    High-glucose-induced low-grade inflammation has been regarded as a key event in the onset and progression of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic vascular complications. Ginkgolide A (GA), a major compound from Ginkgo biloba extract, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic vascular complications. Here, its effect on high-glucose-stimulated vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. In the present study, the optimal stimulation conditions for HUVECs were screened for inducing endothelial inflammation, namely, high glucose at the concentration of 30mM for continuous 8h. The endothelial production of high-glucose-induced interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-13 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation were significantly inhibited by the pretreatment with GA at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20?M based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot or/and RT-PCR experiments. These senescent alterations induced by high glucose were significantly attenuated by the specific STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 at the concentration of 20?M. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of STAT3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein as well as mRNA levels were attenuated by the pretreatment of cells with STAT3 siRNA. Our results demonstrated that GA improved high-glucose-caused low-grade vascular inflammation, which might be achieved through regulating the STAT3-mediated pathway. These findings indicated that GA might be a promising candidate for attenuating vascular inflammation in diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25681539

  12. C5a promotes the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kemin; Wan, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Xiaojun; Bao, Xueli

    2014-11-01

    The anaphylatoxin C5a is a chemoattractant that can induce various inflammatory responses in vivo via the C5a receptor (C5aR). There is emerging evidence that C5a is generated in the cancer microenvironment. However, the role of C5a in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the direct influence of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells were studied in vitro, and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)?mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acetylation and its role in regulating the proliferation of NPC cells was subsequently explored. Our results demonstrated that C5a stimulation increased the proliferation of human NPC cells in vitro. STAT3 acetylation was further found to be enhanced in human NPC cells induced by C5a. Moreover, PCAF induction was required for STAT3 acetylation in human NPC cells by exposure to C5a. Functionally, PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation contributed to the proliferation of human NPC cells stimulated by C5a. These results illustrate the novel activity of the C5a-C5aR axis that promotes human NPC cell proliferation through PCAF?mediated STAT3 acetylation. This may provide a potential strategy for treating human NPC through inhibition of C5a or its receptors. PMID:25174320

  13. Farnesol inhibits tumor growth and enhances the anticancer effects of bortezomib in multiple myeloma xenograft mouse model through the modulation of STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Chulwon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2015-05-01

    Aberrant activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently observed in multiple myeloma (MM) cancer and can upregulate the expression of several genes involved in proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The effect of farnesol (FOH) on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, its regulated gene products, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis was examined. The in vivo effect of FOH on the growth of human MM xenograft tumors alone and in combination with bortezomib (Bor) in athymic nu/nu female mice was also investigated. We found that FOH suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at Tyr705 in MM cells. The suppression of STAT3 was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream JAK1, JAK2, and c-Src kinases. Also, treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, pervanadate treatment reversed the FOH-induced down-regulation of STAT3, possibly indicating the involvement of a PTP. Indeed, we found that FOH treatment induces the increased expression of SHP-2 protein and knockdown of the SHP-2 gene by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of FOH to inhibit STAT3 activation. FOH inhibited proliferation and significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib (Bor) in U266 cells. When administered intraperitoneally, FOH enhanced Bor-induced growth suppression of human MM xenograft tumors in athymic nu/nu female mice. Our results suggest that FOH is a novel blocker of STAT3 signaling pathway and exerts both anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities in MM in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25697480

  14. Dominant-negative activity of the STAT3-Y705F mutant depends on the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background STAT3 is a transcription factor of central importance in chronic inflammation and cancer. In response to cytokine stimulation STAT3 is phosphorylated on a single tyrosine residue at position 705, dimerizes and accumulates in the nucleus to induce target gene expression. The substitution of tyrosine 705 to phenylalanine leads to a dominant-negative STAT3 mutant (STAT3-YF) which influences the activation of WT-STAT3 in stimulated cells through a mechanism that is not completely understood. In this study we analyzed the molecular mechanism of STAT3-YF dominant-negative activity in IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling and the relevance of the N-terminal domain. Results Expression of STAT3-YF-YFP impairs tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activity of WT-STAT3 in IL-6-stimulated cells. The fluorescently labelled STAT3-YF mutant binds to a phosphorylated gp130 receptor-peptide comparable to WT-STAT3-YFP. STAT3-YF-YFP forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with WT-STAT3 in the presence and absence of IL-6. The preformed heterodimers in unstimulated cells are detectable by colocalization of STAT3-CFP with STAT3-YF-YFP fused to a nuclear localization signal. STAT3/STAT3-YF heterodimers are not able to bind to DNA in stimulated cells, but the presence of the mutant reduces DNA-binding of WT-STAT3 homodimers. STAT3-YF-?N-YFP lacking the N-terminal domain forms no dimers and only marginally affects the activity of WT-STAT3. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that dominant-negative STAT3-YF affects the activation of WT-STAT3 at multiple levels. Unexpectedly, the N-terminal domain of STAT3-YF plays an important role for the dominant-negative effect. We show that (i) STAT3-YF competes with WT-STAT3 in binding to activated gp130-receptors, (ii) the formation of WT-STAT3/STAT3-YF heterodimers in IL-6-stimulated cells results in inactive, semiphosphorylated dimers which do not bind to DNA and thus fail to induce target gene expression, (iii) the N-terminal domain-mediated formation of preformed STAT3/STAT3-YF heterodimers in unstimulated cells which affects the IL-6-induced homodimerization of WT-STAT3 contributes to the dominant-negative effect of STAT3-YF. These findings will contribute to our understanding of naturally occuring dominant-negative STAT3 mutants that cause the hyper-IgE syndrome. PMID:24192293

  15. Salinomycin induces cell death via inactivation of Stat3 and downregulation of Skp2

    PubMed Central

    Koo, K H; Kim, H; Bae, Y-K; Kim, K; Park, B-K; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-N

    2013-01-01

    Salinomycin has been shown to control breast cancer stem cells, although the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects are not clear. Deregulation of cell cycle regulators play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and they have been considered as anticancer targets. In this study, we investigated salinomycin effect on cell cycle progression using OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line and multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cell lines that are derived from OVCAR-8. Parental OVCAR-8 cells are sensitive to several anticancer drugs, but NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cells are resistant to several anticancer drugs. However, salinomycin caused cell growth inhibition and apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at G1 in all three cell lines. Salinomycin inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity and thus decreased expression of Stat3-target genes, including cyclin D1, Skp2, and survivin. Salinomycin induced degradation of Skp2 and thus accumulated p27Kip1. Knockdown of Skp2 further increased salinomycin-induced G1 arrest, but knockdown of p27Kip1 attenuated salinomycin effect on G1 arrest. Cdh1, an E3 ligase for Skp2, was shifted to nuclear fractions upon salinomycin treatment. Cdh1 knockdown by siRNA reversed salinomycin-induced Skp2 downregulation and p27Kip1 upregulation, indicating that salinomycin activates the APCCdh1–Skp2–p27Kip1 pathway. Concomitantly, si-Cdh1 inhibited salinomycin-induced G1 arrest. Taken together, our data indicate that salinomycin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via downregulation or inactivation of cell cycle-associated oncogenes, such as Stat3, cyclin D1, and Skp2, regardless of multidrug resistance. PMID:23807222

  16. Salinomycin induces cell death via inactivation of Stat3 and downregulation of Skp2.

    PubMed

    Koo, K H; Kim, H; Bae, Y-K; Kim, K; Park, B-K; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-N

    2013-01-01

    Salinomycin has been shown to control breast cancer stem cells, although the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects are not clear. Deregulation of cell cycle regulators play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and they have been considered as anticancer targets. In this study, we investigated salinomycin effect on cell cycle progression using OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line and multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cell lines that are derived from OVCAR-8. Parental OVCAR-8 cells are sensitive to several anticancer drugs, but NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cells are resistant to several anticancer drugs. However, salinomycin caused cell growth inhibition and apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at G1 in all three cell lines. Salinomycin inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity and thus decreased expression of Stat3-target genes, including cyclin D1, Skp2, and survivin. Salinomycin induced degradation of Skp2 and thus accumulated p27Kip1. Knockdown of Skp2 further increased salinomycin-induced G1 arrest, but knockdown of p27Kip1 attenuated salinomycin effect on G1 arrest. Cdh1, an E3 ligase for Skp2, was shifted to nuclear fractions upon salinomycin treatment. Cdh1 knockdown by siRNA reversed salinomycin-induced Skp2 downregulation and p27Kip1 upregulation, indicating that salinomycin activates the APC(Cdh1)-Skp2-p27Kip1 pathway. Concomitantly, si-Cdh1 inhibited salinomycin-induced G1 arrest. Taken together, our data indicate that salinomycin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via downregulation or inactivation of cell cycle-associated oncogenes, such as Stat3, cyclin D1, and Skp2, regardless of multidrug resistance. PMID:23807222

  17. Crispene E, a cis-clerodane diterpene inhibits STAT3 dimerization in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mantaj, Julia; Rahman, S M Abdur; Bokshi, Bishwajit; Hasan, Choudhury M; Jackson, Paul J M; Parsons, Richard B; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2015-03-18

    Crispene E, a new clerodane-type diterpene, inhibited STAT3 dimerization in a cell-free fluorescent polarisation assay and was found to have significant toxicity against STAT3-dependent MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cell line and selectively inhibited the expression of STAT3 and STAT3 target genes cyclin D1, Fascin and bcl-2. Molecular docking studies suggest the molecule inhibits STAT3 by interacting with its SH2 domain. The compound has been isolated from Tinospora crispa and characterized using standard spectroscopic techniques. PMID:25721973

  18. STAT3? interacts with nuclear GSK3beta and cytoplasmic RISK pathway and stabilizes rhythm in the anoxic-reoxygenated embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Pedretti, Sarah; Raddatz, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Activation of the Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway is known to play a key role in cardiogenesis and to afford cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion in adult. However, involvement of JAK2/STAT3 pathway and its interaction with other signaling pathways in developing heart transiently submitted to anoxia remains to be explored. Hearts isolated from 4-day-old chick embryos were submitted to anoxia (30 min) and reoxygenation (80 min) with or without the antioxidant MPG, the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490 or the PhosphoInositide-3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor LY-294002. Time course of phosphorylation of STAT3?(tyrosine705) and Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) proteins [PI3K, Akt, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2)] was determined in homogenate and in enriched nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of the ventricle. STAT3 DNA-binding was determined. The chrono-, dromo- and inotropic disturbances were also investigated by electrocardiogram and mechanical recordings. Phosphorylation of STAT3?(tyr705) was increased by reoxygenation, reduced (~50%) by MPG or AG490 but not affected by LY-294002. STAT3 and GSK3beta were detected both in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions while PI3K, Akt and ERK2 were restricted to cytoplasm. Reoxygenation led to nuclear accumulation of STAT3 but unexpectedly without DNA-binding. AG490 decreased the reoxygenation-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK2 and phosphorylation/inhibition of GSK3beta in the nucleus, exclusively. Inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 delayed recovery of atrial rate, worsened variability of cardiac cycle length and prolonged arrhythmias as compared to control hearts. Thus, besides its nuclear translocation without transcriptional activity, oxyradicals-activated STAT3? can rapidly interact with RISK proteins present in nucleus and cytoplasm, without dual interaction, and reduce the anoxia-reoxygenation-induced arrhythmias in the embryonic heart. PMID:21279516

  19. Loss of STAT3 in Lymphoma Relaxes NK Cell-Mediated Tumor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Eva Maria; Hoelzl, Maria Agnes; Baeck, Julia; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Schuster, Christian; Reichholf, Brian; Kern, Daniela; Aberger, Fritz; Sexl, Veronika; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factors and proto-oncogenes STAT3 and STAT5 are highly activated in hematological malignancies and represent promising therapeutic targets. Whereas the importance of STAT5 as tumor promoter is beyond doubt, the role of STAT3 in hematological cancers is less well understood. Both, enforced as well as attenuated expression of STAT3 were reported in hematopoietic malignancies. Recent evidence implicates STAT3 as key player for tumor immune surveillance as it both mediates the production of and response to inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of STAT3 deletion in a BCR/ABL-induced lymphoma model, which is tightly controlled by natural killer (NK) cells in vivo. Upon STAT3 deletion tumor growth is significantly enhanced when compared to STAT3-expressing controls. The increased tumor size upon loss of STAT3 was accompanied by reduced NK cell infiltration and decreased levels of the cytokine IFN-? and the chemokine RANTES. Upon transplantation into NK cell-deficient mice differences in lymphoma size were abolished indicating that STAT3 expression in the tumor cells controls NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance. Our findings indicate that STAT3 inhibition in lymphoma patients will impair NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance, which needs to be taken into account when testing STAT3 inhibitors in preclinical or clinical trials. PMID:24473086

  20. The Role of STAT3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Daijiro; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Persistent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been demonstrated in 22%~65% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). STAT3 activation is mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MET, cytokine receptors, such as IL-6, and non-receptor kinases, such as Src. Overexpression of total or phosphorylated STAT3 in resected NSCLC leads to poor prognosis. In a preclinical study, overexpression of STAT3 was correlated with chemoresistance and radioresistance in NSCLC cells. Here, we review the role of STAT3 and the mechanisms of treatment resistance in malignant diseases, especially NSCLC. As STAT3 is a critical mediator of the oncogenic effects of EGFR mutations, we discuss STAT3 pathways in EGFR-mutated NSCLC, referring to mechanisms of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. PMID:24675568

  1. The CCL2/CCR2 axis enhances IL-6-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by cooperatively activating STAT3-Twist signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Han, Siqi; Pan, Fei; Fan, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The pattern of secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment has been shown to initiate tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, little is known about their interplay undergoing this phenotypic switch. In this study, we revealed obvious coactions of cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CCL2 during EMT induction. We found that IL-6 effectively induced EMT and promoted tumor cell invasion, which could be markedly enhanced by addition of CCL2 in a CCR2-dependent manner. IL-6 and CCL2 induced each other and cooperatively elicited STAT3 phosphorylation; conversely, STAT3 regulated the production of IL-6 and CCL2, thus constituting a positive feedback loop to maintain and amplify STAT3 signaling, consequently promoting additional EMT events. Furthermore, CCL2 greatly enhanced IL-6-induced EMT events mainly by upregulating the expression of Twist. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 disrupted STAT3-centered loop and markedly suppressed Twist expression as well as IL-6/CCL2-mediated EMT induction. Thus, our findings highlighted the synergy of the two secreted factors of tumor microenvironment, in regulating transformed properties of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID:25318604

  2. miR-874 functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting angiogenesis through STAT3/VEGF-A pathway in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kunling; Wang, Weizhi; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Li; Xu, Hao; Xu, Zekuan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation. Our previous studies indicated that miR-874 played a suppressive role in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. However, the role of miR-874 in tumor angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying its function in GC remained to be clarified. Here, gain- and loss-of-function assays demonstrated that miR-874 inhibited the tumor angiogenesis of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Through reporter gene and western blot assays, STAT3 was shown to be a direct target of miR-874. Overexpression of STAT3 rescued the loss of tumor angiogenesis caused by miR-874. Conversely, the STAT3-shRNA attenuated the increased tumor angiogenesis caused by the miR-874-inhibitor. Furthermore, the levels of miR-874 were inversely correlated with those of STAT3 protein in GC tissues. Taken together, these findings indicate that down-regulation of miR-874 contributes to tumor angiogenesis through STAT3 in GC, highlighting the potential of miR-874 as a target for human GC therapy. PMID:25596740

  3. miR-874 functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting angiogenesis through STAT3/VEGF-A pathway in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Jie; Zhi, Xiaofei; Xie, Kunling; Wang, Weizhi; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Li; Xu, Hao; Xu, Zekuan

    2015-01-30

    MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression or degradation. Our previous studies indicated that miR-874 played a suppressive role in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. However, the role of miR-874 in tumor angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying its function in GC remained to be clarified. Here, gain- and loss-of-function assays demonstrated that miR-874 inhibited the tumor angiogenesis of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Through reporter gene and western blot assays, STAT3 was shown to be a direct target of miR-874. Overexpression of STAT3 rescued the loss of tumor angiogenesis caused by miR-874. Conversely, the STAT3-shRNA attenuated the increased tumor angiogenesis caused by the miR-874-inhibitor. Furthermore, the levels of miR-874 were inversely correlated with those of STAT3 protein in GC tissues. Taken together, these findings indicate that down-regulation of miR-874 contributes to tumor angiogenesis through STAT3 in GC, highlighting the potential of miR-874 as a target for human GC therapy. PMID:25596740

  4. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, a vitamin K3 analogue, suppresses STAT3 activation pathway through induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1: potential role in chemosensitization.

    PubMed

    Sandur, Santosh K; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-01-01

    The activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), an analogue of vitamin K, and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and interleukin 6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and vascular endothelial growth factor; activated caspase-3; induced poly (ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage; and increased the sub-G(1) population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing the proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through the induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate the sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20068065

  5. STAT3 but Not STAT1 Is Required for Astrocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seulgi; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    The JAK-STAT signaling pathway has been implicated in astrocyte differentiation. Both STAT1 and STAT3 are expressed in the central nervous system and are thought to be important for glial differentiation, as mainly demonstrated in vitro; however direct in vivo evidence is missing. We investigated whether STAT1 and STAT3 are essential for astrocyte development by testing the STAT responsiveness of astrocyte progenitors. STAT3 was absent in the ventricular zone where glial progenitors are born but begins to appear at the marginal zone at E16.5. At E18.5, both phospho-STAT1 and phospho-STAT3 were present in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing white matter astrocytes. Overexpression of STAT3 by electroporation of chicks in ovo induced increased numbers of astrocyte progenitors in the spinal cord. Likewise, elimination of STAT3 in Stat3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice resulted in depletion of white matter astrocytes. Interestingly, elimination of STAT1 in Stat1 null mice did not inhibit astrocyte differentiation and deletion of Stat1 failed to aggravate the glial defects in Stat3 cKO mice. Measuring the activity of STAT binding elements and the gfap promoter in the presence of various STAT mutants revealed that transactivation depended on the activity of STAT3 not STAT1. No synergistic interaction between STAT1 and STAT3 was observed. Cortical progenitors of Stat1 null; Stat3 cKO mice generated astrocytes when STAT3 or the splice variant Stat3? was supplied, but not when STAT1 was introduced. Together, our results suggest that STAT3 is necessary and sufficient for astrocyte differentiation whereas STAT1 is dispensable. PMID:24466267

  6. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) Is Constitutively Activated in Normal, Self-renewing B-1 Cells but Only Inducibly Expressed in Conventional B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Karras, James G.; Wang, Zihua; Huo, Li; Howard, Robert G.; Frank, David A.; Rothstein, Thomas L.

    1997-01-01

    Cytokine and growth factor receptor engagement leads to the rapid phosphorylation and activation of latent, cytosolic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, which then translocate to the nucleus where they regulate transcriptional events from specific promoter sequences. STAT3 expression in particular has been associated with Abl, Src, and HTLV-1 transformation of normal cells. B-1 lymphocytes are self-renewing, CD5+ B cells that display a propensity for malignant transformation and are the normal counterpart to human chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Further, B-1 cells are characterized by aberrant intracellular signaling, including hyperresponsiveness to phorbol ester PKC agonists. Here we demonstrate that B-1 lymphocytes constitutively express nuclear activated STAT3, which is not expressed by unmanipulated conventional (B-2) lymphocytes. In contrast, STAT3 activation is induced in B-2 cells after antigen receptor engagement in a delayed fashion (after 3 h). Induction of STAT3 is inhibited by both the serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor H-7 and the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and requires de novo protein synthesis, demonstrating novel coupling between sIg and STAT proteins that differs from the classical paradigm for STAT induction by cytokine receptors. The inability of prolonged stimulation of conventional B-2 cells with anti-Ig, a treatment sufficient to induce CD5 expression, to result in sustained STAT3 activation suggests that STAT3 is a specific nuclear marker for B-1 cells. Thus, STAT3 may play a role in B cell antigen-specific signaling responses, and its constitutive activation is associated with a normal cell population exhibiting intrinsic proliferative behavior. PMID:9091577

  7. Prognostic and clinical significance of STAT3 and MMP9 in patients with gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of a Chinese cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaoxia; Jiao, Haiyan; Peng, Liang; Huo, Zhenghao; Yang, Wenjun; Shen, Qin; Li, Tao; Liu, Qilun

    2015-01-01

    As signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated signaling cascade directly contributes to tumor metastasis, numerous agents targeting STAT3 are in clinical development. However, reported data on the prognostic impact of STAT3 expression vary considerably. We aim to quantitatively summarize available evidences for evaluating the association between STAT3 and STAT3-regulated target gene, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and the prognosis of Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Searches were applied to PubMed and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database without any language restriction. A total of 5,757 patients were included in the final analyses. All results favored an association between high STAT3 expression and poor 5-year overall survival (risk ratio = 1.845, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.027-3.315). The reduced survival was heavily influenced by advanced tumor invasion (OR = 2.885, 95% CI = 2.034-4.094), lymph node metastasis (OR = 5.349, 95% CI = 3.807-7.516), distant metastasis (OR = 5.873, 95% CI = 2.641-13.062), dedifferentiation (OR = 2.516, 95% CI = 1.814-3.491), tumor size (OR = 1.918, 95% CI = 1.246-2.954), and higher TNM stage (OR = 4.171, 95% CI = 2.840-6.126). Similar results were observed in the meta-analyses of MMP9, with the magnitude of effect OR > 2. Our findings indicate that STAT3 and MMP9, as measured by IHC, are associated with worse survival and potentially mark invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer, especially in Chinese patients. More significantly, these two biomarkers may be converted from candidates to the routine clinical evaluation to help predict the outcome of gastric carcinoma patients. PMID:25785029

  8. STAT3-mediated activation of microRNA cluster 17~92 promotes proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Spaccarotella, Elisa; Pellegrino, Elisa; Ferracin, Manuela; Ferreri, Cristina; Cuccuru, Giuditta; Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Cantarella, Daniela; Taulli, Riccardo; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Medico, Enzo; Negrini, Massimo; Chan, Wing C.; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which can be further subdivided into two distinct entities (ALK+ and ALK?) based on the presence or absence of ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways triggered by ALK signaling, constitutive activation of STAT3 is strictly required for ALK-mediated transformation and survival. Here we performed genome-wide microRNA profiling and identified 48 microRNA concordantly modulated by the inducible knock-down of ALK and STAT3. To evaluate the functional role of differentially expressed miRNA, we forced their expression in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and monitored their influence after STAT3 depletion. We found that the expression of the microRNA-17~92 cluster partially rescues STAT3 knock-down by sustaining proliferation and survival of ALK+ cells. Experiments in a xenograft mouse model indicated that forced expression of microRNA-17~92 interferes with STAT3 knock-down in vivo. High expression levels of the microRNA-17~92 cluster resulted in down-regulation of BIM and TGF?RII proteins, suggesting that their targeting might mediate resistance to STAT3 knock-down in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. We speculate that the microRNA-17~92 cluster is involved in lymphomagenesis of STAT3+ ALCL and that its inhibition might represent an alternative avenue to interfere with ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas. PMID:23975180

  9. Cyclic stretch-induced TGF-?1 and fibronectin expression is mediated by ?1-integrin through c-Src- and STAT3-dependent pathways in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Mona T; Sridhara, Rashmi; Alexander, Larry D

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin, may contribute to the early development and progression of renal interstitial fibrosis associated with chronic renal disease. Recent studies showed that ?1-integrin is associated with the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). However, the molecular events responsible for ?1-integrin-mediated signaling, following UUO, have yet to be determined. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which mechanical stretch, an in vitro model for chronic obstructive nephropathy, regulates fibronectin and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) expression in cultured human proximal tubular epithelium (HK-2) cells. Mechanical stretch upregulated fibronectin and TGF-?1 expression and activated signal transducer and transcription factor 3 (STAT3) in a time-dependent manner. Stretch-induced fibronectin and TGF-?1 were suppressed by a STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting human STAT3 (STAT3 siRNA). Similarly, fibronectin and TGF-?1 expression and STAT3 activation induced by mechanical stretch were suppressed by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and by transfection of HK-2 cells with a dominant-negative mutant of c-Src (DN-Src), whereas PP3, an inactive analog of PP2, had no significant effect. Furthermore, mechanical stretch resulted in increased ?1-integrin mRNA and protein levels in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, neutralizing antibody against ?1-integrin and silencing of ?1-integrin expression with siRNAs resulted in decreased c-Src and STAT3 activation and TGF-?1 and fibronectin expression evoked by mechanical stretch. This work demonstrates, for the first time, a role for ?1-integrin in stretch-induced renal fibrosis through the activation of c-Src and STAT3 signaling pathways. PMID:25477471

  10. REG3A accelerates pancreatic cancer cell growth under IL-6-associated inflammatory condition: Involvement of a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiulan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Liu, Yang; Lei, Xiang; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-28

    Regenerating gene protein (REG) 3A is a 19?kD secretory pancreas protein with pro-growth function. Previously we demonstrated that overexpression of REG3A, acting as a key molecule for up-regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, contributed to inflammation-related pancreatic cancer (PaC) development. However the exact network associated with REG3A signaling still remains unclear. Here we determined that exposure of human PaC cells to cytokine IL-6 activated the oncogenic JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which directly upregulated REG3A expression, accelerated cell cycle progression by promoting CyclinD1 expression, and enhancing the expression of the anti-apoptosis Bcl family. Importantly, the activation of REG3A would instead enhance the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to constitute a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop, which leads to the amplification of the oncogenic effects of IL-6/JAK2/STAT3, a classic pathway linking to inflammation-related tumorigenesis, ultimately resulting in PaC cell over-proliferation and tumor formation both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR was found to mediate the REG3A signal for PaC cell growth and JAK2/STAT3 activation, thus functioning as a REG3A receptor. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence for the presence of the synergistic effect of REG3A and IL-6 on PaC development via a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop. PMID:25779676

  11. Inhibition of STAT3 with orally active JAK inhibitor, AZD1480, decreases tumor growth in Neuroblastoma and Pediatric Sarcomas In vitro and In vivo.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuang; Li, Zhijie; Thiele, Carol J

    2013-03-01

    The IL-6/JAK/STAT pathway is a key signal transduction pathway implicated in the pathogenesis of many human cancers, suggesting that kinase inhibitors targeting JAK/STAT3 may have a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. AZD1480, a pharmacological JAK1/2 inhibitor, exhibits anti-tumor potency in multiple adult malignancies. To evaluate the efficacy of inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signal transduction pathway we assessed the activity of AZD1480 in pediatric malignancies using preclinical models of three highly malignant pediatric solid tumors: neuroblastoma (NB), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and the Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors (ESFT). In this study, we employed panels of biomedical and biological experiments to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of AZD1480 in NB, RMS and ESFT. Our data indicate that AZD1480 blocks endogenous as well as IL-6 induced STAT3 activation. AZD1480 decreases cell viability in 7/7NB, 7/7RMS and 2/2 ESFT cell lines (median EC50 is 1.5 ?M, ranging from 0.36-5.37 ?M). AZD1480 induces cell growth inhibition and caspase-dependent apoptosis in vitro and decreases expression of STAT3 target genes, including cell cycle regulators CyclinD1, 3 and CDC25A, anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and survivin, the metastasis-related factor TIMP-1 and c-Myc. In vivo studies showed AZD1480 significantly decreased tumor growth and prolonged overall survival in tumor-bearing mice. Tumors from AZD1480-treated mice showed inhibition of activated STAT3 as well as decreased expression of STAT3 downstream targets. Our study provides strong evidence of the anti-tumor growth potency of JAK inhibitor AZD1480 in pediatric solid tumors, providing proof-of principle that inhibition of the JAK/STAT3 signal transduction could be a promising therapeutic target for high-risk pediatric solid tumors. PMID:23531921

  12. Acute Alcohol Intake Induces SOCS1 and SOCS3 and Inhibits Cytokine-Induced STAT1 and STAT3 Signaling in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Norkina, Oxana; Dolganiuc, Angela; Catalano, Donna; Kodys, Karen; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Syed, Amber; Efros, Marian; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute alcohol consumption is associated with induction of immuno-inhibitory cytokines and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses to various pathogens. We previously reported that alcohol activates janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling leading to IL-10 induction. The JAK-STAT pathway also activates its own negative regulators, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3. SOCS proteins are inducible inhibitors that negatively regulate STAT3/STAT1 signaling pathways induced by cytokines, IL-6 or IFNs. Here we aimed to explore the effect of acute alcohol on induction of SOCS1/SOCS3 and regulation of STAT3/STAT1 pathways induced by IL-6 or IFNs in human monocytes. Methods Blood samples from normal volunteers were collected before and 24 hours after consumption of 2 ml vodka/kg body weight. For in vitro experiments human monocytes were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH) followed by stimulation with cytokines; proteins were analyzed by Western blot, nuclear protein binding to DNA by EMSA, and RNA by real time PCR. Results: Acute in vivo or in vitro alcohol treatment increased both SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA expression in monocytes. Alcohol treatment resulted in increased STAT3 and STAT1 DNA binding capacity. Activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 has been shown to induce SOCS1/3. We hypothesized that induction of SOCS proteins by alcohol in turn may lead to modulation of cytokine signaling through STAT1 and STAT3. Indeed, we observed significant down-regulation of IL-6-, IFN?- and IFN?-induced STAT1 DNA binding as well as inhibition of IL-6- and IFN?-induced STAT3 when alcohol was added to monocytes 3 hours prior to the cytokine stimulation. Consistent with inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 DNA binding in alcohol-pretreated cells, the levels of IL-6-dependent genes, MCP-1 and ICAM-1, was reduced after IL-6 stimulation. Similar to EtOH alone, combined EtOH+IL-6 simulation resulted in increased expression of both SOCS3 and SOCS1 genes. Conclusion While acute alcohol treatment alone activates STAT1/3 signaling pathways and induces SOCS3 and SOCS1 levels in monocytes, alcohol also leads to down-regulation of IL-6-, IFN?-, and IFN?-induced signaling via STAT1/STAT3 pathways, likely through excessive SOCS activation. PMID:18616672

  13. Inhibition of mTOR reduce Stat3 and PAI related angiogenesis in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Yue; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Lu; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex biological process, which is involved in tumorigenesis and progression. However, the molecular mechanism of underlying angiogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we accessed the expression of proteins related angiogenesis by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-S6S235/236 (a downstream molecule of mTOR), p-Stat3T705, PAI, EGFR, and HIF-1? was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p < 0.05). While, the expression of these proteins was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-S6S235/236 up-regulates the expression of EGFR/p-Stat3T705 (p < 0.05) and HIF-1?/PAI (p < 0.05). Moreover, the activation of p-S6S235/236, EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI associated with angiogenesis (CD34) and proliferation (Ki-67). In vitro, Rapamycin suppressed the expression of p-S6S235/236, EGFR, p-Stat3T705, HIF-1? and PAI. Further more, target inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth of SACC-83 cells line nude mice xenograft and decreased the expression of p-S6S235/236, EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI. Taken together, these data revealed that mTOR signaling pathway regulates tumor angiogenesis by EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin could effectively reduced tumor growth. It is likely that mTOR inhibitors may be a potential candidate for treatment of AdCC. PMID:25520866

  14. Altered Levels of STAT1 and STAT3 Influence the Neuronal Response to Interferon Gamma

    PubMed Central

    Rose, R. Wesley; Vorobyeva, Anna G.; Skipworth, Jason D.; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Rall, Glenn F.

    2007-01-01

    As immune responses in the CNS are highly regulated, cell-specific differences in IFN? signaling may be integral in dictating the outcome of host cell responses. In comparing the response of IFN?-treated primary neurons to control MEF, we observed that neurons demonstrated lower basal expression of both STAT1 and STAT3, the primary signal transducers responsible for IFN? signaling. Following IFN? treatment of these cell populations, we noted muted and delayed STAT1 phosphorylation, no detectable STAT3 phosphorylation, and a 3-10-fold lower level of representative IFN?-responsive gene transcripts. Moreover, in response to a brief pulse of IFN?, a steady increase in STAT1 phosphorylation and IFN? gene expression over 48 h was observed in neurons, as compared to rapid attenuation in MEF. These distinct response kinetics in IFN?-stimulated neurons may reflect modifications in the IFN? negative feedback loop, which may provide a mechanism for the cell-specific heterogeneity of responses to IFN?. PMID:18006082

  15. Phosphorylation of EZH2 activates STAT3 signaling via STAT3 methylation and promotes tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Misuk; Woo, Dong-Hun; Shin, Yongjae; Shin, Jihye; Chang, Nakho; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Hong; Rheey, Jingeun; Nakano, Ichiro; Lee, Cheolju; Joo, Kyeung Min; Rich, Jeremy N.; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jeongwu

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) displays cellular hierarchies harboring a subpopulation of stem-like cells (GSCs). Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), the lysine methyl transferase of Polycomb repressive complex 2, mediates transcriptional repression of pro-differentiation genes in both normal and neoplastic stem cells. An oncogenic role of EZH2 as a transcriptional silencer is well established; however, additional functions of EZH2 are incompletely understood. Here we show that EZH2 binds to and methylates STAT3, leading to enhanced STAT3 activity by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. The EZH2-STAT3 interaction preferentially occurs in GSCs relative to non-stem bulk tumor cells, and it requires a specific phosphorylation of EZH2. Inhibition of EZH2 reverses the silencing of Polycomb target genes and diminishes STAT3 activity, suggesting therapeutic strategies. PMID:23684459

  16. PARD3 Inactivation in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas Impairs STAT3 and Promotes Malignant Invasion.

    PubMed

    Bonastre, Ester; Verdura, Sara; Zondervan, Ilse; Facchinetti, Federica; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Chiara, Maria Dolores; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Carretero, Julian; Condom, Enric; Vidal, Agustin; Sidransky, David; Villanueva, Alberto; Roz, Luca; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Savola, Suvi; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2015-04-01

    Correct apicobasal polarization and intercellular adhesions are essential for the appropriate development of normal epithelia. Here, we investigated the contribution of the cell polarity regulator PARD3 to the development of lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC). Tumor-specific PARD3 alterations were found in 8% of LSCCs examined, placing PARD3 among the most common tumor suppressor genes in this malignancy. Most PAR3-mutant proteins exhibited a relative reduction in the ability to mediate formation of tight junctions and actin-based protrusions, bind atypical protein kinase C, activate RAC1, and activate STAT3 at cell confluence. Thus, PARD3 alterations prevented the formation of contacts between neighboring cells and the subsequent downstream signaling. Notably, reconstituting PAR3 activity in vivo reduced tumor-invasive and metastatic properties. Our findings define PARD3 as a recurrently inactivated cell polarity regulator in LSCC that affects tumor aggressiveness and metastasis. Cancer Res; 75(7); 1287-97. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25833829

  17. The IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation of PML through SENP1 induction

    SciTech Connect

    Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Kawakami, Shiho; Muromoto, Ryuta; Togi, Sumihito; Ikeda, Osamu; Kamitani, Shinya; Sekine, Yuichi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Honjoh, Tsutomu [Morinaga Institute of Biological Sciences, Inc., 2-1-16, Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0003 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)], E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-07-11

    Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) plays an important role in the regulation of different signaling pathways and is involved in the formation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein nuclear bodies following sumoylation of PML. In the present study, we found that IL-6 induces desumoylation of PML and dissociation between PML and SUMO1 in hepatoma cells. We also found that IL-6 induces mRNA expression of SENP1, a member of the SUMO-specific protease family. Furthermore, wild-type SENP1 but not an inactive SENP1 mutant restored the PML-mediated suppression of STAT3 activation. These results indicate that the IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation and inactivation PML through SENP1 induction.

  18. Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua; Liu, Fenju

    2015-01-15

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. PMID:25220423

  19. Withaferin A Inhibits STAT3 and Induces Tumor Cell Death in Neuroblastoma and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Yco, Lisette P; Mocz, Gabor; Opoku-Ansah, John; Bachmann, André S

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor that has been implicated in many human cancers and has emerged as an ideal target for cancer therapy. Withaferin A (WFA) is a natural product with promising antiproliferative properties through its association with a number of molecular targets including STAT3. However, the effect of WFA in pediatric neuroblastoma (NB) and its interaction with STAT3 have not been reported. In this study, we found that WFA effectively induces dose-dependent cell death in high-risk and drug-resistant NB as well as multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells, prevented interleukin-6 (IL-6)–mediated and persistently activated STAT3 phosphorylation at Y705, and blocked the transcriptional activity of STAT3. We further provide computational models that show that WFA binds STAT3 near the Y705 phospho-tyrosine residue of the STAT3 Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, suggesting that WFA prevents STAT3 dimer formation similar to BP-1-102, a well-established STAT3 inhibitor. Our findings propose that the antitumor activity of WFA is mediated at least in part through inhibition of STAT3 and provide a rationale for further drug development and clinical use in NB and MM. PMID:25452693

  20. Upregulation of Tissue Factor by Activated Stat3 Contributes to Malignant Pleural Effusion Generation via Enhancing Tumor Metastasis and Vascular Permeability in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsuan-Heng; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Lu, Kuang-Chu; Lai, Wu-Wei; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Su, Wu-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a poor prognostic sign for patients with lung cancer. Tissue factor (TF) is a coagulation factor that participates in angiogenesis and vascular permeability and is abundant in MPE. We previously demonstrated that autocrine IL-6-activated Stat3 contributes to tumor metastasis and upregulation of VEGF, resulting in the generation of MPE in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found IL-6-triggered Stat3 activation also induces TF expression. By using pharmacologic inhibitors, it was shown that JAK2 kinase, but not Src kinase, contributed to autocrine IL-6-induced TF expression. Inhibition of Stat3 activation by dominant negative Stat3 (S3D) in lung adenocarcinoma suppressed TF-induced coagulation, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Consistently, knockdown of TF expression by siRNA resulted in a reduction of anchorage-independent growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of TF expression also decreased the adhesion ability of cancer cells in normal lung tissues. In the nude mouse model, both lung metastasis and MPE generation were decreased when PC14PE6/AS2-siTF cells (TF expression was silenced) were intravenously injected. PC14PE6/AS2-siTF cells also produced less malignant ascites through inhibition of vascular permeability. In summary, we showed that TF expression plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MPE generation via regulating of tumor metastasis and vascular permeability in lung adenocarcinoma bearing activated Stat3. PMID:24086497

  1. The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, inhibits gp130/Stat3 pathway and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuhong; Suvannasankha, Attaya; Crean, Colin D.; White, Valerie L.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Farag, Sherif S.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with current therapy, indicating the need for continued development of novel therapeutic agents. We evaluated the activity of a novel phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, in primary human myeloma cells and cell lines. AR-42 was cytotoxic to MM cells at a mean LC50 of 0.18 ± 0.06 ?mol/l at 48 hr and induced apoptosis with cleavage of caspases 8, 9 and 3, with cell death largely prevented by caspase inhibition. AR-42 downregulated the expression of gp130 and inhibited activation of STAT3, with minimal effects on the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, indicating a predominant effect on the gp130/STAT-3 pathway. AR-42 also inhibited interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation, which could not be overcome by exogenous IL-6. AR-42 also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated targets, including Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Overexpression of Bcl-xL by a lentivirus construct partly protected against cell death induced by AR-42. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21, were also significantly induced by AR-42, which together with a decrease in cyclin D1, resulted in G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, AR-42 has potent cytotoxicity against MM cells mainly through gp130/STAT-3 pathway. The results provide rationale for clinical investigation of AR-42 in MM. PMID:20824695

  2. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hua Kunjie [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Caveney, Erica J. [Department of Medicine, CB 7005, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, CB 7525, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Harp, Joyce B. [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)]. E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  3. STAT3- and DNA methyltransferase 1-mediated epigenetic silencing of SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase tumor suppressor gene in malignant T lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Zhang; Hong Y. Wang; Michal Marzec; Puthiyaveettil N. Raghunath; Tomohiko Nagasawa; Mariusz A. Wasik

    2005-01-01

    Expression of SHP-1 phosphatase, a key negative regulator of cell signaling, is lost in T cell lymphomas and other malignancies due to DNA methylation of the SHP-1 promoter by a currently undefined mechanism. We demonstrate that malignant T cells express DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and that constantly activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is capable of binding

  4. Qing Hua Chang Yin inhibits the LPS-induced activation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiao; Hu, Guanghong; Fang, Wenyi; Chen, Jintuan; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Chunbo; Peng, Jun; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is highly regulated by the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and its negative feedback regulator, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Therefore, modulating the signaling feedback loop of IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 may prove to be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation that has long been used in clinic for the treatment of UC. We have previously reported that QHCY ameliorates acute intestinal inflammation in vivo and in vitro through the suppression of the nuclear factor??B (NF-?B) pathway. In the present study, in order to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the anti?inflammatory activities of QHCY, we stimulated human intestinal Caco-2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to create an in vitro model of an inflamed human intestinal epithelium, and evaluated the effects of QHCY on the IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling network in inflamed Caco-2 cells. The levels of IL-6 were measured by ELISA and the levels of STAT3 and SOCS3 were measured by western blot analysis. We found that QHCY significantly inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QHCY profoundly suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1), JAK2 and STAT3. Furthermore, treatment with QHCY markedly augmented the expression of SOCS3. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that the modulation of the IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling network may be one of the mechanisms through which QHCY exerts its anti?inflammatory effects. PMID:25633437

  5. LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily, activates Stat3 mediated by NIK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Chun, Jae Yeon [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Hu, Yan [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Dutt, Smitha [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Lin, Xin [Department of Molecular Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gao, Allen C. [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)]. E-mail: allen.gao@roswellpark.org

    2007-07-27

    Stat3, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family, is a key signal transduction protein activated by numerous cytokines, growth factors, and oncoproteins that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, development, survival, and inflammation. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been found frequently in a wide variety of human tumors and induces cellular transformation and tumor formation. In this study, we demonstrated that LIGHT, a member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily, activates Stat3 in cancer cells. LIGHT induces dose-dependent activation of Stat3 by phosphorylation at both the tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. The activation of Stat3 by LIGHT appears to be mediated by NIK phosphorylation. Expression of a kinase-inactive NIK mutant abolished LIGHT induced Stat3 activation. Overexpression of an active NIK induces Stat3 activation by phosphorylation at the both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. Activation of Stat3 by NIK requires NIK kinase activity as showed by kinase assays. In addition, LIGHT increases the expression of Stat3 target genes including cyclin D1, survivin, and Bcl-xL, and stimulates human LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth in vitro which can be blocked by expression of a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to activating NF-{kappa}B/p52, LIGHT also activates Stat3. Activation of Stat3 together with activating non-canonical NF-{kappa}B/p52 signaling by LIGHT may maximize its effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and inflammation.

  6. Constitutive STAT3 Phosphorylation Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mashili, Fredirick; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Krook, Anna; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in cytokine- and nutrient-induced insulin resistance. The role of STAT3 in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis is incompletely defined. We tested the hypothesis that STAT3 signaling contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. Protein abundance and phosphorylation of STAT3 signaling molecules were determined in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from BMI- and age-matched overweight individuals with normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and T2D patients. The direct role of STAT3 in the development of lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance was determined using small interfering (si)RNA. Phosphorylated STAT3, phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein abundance was increased in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 phosphorylation positively correlated with free fatty acid level and measures of insulin sensitivity in NGT but not T2D patients. Palmitate exposure led to a constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, increased protein abundance of SOCS3, and development of insulin resistance in L6 myotubes. These effects were prevented by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing. In summary, STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 gene silencing prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance in cultured myotubes. Collectively, our results implicate excessive STAT3 signaling in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. PMID:23043161

  7. Gefitinib resistance resulted from STAT3-mediated Akt activation in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Chang, Qingshan; Lu, Yongju; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Thakur, Chitra; Sun, Jiaying; Li, Lingzhi; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Hyperactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase is prevalent in human lung cancer and its inhibition by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib and erlotinib, initially controls tumor growth. However, most patients ultimately relapse due to the development of drug resistance. In this study, we have discovered a STAT3-dependent Akt activation that impairs the efficacy of gefitinib. Mechanistically, gefitinib increased association of EGFR with STAT3, which de-repressed STAT3 from SOCS3, an upstream suppressor of STAT3. Such a de-repression of STAT3 in turn fostered Akt activation. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abrogated Akt activation and combined gefitinib with STAT3 inhibition synergistically reduced the growth of the tumor cells. Taken together, this study suggests that activation of STAT3 is an intrinsic mechanism of drug resistance in response to EGFR TKIs. Combinational targeting on both EGFR and STAT3 may enhance the efficacy of gefitinib or other EGFR TKIs in lung cancer. PMID:24280348

  8. Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ara, Tasnim; Nakata, Rie; Sheard, Michael A; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Buettner, Ralf; Groshen, Susan G; Ji, Lingyun; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard; Seeger, Robert C; DeClerck, Yves A

    2013-07-01

    Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. Here, we have evaluated the role of STAT3 in environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) in human neuroblastoma. We determined that STAT3 was not constitutively active in most neuroblastoma cell lines but was rapidly activated upon treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 alone and in combination with the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with IL-6 protected them from drug-induced apoptosis in a STAT3-dependent manner because the protective effect of IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of a STAT3 inhibitor and upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 was necessary for the upregulation of several survival factors such as survivin (BIRC5) and Bcl-xL (BCL2L1) when cells were exposed to IL-6. Importantly, IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation was enhanced by sIL-6R produced by human monocytes, pointing to an important function of monocytes in promoting IL-6-mediated EMDR. Our data also point to the presence of reciprocal activation of STAT3 between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells including not only monocytes but also regulatory T cells (Treg) and nonmyeloid stromal cells. Thus, the data identify an IL-6/sIL-6R/STAT3 interactive pathway between neuroblastoma cells and their microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance. PMID:23633489

  9. Luteolin Induces Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis through Binding Hsp90 to Suppress Constitutive Activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhou, Jiahong; Xu, Yimiao; Xin, Yinqiang; Liu, Chang; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal activity of STAT3 is associated with a number of human malignancies. Hsp90 plays a central role in stabilizing newly synthesized proteins and participates in maintaining the functional competency of a number of signaling transducers involved in cell growth, survival and oncogenesis, such as STAT3. Hsp90 interacts with STAT3 and stabilizes Tyr-phosphorylated STAT3. It has been reported that luteolin possesses anticancer activity through degradation of Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that overexpression of Hsp90 inhibited luteolin-induced degradation of Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 and luteolin also reduced the levels of some other Hsp90 interacting proteins. Results from co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that luteolin prevented the association between Hsp90 and STAT3 and induced both Tyr705- and Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 degradation through proteasome-dependent pathway. The molecular modeling analysis with CHARMm–Discovery Studio 2.1(DS 2.1) indicated that luteolin could bind to the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90. SPR technology-based binding assay confirmed the association between luteolin and Hsp90. ATP-sepharose binding assay displayed that luteolin inhibited Hsp90-ATP binding. Conclusions/Significance Luteolin promoted the degradation of Tyr705- and Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 through interacting with Hsp90 and induced apoptosis of cancer cells. This study indicated that luteolin may act as a potent HSP90 inhibitor in antitumor strategies. PMID:23145121

  10. Disruption of STAT3 signalling promotes KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Beatrice; Schramek, Daniel; Mueller, Kristina M; Moll, Herwig P; Svinka, Jasmin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Blaas, Leander; Hruschka, Natascha; Zboray, Katalin; Stiedl, Patricia; Nivarthi, Harini; Bogner, Edith; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mohr, Thomas; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Kenner, Lukas; Poli, Valeria; Aberger, Fritz; Stoiber, Dagmar; Egger, Gerda; Esterbauer, Harald; Zuber, Johannes; Moriggl, Richard; Eferl, Robert; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Penninger, Josef M; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is considered to play an oncogenic role in several malignancies including lung cancer; consequently, targeting STAT3 is currently proposed as therapeutic intervention. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 plays an unexpected tumour-suppressive role in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Indeed, lung tissue-specific inactivation of Stat3 in mice results in increased Kras(G12D)-driven AC initiation and malignant progression leading to markedly reduced survival. Knockdown of STAT3 in xenografted human AC cells increases tumour growth. Clinically, low STAT3 expression levels correlate with poor survival and advanced malignancy in human lung AC patients with smoking history, which are prone to KRAS mutations. Consistently, KRAS mutant lung tumours exhibit reduced STAT3 levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that STAT3 controls NF-?B-induced IL-8 expression by sequestering NF-?B within the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting IL-8-mediated myeloid tumour infiltration and tumour vascularization and hence tumour progression. These results elucidate a novel STAT3-NF-?B-IL-8 axis in KRAS mutant AC with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. PMID:25734337

  11. Novel high-throughput screening system for identifying STAT3-SH2 antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Yutaka; Mochizuki, Masato; Matsuno, Kenji [Center for Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Haino, Takeharu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Asai, Akira [Center for Drug Discovery, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)], E-mail: aasai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2009-03-13

    Constitutive activation of the oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 frequently occurs in various human malignancies. STAT3 activation involves dimerization via intermolecular pTyr-SH2 interaction. Thus, antagonizing this interaction is a feasible approach to inhibit STAT3 activation for cancer therapy. In order to identify selective STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a biochemical HTS system based on AlphaScreen technology, which measures the abilities of test compounds to antagonize pTyr-SH2 interactions. We screened our chemical libraries using this system and identified 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (5,15-DPP) as a selective STAT3-SH2 antagonist. Selective inhibition of STAT3 nuclear translocation and DNA biding activity was observed in cells treated with 5,15-DPP. IL-6-dependent dimerization of STAT3, c-myc promoter binding and c-myc protein expression were all suppressed by 5,15-DPP, whereas no decrement in either expression or phosphorylation level of STAT3 was observed. Thus, the HTS assay system represented herein may be useful for identifying novel STAT3-SH2 antagonists.

  12. Disruption of STAT3 signalling promotes KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Beatrice; Schramek, Daniel; Mueller, Kristina M.; Moll, Herwig P.; Svinka, Jasmin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Blaas, Leander; Hruschka, Natascha; Zboray, Katalin; Stiedl, Patricia; Nivarthi, Harini; Bogner, Edith; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mohr, Thomas; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Kenner, Lukas; Poli, Valeria; Aberger, Fritz; Stoiber, Dagmar; Egger, Gerda; Esterbauer, Harald; Zuber, Johannes; Moriggl, Richard; Eferl, Robert; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Penninger, Josef M.; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is considered to play an oncogenic role in several malignancies including lung cancer; consequently, targeting STAT3 is currently proposed as therapeutic intervention. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 plays an unexpected tumour-suppressive role in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Indeed, lung tissue-specific inactivation of Stat3 in mice results in increased KrasG12D-driven AC initiation and malignant progression leading to markedly reduced survival. Knockdown of STAT3 in xenografted human AC cells increases tumour growth. Clinically, low STAT3 expression levels correlate with poor survival and advanced malignancy in human lung AC patients with smoking history, which are prone to KRAS mutations. Consistently, KRAS mutant lung tumours exhibit reduced STAT3 levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that STAT3 controls NF-?B-induced IL-8 expression by sequestering NF-?B within the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting IL-8-mediated myeloid tumour infiltration and tumour vascularization and hence tumour progression. These results elucidate a novel STAT3–NF-?B–IL-8 axis in KRAS mutant AC with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. PMID:25734337

  13. Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hanhui [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhao, Wenrong [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China)] [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yang, Dan, E-mail: yangdandr@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200040 (China)] [Department of Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

  14. Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-carrying cells of a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subpopulation express EBNA1 and LMPs but not EBNA2 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon-Lewin, N; Chen, F; Avila-Cariño, J; Zou, J Z; Mellstedt, H; Ernberg, I; Klein, G

    1995-11-15

    We have previously described an exceptional CLL patient, P.G., whose leukemic cell population contained a small fraction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-carrying cells. These cells grow directly into permanent cell lines in vitro. Using RT-PCR analysis, we now show that the in vivo EBV-carrying CLL cells expressed EBNAI, LMPI, LMP2a and 2b, but not EBNA2, in 4 of 4 blood samples obtained during the last 3 years of the patient's life. Our data also show that the CLL cells used a promoter in the F/Q, but not the W or C, region. This is consistent with the fact that CLL cells resemble resting lymphocytes rather than immunoblasts. Expression of LMP1 and LMP2b differs from the exclusive EBNAI and LMP2a expression of normal resting B cells, however, and corresponds to the state defined as latency II. This form of latency was until now detected only in EBV-carrying non-B cells in vivo. Our data show that a B-cell subtype can also show this expression pattern in vivo. PMID:7591254

  15. Saikosaponin d protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-?B and STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiming; Tanaka, Naoki; Sun, Lu; Guo, Bin; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Fang, Zhongze; Jiang, Changtao; Yang, Julin; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-09-27

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) can cause acute liver injury that is sometimes fatal, requiring efficient pharmacological intervention. The traditional Chinese herb Bupleurum falcatum has been widely used for the treatment of several liver diseases in eastern Asian countries, and saikosaponin d (SSd) is one of its major pharmacologically-active components. However, the efficacy of Bupleurum falcatum or SSd on APAP toxicity remains unclear. C57/BL6 mice were administered SSd intraperitoneally once daily for 5days, followed by APAP challenge. Biochemical and pathological analysis revealed that mice treated with SSd were protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. SSd markedly suppressed phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and reversed the APAP-induced increases in the target genes of NF-?B, such as pro-inflammatory cytokine Il6 and Ccl2, and those of STAT3, such as Socs3, Fga, Fgb and Fgg. SSd also enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 mRNA. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SSd protects mice from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mainly through down-regulating NF-?B- and STAT3-mediated inflammatory signaling. This study unveils one of the possible mechanisms of hepatoprotection caused by Bupleurum falcatum and/or SSd. PMID:25265579

  16. Alcohol Suppresses the Granulopoietic Response to Pulmonary S. Pneumoniae Infection with Enhancement of STAT3 Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Siggins, Robert W.; Melvan, John N.; Welsh, David A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced granulopoietic activity is crucial for host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Alcohol impairs this response. The underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by infected lung tissue plays a key role in stimulating bone marrow granulopoiesis. This study investigated the effects of alcohol on G-CSF signaling in the regulation of marrow myeloid progenitor cell proliferation in mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Chronic alcohol consumption plus acute alcohol intoxication suppressed the increase in blood granulocyte counts following intrapulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae. This suppression was associated with a significant decrease in bone marrow granulopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. Alcohol treatment significantly enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation in bone marrow cells of animals challenged with S. pneumoniae. In vitro experiments showed that G-CSF-induced activation of STAT3-p27Kip1 pathway in murine myeloid progenitor cell line 32D-G-CSFR cells was markedly enhanced by alcohol exposure. Alcohol dose-dependently inhibited G-CSF-stimulated 32D-G-CSFR cell proliferation. This impairment of myeloid progenitor cell proliferation was not attenuated by inhibition of alcohol metabolism through either the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway or the CYP450 system. These data suggest that alcohol enhances G-CSF-associated STAT3-p27Kip1 signaling, which impairs granulopoietic progenitor cell proliferation by inducing cell cycling arrest and facilitating their terminal differentiation during the granulopoietic response to pulmonary infection. PMID:21357267

  17. Inflammation induced NFATc1-STAT3 Transcription Complex Promotes Pancreatic Cancer initiation by KrasG12D

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Sandra; Chen, Nai-ming; Siveke, Jens T.; König, Alexander; Zhang, Jin-San; Singh, Shiv K.; Wolf, Elmar; Bartkuhn, Marek; Esposito, Irene; Heßmann, Elisabeth; Reinecke, Johanna; Nikorowitsch, Julius; Brunner, Marius; Singh, Garima; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Smyrk, Thomas; Bamlet, William R.; Eilers, Martin; Neesse, Albrecht; Gress, Thomas M.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Tuveson, David; Urrutia, Raul; Ellenrieder, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cancer-associated inflammation is a molecular key feature in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncogenic KRAS in conjunction with persistent inflammation is known to accelerate carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we outline a novel pathway whereby the transcription factors NFATc1 and STAT3 cooperate in pancreatic epithelial cells to promote KrasG12D-driven carcinogenesis. NFATc1 activation is induced by inflammation and itself accelerates inflammation-induced carcinogenesis in KrasG12D mice, whereas genetic or pharmacological ablation of NFATc1 attenuates this effect. Mechanistically, NFATc1 complexes with STAT3 for enhancer-promoter communications at jointly regulated genes involved in oncogenesis, e.g. Cyclin, EGFR and WNT family members. The NFATc1-STAT3 cooperativity is operative in pancreatitis-mediated carcinogenesis as well as in established human pancreatic cancer. Together, these studies unravel new mechanisms of inflammatory driven pancreatic carcinogenesis and suggest beneficial effects of chemopreventive strategies using drugs which are currently available for targeting these factors in clinical trials. PMID:24694735

  18. Wogonin suppresses human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell A549 migration in inflammatory microenvironment by modulating the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jing; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Yi; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long; Lu, Na

    2014-06-29

    Increasing evidence from various clinical and experimental studies has demonstrated that the inflammatory microenvironment facilitates tumor metastasis. Clinically, it will be a promising choice to suppress tumor metastasis by targeting inflammatory microenvironment. Our previous studies have demonstrated that wogonin (a bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin) possesses the anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory activity, but we have little idea about its efficacy on inflammatory-induced tumor metastasis and the mechanism underlying it. In this study, we focused on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of tumor metastasis, to evaluate the effects of wogonin on tumor metastasis in inflammatory microenvironment. We found that wogonin inhibited THP-1 conditioned-medium- (CM-) and IL-6-induced EMT by inactivating STAT3 signal. And in wogonin-treated A549 cells which pretreated with THP-1 CM or IL-6, the expression level of E-cadherin, an EMT negative biomarker, increased while that of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and EMT-related transcription factors including Snail and Twist decreased. Moreover, wogonin inhibited IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, prevented p-STAT3 dimer translocation into the nucleus, and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of p-STAT3. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in the tumor xenografts mice, including downregulation of p-STAT3, N-cadherin, and Vimentin while up-regulation of E-cadherin. Wogonin also inhibit the metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. Taken all data together, we concluded that wogonin suppresses tumor cells migration in inflammatory microenvironment by inactivating STAT3 signal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24976450

  19. STAT3 cooperates with Twist to mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanhai; Guo, Fenglin; Xu, Geliang; Ma, Jie; Shao, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, to date, the association of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) with EMT, and its mediated tumor invasion and metastasis in HCC, remain elusive. We investigated the relationship between STAT3 activation and EMT, and the underlying mechanisms involved in HCC progression. By stable transfection, we successfully overexpressed STAT3 in low metastatic SMMC7721 cells and silenced STAT3 expression in high metastatic MHCC97H cells. The EMT-associated molecular HCC cell changes were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemical methods. The EMT-mediated HCC cell invasion and migration were evaluated by a Transwell cell invasion and cell migration assay, respectively. The interaction between STAT3 and Twist (a key EMT inducer) was evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. In the present study, we found that STAT3 overexpression significantly reduced E-cadherin and ?-cadherin, and it enhanced N-cadherin and vimentin expression in the SMMC7721 cells. STAT3 knockdown significantly increased E-cadherin and ?-cadherin, and it decreased N-cadherin and vimentin expression in the MHCC97H cells. Meanwhile, a dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that STAT3 may bind the Twist promoter, mediate its transcriptional activity, and then promote the EMT process in HCC cells. STAT3 activation-mediated EMT also evidently enhanced HCC cell invasion and migration. In summary, the present study demonstrated for the first time that STAT3 may cooperate with Twist to mediate EMT and induce HCC invasion and metastasis. Activated STAT3, Twist, and EMT markers may serve as potential molecular targets in the prevention and/or treatment of HCC invasion and metastasis. PMID:25653024

  20. IL-18 induces profibrotic renal tubular cell injury via STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Futoshi; Rhee, Audrey; Hile, Karen L.; Zhang, Hongji

    2013-01-01

    IL-18 is an important mediator of obstruction-induced renal fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) injury. IL-18's proinflammatory properties have been attributed, in part, to NF-?B activation and the stimulation of cytokine gene expression; however, STAT3 has increasingly been shown to mediate renal fibrotic injury. We therefore hypothesized that IL-18 mediates profibrotic TEC injury via STAT3 activation. Male C57BL6 wild-type mice and transgenic mice for human IL-18-binding protein were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction or sham operation. The kidneys were harvested 1 or 2 wk afterward and analyzed for active STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression (Western blotting, immunohistochemistry) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. In a separate arm, renal tubular cells (HK-2) were directly stimulated with IL-18 for 2 days with or without the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 (50 ?M). Cell lysates were then analyzed for p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression, profibrotic cellular changes (collagen and ?-SMA expression), and tubular cell apoptosis. p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression increased significantly in response to obstruction; however, a significant reduction in p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression occurred following 1 wk, but not 2 wk, of obstruction in the presence of IL-18 neutralization. In vitro results similarly demonstrate increased p-STAT3, SOCS3, ?-SMA, and collagen III expression, and increased collagen production and TEC apoptosis in response to IL-18 stimulation, but the response was significantly diminished in the presence of STAT3 inhibition. These results demonstrate that IL-18-induces profibrotic cellular changes and collagen production in TECs via STAT3 activation. PMID:23904224

  1. COX-2 is a Novel Transcriptional Target of the Nuclear EGFR-STAT3 and EGFRvIII-STAT3 Signaling Axes

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Wen; Cao, Xinyu; Zhu, Hu; Ali-Osman, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicate novel modes of EGFR signaling, notably, one involves EGFR nuclear translocalization and subsequent gene activation. To date, however, the significance of the nuclear EGFR pathway in glioblastoma (GBM) is unknown. Here, we report that EGFR and its constitutively activated variant EGFRvIII undergo nuclear translocalization in GBM cells, in which the former event requires EGF stimulation and the latter is constitutive. To gain insight into the impact of nuclear EGFR on gene expression in GBM, we created isogenic GBM cell lines, namely, U87MG-vector, U87MG-EGFR and U87MG-EGFRdNLS that, respectively, express the control vector, EGFR and nuclear-entry defective EGFR with a deletion of the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Microarray analysis shows that 19 genes, including, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), to be activated in U87MG-EGFR cells but not in U87MG-EGFRdNLS and U87MG-vector cells. Subsequent validation studies indicate that COX-2 gene is expressed at higher levels in cells with EGFR and EGFRvIII than those with EGFRdNLS and EGFRvIIIdNLS. Nuclear EGFR and its transcriptional co-factor STAT3 associate with the COX-2 promoter. Increased expression of EGFR/EGFRvIII and activated STAT3 leads to synergistic activation of the COX-2 promoter. Promoter mutational analysis identified a proximal STAT3-binding site that is required for EGFR/EGFRvIII-STAT3 mediated COX-2 gene activation. In GBM tumors, an association exists between levels of COX-2, EGFR/EGFRvIII and activated STAT3. Together, these findings indicate the existence of the nuclear EGFR/EGFRvIII signaling pathway in GBM and its functional interaction with STAT3 to activate COX-2 gene expression, thus linking EGFR-STAT3 and EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling axes to pro-inflammatory COX-2 mediated pathway. PMID:20145033

  2. 8-Hydrocalamenene, Derived from Reynoutria elliptica, Suppresses Constitutive STAT3 Activation, Inhibiting Proliferation and Enhancing Chemosensitization of Human Multiple Myeloma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Dongwoo; Song, Junho; Kim, Sung-Moo; Chiang, Shu Yuan; Kim, Ji-Sung; Chung, Won-Seok; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Jung, Sang Hoon; Na, Young-Soon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The identification of the active compounds of herbal medicines and the molecular targets of those compounds is an attractive therapeutic objective. Reynoutria elliptica has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases as a Korean folk remedy. Based on the evidence that anti-inflammatory agents frequently exert antiproliferative activity, we tested two sesquiterpene derivatives, 8-hydrocalamenene (HC) and 8,14-dihydrocalamenene (DHC), for their ability to induce apoptosis and suppress signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells. We found that HC inhibited cell viability in U266, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HC exerted significant cytotoxicity and induced substantial subG1-phase arrest and apoptosis as compared with DHC. HC inhibited the expression of gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), proliferation (cyclin D1), and invasion (MMP-9), all of which are known to be regulated by STAT3. Furthermore, HC up-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in U266 cells. Interestingly, HC blocked constitutive STAT3 activation through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases Janus-like kinase 1 (JAK1), JAK2, and c-Src and up-regulated PIAS3. Deletion of STAT3 reversed cytotoxic effects and the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and c-myc by HC in MM cells. Finally, this sesquiterpene significantly synergized the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of bortezomib in U266 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HC is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation which may have a potential in the prevention and treatment of MM. PMID:24476219

  3. Metformin enhances the anti-adipogenic effects of atorvastatin via modulation of STAT3 and TGF-?/Smad3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hak; Han, Songhee; Lee, Haeri; Park, Chi Hye; Chung, Young Mee; Shin, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte accumulation is associated with the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Interactions of master transcription factors and signaling cascades are required for adipogenesis. Regulation of excessive adipogenic processes may be an attractive therapeutic for treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study, we found that atorvastatin exerts an anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, and that this activity is elevated in combination with metformin. Expression of the adipogenic master regulators PPAR? and C/EBP?, and their target gene aP2, was suppressed by atorvastatin. Furthermore, atorvastatin treatment resulted in increased activation of the key master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, AMPK. These biological activities of atorvastatin were elevated in combination with metformin. These anti-adipogenic activities were associated with regulation of the STAT3 and TGF-? signaling cascades, resulting in the regulation of the expression of STAT3 target genes, such as KLF5, p53, and cyclin D1, and TGF-? signaling inhibitory genes, such as SMAD7. Our results suggest that combination therapy with atorvastatin and metformin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases caused by excessive adipogenesis. PMID:25462562

  4. Targeting the androgen receptor with siRNA promotes prostate cancer metastasis through enhanced macrophage recruitment via CCL2/CCR2-induced STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kouji; Fang, Lei-Ya; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio; Li, Lei; Lin, Wen-Jye; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-01-01

    Increased CCL2 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) cells enhanced metastasis via macrophage recruitment. However, its linkage to androgen receptor (AR)-mediated PCa progression remains unclear. Here, we identified a previously unrecognized regulation: targeting AR with siRNA in PCa cells increased macrophage recruitment via CCL2 up-regulation, which might then result in enhancing PCa invasiveness. Molecular mechanism dissection revealed that targeting PCa AR with siRNA promoted PCa cell migration/invasion via CCL2-dependent STAT3 activation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways. Importantly, pharmacologic interruption of the CCL2/CCR2-STAT3 axis suppressed EMT and PCa cell migration, providing a new mechanism linking CCL2 and EMT. Simultaneously targeting PCa AR with siRNA and the CCL2/CCR2-STAT3 axis resulted in better suppression of PCa growth and metastasis in a xenograft PCa mouse model. Human PCa tissue microarray analysis suggests that increased CCL2 expression may be potentially associated with poor prognosis of PCa patients. Together, these results may provide a novel therapeutic approach to better battle PCa progression and metastasis at the castration resistant stage via the combination of targeting AR with siRNA and anti-CCL2/CCR2-STAT3 signalling. PMID:23982944

  5. Stem cell-specific expression of Dax1 is conferred by STAT3 and Oct3/4 in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chuanhai [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Nakatake, Yuhki [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ura, Hiroki; Akagi, Tadayuki [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Niwa, Hitoshi [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Koide, Hiroshi [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan)], E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Yokota, Takashi [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan)

    2008-07-18

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts. An orphan nuclear receptor, Dax1, is specifically expressed in undifferentiated ES cells and plays an important role in their self-renewal. The regulatory mechanism of Dax1 expression in ES cells, however, remains unknown. In this study, we found that STAT3 and Oct3/4, essential transcription factors for ES cell self-renewal, are involved in the regulation of Dax1 expression. Suppression of either STAT3 or Oct3/4 resulted in down-regulation of Dax1. Reporter assay identified putative binding sites for these factors in the promoter/enhancer region of the Dax1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested the in vivo association of STAT3 and Oct3/4 with the putative sites. Furthermore, gel shift assay indicated that these transcription factors directly bind to their putative binding sites. These results suggest that STAT3 and Oct3/4 control the expression of Dax1 to maintain the self-renewal of ES cells.

  6. JAK2/STAT3 Inhibition Attenuates Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Teresa; Omelchenko, Irina; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Shi, Xiaorui; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a stress responsive transcription factor that plays a key role in oxidative stress-mediated tissue injury. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a known source of damage to tissues of the inner ear following loud sound exposure, we examined the role of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling pathway in noise induce hearing loss using the pathway specific inhibitor, JSI-124. Mice were exposed to a moderately damaging level of loud sound revealing the phosphorylation of STAT3 tyrosine 705 residues and nuclear localization in many cell types in the inner ear including the marginal cells of the stria vascularis, type II, III, and IV fibrocytes, spiral ganglion cells, and in the inner hair cells. Treatment of the mice with the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor before noise exposure reduced levels of phosphorylated STAT3 Y705. We performed auditory brain stem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements and found increased recovery of hearing sensitivity at two weeks after noise exposure with JAK2/STAT3 inhibition. Performance of cytocochleograms revealed improved outer hair cell survival in JSI-124 treated mice relative to control. Finally, JAK2/STAT3 inhibition reduced levels of ROS detected in outer hair cells at two hours post noise exposure. Together, these findings demonstrate that inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is protective against noise-induced cochlear tissue damage and loss of hearing sensitivity. PMID:25275304

  7. HiJAK’d Signaling; the STAT3 Paradox in Senescence and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Junk, Damian J.; Bryson, Benjamin L.; Jackson, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data have associated chronic inflammation with cancer progression. Most tumors show evidence of infiltrating immune and inflammatory cells, and chronic inflammatory disorders are known to increase the overall risk of cancer development. While immune cells are often observed in early hyperplastic lesions in vivo, there remains debate over whether these immune cells and the cytokines they produce in the developing hyperplastic microenvironment act to inhibit or facilitate tumor development. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, which includes IL-6 and oncostatin M (OSM), among others (LIF, CT-1, CNTF, and CLC), are secreted by immune cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells, and regulate diverse biological processes. Each of the IL-6 family cytokines signals through a distinct receptor complex, yet each receptor complex uses a shared gp130 subunit, which is critical for signal transduction following cytokine binding. Activation of gp130 results in the activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) signaling cascades. Tumor suppressive signaling can often be observed in normal cells following prolonged STAT3 activation. However, there is mounting evidence that the IL-6 family cytokines can contribute to later stages of tumor progression in many ways. Here we will review how the microenvironmental IL-6 family cytokine OSM influences each stage of the transformation process. We discuss the intrinsic adaptations a developing cancer cell must make in order to tolerate and circumvent OSM-mediated growth suppression, as well as the OSM effectors that are hijacked during tumor expansion and metastasis. We propose that combining current therapies with new ones that suppress the signals generated from the tumor microenvironment will significantly impact an oncologist’s ability to treat cancer. PMID:24675570

  8. Identification of Sites of STAT3 Action in the Female Reproductive Tract through Conditional Gene Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Robker, Rebecca L.; Watson, Laura N.; Robertson, Sarah A.; Dunning, Kylie R.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Russell, Darryl L.

    2014-01-01

    The STAT3 transcription factor is a pleiotropic transducer of signalling by hormones, growth factors and cytokines that has been identified in the female reproductive tract from oocytes and granulosa cells of the ovary to uterine epithelial and stromal cells. In the present study we used transgenic models to investigate the importance of STAT3 for reproductive performance in these different tissues. The Cre-LoxP system was used to delete STAT3 in oocytes by crossing Stat3fl/fl with Zp3-cre+ mice, or in ovarian granulosa cells and uterine stroma by crossing with Amhr2-Cre+ mice. Surprisingly, deletion of STAT3 in oocytes had no effect on fertility indicating that the abundance of STAT3 protein in maturing oocytes and fertilized zygotes is not essential to these developmental stages. In Stat3fl/fl;Amhr2-cre+ females impaired fertility was observed through significantly fewer litters and smaller litter size. Ovulation rate, oocyte fertilization and development to blastocyst were unaffected in this line; however, poor recombination efficiency in granulosa cells had yielded no net change in STAT3 protein abundance. In contrast, uteri from these mice showed STAT3 protein depletion selectively from the stomal compartment. A significant reduction in number of viable fetuses on gestational day 18, increased fetal resorptions and disrupted placental morphology were evident causes of the reduced fertility. In conclusion, this study defines an important role for STAT3 in uterine stromal cells during embryo implantation and the development of a functional placenta. PMID:24983622

  9. Activating transcription factor 4 mediates a multidrug resistance phenotype of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through transactivation of STAT3 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongwu; Chen, Xiong; Chen, Bin; Chen, Bei; Fan, Jianyong; Song, Weibing; Xie, Ziying; Jiang, Dan; Li, Qiuqiong; Zhou, Meihua; Sun, Dayong; Zhao, Yagang

    2014-11-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge to the clinical treatment of esophageal cancer. The stress response gene activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, relatively little is known about the expression and function of ATF4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) MDR. In this study, we investigate the potential role and mechanisms of ATF4 in ESCC MDR. We demonstrated that overexpression of ATF4 promotes the MDR phenotype in ESCC cells, while depletion of ATF4 in the MDR ESCC cell line induces drug re-sensitization. We also demonstrated that ATF4 transactivates STAT3 expression by directly binding to the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) promoter, resulting in MDR in ESCC cells. Significantly, inhibition of STAT3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a selective inhibitor (JSI-124) reintroduces therapeutic sensitivity. In addition, increased Bcl-2, survivin, and MRP1 expression levels were observed in ATF4-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, ATF4 may promote MDR in ESCC cells through the up-regulation of STAT3 expression, and thus is an attractive therapeutic target to combat therapeutic resistance in ESCC. PMID:25130172

  10. SOCS3 Expression Correlates with Severity of Inflammation, Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Activation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK in LPS-Induced Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chaves de Souza, João Antônio; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Chaves de Souza, Pedro Paulo; Kim, Yeon Jung; Silva Lobo, Caroline; Pimentel Lopes de Oliveira, Guilherme José; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    SOCS3 is an inducible endogenous negative regulator of JAK/STAT pathway, which is relevant in inflammatory conditions. We used a model of LPS-induced periodontal disease in rats to correlate SOCS3 expression with the inflammatory status. In vitro we used a murine macrophage cell line to assess the physical interaction between SOCS3 and STAT3 by coimmunoprecipitation. 30?ug of LPS from Escherichia coli were injected in the gingival tissues on the palatal aspect of first molars of the animals 3x/week for up to 4 weeks. Control animals were injected with the vehicle (PBS). The rats were sacrificed at 7, 15, and 30 days. Inflammation and gene expression were assessed by stereometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, and western blot. LPS injections increased inflammation, paralleled by an upregulation of SOCS3, of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? and increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. SOCS3 expression accompanied the severity of inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the activation status of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. LPS stimulation in a macrophage cell line in vitro induced transient STAT3 activation, which was inversely correlated with a dynamic physical interaction with SOCS3, suggesting that this may be a mechanism for SOCS3 regulatory function. PMID:24078776

  11. Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations.

    PubMed

    Milner, Joshua D; Vogel, Tiphanie P; Forbes, Lisa; Ma, Chi A; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Niemela, Julie E; Lyons, Jonathan J; Engelhardt, Karin R; Zhang, Yu; Topcagic, Nermina; Roberson, Elisha D O; Matthews, Helen; Verbsky, James W; Dasu, Trivikram; Vargas-Hernandez, Alexander; Varghese, Nidhy; McClain, Kenneth L; Karam, Lina B; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Mace, Emily M; Sorte, Hanne S; Perminow, Gøri; Rao, V Koneti; O'Connell, Michael P; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C; Butrick, Morgan; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D; Willet, Joseph; Swan, David; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Slowik, Voytek; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Ciaccio, Christina E; Saunders, Carol J; Septer, Seth; Kingsmore, Stephen F; White, Andrew J; Cant, Andrew J; Hambleton, Sophie; Cooper, Megan A

    2015-01-22

    Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:25359994

  12. Critical role of STAT3 in melanoma metastasis through anoikis resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fofaria, Neel M.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    Anoikis is an anchorage-independent cell death. Resistance to anoikis is one of the key features of metastatic cells. Here, we analyzed the role of STAT3 in anoikis resistance in melanoma cells leading to metastasis. When grown under anchorage-independent conditions, significant proportion of cells resisted anoikis and these resistant cells had higher rate of migration and invasion as compared to the cells grown under anchorage-dependent conditions. The anoikis resistant cells also had significantly higher expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 than the cells that were attached to the basement membrane. STAT3 inhibitors, AG 490 and piplartine (PL) induced anoikis in a concentration-dependent manner in anoikis resistant cells. Over-expression of STAT3 or treatment with IL-6 not only increased anoikis resistance, but also protected the cancer cells from PL-induced anoikis. On the other hand, silencing STAT3 decreased the potential of cancer cells to resist anoikis and to migrate. STAT3 knock-down cells and PL treated cells did not form tumors as well as failed to metastasize in SCID-NSG mice as compared to untreated anchorage-independent cells, which formed big tumors and extensively metastasized. In summary, our results for the first time establish STAT3 as a critical player that renders anoikis resistance to melanoma cells and enhance their metastatic potential. PMID:25216522

  13. Constitutive Stat3 activation alters behavior of hair follicle stem and progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dharanija; Macias, Everardo; Carbajal, Steve; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

    2015-02-01

    STATs play crucial roles in a wide variety of biological functions, including development, proliferation, differentiation and migration as well as in cancer development. In the present study, we examined the impact of constitutive activation of Stat3 on behavior of keratinocytes, including keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) in vivo. BK5.Stat3C transgenic (Tg) mice, which express a constitutively active form of Stat3 (Stat3C) in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the bulge region KSCs exhibited a significantly reduced number of CD34+/?6 integrin+ cells compared to non-transgenic (NTg) littermates. There was a concomitant increase in the Lgr-6, Lrig-1, and Sca-1 populations in the Tg mice in contrast to the CD34 and Keratin-15 positive population. In addition, increased expression of c-myc, ?-catenin, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as well as decreased expression of ?6-integrin was observed in the hair follicles of Tg mice. Notably, Sca-1 was found to be a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in keratinocytes. The current data suggest that elevated Stat3 activity leads to depletion of hair follicle KSCs along with a concomitant increase of stem/progenitor cells above the bulge region. Overall, the current data indicate that Stat3 plays an important role in keratinocyte stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. PMID:24038534

  14. T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV

    PubMed Central

    McIlwain, David R; Grusdat, Melanie; Pozdeev, Vitaly I; Xu, Haifeng C; Shinde, Prashant; Reardon, Colin; Hao, Zhenyue; Beyer, Marc; Bergthaler, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Nolan, Garry P; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is a critical transcription factor activated downstream of cytokine signaling and is integral for the function of multiple immune cell types. Human mutations in STAT3 cause primary immunodeficiency resulting in impaired control of a variety of infections, including reactivation of latent viruses. In this study, we investigate how T-cell functions of STAT3 contribute to responses to viral infection by inducing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice lacking STAT3 specifically in T cells. Although mice with conditional disruption of STAT3 in T cells were able to mount early responses to viral infection similar to control animals, including expansion of effector T cells, we found generation of T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells to be impaired. As a result, STAT3 T cell deficient mice produced attenuated germinal center reactions, and did not accumulate bone marrow virus specific IgG-secreting cells, resulting in failure to maintain levels of virus-specific IgG or mount neutralizing responses to LCMV in the serum. These effects were associated with reduced control of viral replication and prolonged infection. Our results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 in T cells for the generation of functional long-term humoral immunity to viral infections. PMID:25393615

  15. Stat3 Activation Is Limiting for Reprogramming to Ground State Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; van Oosten, Anouk L.; Theunissen, Thorold W.; Guo, Ge; Silva, Jose C.R.; Smith, Austin

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by activating Jak kinase and the transcription factor Stat3. Here we investigate whether Jak/Stat3 may also contribute to induction of pluripotency. EpiSCs derived from postimplantation embryos express low levels of Lif receptor and Stat3. We introduced into EpiSCs a Jak/Stat3 activating receptor (GY118F) responsive to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). On transfer to ground state culture, in which MAPK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase are inhibited, Gcsf induced transcriptional resetting and functional reprogramming. Activation of a tamoxifen-regulatable fusion, Stat3ERT2, also converted EpiSCs into chimera-competent iPSCs. We exploited GY118F to increase Jak/Stat3 activity during somatic cell reprogramming. Incompletely reprogrammed cells derived from neural stem cells or fibroblasts responded to Gcsf with elevated frequencies of progression to ground state pluripotency. These findings indicate that Jak/Stat3 participate directly in molecular reprogramming and that activation of this pathway is a limiting component. PMID:20804969

  16. HO-3867, a Safe STAT3 Inhibitor, Is Selectively Cytotoxic to Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Kellie S.; Naidu, Shan K.; Lata, Pushpa; Bid, Hemant K.; Rivera, Brian K.; McCann, Georgia A.; Tierney, Brent J.; ElNaggar, Adam C.; Bravo, Veronica; Leone, Gustavo; Houghton, Peter; Hideg, Kálmán; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Cohn, David E.; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 is well corroborated preclinically as a cancer therapeutic target, but tractable translational strategies for its blockade by small molecule inhibitors have remained elusive. In this study, we report the development of a novel class of bifunctional STAT3 inhibitors, based on conjugation of a diarylidenyl-piperidone (DAP) backbone to an N-hydroxypyrroline (?NOH) group, which exhibits minimal toxicity against normal cells and good oral bioavailability. Molecular modeling studies of this class suggested direct interaction with the STAT3 DNA binding domain. In particular, the DAP compound HO-3867 selectively inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, transcription, and DNA binding without affecting the expression of other active STATs. HO-3867 exhibited minimal toxicity toward noncancerous cells and tissues but induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Pharmacologic analysis revealed greater bioabsorption and bioavailability of the active (cytotoxic) metabolites in cancer cells compared with normal cells. The selective cytotoxicity of HO-3867 seemed to be multifaceted, eliciting differential activation of the Akt pathway in normal versus cancer cells. RNAi attenuation experiments confirmed the requirement of STAT3 for HO-3867–mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. In vivo testing showed that HO-3867 could block xenograft tumor growth without toxic side effects. Furthermore, in primary human ovarian cancer cells isolated from patient ascites, HO-3867 inhibited cell migration/invasion and survival. Our results offer preclinical proof-of-concept for HO-3867 as a selective STAT3 inhibitor to treat ovarian cancer and other solid tumors where STAT3 is widely upregulated. PMID:24590057

  17. Role of p38 MAPK and STAT3 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    MENG, AIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOPENG; SHI, YUNA

    2014-01-01

    Excessive production of inflammatory mediators is an important feature of inflammatory lung disease. In macrophages, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) are crucial mediators for the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the role of MAPK and STAT3 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-10 production was investigated in mouse alveolar macrophages. The levels of TNF-? and IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml)-stimulated MH-S cell lines were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with or without p38 inhibitor (SB203580; 5, 10 or 15 ?M) intervention. Phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression was examined by western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry following LPS stimulation for 15 or 30 min. Antibodies against STAT3 were used to verify comparable sample loading. Cells stimulated with LPS showed significantly increased levels of p-STAT3 protein (P<0.05) when compared with the baseline levels. TNF-? and IL-10 protein levels also increased following LPS stimulation (P<0.05). By contrast, treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, decreased the levels of p-STAT3, TNF-? and IL-10 (P<0.05) following LPS stimulation. SB203580 was shown to inhibit LPS-stimulated TNF-? expression (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner, reaching significance at a concentration of 10 ?M. However, the inhibition of IL-10 expression was not concentration-dependent. Therefore, LPS-stimulated overproduction of TNF-? and IL-10 is mediated at least partially by the MAPK pathway. Inhibition of p38 prevented LPS-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating an interaction between the STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25371731

  18. STAT3 Modulation to Enhance Motor Neuron Differentiation in Human Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Rajalaxmi; Singal, Vinamrata; Benes, Richard; Gao, Junling; Chan, Hoi; Chen, Haijun; Yu, Yongjia; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damages spinal motor neurons and forms a glial scar, which prevents neural regeneration. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in astrogliogenesis and scar formation, and thus a fine modulation of STAT3 signaling may help to control the excessive gliogenic environment and enhance neural repair. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of STAT3 inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and Niclosamide, enhanced motor neuron differentiation only in FGF2-primed hNSCs, as shown by increased homeobox gene Hb9 mRNA levels as well as HB9+ and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)+ co-labeled cells. The increased motor neuron differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Interestingly, Stattic and Niclosamide did not affect the level of STAT3 phosphorylation; rather, they perturbed the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, we demonstrate that FGF2 is required for motor neuron differentiation from hNSCs and that inhibition of STAT3 further increases motor neuron differentiation at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Our study thus suggests a potential benefit of targeting the STAT3 pathway for neurotrauma or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24945434

  19. STAT3 silencing inhibits glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Priester, Maike; Copanaki, Ekaterini; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Hensel, Sandra; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Seifert, Volker; Groner, Bernd; Kögel, Donat; Weissenberger, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffuse infiltration remains the fulcrum of glioblastoma's incurability, leading inevitably to recurrence. Therefore, uncovering the pathological mechanism is imperative. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) correlates with glioma malignancy and predicts poor clinical outcome, we determined its role in glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth. Methods STAT3 was silenced in Tu-2449 glioma cells via lentiviral gene transfer. Target gene expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Microvilli were visualized by staining with wheat germ agglutinin. Migration and invasion were measured by Scratch and Matrigel chamber assays. Diffuse infiltration was studied in 350-?m-thick organotypic tissue cultures over 14 days using cells tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and live confocal laser scanning microscopy. Survival of tumor-bearing syngeneic, immunocompetent B6C3F1 mice was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier plots. Results STAT3 silencing reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro and stopped single cell infiltration ex vivo, while STAT3-expressing cells disseminated through the neuropil at ?100 µm/day. STAT3 silencing reduced transcription of several tumor progression genes. Mice with intracranial STAT3 knockdown tumors had a significant (P< .0007) survival advantage over controls, yielding 27% long-term survival. STAT3 knockdown reduced podoplanin expression 50-fold and inhibited concurrent microvilli formation. STAT3 knockdown tumors exhibited a weaker podoplanin immunoreactivity compared with controls. Podoplanin staining was diffuse, preferentially at tumor margins, and absent in normal brain. Conclusions Our results show compelling evidence that STAT3 is a key driver of diffuse infiltration and glioma growth and might therefore represent a promising target for an anti-invasive therapy. PMID:23486688

  20. STAT3 modulation to enhance motor neuron differentiation in human neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Rajalaxmi; Singal, Vinamrata; Benes, Richard; Gao, Junling; Chan, Hoi; Chen, Haijun; Yu, Yongjia; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damages spinal motor neurons and forms a glial scar, which prevents neural regeneration. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in astrogliogenesis and scar formation, and thus a fine modulation of STAT3 signaling may help to control the excessive gliogenic environment and enhance neural repair. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of STAT3 inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and Niclosamide, enhanced motor neuron differentiation only in FGF2-primed hNSCs, as shown by increased homeobox gene Hb9 mRNA levels as well as HB9+ and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)+ co-labeled cells. The increased motor neuron differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Interestingly, Stattic and Niclosamide did not affect the level of STAT3 phosphorylation; rather, they perturbed the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, we demonstrate that FGF2 is required for motor neuron differentiation from hNSCs and that inhibition of STAT3 further increases motor neuron differentiation at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Our study thus suggests a potential benefit of targeting the STAT3 pathway for neurotrauma or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24945434

  1. TLR9 activation of Stat3 constrains its agonist-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kortylewski, Marcin; Kujawski, Maciej; Herrmann, Andreas; Yang, Chunmei; Wang, Lin; Liu, Yong; Salcedo, Rosalba; Yu, Hua

    2009-01-01

    Although toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, such as CpG, are used as immunotherapeutic agents in clinical trials for cancer and infectious diseases, their effects are limited and the underlying mechanism(s) that restrains CpG efficacy remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) plays a key role in downmodulating CpG’s immunostimulatory effects. In the absence of IL-6 and IL-10 induction, CpG directly activates Stat3 within minutes through TLR9. Ablating Stat3 in hematopoietic cells results in rapid activation of innate immunity by CpG, with enhanced production of interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-12, and activation of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells marked with Stat1 activation. Innate immune responses induced by CpG in mice with a Stat3-ablated hematopoietic system cause potent antitumor effects, leading to eradication of large (> 1 cm) B16 melanoma tumors within 72h. Moreover, ablating Stat3 in myeloid cells increases CpG-induced dendritic cell maturation, T cell activation, generation of tumor antigen-specific T cells and long-lasting antitumor immunity. A critical role of Stat3 in mediating immunosuppression by certain cytokines and growth factors in the tumor microenvironment has been recently documented. By demonstrating direct and rapid activation of Stat3 by TLR agonists, we identify a second level of Stat3-mediated immunosuppression. Our results further suggest that targeting Stat3 can drastically improve CpG-based immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:19258507

  2. STAT3 supports experimental K-RasG12D-induced murine myeloproliferative neoplasms dependent on serine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Gough, Daniel J; Marié, Isabelle J; Lobry, Camille; Aifantis, Iannis; Levy, David E

    2014-10-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are genetically heterogeneous but frequently display activating mutations in Ras GTPases and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Altered STAT3 activity is observed in up to 50% of AML correlating with poor prognosis. Activated STAT proteins, classically associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, support tumor development as transcription factors, but alternative STAT functions independent of tyrosine phosphorylation have been documented, including roles for serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria supporting transformation by oncogenic Ras. We examined requirements for STAT3 in experimental murine K-Ras-dependent hematopoietic neoplasia. We show that STAT3 is phosphorylated on S727 but not Y705 in diseased animals. Moreover, a mouse with a point mutation abrogating STAT3 S727 phosphorylation displayed delayed onset and decreased disease severity with significantly extended survival. Activated K-Ras required STAT3 for cytokine-independent growth of myeloid progenitors in vitro, and mitochondrially restricted STAT3 and STAT3-Y705F, both transcriptionally inert mutants, supported factor-independent growth. STAT3 was dispensable for growth of normal or K-Ras-mutant myeloid progenitors in response to cytokines. However, abrogation of STAT3-S727 phosphorylation impaired factor-independent malignant growth. These data document that serine-phosphorylated mitochondrial STAT3 supports neoplastic hematopoietic cell growth induced by K-Ras. PMID:25150294

  3. NF-?B and STAT3 in glioblastoma: therapeutic targets coming of age.

    PubMed

    Gray, G Kenneth; McFarland, Braden C; Nozell, Susan E; Benveniste, Etty N

    2014-11-01

    Since we last addressed the roles of NF-?B and JAK/STAT3 signaling in glioblastoma (GBM) 5 years ago, tremendous strides have been made in the understanding of these two pathways in glioma biology. Contributing to prosurvival mechanisms, cancer stem cell maintenance and treatment resistance, both NF-?B and STAT3 have been characterized as major drivers of GBM. In this review, we address general improvements in the molecular understanding of GBM, the structure of NF-?B and STAT3 signaling, the ways in which these pathways contribute to GBM and advances in preclinical and clinical targeting of these two signaling cascades. PMID:25262780

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of the CSL x Notch interaction: distribution of binding energy of the Notch RAM region to the CSL beta-trefoil domain and the mode of competition with the viral transactivator EBNA2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott E; Ilagan, M Xenia G; Kopan, Raphael; Barrick, Doug

    2010-02-26

    The Notch signaling pathway is a cell-cell communication network giving rise to cell differentiation during metazoan development. Activation of the pathway releases the intracellular portion of the Notch receptor to translocate to the nucleus, where it is able to interact with the effector transcription factor CSL, converting CSL from a transcriptional repressor to an activator. This conversion is dependent upon the high affinity binding of the RAM region of the Notch receptor to the beta-trefoil domain (BTD) of CSL. Here we probe the energetics of binding to BTD of each conserved residue of RAM through the use of isothermal titration calorimetry and single residue substitution. We find that although the highly conserved PhiW PhiP motif is the largest determinant of binding, energetically significant interactions are contributed by N-terminal residues, including a conserved Arg/Lys-rich region. Additionally, we present a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between the Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA2 with BTD and explore the extent to which the EBNA2- and RAM-binding sites on BTD are nonoverlapping, as proposed by Fuchs et al. (Fuchs, K. P., Bommer, G., Dumont, E., Christoph, B., Vidal, M., Kremmer, E., and Kempkes, B. (2001) Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 4639-4646). Combining these results with displacement isothermal titration calorimetry, we propose a mechanism by which the PhiW PhiP motif of RAM and EBNA2 compete with one another for binding at the hydrophobic pocket of BTD using overlapping but specific interactions that are unique to each BTD ligand. PMID:20028974

  5. Ponicidin Induces Apoptosis via JAK2 and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Fei; Lu, Yun-Min; Qu, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Xiong; Liao, Xiao-Hong; Kong, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ponicidin has a variety of biological effects such as immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory functions as well as anti-viral functions especially in the upper respiratory tract infection. This study was aimed to elucidate the antitumor effect of ponicidin in gastric carcinoma MKN28 cells and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Cell viability was measured by the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK8). Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry as well as cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. Western blot analysis was used to detect the active form of caspase-3 as well as Bax and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expressions after cells were treated with different concentrations of ponicidin. The results revealed that ponicidin could inhibit the growth of MKN28 cells significantly in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle was blocked and ROS generation was increased after the cells were treated with ponicidin. Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated remarkably while Bax expression and the active form of caspase-3 were increased after apoptosis occurred. We therefore conclude that ponicidin exhibited significant growth inhibition of gastric carcinoma cell line MKN28 and induced apoptosis of MKN28 cells via the signaling pathway regulated by Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Ponicidin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for gastric carcinoma. PMID:25588213

  6. Inhibitory effect of ent-Sauchinone on amyloidogenesis via inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-?B activation in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ent-Sauchinone is a polyphenolic compound found in plants belonging to the lignan family. ent-Sauchinone has been shown to modulate the expression of inflammatory factors through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway. It is well known that neuroinflammation is associated with amyloidogenesis. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether ent-Sauchinone could have anti-amyloidogenic effects through the inhibition of NF-?B pathways via its anti-inflammatory property. Methods To investigate the potential effect of ent-Sauchinone on anti-neuroinflammation and anti-amyloidogenesis in in vitro studies, we used microglial BV-2 cells and cultured astrocytes treated with ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 24 hours. For the detection of anti-neuro-inflammatory responses, reative oxygen species (ROS) and Nitric oxide (NO) generation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were measured with assay kits and western blotting. ?-secretase and ?-secretase activities and ?-amyloid levels were determined for measuring the anti-amyloidogenic effects of ent-Sauchinone by enzyme assay kits. NF-?B and STAT3 signals were detected with electromobility shift assay (EMSA) to study the related signaling pathways. The binding of ent-Sauchinone to STAT3 was evaluated by a pull-down assay and by a docking model using Autodock VINA software (Hoover’s Inc., Texas, United states). Results ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 ?M) effectively decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-(1 ?g/ml) induced inflammatory responses through the reduction of ROS and NO generations and iNOS and COX-2 expressions in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. ent-Sauchinone also inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of ?-secretase and ?-secretase activity. NF- ?B amyloid and STAT3, critical transcriptional factors regulating not only inflammation but also amyloidogenesis, were also inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by ent-Sauchinone by blocking the phosphorylation of I ?B and STAT3 in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. The docking model approach showed that ent-Sauchinone binds to STAT3, and the employment of a STAT3 inhibitor and siRNA reversed ent-Sauchinone-induced inhibition NF-?B activation and A? generation. Conclusions These results indicated that ent-Sauchinone inhibited neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-?B activity, and thus could be applied in the treatment of neuro-inflammatory diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24985096

  7. Suppression of the mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 pathway by activated AMPK prevents hepatic insulin resistance induced by excess amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongliang; Lee, Jiyeon; He, Chaoyong; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient overload is associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms for developing insulin resistance in the presence of excess nutrients are incompletely understood. We investigated whether activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) prevents the hepatic insulin resistance that is induced by the consumption of a high-protein diet (HPD) and the presence of excess amino acids. Exposure of HepG2 cells to excess amino acids reduced AMPK phosphorylation, upregulated Notch1 expression, and impaired the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt Ser473 and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) Tyr612. Inhibition of Notch1 prevented amino acid-induced insulin resistance, which was accompanied by reduced expression of Rbp-Jk, hairy and enhancer of split-1, and forkhead box O1. Mechanistically, mTORC1 signaling was activated by excess amino acids, which then positively regulated Notch1 expression through the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Activation of AMPK by metformin inhibited mTORC1-STAT3 signaling, thereby preventing excess amino acid-impaired insulin signaling. Finally, HPD feeding suppressed AMPK activity, activated mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 signaling, and induced insulin resistance. Chronic administration of either metformin or rapamycin inhibited the HPD-activated mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 signaling pathway and prevented hepatic insulin resistance. We conclude that the upregulation of Notch1 expression by hyperactive mTORC1 signaling is an essential event in the development of hepatic insulin resistance in the presence of excess amino acids. Activation of AMPK prevents amino acid-induced insulin resistance through the suppression of the mTORC1/STAT3/Notch1 signaling pathway. PMID:24302004

  8. Novel synthetic derivatives of the natural product berbamine inhibit Jak2/Stat3 signaling and induce apoptosis of human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sangkil; Xie, Jun; Perkins, Angela; Ma, Yuelong; Yang, Fan; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Rong-zhen; Huang, Wendong; Horne, David A.; Jove, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Persistent Jak/Stat3 signal transduction plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and immune development. Activated Jak/Stat3 signaling has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapeutics discovery and development. Berbamine (BBM), a natural bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was identified from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Berberis amurensis used for treatment of cancer patients. While BBM has been shown to have potent antitumor activities with low toxicity in various cancer types, the molecular mechanism of action of BBM remains largely unknown. Here, we determine the antitumor activities of thirteen synthetic berbamine derivatives (BBMDs) against human solid tumor cells. BBMD3, which is the most potent in this series of novel BBMDs, exhibits over 6-fold increase in biological activity compared to natural BBM. Moreover, BBMD3, directly inhibits Jak2 autophosphorylation kinase activity in vitro with IC50 = 0.69 ?M. Autophosphorylation of Jak2 kinase at Tyr1007/1008 sites also was strongly inhibited in the range of 1 ?M to 5 ?M of BBMD3 in human melanoma cells at 4 h after treatment. Following inhibition of autophosphorylation of Jak2, BBMD3 blocked constitutive activation of downstream Stat3 signaling in melanoma cells. BBMD3 also down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, associated with induction of apoptosis. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the novel berbamine derivative BBMD3 is an inhibitor of the Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, providing evidence for a molecular mechanism whereby BBMD3 exerts at least in part the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. In addition, BBMD3 represents a promising lead compound for development of new therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:22717603

  9. SOCS3 blocks HIF-1? expression to inhibit proliferation and angiogenesis of human small cell lung cancer by downregulating activation of Akt, but not STAT3.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jun; Che, Yun; Kang, Ningning; Wu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a major negative regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) during tumorigenesis. Previous studies have indicated that SOCS3 also regulates other signaling pathways, such as PI3K/Akt. However, little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms by which SOCS3 regulates the proliferation and angiogenesis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The present study investigated the effect of SOCS3 upregulation on the expression of hypoxia?inducible factor?1? (HIF?1?) and how this affects the proliferation and angiogenesis of SCLC cells. It was investigated whether this interaction is associated with STAT3 or the Akt signaling pathway. The results of the present study revealed that SOCS3 negatively regulates proliferation and angiogenesis of NCI?H446 cells and that HIF?1? is required in this process. The results also suggested a suppressive role of SOCS3 in Akt signaling, but not STAT3 signaling to block HIF?1? expression and a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for Akt function. In conclusion, the present study suggested that SOCS3 targets the Akt signaling pathway to inhibit HIF?1? expression and affect the growth and angiogenesis of SCLC cells, and may therefore be considered as a potential novel therapeutic for the treatment of SCLC. PMID:25695729

  10. Ghrelin Inhibits the Differentiation of T Helper 17 Cells through mTOR/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanhui; Li, Ziru; Yin, Yue; Lan, He; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Feng, Juan; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activity of interleukin 17 (IL-17) producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Significant loss of body weight and appetite is associated with chronic inflammation and immune activation, suggesting the cross talk between immune and neuroendocrine systems. Ghrelin has been shown to regulate the organism immune function. However, the effects of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells remain elusive. In the present study, we observed the enhanced differentiation of Th17 cells in spleens of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a)-/- mice. Treatment of ghrelin repressed Th17 cell differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased in the spleens of GHSR1a-/- mice. Activation of mTOR signaling by injection of Cre-expressiong adenovirus into tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) loxp/loxp mice increased the differentiation of Th17 cells in spleen, which was associated with an increment in the phosphorylation of STAT3. Activation of mTOR signaling by leucine or overexpression of p70 ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1) activated mTOR signaling in isolated T cells, while reversed the ghrelin-induced inhibition of iTh17 cell differentiation. In conclusion, mTOR mediates the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells by interacting with STAT3. PMID:25658305

  11. Investigating Dynamics of the STAT3 and C/EBP? Pathways upon Stimulation by Inflammatory Cytokines

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Peng

    2011-08-04

    -6 family. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmids with STAT3 and C/EBP? transcription factor binding sequences were transfected into human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines, the transcription...

  12. Convergent Mutations and Kinase Fusions Lead to Oncogenic STAT3 Activation in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Ramona; Abate, Francesco; Lasorsa, Elena; Tabbo', Fabrizio; Gaudiano, Marcello; Chiesa, Nicoletta; Di Giacomo, Filomena; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Barbarossa, Luigi; Ercole, Elisabetta; Todaro, Maria; Boi, Michela; Acquaviva, Andrea; Ficarra, Elisa; Novero, Domenico; Rinaldi, Andrea; Tousseyn, Thomas; Rosenwald, Andreas; Kenner, Lukas; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Tzankov, Alexander; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Paulli, Marco; Weisenburger, Dennis; Chan, Wing C; Iqbal, Javeed; Piris, Miguel A; Zamo', Alberto; Ciardullo, Carmela; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Pileri, Stefano; Tiacci, Enrico; Falini, Brunangelo; Shultz, Leonard D; Mevellec, Laurence; Vialard, Jorge E; Piva, Roberto; Bertoni, Francesco; Rabadan, Raul; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2015-04-13

    A systematic characterization of the genetic alterations driving ALCLs has not been performed. By integrating massive sequencing strategies, we provide a comprehensive characterization of driver genetic alterations (somatic point mutations, copy number alterations, and gene fusions) in ALK(-) ALCLs. We identified activating mutations of JAK1 and/or STAT3 genes in ?20% of 155 ALK(-) ALCLs and demonstrated that 38% of systemic ALK(-) ALCLs displayed double lesions. Recurrent chimeras combining a transcription factor (NFkB2 or NCOR2) with a tyrosine kinase (ROS1 or TYK2) were also discovered in WT JAK1/STAT3 ALK(-) ALCL. All these aberrations lead to the constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway, which was proved oncogenic. Consistently, JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition impaired cell growth in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25873174

  13. Inhibition of STAT3 Expression and Signaling in Resveratrol-Differentiated Medulloblastoma Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Jun Yu; Mo-Li Wu; Hong Li; Xiao-Yan Chen; Qian Wang; Yuan Sun; Qing-You Kong; Jia Liu

    In this study, the potential influence of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling of medulloblastoma cells was evaluated by checking the status of STAT3 sig- naling and its downstream gene expression in two medulloblastoma cell lines (UW228-2 and UW228-3) with and without resveratrol treatment. The results revealed that resveratrol induced neuronal differentiation of medulloblas-

  14. Alternative implication of CXCR4 in JAK2\\/STAT3 activation in small cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pfeiffer; T N Hartmann; M Leick; J Catusse; A Schmitt-Graeff; M Burger

    2009-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive, rapidly metastasising tumour. Previously, we demonstrated the influence of CXCL12–CXCR4 interaction on processes involved in metastasis and chemoresistance in SCLC. We show here that STAT3 is expressed in both primary SCLC tumour tissues and SCLC cell lines. We investigated the function of STAT3 upon CXCL12 stimulation in SCLC cell lines. Small cell

  15. Roles of STAT3 in mediating the cell growth, differentiation and survival signals relayed through the IL6 family of cytokine receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Hirano; Katsuhiko Ishihara; Masahiko Hibi

    2000-01-01

    Members of the IL-6 cytokine family are involved in a variety of biological responses, including the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis by regulating cell growth, survival, and differentiation. These cytokines use gp130 as a common receptor subunit. The binding of ligand to gp130 activates the JAK\\/STAT signal transduction pathway, where STAT3 plays a central role in transmitting the signals

  16. Stable expression of constitutively-activated STAT3 in benign prostatic epithelial cells changes their phenotype to that resembling malignant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hosea F Huang; Thomas F Murphy; Ping Shu; Arnold B Barton; Beverly E Barton

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are involved in growth regulation of cells. They are usually activated by phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues. In neoplastic cells, constitutive activation of STATs accompanies growth dysregulation and resistance to apoptosis through changes in gene expression, such as enhanced anti-apoptotic gene expression or reduced pro-apoptotic gene expression. Activated STAT3 is thought to

  17. First-in-human trial of a STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide in head and neck tumors: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Malabika; Thomas, Sufi. M.; Kim, Seungwon; Yeh, Joanne I.; Ferris, Robert L.; Johnson, Jonas T.; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Lee, Jessica; Sahu, Nivedita; Joyce, Sonali; Freilino, Maria L.; Shi, Haibin; Li, Changyou; Ly, Danith; Rapireddy, Srinivas; Etter, Jonathan P.; Li, Pui-Kai; Wang, Lin; Chiosea, Simion; Seethala, Raja R.; Gooding, William. E.; Chen, Xiaomin; Kaminski, Naftali; Pandit, Kusum; Johnson, Daniel. E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence implicating transcription factors, including STAT3, in oncogenesis, these proteins have been regarded as “undruggable”. We developed a decoy targeting STAT3 and performed a phase 0 trial. Expression levels of STAT3 target genes were decreased in the head and neck cancers following injection with the STAT3 decoy compared with tumors receiving saline control. Decoys have not been amenable to systemic administration due to instability. To overcome this barrier, we linked the oligonucleotide strands using hexa-ethyleneglycol spacers. This cyclic STAT3 decoy bound with high affinity to STAT3 protein, reduced cellular viability, and suppressed STAT3 target gene expression in cancer cells. Intravenous injection of the cyclic STAT3 decoy inhibited xenograft growth and downregulated STAT3 target genes in the tumors. These results provide the first demonstration of a successful strategy to inhibit tumor STAT3 signaling via systemic administration of a selective STAT3 inhibitor, thereby paving the way for broad clinical development. PMID:22719020

  18. Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium – a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIII? and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

  19. Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIII? and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

  20. Inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway exerts a therapeutic effect on osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Qianliang; Zou, Kang; Wang, Li; Schwartz, Eric B; Fuchs, James R; Zheng, Zugen; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-07-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant bone tumor. Despite aggressive multimodal treatments, including surgical resection, chemotherapy and adjunctive immunotherapies, patients with OS with high?grade malignancy have a poor five?year survival rate that has remained unchanged over the past two decades, highlighting the urgent requirement for novel therapeutic approaches. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been implicated as an oncogene and therapeutic target in a variety of neoplastic diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of the janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway by FLLL32, a specific JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, is able to provide a potential therapy for OS. FLLL32 inhibited OS cell growth in vitro and delayed OS growth in an OS xenograft nude mouse model. STAT3 knockdown by short hairpin RNA delayed OS formation in vivo. Thus, the JAK2/STAT3 pathway is important in OS formation. Efficacy of the FLLL32 pharmacological inhibitor in delaying OS growth suggests that targeting JAK2/STAT3 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with OS. PMID:25760445

  1. Targeting STAT3 in adoptively transferred T cells promotes their in vivo expansion and antitumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Maciej; Zhang, Chunyan; Herrmann, Andreas; Reckamp, Karen; Scuto, Anna; Jensen, Michael; Deng, Jiehui; Forman, Stephen; Figlin, Robert; Yu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells to improve natural immune response and antitumor functions has shown promise for treating cancer. However, the requirement for extensive ex vivo manipulation of T cells and the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment limit this therapeutic modality. In the present study, we investigated the possibility to circumvent these limitations by engineering Stat3-deficient CD8+ T cells or by targeting Stat3 in the tumor microenvironment. We show that ablating Stat3 in CD8+ T cells prior to their transfer allows their efficient tumor infiltration and robust proliferation, resulting in increased tumor antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor growth inhibition. For potential clinical translation, we combined adoptive T cell therapy with an FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma tumor models. Sunitinib inhibited Stat3 in dendritic cells and T cells, reduced conversion of transferred Foxp3? T cells to tumor-associated T regulatory cells while increasing transferred CD8+ T cell infiltration and activation at the tumor site, leading to inhibition of primary tumor growth. These data demonstrate that adoptively transferred T cells can be expanded and activated in vivo either by engineering Stat3 silenced T cells or by targeting Stat3 systemically with small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:21118964

  2. Functional STAT3 deficiency compromises the generation of human T follicular helper cells

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Danielle T.; Chan, Anna; Batten, Marcel; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Arkwright, Peter D.; Kreins, Alexandra Y.; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Magdorf, Klaus; Kilic, Sara S.; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; French, Martyn A.; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Gray, Paul; Cook, Matthew C.; Fulcher, David A.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Deenick, Elissa K.

    2012-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for providing the necessary signals to induce differentiation of B cells into memory and Ab-secreting cells. Accordingly, it is important to identify the molecular requirements for Tfh cell development and function. We previously found that IL-12 mediates the differentiation of human CD4+ T cells to the Tfh lineage, because IL-12 induces naive human CD4+ T cells to acquire expression of IL-21, BCL6, ICOS, and CXCR5, which typify Tfh cells. We have now examined CD4+ T cells from patients deficient in IL-12R?1, TYK2, STAT1, and STAT3 to further explore the pathways involved in human Tfh cell differentiation. Although STAT1 was dispensable, mutations in IL12RB1, TYK2, or STAT3 compromised IL-12–induced expression of IL-21 by human CD4+ T cells. Defective expression of IL-21 by STAT3-deficient CD4+ T cells resulted in diminished B-cell helper activity in vitro. Importantly, mutations in STAT3, but not IL12RB1 or TYK2, also reduced Tfh cell generation in vivo, evidenced by decreased circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells. These results highlight the nonredundant role of STAT3 in human Tfh cell differentiation and suggest that defective Tfh cell development and/or function contributes to the humoral defects observed in STAT3-deficient patients. PMID:22403255

  3. STAT3-dependent VEGF production from keratinocytes abrogates dendritic cell activation and migration by arsenic: a plausible regional mechanism of immunosuppression in arsenical cancers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Chang, Kee-Lung; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic remains an important environmental hazard that causes several human cancers. Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD), a skin carcinoma in situ, is the most common arsenical cancer. While great strides have been made in our understanding of arsenic carcinogenesis, how host immunity contributes to this process remains unknown. Patients with As-BD have an impaired contact hypersensitivity response. Although impaired T cell activation has been well-documented in arsenical cancers, how dendritic cell (DC), the key cell regulating innate immunity, regulates the immune response in arsenical cancers remains unclear. Using myeloid derived DC (MDDC) from patients with As-BD and normal controls as well as bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) from mice fed with or without arsenic, we measured the migration of DC. As-BD patients showed an impaired CCL21-mediated MDDC migration in vitro. Arsenic-fed mice had defective DC migration toward popliteal lymph nodes when injected with allogenic BMDCs via foot pad. Using skin from As-BD and normal controls, we found an increased expression of STAT3, a transcriptional factor contributing to impaired DC activation. Arsenic induced STAT3 activation and the production of VEGF in keratinocytes. The increase in VEGF was blocked by inhibiting STAT3 with RNA interference or pharmaceutically with JSI-124. While VEGF by itself minimally induced the expression of CD86 and MHC-II in MDDC, arsenic induced-MDDC activation was abolished by VEGF pretreatment. We concluded that the STAT3-VEGF axis in keratinocytes inhibits DC migration in the microenvironment of As-BD, indicating that cellular interactions play an important role in regulating the disease course of arsenical cancers. PMID:25559853

  4. Curcumin: A Novel Stat 3 Pathway Inhibitor for Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrow, Mark G.; Song, Lanxi J.; Altiok, Soner; Gray, Jhanelle; Haura, Eric B.; Kumar, Nagi B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Multiple studies from independent groups find evidence for Stat3 activation in nearly 50% of lung cancers suggesting a functional role for this target in subsets of lung cancer. Based on the existing evidence we hypothesized that bioavailable curcuminoid complex may modulate lung carcinogenesis, primarily by inhibiting Stat3 activation. With the safety of this botanical well established, the objective of these studies is to test our hypothesis in vitro and in vivo in an effort to inform the design of a phase II chemoprevention trial in former smokers. Methods We treated non-tumor derived, normal (but immortalized) human bronchial epithelial cells (AALE) and lung adenocarcinoma derived cells (H441) with bioactive Curcumin C3 Complex. Asynchronous cells in each case were treated with curcumin for 24 hrs, followed by immunoblotting for Stat3 and activated Stat3-P, prior signal of which was used for normalization. We also completed a preclinical trial in which 12 mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to 3 days or 9 days of curcumin i.p. injections, followed by analysis of lung tissues for Stat3-P changes and growth suppressive effects of the curcumin. The growth suppressive effects were measured using Cyclin D1 and the replicative helicase subunit, Mcm2, as surrogates for the proliferative capacity of the tissues. Results in vitro studies with curcuminoid complex demonstrated that the activity of Stat3 in both normal bronchoepithelial cells and lung cancer derived cells is sensitive to curcumin exposure. In a dose-dependent manner, curcumin treatment resulted in significant suppression of Stat3 phosphorylation and reduction in the proliferative capacity of both cell types. In the preclinical trial with rodent models, curcumin reduced Stat3-P and the proliferative markers CycD1 and Mcm2 in mice lung tissues in vivo. Conclusion These culture and preclinical studies indicate that the activity of the Stat3 pathway can be suppressed by curcumin treatment, concomitant with a reduction in cell proliferation, supporting our hypothesis that inhibition of the Stat3 pathway represents at least one important mechanism by which curcumin elicits its effects on the bronchoepithelium. These data provide a rationale for the use of curcumin as a promising chemopreventive agent in high risk populations such as former smokers. PMID:22156994

  5. NgR1 Expressed in P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Differentiated by Retinoic Acid Can Activate STAT3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su In; Yun, Jieun; Baek, Ji-Young; Jeong, Yun-Ji; Kim, Jin-Ah; Kang, Jong Soon; Park, Sun Hong; Kim, Sang Kyum; Park, Song-Kyu

    2015-03-01

    NgR1, a Nogo receptor, is involved in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration and regulation of synaptic plasticity. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells using all trans-retinoic acid and the presence and/or function of cellular molecules, such as NgR1, NMDA receptors and STAT3, were examined. Neuronally differentiated P19 cells expressed the mRNA and protein of NgR1, which could stimulate the phosphorylation of STAT3 when activated by Nogo-P4 peptide, an active segment of Nogo-66. During the whole period of differentiation, mRNAs of all of the NMDA receptor subtypes tested (NR1, NR2A-2D) were consistently expressed, which meant that neuronally differentiated P19 cells maintained some characteristics of neurons, especially central nervous system neurons. Our results suggests that neuronally differentiated P19 cells expressing NgR1 may be an efficient and convenient in vitro model for studying the molecular mechanism of cellular events that involve NgR1 and its binding partners, and for screening compounds that activate or inhibit NgR1. PMID:25729271

  6. NgR1 Expressed in P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Differentiated by Retinoic Acid Can Activate STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su In; Yun, Jieun; Baek, Ji-Young; Jeong, Yun-Ji; Kim, Jin-Ah; Kang, Jong Soon; Park, Sun Hong; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2015-01-01

    NgR1, a Nogo receptor, is involved in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration and regulation of synaptic plasticity. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells using all trans-retinoic acid and the presence and/or function of cellular molecules, such as NgR1, NMDA receptors and STAT3, were examined. Neuronally differentiated P19 cells expressed the mRNA and protein of NgR1, which could stimulate the phosphorylation of STAT3 when activated by Nogo-P4 peptide, an active segment of Nogo-66. During the whole period of differentiation, mRNAs of all of the NMDA receptor subtypes tested (NR1, NR2A-2D) were consistently expressed, which meant that neuronally differentiated P19 cells maintained some characteristics of neurons, especially central nervous system neurons. Our results suggests that neuronally differentiated P19 cells expressing NgR1 may be an efficient and convenient in vitro model for studying the molecular mechanism of cellular events that involve NgR1 and its binding partners, and for screening compounds that activate or inhibit NgR1. PMID:25729271

  7. Prevention of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock-Mediated Liver Apoptosis by Activation of Stat3?

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Ana; Akcan Arikan, Ayse; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality in the United States. Death among those surviving the initial insult is caused by multiple organ failure (MOF) with the liver among the organs most frequently affected. We previously demonstrated in rodents that trauma complicated by hemorrhagic shock (trauma/HS) results in liver injury that can be prevented by IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation; however, the contribution of the severity of HS to the extent of liver injury, whether or not resuscitation is required and the mechanism for the IL-6 protective effect have not been reported. In the experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the extent of liver apoptosis induced by trauma/HS depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. We established that IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation is capable of completely reversing liver apoptosis and is associated with increased Stat3 activation. Microarray analysis of the livers showed that the main effect of IL-6 was to normalize the trauma/HS-induced apoptosis transcriptome. Pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity within the liver blocked the ability of IL-6 to prevent liver apoptosis and to normalize the trauma/HS- induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. Genetic deletion of a Stat3?, a naturally occurring, dominant-negative isoform of the Stat3, attenuated trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis, confirming a role for Stat3, especially Stat3?, in preventing trauma/HS-mediated liver apoptosis. Thus, trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation reverses HS-induced liver apoptosis, through activation of Stat3?, which normalizes the trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:18997875

  8. Decreased STAT3 in human idiopathic fetal growth restriction contributes to trophoblast dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Borg, A J; Yong, H E J; Lappas, M; Degrelle, S A; Keogh, R J; Da Silva-Costa, F; Fournier, T; Abumaree, M; Keelan, J A; Kalionis, B; Murthi, P

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal trophoblast function is associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The JAK-STAT pathway is one of the principal signalling mechanisms by which cytokines and growth factors modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and apoptosis. The expression of placental JAK-STAT genes in human idiopathic FGR is unknown. In this study, we propose the hypothesis that JAK-STAT pathway genes are differentially expressed in idiopathic FGR-affected pregnancies and contribute to abnormal feto-placental growth by modulating the expression of the amino acid transporter SNAT2, differentiation marker CGB/human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit (?-hCG) and apoptosis markers caspases 3 and 8, and TP53. Expression profiling of FGR-affected placentae revealed that mRNA levels of STAT3, STAT2 and STAT5B decreased by 69, 52 and 50%, respectively, compared with gestational-age-matched controls. Further validation by real-time PCR and immunoblotting confirmed significantly lower STAT3 mRNA and STAT3 protein (total and phosphorylated) levels in FGR placentae. STAT3 protein was localised to the syncytiotrophoblast (ST) in both FGR and control placentae. ST differentiation was modelled by in vitro differentiation of primary villous trophoblast cells from first-trimester and term placentae, and by treating choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells with forskolin in cell culture. Differentiation in these models was associated with increased STAT3 mRNA and protein levels. In BeWo cells treated with siRNA targeting STAT3, the mRNA and protein levels of CGB/?-hCG, caspases 3 and 8, and TP53 were significantly increased, while that of SNAT2 was significantly decreased compared with the negative control siRNA. In conclusion, we report that decreased STAT3 expression in placentae may contribute to abnormal trophoblast function in idiopathic FGR-affected pregnancies. PMID:25713425

  9. Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

  10. Leukemia cell-targeted STAT3 silencing and TLR9 triggering generate systemic antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Dos Santos, Cedric; Zhang, Qifang; Kozlowska, Anna; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Chan; Moreira, Dayson; Swiderski, Piotr; Jozwiak, Agnieszka; Kline, Justin; Forman, Stephen; Bhatia, Ravi; Kuo, Ya-Huei; Kortylewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogene and immune checkpoint commonly activated in cancer cells and in tumor-associated immune cells. We previously developed an immunostimulatory strategy based on targeted Stat3 silencing in Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-positive hematopoietic cells using CpG-small interfering RNA (siRNA) conjugates. Here, we assessed the therapeutic effect of systemic STAT3 blocking/TLR9 triggering in disseminated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We used mouse Cbfb-MYH11/Mpl-induced leukemia model, which mimics human inv(16) AML. Our results demonstrate that intravenously delivered CpG-Stat3 siRNA, but not control oligonucleotides, can eradicate established AML and impair leukemia-initiating potential. These antitumor effects require host's effector T cells but not TLR9-positive antigen-presenting cells. Instead, CpG-Stat3 siRNA has direct immunogenic effect on AML cells in vivo upregulating major histocompatibility complex class-II, costimulatory and proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-12, while downregulating coinhibitory PD-L1 molecule. Systemic injections of CpG-Stat3 siRNA generate potent tumor antigen-specific immune responses, increase the ratio of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells to regulatory T cells in various organs, and result in CD8(+) T-cell-dependent regression of leukemia. Our findings underscore the potential of using targeted STAT3 inhibition/TLR9 triggering to break tumor tolerance and induce immunity against AML and potentially other TLR9-positive blood cancers. PMID:24169824

  11. Leukemia cell–targeted STAT3 silencing and TLR9 triggering generate systemic antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Dos Santos, Cedric; Zhang, Qifang; Kozlowska, Anna; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Chan; Moreira, Dayson; Swiderski, Piotr; Jozwiak, Agnieszka; Kline, Justin; Forman, Stephen; Bhatia, Ravi; Kuo, Ya-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogene and immune checkpoint commonly activated in cancer cells and in tumor-associated immune cells. We previously developed an immunostimulatory strategy based on targeted Stat3 silencing in Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-positive hematopoietic cells using CpG-small interfering RNA (siRNA) conjugates. Here, we assessed the therapeutic effect of systemic STAT3 blocking/TLR9 triggering in disseminated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We used mouse Cbfb-MYH11/Mpl-induced leukemia model, which mimics human inv(16) AML. Our results demonstrate that intravenously delivered CpG-Stat3 siRNA, but not control oligonucleotides, can eradicate established AML and impair leukemia-initiating potential. These antitumor effects require host’s effector T cells but not TLR9-positive antigen-presenting cells. Instead, CpG-Stat3 siRNA has direct immunogenic effect on AML cells in vivo upregulating major histocompatibility complex class-II, costimulatory and proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-12, while downregulating coinhibitory PD-L1 molecule. Systemic injections of CpG-Stat3 siRNA generate potent tumor antigen–specific immune responses, increase the ratio of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells to regulatory T cells in various organs, and result in CD8+ T-cell–dependent regression of leukemia. Our findings underscore the potential of using targeted STAT3 inhibition/TLR9 triggering to break tumor tolerance and induce immunity against AML and potentially other TLR9-positive blood cancers. PMID:24169824

  12. Effects of lentivirus mediated STAT3 silencing on human chronic myeloid leukemia cells and leukemia mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xinyan; Yang, Wenzhong; Han, Jia; Xiong, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of lentivirus mediated STAT3 silencing on human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562) and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia mice as well as to explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: Unbtreated K562 cells (CON), blank lentivirus transfected K562 cells (NC) and K562 cells expressing STAT3 siRNA (STAT3 siRNA) were injected into SCID mice to establish the chronic myeloid leukemia model in mice. The growth, peripheral white blood cell count and spleen index in these mice were determined. Results: In vitro experiment showed, when compared with control group, the interference efficiency of STAT3 expression was as high as 97.5% in K562 cells. Western blot assay revealed that the expression of c-Myc, Bcl-xL and Cyclin D1 reduced by 17.01%, 7.3% and 6.82%, respectively, showing significant difference when compared with control group (P < 0.01). These findings were consistent with those from fluorescence quantitative PCR. In vivo experiment showed the body weight of mice reduced progressively and the peripheral white blood cell count increased gradually in control group, accompanied by dragging hind limbs and progressive enlargement of the spleen. The body weight remained unchanged, peripheral white blood cell count reduced gradually and the spleen did not enlarge in mice treated with STAT3 siRNA expressing cells. Conclusion: Lentivirus mediated STAT3 silencing may inhibit the expression of its downstream genes (c-Myc, Bcl-xL and Cyclin D1) related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and cycle to suppress the malignant biological behaviors, and STAT3 silencing also inhibit the leukemogenic potency of K562 cells in mice. PMID:25550912

  13. Rapamycin Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anindita; Salloum, Fadi N.; Durrant, David; Ockaili, Ramzi; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2012-01-01

    Rapamycin (Sirolimus®) is used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs and coronary restenosis. We reported that rapamycin induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury through opening of mitochondrial KATP channels. However, signaling mechanisms in rapamycin-induced cardioprotection are currently unknown. Considering that STAT3 is protective in the heart, we investigated the potential role of this transcription factor in rapamycin-induced protection against (I/R) injury. Adult male ICR mice were treated with rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO) with/without inhibitor of JAK2 (AG-490) or STAT3 (stattic). One hour later, the hearts were subjected to I/R either in Langendorf mode or in situ ligation of left coronary artery. Additionally, primary murine cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated ischemia/reoxygenation (SI-RO) injury in vitro. For in situ targeted knockdown of STAT3, lentiviral vector containing short hairpin RNA was injected into left ventricle 3 weeks prior to initiating I/R injury. Infarct size, cardiac function, cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis were assessed. Rapamycin reduced infarct size, improved cardiac function following I/R, limited cardiomyocytes necrosis as well as apoptosis following SI-RO which were blocked by AG-490 and stattic. In situ knock-down of STAT3 attenuated rapamycin-induced protection against I/R injury. Rapamycin triggered unique cardioprotecive signaling including phosphorylation of ERK, STAT3, eNOS and glycogen synthase kinase-3? in concert with increased prosurvival Bcl-2 to Bax ratio. Our data suggest that JAK2-STAT3 signaling plays an essential role in rapamycin-induced cardioprotection. We propose that rapamycin is a novel and clinically relevant pharmacological strategy to target STAT3 activation for treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:22999860

  14. Feedback activation of STAT3 mediates trastuzumab resistance via upregulation of MUC1 and MUC4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Fan, Kexing; Qian, Weizhu; Hou, Sheng; Wang, Hao; Dai, Jianxin; Wei, Huafeng; Guo, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Although HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab confers a substantial benefit for patients with HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer, overcoming trastuzumab resistance remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a STAT3-centered positive feedback loop that mediates the resistance of trastuzumab. Mechanistically, chronic exposure of trastuzumab causes the upregulation of fibronection (FN), EGF and IL-6 in parental trastuzumab-sensitive breast and gastric cells and convergently leads to STAT3 hyperactivation. Activated STAT3 enhances the expression of FN, EGF and IL-6, thus constituting a positive feedback loop which amplifies and maintains the STAT3 signal; furthermore, hyperactivated STAT3 signal promotes the expression of MUC1 and MUC4, consequently mediating trastuzumab resistance via maintenance of persistent HER2 activation and masking of trastuzumab binding to HER2 respectively. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 disrupted STAT3-dependent positive feedback loop and recovered the trastuzumab sensitivity partially due to increased apoptosis induction. Combined trastuzumab with STAT3 inhibition synergistically suppressed the growth of the trastuzumab-resistant tumor xenografts in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that feedback activation of STAT3 constitutes a key node mediating trastuzumab resistance. Combinatorial targeting on both HER2 and STAT3 may enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab or other HER2-targeting agents in HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer. PMID:25327561

  15. Blockage of PTPRJ promotes cell growth and resistance to 5-FU through activation of JAK1/STAT3 in the cervical carcinoma cell line C33A.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun-Mei; Zhao, Ying-Ling; Cai, Hong-Yi; Miao, Guo-Ying; Ma, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for chemoresistant cervical cancers. Therapeutic interventions targeting the key factors contributing to the initiation and progression of cervical cancer may be a more effective treatment strategy. In the present study, we firstly determined the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J (PTPRJ) in 8-paired human cervical tumor and non-tumor tissues. We observed a striking downregulation of PTPRJ in the human cervical tumor tissues. Next, we investigated the roles and the function mechanism of PTPRJ in the human cervical carcinoma cell line C33A by loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Our study indicated that C33A cells with loss of PTPRJ expression showed a significantly increased cell viability, rising growth and migration rate, as well as a G1-S transition. We obtained the opposite results when we overexpressed PTPRJ in C33A cells. Our further study indicated that PTPRJ levels were highly correlated with cell survival when the C33A cells were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an important chemotherapeutic agent for cervical cancer. In addition, the signaling pathway screening assay showed an obvious alteration of the Janus kinase 1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK1/STAT3) pathway. PTPRJ negatively regulated the activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation levels of JAK1 and STAT3. In addition, PTPRJ also regulated the expression of the downstream factors of STAT3, such as cyclin D, Bax, VEGF and MMP2. Our results suggest that PTPRJ may be a promising gene therapy target and its therapeutic potential can be fulfilled when used alone, or in combination with other anticancer agents. PMID:25634668

  16. Humanized Lewis-Y specific antibody based delivery of STAT3 siRNA.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuelong; Kowolik, Claudia M; Swiderski, Piotr M; Kortylewski, Marcin; Yu, Hua; Horne, David A; Jove, Richard; Caballero, Otavia L; Simpson, Andrew J G; Lee, Fook-Thean; Pillay, Vinochani; Scott, Andrew M

    2011-09-16

    The clinical application of siRNA is limited largely by the lack of efficient, cell-specific delivery systems. Antibodies are attractive delivery vehicles for targeted therapy due to their high specificity. In this study we describe the use of a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), hu3S193, against Lewis-Y (Le(y)), as a delivery vehicle for STAT3 siRNA. This mAb is rapidly internalized into Le(y)-expressing cancer cells via antigen recognition, and when coupled to STAT3 siRNA, a potentially powerful molecularly targeted delivery agent is created. Selective silencing of STAT3 is associated with tumor suppression. Two hu3S193 based siRNA delivery systems using STAT3 siRNA as a prototype were developed and tested in Le(y)-positive cancer cells: (a) a covalent construct based on a reductive disulfide linker that is expected to undergo cleavage within cells and (b) a noncovalent construct based on (d-arginine)(9) (9r) modified hu3S193. Le(y)-specific binding and internalization of both the covalent and noncovalent constructs were confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both the covalent and the noncovalent system led to efficient STAT3 silencing in Le(y)-positive cancer cells (A431) but not in Le(y)-negative cancer cells (MDA-MB-435). The covalent construct, however, required co-treatment with reagents such as chloroquine or 9r that facilitate the escape of the siRNA from endosomes to achieve significant gene silencing. The 9r modified noncovalent construct induced ?70% STAT3 knockdown at submicromolar siRNA concentrations when used at an optimal vehicle-to-siRNA ratio of 5:1. The STAT3 knockdown also led to ?50% inhibition of cell proliferation of Le(y)-positive cells. Noncovalent linked STAT3 siRNA-hu3S193 has great promise for targeted knockdown of STAT3 in tumor cells. PMID:21766840

  17. Humanized Lewis-Y specific antibody based delivery of STAT3 siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuelong; Kowolik, Claudia M.; Swiderski, Piotr M.; Kortylewski, Marcin; Yu, Hua; Horne, David A.; Jove, Richard; Caballero, Otavia L.; Simpson, Andrew J.G.; Lee, Fook-Thean; Pillay, Vinochani; Scott, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical application of siRNA is limited largely by the lack of efficient, cell-specific delivery systems. Antibodies are attractive delivery vehicles for targeted therapy due to their high specificity. In this study we describe the use of a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), hu3S193, against Lewis-Y (Ley), as a delivery vehicle for STAT3 siRNA. This mAb is rapidly internalized into Ley expressing cancer cells via antigen recognition, and when coupled to STAT3 siRNA, a potentially powerful molecularly targeted delivery agent is created. Selective silencing of STAT3 is associated with tumor suppression. Two hu3S193 based siRNA delivery systems using STAT3 siRNA as a prototype were developed and tested in Ley-positive cancer cells: (a) a covalent construct based on a reductive disulfide linker that is expected to undergo cleavage within cells and (b) a non-covalent construct based on (D-Arginine)9 (9r) modified hu3S193. Ley-specific binding and internalization of both the covalent and non-covalent constructs were confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both the covalent and the non-covalent system led to efficient STAT3 silencing in Ley-positive cancer cells (A431), but not in Ley-negative cancer cells (MDA-MB-435). The covalent construct, however, required co-treatment with reagents such as chloroquine or 9r that facilitate the escape of the siRNA from endosomes to achieve significant gene silencing. The 9r modified non-covalent construct, induced ~70% STAT3 knockdown at sub-micromolar siRNA concentrations when used at an optimal vehicle-to-siRNA ratio of 5:1. The STAT3 knockdown also led to ~50% inhibition of cell proliferation of Ley-positive cells. Non-covalent linked STAT3 siRNA-hu3S193 has great promise for targeted knockdown of STAT3 in tumor cells. PMID:21766840

  18. Characterization of molecular recognition of STAT3 SH2 domain inhibitors through molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Hee; Li, Chenglong

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an anti-cancer target protein due to its over-activation in tumor cells. The Tyr705-phosphorylated (pTyr) STAT3 binds to the pTyr-recognition site of its Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain of another STAT3 monomer to form a homo-dimer, which then causes cellular anti-apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor invasion. Recently, many STAT3 SH2 dimerization inhibitors have been discovered via both computational and experimental methods. To systematically assess their binding affinities and specificities, for eight representative inhibitors, we utilized molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and ensuing energetic analysis to compare their binding characteristics. The inhibitors' binding free energies were calculated via MMPB(GB)SA, and the STAT3 SH2 binding "hot spots" were evaluated through binding energy decomposition and hydrogen bond (H-bond) distribution analysis. Several conclusions can be drawn: (1) the overall enthalpy-entropy compensation paradigm is preserved for the STAT3 SH2/ligand binding thermodynamics; (2) at one end of the binding spectrum, two compounds bind to SH2 due to their minimum entropic penalties that result from their relative rigidities and increased dynamics of SH2 upon their binding; at the other end of the binding spectrum, one compound shows a typical weak binder behavior due to its loose binding in the SH2's strongest enthalpy-contributing binding subsite; (3) hydrogen bonding seems a strong indicator to evaluate the SH2/ligand binding potency, which echoes a finding that CH/? non-classical H-bond is responsible for some pTyr peptides binding to their corresponding SH2 domains; (4) STAT3 SH2 domain possesses three binding "hot spots": pTyr705-binding pocket with polar residues and contributing the largest binding enthalpy (two-thirds); Leu706 subsite which is the most dynamic and hardest to target; a hydrophobic side pocket which is unique to STAT3 and very targetable, which may offer unique opportunity to design STAT3-specific inhibitors, particularly with fragment-based approach. PMID:21360612

  19. SIAH2 antagonizes TYK2-STAT3 signaling in lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sylvia; Chen, Yuan; Ginter, Torsten; Schäfer, Claudia; Buchwald, Marc; Schmitz, Lienhard M.; Klitzsch, Jana; Schütz, Alexander; Haitel, Andrea; Schmid, Katharina; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Haan, Claude; Petersen, Iver; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    The Janus tyrosine kinases JAK1-3 and tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) are frequently hyperactivated in tumors. In lung cancers JAK1 and JAK2 induce oncogenic signaling through STAT3. A putative role of TYK2 in these tumors has not been reported. Here, we show a previously not recognized TYK2-STAT3 signaling node in lung cancer cells. We reveal that the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia-2 (SIAH2) accelerates the proteasomal degradation of TYK2. This mechanism consequently suppresses the activation of STAT3. In agreement with these data the analysis of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples from three patient cohorts revealed that compared to lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) show significantly higher levels of SIAH2 and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation levels. Thus, SIAH2 is a novel molecular marker for SCC. We further demonstrate that an activation of the oncologically relevant transcription factor p53 in lung cancer cells induces SIAH2, depletes TYK2, and abrogates the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. This mechanism appears to be different from the inhibition of phosphorylated JAKs through the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. Our study may help to identify molecular mechanisms affecting lung carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24833526

  20. SIAH2 antagonizes TYK2-STAT3 signaling in lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sylvia; Chen, Yuan; Ginter, Torsten; Schäfer, Claudia; Buchwald, Marc; Schmitz, Lienhard M; Klitzsch, Jana; Schütz, Alexander; Haitel, Andrea; Schmid, Katharina; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Haan, Claude; Petersen, Iver; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2014-05-30

    The Janus tyrosine kinases JAK1-3 and tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) are frequently hyperactivated in tumors. In lung cancers JAK1 and JAK2 induce oncogenic signaling through STAT3. A putative role of TYK2 in these tumors has not been reported. Here, we show a previously not recognized TYK2-STAT3 signaling node in lung cancer cells. We reveal that the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia-2 (SIAH2) accelerates the proteasomal degradation of TYK2. This mechanism consequently suppresses the activation of STAT3. In agreement with these data the analysis of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples from three patient cohorts revealed that compared to lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) show significantly higher levels of SIAH2 and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation levels. Thus, SIAH2 is a novel molecular marker for SCC. We further demonstrate that an activation of the oncologically relevant transcription factor p53 in lung cancer cells induces SIAH2, depletes TYK2, and abrogates the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. This mechanism appears to be different from the inhibition of phosphorylated JAKs through the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. Our study may help to identify molecular mechanisms affecting lung carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24833526

  1. Persistently activated Stat3 maintains constitutive NF-kappaB activity in tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heehyoung; Herrmann, Andreas; Deng, Jie-Hui; Kujawski, Maciej; Niu, Guilian; Li, Zhiwei; Forman, Steve; Jove, Richard; Pardoll, Drew M; Yu, Hua

    2009-04-01

    NF-kappaB (RelA) is constitutively active in many cancers, where it upregulates antiapoptotic and other oncogenic genes. While proinflammatory stimulus-induced NF-kappaB activation involves IKK-dependent nuclear translocation, mechanisms for maintaining constitutive NF-kappaB activity in tumors have not been elucidated. We show here that maintenance of NF-kappaB activity in tumors requires Stat3, which is also frequently constitutively activated in cancer. Stat3 prolongs NF-kappaB nuclear retention through acetyltransferase p300-mediated RelA acetylation, thereby interfering with NF-kappaB nuclear export. Stat3-mediated maintenance of NF-kappaB activity occurs in both cancer cells and tumor-associated hematopoietic cells. Both murine and human cancers display highly acetylated RelA, which is associated with Stat3 activity. This Stat3/NF-kappaB interaction is thus central to both the transformed and nontransformed elements in tumors. PMID:19345327

  2. Inhibition of Oncogenic functionality of STAT3 Protein by Membrane Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoxu; Fletcher, Steven; Gunning, Patrick; Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) protein plays an important role in oncogenic processes. A novel molecular therapeutic approach to inhibit the oncogenic functionality of STAT3 is to design a prenylated small peptide sequence which could sequester STAT3 to the plasma membrane. We have also developed a novel fluorescein derivative label (F-NAc), which is much more photostable compared to the popular fluorescein label FITC. Remarkably, the new dye shows fluorescent properties that are invariant over a wide pH range, which is advantageous for our application. We have shown that F-NAc is suitable for single-molecule measurements and its properties are not affected by ligation to biomolecules. The membrane localization via high-affinity prenylated small-molecule binding agents is studied by encapsulating FNAc-labeled STAT3 and inhibitors within a liposome model cell system. The dynamics of the interaction between the protein and the prenylated ligands is investigated at single molecule level. The efficiency and stability of the STAT3 anchoring in lipid membranes are addressed via quantitative confocal imaging and single-molecule spectroscopy using a custom-built multiparameter fluorescence microscope.

  3. Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Si [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Biologic activity of the novel small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL12 against canine osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background STAT3 [1] has been shown to be dysregulated in nearly every major cancer, including osteosarcoma (OS). Constitutive activation of STAT3, via aberrant phosphorylation, leads to proliferation, cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of a novel allosteric STAT3 inhibitor, LLL12, in canine OS cell lines. Results We evaluated the effects of LLL12 treatment on 4 canine OS cell lines and found that LLL12 inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, reduced STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreased the expression of several transcriptional targets of STAT3 in these cells. Lastly, LLL12 exhibited synergistic anti-proliferative activity with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin in the OS lines. Conclusion LLL12 exhibits biologic activity against canine OS cell lines through inhibition of STAT3 related cellular functions supporting its potential use as a novel therapy for OS. PMID:23244668

  5. STAT3 Induction of MiR-146b Forms a Feedback Loop to Inhibit the NF-?B to IL-6 Signaling Axis and STAT3-Driven Cancer Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Michael; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Walker, Sarah R.; Yeh, Jennifer E.; Liu, Suhu; Kroll, Yasmin; Boldin, Mark; Taganov, Konstantin; Groner, Bernd; Richardson, Andrea L.; Frank, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a mechanism by which chronic inflammation can contribute to cancer and is a common oncogenic event. We discovered a pathway the loss of which is associated with persistent STAT3 activation in human cancer. We found that the gene encoding the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-146b is a direct STAT3 target gene and its expression was increased in normal breast epithelial cells but decreased in tumor cells. Methylation of the miR-146b promoter, which inhibited STAT3-mediated induction of expression, was increased in primary breast cancers. Moreover, we found that miR-146b inhibited nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)-dependent production of IL-6, subsequent STAT3 activation, and IL-6/STAT3-driven migration and invasion in breast cancer cells, thereby establishing a negative feedback loop. In addition, higher expression of miR-146b was positively correlated with patient survival in breast cancer subtypes with increased IL6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation. Our results identify an epigenetic mechanism of crosstalk between STAT3 and NF-?B relevant to constitutive STAT3 activation in malignancy and the role of inflammation in oncogenesis. PMID:24473196

  6. Phospho-flow detection of constitutive and cytokine-induced pSTAT3/5, pAKT and pERK expression highlights novel prognostic biomarkers for patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Brown, R; Yang, S; Weatherburn, C; Gibson, J; Ho, P J; Suen, H; Hart, D; Joshua, D

    2015-02-01

    Identifying check points in cell signal transduction pathways has led to the development of new cancer therapies; however, relatively few studies have determined the diagnostic and prognostic significance of analysing phosphorylated signaling proteins in patient blood and bone marrow (BM) samples. This is the first comprehensive phospho-flow study of both constitutive and cytokine-induced pSTAT3, pSTAT5, pAKT and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) expression in malignant plasma cells of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. In diagnostic BM samples from 65 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), interleukin (IL)-6-induced pSTAT3 proved to be a new and independent prognostic biomarker for improved survival. When combined with the International Staging System, 6 subgroups demonstrated stratified median survivals from 9 to 72 months (?(2)=34.3; P<0.0001). In contrast, constitutive expression of pSTAT3, pSTAT5, pAKT and pERK did not assist the differential diagnosis nor determine prognosis. High pSTAT3 expression was dependent on existing CD45 expression and pSTAT5 appeared to regulate IgG production. Phospho-flow cytometry could be used to screen for personalized therapy, although the lack of clinical significance of constitutive pSTAT3 levels suggests that pSTAT3 blockade may not be clinically relevant in MM. This study has revealed novel prognostic biomarkers and insights into the biology of signaling pathways in patients with MM. PMID:24990616

  7. Regulation and function of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a member of the STAT family, is a key regulator of many physiological and pathological processes. Significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control, posttranslational modification, cellular localization and functional regulation of STAT3. STAT3 can translocate into the nucleus and bind to specific promoter sequences, thereby exerting transcriptional regulation. Recent studies have shown that STAT3 can also translocate into mitochondria, participating in aerobic respiration and apoptosis. In addition, STAT3 plays an important role in inflammation and tumorigenesis by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Conditional knockout mouse models make it possible to study the physiological function of STAT3 in specific tissues and organs. This review summarizes the latest advances in the understanding of the expression, regulation and function of STAT3 in physiological and tumorigenic processes. PMID:24921012

  8. Cross-talk between phospho-STAT3 and PLC?1 plays a critical role in colorectal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yiqing; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Sedwick, David; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhenghe

    2011-01-01

    Hyper-phosphorylation at the Y705 residue of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in tumorigenesis of leukemia and some solid tumors. However, its role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well defined. To rigorously test the impact of this phosphorylation on colorectal tumorigenesis, we engineered a STAT3 Y705F knock-in to interrupt STAT3 activity in HCT116 and RKO CRC cells. These STAT3 Y705F mutant cells fail to respond to cytokine stimulation and grow slower than parental cells. These mutant cells are also greatly diminished in their abilities to form colonies in culture, to exhibit anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and to grow as xenografts in nude mice. These observations strongly support the premise that STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation is crucial in colorectal tumorigenesis. Although it is generally believed that STAT3 functions as a transcription factor, recent studies indicate that transcription-independent functions of STAT3 also play an important role in tumorigenesis. We show here that wild-type STAT3, but not STAT3 Y705F mutant protein, associates with PLC?1. PLC?1 is a central signal transducer of growth factor and cytokine signaling pathways that are involved in tumorigenesis. In STAT3 Y705F mutant CRC cells, PLC?1 activity is reduced. Moreover, over-expression of a constitutively active form of PLC ?1 rescues the transformation defect of STAT3 Y705F mutant cells. In aggregate, our study identifies previously unknown cross-talk between STAT3 and the PLC? signaling pathways that may play a critical role in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:21840932

  9. Emergence of a STAT3 mutated NK clone in LGL leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yiyi; Olson, Thomas L.; Nyland, Susan B.; Feith, David J.; Loughran, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a chronic clonal lymphoproliferative disorder. Here, a T-LGL leukemia patient developed NK-LGL leukemia with residual leukemic T-LGL. TCRV? usage and CDR3 sequence drifts were observed with disease progression. A STAT3 S614R mutation was identified in NK but not T-cells in the mixed leukemic stage. Multiple, non-dominant T-cell clones with distinct STAT3 mutations were present throughout. Our results suggest that T and NK-LGL leukemia may share common pathogenesis mechanisms and that STAT3 mutation alone is insufficient to bring about clonal expansion. Mutational and immunological monitoring may provide diagnostic and therapeutic significance in LGL leukemia. PMID:25709890

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase downregulation promotes colon carcinogenesis through STAT3-activated microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Degagné, Emilie; Pandurangan, Ashok; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Eltanawy, Abeer; Zhang, Meng; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.; Bittman, Robert; Ahmedi, Yasmin; Saba, Julie D.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of SPL in colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We generated mice with intestinal epithelium-specific Sgpl1 deletion and chemically induced colitis and tumor formation in these animals. Compared with control animals, mice lacking intestinal SPL exhibited greater disease activity, colon shortening, cytokine levels, S1P accumulation, tumors, STAT3 activation, STAT3-activated microRNAs (miRNAs), and suppression of miR-targeted anti-oncogene products. This phenotype was attenuated by STAT3 inhibition. In fibroblasts, silencing SPL promoted tumorigenic transformation through a pathway involving extracellular transport of S1P through S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2), S1P receptor activation, JAK2/STAT3-dependent miR-181b-1 induction, and silencing of miR-181b-1 target cylindromatosis (CYLD). Colon biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease revealed enhanced S1P and STAT3 signaling. In mice with chemical-induced CAC, oral administration of plant-type sphingolipids called sphingadienes increased colonic SPL levels and reduced S1P levels, STAT3 signaling, cytokine levels, and tumorigenesis, indicating that SPL prevents transformation and carcinogenesis. Together, our results suggest that dietary sphingolipids can augment or prevent colon cancer, depending upon whether they are metabolized to S1P or promote S1P metabolism through the actions of SPL. PMID:25347472

  11. Attenuation of fever at near term: is interleukin-6-STAT3 signalling altered?

    PubMed

    Harré, E-M; Mouihate, A; Pittman, Q J

    2006-01-01

    Pregnant rats in late gestation show a reduced fever response after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This can result from either an increased action of endogenous antipyretics or a reduction in the production or action of endogenous pyrogens. Nonpregnant rats given LPS release interleukin (IL)-6, which causes nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), followed by a significant increase in core body temperature. The present study investigated whether the reduced fever response in near-term pregnant rats is associated with a reduced nuclear STAT3 response. Rats at gestation day 15 (G15), gestation day 21 (G21, near term) and at lactation day 5 (L5) were injected with LPS (50 microg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Only near-term pregnant rats responded with an attenuated body temperature during the fever response. Immunohistological analysis indicated no significant difference in nuclear STAT3 in the OVLT of the different animal groups 2 h after LPS. Measurement of total and phosphorylated STAT3 protein in the OVLT with semiquantitative western blot revealed no significant differences of this protein among these immune challenged animal groups. IL-6 concentrations were also similar at G15, G21 and L5 2 h after injection of LPS. These results lead to the conclusion that the attenuation of the fever response at near-term pregnancy is not associated with a reduced amount of nuclear STAT3 in the OVLT, indicating a maintained IL-6-STAT3 signalling pathway in the OVLT. PMID:16451221

  12. STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-04-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease. PMID:24639502

  13. Loss of STAT3 in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Reveals Its Janus-Like Actions on Mitochondrial Function and Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Zouein, Fouad A.; Duhé, Roy J.; Arany, Istvan; Shirey, Kristin; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Liu, Huiling; Saad, Iman; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W.

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 has been implicated in mitochondrial function; however, the physiological relevance of this action is not established. Here we studied the importance of STAT3 to the cellular response to stimuli, TNF? and serum deprivation, which increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Experiments were performed using wild type (WT) and STAT3 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Both WT and STAT3 KO MEF expressed similar levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and exhibited comparable I?B? degradation with TNF?. However, in the absence of STAT3 nuclear accumulation of NF?B p65 with TNF? was attenuated and induction of the survival protein c-FLIPL was eliminated. Nonetheless, WT MEF were more sensitive to TNF?-induced death which was attributed to necrosis. Deletion of STAT3 decreased ROS formation induced by TNF? and serum deprivation. STAT3 deletion was associated with lower levels of complex I and rates of respiration. Relative to WT cells, mitochondria of STAT3 KO cells released significantly more cytochrome c in response to oxidative stress and had greater caspase 3 cleavage due to serum deprivation. Our findings are consistent with STAT3 being important for mitochondrial function and cell viability by ensuring mitochondrial integrity and the expression of pro-survival genes. PMID:24548419

  14. Induction of innate lymphoid cell-derived interleukin-22 by the transcription factor STAT3 mediates protection against intestinal infection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaohuan; Qiu, Ju; Tu, Tony; Yang, Xuanming; Deng, Liufu; Anders, Robert A.; Zhou, Liang; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inhibitors of the transcription factor STAT3 target STAT3-dependent tumorigenesis but patients often develop diarrhea from unknown mechanisms. Here we showed that STAT3 deficiency increased morbidity and mortality after Citrobacter rodentium infection with decreased secretion of cytokines including IL-17 and IL-22 associated with the transcription factor ROR?t. Administration of the cytokine IL-22 was sufficient to rescue STAT3-deficient mice from lethal infection. Although STAT3 was required for IL-22 production in both innate and adaptive arms, using conditional gene deficient mice we observed that STAT3 expression in ROR?t+ innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), but not T cells, was essential for the protection. However, STAT3 was required for ROR?t expression in T helper cells, but not in ILC3s. Activated STAT3 could directly bind to the Il22 locus. Thus, cancer therapies that utilize STAT3 inhibitors increase the risk for pathogen-mediated diarrhea through direct suppression of IL-22 from gut ILCs. PMID:24412612

  15. IL-6 Trans-signaling-STAT3 Pathway Mediates ECM and Cellular Proliferation in Fibroblasts from Hypertrophic Scar

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sutapa; Ju, Xiaoxi; Sun, Hong; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Brasier, Allan R

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of post-burn hypertrophic scar (HS) remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling-STAT3 pathway in HS fibroblasts (HSF) derived from burned-induced HS skin. HSF showed increased Tyr 705 STAT3 phosphorylation over normal fibroblast (NF) after IL-6•IL-6R? stimulation by immunoassays. The endogenous STAT3 target gene, SOCS3, was upregulated in HSF and showed increased STAT3 binding on its promoter relative to NF in Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay. We observed that the cell surface signaling transducer glycoprotein 130 is upregulated in HSF using Q-RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM), including the expression of alpha2 (1) procollagen (Col1A2) and fibronectin 1 (FN) were seen in HSFs. A STAT3 peptide inhibitor abrogated FN and Col1A2 gene expression in HSF indicating involvement of STAT3 in ECM production. The cellular proliferation markers Cyclin D1, Bcl-Xl and c-Myc were also upregulated in HSF and knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA attenuated c-Myc expression indicating the essential role of STAT3 in fibroblast proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that the IL-6-trans-signaling-STAT3 pathway may play an integral role in HS pathogenesis and disruption of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced HS. PMID:23303450

  16. Potent Targeting of the STAT3 Protein in Brain Cancer Stem Cells: A Promising Route for Treating Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The STAT3 gene is abnormally active in glioblastoma (GBM) and is a critically important mediator of tumor growth and therapeutic resistance in GBM. Thus, for poorly treated brain cancers such as gliomas, astrocytomas, and glioblastomas, which harbor constitutively activated STAT3, a STAT3-targeting therapeutic will be of significant importance. Herein, we report a most potent, small molecule, nonphosphorylated STAT3 inhibitor, 31 (SH-4-54) that strongly binds to STAT3 protein (KD = 300 nM). Inhibitor 31 potently kills glioblastoma brain cancer stem cells (BTSCs) and effectively suppresses STAT3 phosphorylation and its downstream transcriptional targets at low nM concentrations. Moreover, in vivo, 31 exhibited blood–brain barrier permeability, potently controlled glioma tumor growth, and inhibited pSTAT3 in vivo. This work, for the first time, demonstrates the power of STAT3 inhibitors for the treatment of BTSCs and validates the therapeutic efficacy of a STAT3 inhibitor for GBM clinical application. PMID:24900612

  17. The MEK-ERK Pathway Is Necessary for Serine Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial STAT3 and Ras-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Daniel J.; Koetz, Lisa; Levy, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the RasGTPases are the most common oncogenic lesions in human cancer. Similarly, elevated STAT3 expression and/or phosphorylation are observed in the majority of human cancers. We recently found that activated Ras requires a mitochondrial rather than a nuclear activity of STAT3 to support cellular transformation. This mitochondrial activity of STAT3 was supported by phosphorylation on serine 727 (S727) in the carboxyl-terminus of STAT3. In this study we show that the H-Ras oncoprotein engages the MEK-ERK pathway to drive phosphorylation of STAT3 on S727, while phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mTOR activity were superfluous. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of MEK reduced transformation by H-, K- or N-Ras. However, cells expressing a mitochondrially restricted STAT3 with a phospho-mimetic mutation at S727 were partially resistant to inhibition of the ERK pathway, exhibiting a partial rescue of anchorage-independent cell growth in the presence of MEK inhibitor. This study shows that the MEK-ERK pathway is required for activated Ras-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 on S727, that inhibition of STAT3 S727 phosphorylation contributes to the anti-oncogenic potential of MEK inhibitors, and that mitochondrial STAT3 is one of the critical substrates of the Ras-MEK-ERK- axis during cellular transformation. PMID:24312439

  18. Activation of miR-21 by STAT3 Induces Proliferation and Suppresses Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Targeting PTEN Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Hesheng; Li, Yumei; Kang, Min

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to investigate the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the mechanisms of regulation of PTEN by miR-21. Fifty-four tissue samples were collected from 42 patients with NPC and 12 healthy controls. Human NPC cell lines CNE-1, CNE-2, TWO3 and C666-1 were used for cell assays. To investigate the expression of miR-21, RT-PCR was employed. RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of STAT3 mRNA and STAT3 protein. To test the effect of miR-21 on the cell growth and apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro, transfection of CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines and flow cytometry were performed. TUNEL assay was used to detect DNA fragmentation. To validate whether miR-21 directly recognizes the 3?-UTRs of PTEN mRNA, luciferase reporter assay was employed. miR-21 expression was increased in NPC tissues compared with control and the same result was found in NPC cell lines. Notably, increased expression of miR-21 was directly related to advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. STAT3, a transcription factor activated by IL-6, directly activated miR-21 in transformed NPC cell lines. Furthermore, miR-21 markedly inhibited PTEN tumor suppressor, leading to increased AKT activity. Both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-21 enhanced NPC cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. miR-21, activated by STAT3, induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in NPC by targeting PTEN-AKT pathway. PMID:25365510

  19. Structure–Activity Studies of Phosphopeptidomimetic Prodrugs Targeting the Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat3)

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Pijus K.; Ren, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaomin; Kaluarachchi, Kumar; Liao, Warren S.-L.; McMurray, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transmits signals from growth factors and interleukin-6 family cytokines by binding to their receptors via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. This results in phosphorylation of Tyr705, dimerization, translocation to the nucleus, and regulation of transcription of downstream genes. Stat3 is constitutively activated in several human cancers and is a target for anti-cancer drug design. We have shown previously phosphorylation of Tyr705 in intact cancer cells can be inhibited with prodrugs of phosphopeptide mimics targeting the SH2 domain. In a series of prodrugs consisting of bis-pivaloyloxymethyl esters of 4?-phosphonodifluoromethyl cinnamoyl-Haic-Gln-NHBn, appending methyl group to the ?-position of the cinnamate increased potency ca. twofold, which paralleled the increase in affinity of the corresponding phosphopeptide models. However, dramatic increases in potency were observed when the C-terminal C(O)NHBn of Gln-NHBn was replaced with a simple methyl group. In this communication we continue to explore the effects of structural modifications of prodrugs on their ability to inhibit Tyr705 phosphorylation. A set of 4-substituted prolines incorporated into ?-methyl-4-phosphocinnamoyl-leucinyl-Xaa-4-aminopentamide model peptides exhibited affinities of 88–317 nM by fluorescence polarization (Pro IC50 = 156 nM). In corresponding prodrugs, Pro inhibited constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation at 10 ?M in MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. However, 4,4-difluoroproline and 4,4-dimethylproline resulted in complete inhibition at 0.5 ?M. These results suggest that the prodrug with native proline undergoes metabolism that those with substituted prolines do not. In conclusion, changes in structure with minimal impact on intrinsic affinity can nevertheless have profound effects on the cellular potency of prodrug inhibitors of Stat3. PMID:24707243

  20. Design, synthesis and evaluation of XZH-5 analogues as STAT3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Daka, Philias; Liu, Aiguo; Karunaratne, Chamini; Csatary, Erika; Williams, Cameron; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Xu, Zhenghu; Page, Richard C; Wang, Hong

    2015-03-15

    Inhibition of the signaling pathways of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) has shown to be a promising strategy to combat cancer. In this paper we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of a novel class of small molecule inhibitors, that is, XZH-5 and its analogues, as promising leads for further development of STAT3 inhibitors. Preliminary SARs was established for XZH-5 and its derivatives; and the binding modes were predicted by molecular docking. Lead compounds with IC50 as low as 6.5?M in breast cancer cell lines and 7.6?M in pancreatic cancer cell lines were identified. PMID:25698618

  1. Oncostatin M promotes STAT3 activation, VEGF production, and invasion in osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that both canine and human OSA cell lines, as well as 8 fresh canine OSA tumor samples, exhibit constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, and that this correlates with enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). While multiple signal transduction pathways can result in phosphorylation of STAT3, stimulation of the cytokine receptor gp130 through either IL-6 or Oncostatin M (OSM) is the most common mechanism through which STAT3 is activated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 and OSM stimulation on both canine and human OSA cell lines to begin to determine the role of these cytokines in the biology of OSA. Methods RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to interrogate the consequences of OSM and IL-6 stimulation of OSA cell lines. OSA cells were stimulated with OSM and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the effects on MMP2 activity (gel zymography), proliferation (CyQUANT), invasion (Matrigel transwell assay), and VEGF production (Western blotting, ELISA) were assessed. The small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3 was used to investigate the impact of STAT3 inhibition following OSM stimulation of OSA cells. Results Our data demonstrate that the OSM receptor (OSMR), but not IL-6 or its receptor, is expressed by all human and canine OSA cell lines and canine OSA tumor samples; additionally, OSM expression was noted in all tumor samples. Treatment of OSA cell lines with OSM induced phosphorylation of STAT3, Src, and JAK2. OSM stimulation also resulted in a dose dependent increase in MMP2 activity and VEGF expression that was markedly reduced following treatment with the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3. Lastly, OSM stimulation of OSA cell lines enhanced invasion through Matrigel, particularly in the presence of rhHGF. In contrast, both OSM and HGF stimulation of OSA cell lines did not alter their proliferative capacity. Conclusions These data indicate OSM stimulation of human and canine OSA cells induces STAT3 activation, thereby enhancing the expression/activation of MMP2 and VEGF, ultimately promoting invasive behavior and tumor angiogenesis. As such, OSM and its receptor may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in OSA. PMID:21481226

  2. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2012-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  3. Unveiling the Association of STAT3 and HO-1 in Prostate Cancer: Role beyond Heme Degradation1

    PubMed Central

    Elguero, Belen; Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Toscani, Martin A; De Luca, Paola; Zalazar, Florencia; Coluccio-Leskow, Federico; Meiss, Roberto; Navone, Nora; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is a key step in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Several mechanisms have been identified in AR activation, among them signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Disruption of STAT3 activity has been associated to cancer progression. Recent studies suggest that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) may play a key role in PCa that may be independent of its catalytic function. We sought to explore whether HO-1 operates on AR transcriptional activity through the STAT3 axis. Our results display that HO-1 induction in PCa cells represses AR activation by decreasing the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter activity and mRNA levels. Strikingly, this is the first report to show by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that HO-1 associates to gene promoters, revealing a novel function for HO-1 in the nucleus. Furthermore, HO-1 and STAT3 directly interact as determined by co-immunoprecipitation studies. Forced expression of HO-1 increases STAT3 cytoplasmic retention. When PCa cells were transfected with a constitutively active STAT3 mutant, PSA and STAT3 downstream target genes were abrogated under hemin treatment. Additionally, a significant decrease in pSTAT3 protein levels was detected in the nuclear fraction of these cells. Confocal microscopy images exhibit a decreased rate of AR/STAT3 nuclear co-localization under hemin treatment. In vivo studies confirmed that STAT3 nuclear delimitation was significantly decreased in PC3 tumors overexpressing HO-1 grown as xenografts in nude mice. These results provide a novel function for HO-1 down-modulating AR transcriptional activity in PCa, interfering with STAT3 signaling, evidencing its role beyond heme degradation. PMID:23226098

  4. Activation of STAT3 is involved in neuroprotection by electroacupuncture pretreatment via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Zhi; Wei, Haidong; Wang, Feng; Guo, Fan; Gao, Zijun; Marsicano, Giovanni; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize

    2013-09-01

    Pretreatment with electroacupuncture (EA) attenuates cerebral ischemic injury through the endocannabinoid system, although the molecular mechanisms mediate this neuroprotection are unknown. It is well-known that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an essential role in cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, we investigated whether STAT3 is involved in EA pretreatment-induced neuroprotection via cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Two hours after EA pretreatment, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) for 120 min. The expression of pSTAT3(Ser727), which is necessary for STAT3 activation, was examined in the ipsilateral ischemic penumbra. Infarct volumes and neurological scores were evaluated at 72 h after MACO in the presence or absence of the STAT3 inhibitor peptide (PpYLKTK). Neuronal apoptosis and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were also evaluated 24h after reperfusion. Our results showed that EA pretreatment significantly enhanced neuronal expression of pSTAT3(Ser727) in the ischemic penumbra 6h after reperfusion. Moreover, EA pretreatment reduced infarct volume, improved neurological outcome, inhibited neuronal apoptosis and decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio following reperfusion. The beneficial effects of EA were attenuated by PpYLKTK administered 30 min before MACO, and PpYLKTK effectively reversed the increase in pSTAT3(Ser727) expression. Furthermore, CB1R antagonist or CB1R knockdown with siRNA blocked the elevation of pSTAT3(Ser727) expression by EA pretreatment, whereas the two CB1R agonists increased STAT3 activation. In conclusion, EA pretreatment enhances STAT3 activation via CB1R to protect against cerebral ischemia, suggesting that STAT3 activation may be a novel target for stroke intervention. PMID:23880371

  5. STAT3 activation in tumor cell-free lymph nodes predicts a poor prognosis for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Jun; Li, Hai-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Ting; Lu, Rong-Ze; Ma, Yun-Fang; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dong-Qin; Yu, Hua; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 is constitutively activated in many human cancers including gastric cancer and plays crucial roles in modulating cancer cell proliferation, survival, metastasis as well as the microenvironment of pre-metastatic niches. Accumulating evidence has implicated STAT3 as a promising target for cancer therapy and it has been well established that tumor cell metastasized to lymph node is associated with poor prognosis. However, little is known about the relation between STAT3 activation in tumor cell-free lymph nodes and patient clinical outcomes. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of STAT3 activity in tumor cell-free lymph nodes in tumor progression and prognosis for gastric cancer patients. Immunohistochemical analyses for p-STAT3, Ki-67, CD68 and Bcl-xL were performed in tumor cell-free lymph nodes from 60 gastric cancer patients. Survival analysis was conducted by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that hyperactivity of STAT3 in tumor cell-free lymph nodes was significantly associated with tumor recurrence, and STAT3 activation pattern coincides with expression Ki-67, CD68, Bcl-xL. Survival analysis revealed that persistent STAT3 activation in uninvolved lymph nodes was positively associated with poor overall survival (P<0.05). These findings suggest that STAT3 activation in tumor-free lymph nodes is involved in the pathogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer and that elevated STAT3 activity in lymph nodes prior to tumor cell arrival may indicate a poorer prognosis. These clinical studies support our findings in mouse tumor models showing that STAT3 activation is crucial for pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. PMID:24696730

  6. Scoparone Exerts Anti-Tumor Activity against DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells via Inhibition of STAT3 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Jong; Park, Keun-Gyu; Harris, Robert A.; Cho, Won-Jea; Lee, Jae-Tae; Lee, In-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Scoparone, a natural compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, has been used in Chinese herbal medicine to treat neonatal jaundice. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to the growth and survival of many human tumors. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-tumor activity of scoparone against DU145 prostate cancer cells and to determine whether its effects are mediated by inhibition of STAT3 activity. Scoparone inhibited proliferation of DU145 cells via cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Transient transfection assays showed that scoparone repressed both constitutive and IL-6-induced transcriptional activity of STAT3. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that scoparone suppressed the transcription of STAT3 target genes such as cyclin D1, c-Myc, survivin, Bcl-2, and Socs3. Consistent with this, scoparone decreased phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of STAT3, but did not reduce phosphorylation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or Src, the major upstream kinases responsible for STAT3 activation. Moreover, transcriptional activity of a constitutively active mutant of STAT3 (STAT3C) was inhibited by scoparone, but not by AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor. Furthermore, scoparone treatment suppressed anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and tumor growth of DU145 xenografts in nude mice, concomitant with a reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation. Computational modeling suggested that scoparone might bind the SH2 domain of STAT3. Our findings suggest that scoparone elicits an anti-tumor effect against DU145 prostate cancer cells in part through inhibition of STAT3 activity. PMID:24260381

  7. MTA1 promotes STAT3 transcription and pulmonary metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pakala, Suresh B; Rayala, Suresh K; Wang, Rui-An; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Mudvari, Prakriti; Reddy, Sirigiri Divijendra Natha; Zheng, Yi; Pires, Ricardo; Casimiro, Sandra; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Costa, Luis; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-06-15

    Overexpression of the prometastatic chromatin modifier protein metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) in human cancer contributes to tumor aggressiveness, but the role of endogenous MTA1 in cancer has not been explored. Here, we report the effects of selective genetic depletion of MTA1 in a physiologically relevant spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer pulmonary metastasis. We found that MTA1 acts as a mandatory modifier of breast-to-lung metastasis without effects on primary tumor formation. The underlying mechanism involved MTA1-dependent stimulation of STAT3 transcription through action on the MTA1/STAT3/Pol II coactivator complex, and, in turn, on the expression and functions of STAT3 target genes including Twist1. Accordingly, we documented a positive correlation between levels of MTA1 and STAT3 in publicly available breast cancer data sets. Together, our findings reveal an essential modifying role of the physiologic level of MTA1 in supporting pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:23580571

  8. Upregulation of survivin by leptin/STAT3 signaling in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Haiping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Tumor Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong province (China); Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin (China); Yu Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Tumor Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong province (China)], E-mail: sthisci@yahoo.com; Guo Hongbo; Song Hao; Chen Shaoqing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Tumor Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong province (China)

    2008-03-28

    Leptin and its receptors are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and correlate with poor prognosis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) gene family, is generally upregulated in tumor tissues and prevents tumor cells from apoptosis. Here we showed that leptin upregulated survivin mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, leptin suppressed docetaxel-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase activity. Knockdown of signal transducer and activator transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked leptin-induced upregulation of survivin. TransAM ELISA showed that leptin increased nuclear translocation of active STAT3. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay detected an enhanced binding of STAT3 to survivin promoter in MCF-7 cells after treatment by leptin. Further studies showed that leptin enhanced the transcriptional activity of survivin promoter. Collectively, our findings identify leptin/STAT3 signaling as a novel pathway for survivin expression in breast cancer cells.

  9. Autoimmunity, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphoproliferation, and mycobacterial disease in patients with activating mutations in STAT3.

    PubMed

    Haapaniemi, Emma M; Kaustio, Meri; Rajala, Hanna L M; van Adrichem, Arjan J; Kainulainen, Leena; Glumoff, Virpi; Doffinger, Rainer; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Trotta, Luca; Chiang, Samuel; Kulmala, Petri; Eldfors, Samuli; Katainen, Riku; Siitonen, Sanna; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kovanen, Panu E; Otonkoski, Timo; Porkka, Kimmo; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Hänninen, Arno; Bryceson, Yenan T; Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Saarela, Janna; Seppänen, Mikko; Mustjoki, Satu; Kere, Juha

    2015-01-22

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors orchestrate hematopoietic cell differentiation. Recently, mutations in STAT1, STAT5B, and STAT3 have been linked to development of immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked-like syndrome. Here, we immunologically characterized 3 patients with de novo activating mutations in the DNA binding or dimerization domains of STAT3 (p.K392R, p.M394T, and p.K658N, respectively). The patients displayed multiorgan autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and delayed-onset mycobacterial disease. Immunologically, we noted hypogammaglobulinemia with terminal B-cell maturation arrest, dendritic cell deficiency, peripheral eosinopenia, increased double-negative (CD4(-)CD8(-)) T cells, and decreased natural killer, T helper 17, and regulatory T-cell numbers. Notably, the patient harboring the K392R mutation developed T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia at age 14 years. Our results broaden the spectrum of phenotypes caused by activating STAT3 mutations, highlight the role of STAT3 in the development and differentiation of multiple immune cell lineages, and strengthen the link between the STAT family of transcription factors and autoimmunity. PMID:25349174

  10. Association of STAT3 Common Variations with Obesity and Hypertriglyceridemia: Protective and Contributive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuliang; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Xuejiao; Ou, Zejin; Zou, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in energy metabolism. Here we explore whether STAT3 common variations influence risks of obesity and other metabolic disorders in a Chinese Han population. Two tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs), rs1053005 and rs957970, were used to capture the common variations of STAT3. Relationships between genotypes and obesity, body mass index, plasma triglyceride and other metabolic diseases related parameters were analyzed for association study in 1742 subjects. Generalized linear model and logistic regression model were used for quantitative data analysis and case-control study, respectively. rs1053005 was significantly associated with body mass index and waist circumference (p = 0.013 and p = 0.02, respectively). rs957970 was significantly associated with plasma level of triglyceride (p = 0.007). GG genotype at rs1053005 had lower risks of both general obesity and central obesity (OR = 0.40, p = 0.034; OR = 0.42, p = 0.007, respectively) compared with AA genotype. CT genotype at rs957970 had a higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.43, p = 0.015) compared with TT genotype. Neither of the two SNPs was associated with othermetabolic diseases related parameters. Our observations indicated that common variations of STAT3 could significantly affect the risk of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population. PMID:25014397

  11. Leukemia. Author manuscript STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma Coppo Paul 1 2 3 * , Gouilleux-Gruart Val rieé 4 , Huang Yenlin 8 results suggest that STAT3 protein has a major role in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell

  12. Drugging the "Undruggable" DNA-binding Domain of STAT3 for Inhibition of Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    cancer stage. STAT3 has been shown to play important roles in multiple aspects of cancer aggressiveness-54 for the structure-activity relationship analysis. Further study of five effective analogues shows that four, indicating a higher selectivity for STAT3 than their parental compound, inS3-54 and another analogue #74

  13. Targeting Mitochondrial STAT3 with the Novel Phospho-Valproic Acid (MDC-1112) Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Gerardo G.; Huang, Liqun; Alston, Ninche; Ouyang, Nengtai; Vrankova, Kvetoslava; Mattheolabakis, George; Constantinides, Panayiotis P.; Rigas, Basil

    2013-01-01

    New agents are needed to treat pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies. We synthesized phospho-valproic acid, a novel valproic acid derivative, (P-V; MDC-1112) and evaluated its efficacy in the control of pancreatic cancer. P-V inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice by 60%–97%, and 100% when combined with cimetidine. The dominant molecular target of P-V was STAT3. P-V inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and Src, and the Hsp90-STAT3 association, suppressing the activating phosphorylation of STAT3, which in turn reduced the expression of STAT3-dependent proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and survivin. P-V also reduced STAT3 levels in the mitochondria by preventing its translocation from the cytosol, and enhanced the mitochondrial levels of reactive oxygen species, which triggered apoptosis. Inhibition of mitochondrial STAT3 by P-V was required for its anticancer effect; mitochondrial STAT3 overexpression rescued animals from the tumor growth inhibition by P-V. Our results indicate that P-V is a promising candidate drug against pancreatic cancer and establish mitochondrial STAT3 as its key molecular target. PMID:23650499

  14. Luteolin arrests cell cycling, induces apoptosis and inhibits the JAK/STAT3 pathway in human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Aneknan, Ploypailin; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Prawan, Auemduan; Kongpetch, Sarinya; Sripa, Banchob; Senggunprai, Laddawan

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the aggressive cancers with a very poor prognosis. Several efforts have been made to identify and develop new agents for prevention and treatment of this deadly disease. In the present study, we examined the anticancer effect of luteolin on human CCA, KKU-M156 cells. Sulforhodamine B assays showed that luteolin had potent cytotoxicity on CCA cells with IC50 values of 10.5±5.0 and 8.7±3.5 ?M at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment with luteolin also caused a concentration-dependent decline in colony forming ability. Consistent with growth inhibitory effects, luteolin arrested cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression of cyclin A and Cdc25A was down-regulated after luteolin treatment, supporting the arrest of cells at the G2/M boundary. Besides evident G2/M arrest, luteolin induced apoptosis of KKU-M156 cells, demonstrated by a distinct sub-G1 apoptotic peak and fluorescent dye staining. A decrease in the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was implicated in luteolin- induced apoptosis. We further investigated the effect of luteolin on JAK/STAT3, which is an important pathway involved in the development of CCA. The results showed that interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced JAK/STAT3 activation in KKU-M156 cells was suppressed by treatment with luteolin. Treatment with a specific JAK inhibitor, AG490, and luteolin diminished IL-6-stimulated CCA cell migration as assessed by wound healing assay. These data revealed anticancer activity of luteolin against CCA so the agent might have potential for CCA prevention and therapy. PMID:24998588

  15. Scoparone interferes with STAT3-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungmi; Kim, Jeong-Kook; Oh, Chang Joo; Choi, Seung Hee; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Scoparone, which is a major constituent of Artemisia capillaries, has been identified as an anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, vasorelaxant, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, and it is used for the traditional treatment of neonatal jaundice. Therefore, we hypothesized that scoparone could suppress the proliferation of VSMCs by interfering with STAT3 signaling. We found that the proliferation of these cells was significantly attenuated by scoparone in a dose-dependent manner. Scoparone markedly reduced the serum-stimulated accumulation of cells in the S phase and concomitantly increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was consistent with the reduced expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated Rb and survivin in the VSMCs. Cell adhesion markers, such as MCP-1 and ICAM-1, were significantly reduced by scoparone. Interestingly, this compound attenuated the increase in cyclin D promoter activity by inhibiting the activities of both the WT and active forms of STAT3. Similarly, the expression of a cell proliferation marker induced by PDGF was decreased by scoparone with no change in the phosphorylation of JAK2 or Src. On the basis of the immunofluorescence staining results, STAT3 proteins phosphorylated by PDGF were predominantly localized to the nucleus and were markedly reduced in the scoparone-treated cells. In summary, scoparone blocks the accumulation of STAT3 transported from the cytosol to the nucleus, leading to the suppression of VSMC proliferation through G1 phase arrest and the inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. This activity occurs independent of the form of STAT3 and upstream of kinases, such as Jak and Src, which are correlated with abnormal vascular remodeling due to the presence of an excess of growth factors following vascular injury. These data provide convincing evidence that scoparone may be a new preventative agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25744297

  16. Scoparone interferes with STAT3-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmi; Kim, Jeong-Kook; Oh, Chang Joo; Choi, Seung Hee; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Scoparone, which is a major constituent of Artemisia capillaries, has been identified as an anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, vasorelaxant, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, and it is used for the traditional treatment of neonatal jaundice. Therefore, we hypothesized that scoparone could suppress the proliferation of VSMCs by interfering with STAT3 signaling. We found that the proliferation of these cells was significantly attenuated by scoparone in a dose-dependent manner. Scoparone markedly reduced the serum-stimulated accumulation of cells in the S phase and concomitantly increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was consistent with the reduced expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated Rb and survivin in the VSMCs. Cell adhesion markers, such as MCP-1 and ICAM-1, were significantly reduced by scoparone. Interestingly, this compound attenuated the increase in cyclin D promoter activity by inhibiting the activities of both the WT and active forms of STAT3. Similarly, the expression of a cell proliferation marker induced by PDGF was decreased by scoparone with no change in the phosphorylation of JAK2 or Src. On the basis of the immunofluorescence staining results, STAT3 proteins phosphorylated by PDGF were predominantly localized to the nucleus and were markedly reduced in the scoparone-treated cells. In summary, scoparone blocks the accumulation of STAT3 transported from the cytosol to the nucleus, leading to the suppression of VSMC proliferation through G1 phase arrest and the inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. This activity occurs independent of the form of STAT3 and upstream of kinases, such as Jak and Src, which are correlated with abnormal vascular remodeling due to the presence of an excess of growth factors following vascular injury. These data provide convincing evidence that scoparone may be a new preventative agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25744297

  17. S1PR1-STAT3 signaling is crucial for myeloid cell colonization at future metastatic sites

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jiehui; Liu, Yong; Lee, Heehyoung; Herrmann, Andreas; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Chunyan; Shen, Shudan; Priceman, Saul J.; Kujawski, Maciej; Pal, Sumanta K.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Forman, Steve; Figlin, Robert A.; Liu, Jie; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies underscore the importance of myeloid cells in rendering distant organs hospitable for disseminating tumor cells to colonize. However, what enables myeloid cells to have an apparently superior capacity to colonize distant organs is unclear. Here we show that S1PR1-STAT3 upregulation in tumor cells induces factors that activate S1PR1-STAT3 in various cells in pre-metastatic sites, leading to pre-metastatic niche formation. Targeting either S1PR1 or STAT3 in myeloid cells disrupts existing pre-metastatic niches. S1PR1-STAT3 pathway enables myeloid cells to intravasate, prime the distant organ microenvironment and mediate sustained proliferation and survival of their own and other stromal cells at future metastatic sites. Analyzing tumor-free lymph nodes from cancer patients shows elevated myeloid infiltrates, STAT3 activity and increased survival signal. PMID:22624714

  18. Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Interleukin-10 against Hypertrophic Scarring by Activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Scar-Forming Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fang, Xiaobing; Hu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Zheng, Zhao; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai; Zhu, Xiongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. Objective To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-impr