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1

STAT3 Regulation of Glioblastoma Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite efforts to find effective treatments, these tumors remain incurable. The failure of malignant gliomas to respond to conventional cancer therapies may reflect the unique biology of these tumors, underscoring the need for new approaches in their investigation. Recently, progress has been made in characterization of the molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma using a developmental neurobiological perspective, by exploring the role of signaling pathways that control the differentiation of neural stem cells along the glial lineage. The transcription factor STAT3, which has an established function in neural stem cell and astrocyte development, has been found to play dual tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles in glial malignancy depending on the mutational profile of the tumor. These findings establish a novel developmental paradigm in the study of glioblastoma pathogenesis and provide the rationale for patient-tailored therapy in the treatment of this devastating disease.

de la Iglesia, Nuria; Puram, Sidharth V.; Bonni, Azad

2009-01-01

2

Stat3 Inhibition Attenuates Mechanical Allodynia through Transcriptional Regulation of Chemokine Expression in Spinal Astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is known to induce cell proliferation and inflammation by regulating gene transcription. Recent studies showed that Stat3 modulates nociceptive transmission by reducing spinal astrocyte proliferation. However, it is unclear whether Stat3 also contributes to the modulation of nociceptive transmission by regulating inflammatory response in spinal astrocytes. This study aimed at investigating the role of Stat3 on neuroinflammation during development of pain in rats after intrathecal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Stat3 specific siRNA oligo and synthetic selective inhibitor (Stattic) were applied to block the activity of Stat3 in primary astrocytes or rat spinal cord, respectively. LPS was used to induce the expression of proinflammatory genes in all studies. Immunofluorescence staining of cells and slices of spinal cord was performed to monitor Stat3 activation. The impact of Stat3 inhibition on proinflammatory genes expression was determined by cytokine antibody array, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mechanical allodynia, as determined by the threshold pressure that could induce hind paw withdrawal after application of standardized von Frey filaments, was used to detect the effects of Stat3 inhibition after pain development with intrathecal LPS injection. Results Intrathecal injection of LPS activated Stat3 in reactive spinal astrocytes. Blockade of Stat3 activity attenuated mechanical allodynia significantly and was correlated with a lower number of reactive astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn. In vitro study demonstrated that Stat3 modulated inflammatory response in primary astrocytes by transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression including Cx3cl1, Cxcl5, Cxcl10 and Ccl20. Similarly, inhibition of Stat3 reversed the expression of these chemokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Conclusions Stat3 acted as a transcriptional regulator of reactive astrocytes by modulating chemokine expression. Stat3 regulated inflammatory response in astrocytes and contributed to pain modulation. Blockade of Stat3 represents a new target for pain control.

Liu, Xiaodong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lu, Na; Gin, Tony; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Chan, Matthew T. V.

2013-01-01

3

The NP9 protein encoded by the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) negatively regulates gene activation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2).  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human tumour virus that efficiently growth-transforms primary human B-lymphocytes in vitro. The viral nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for immortalisation of B-cells and stimulates viral and cellular gene expression through interaction with DNA-bound transcription factors. Like its cellular homologue Notch, it associates with the DNA-bound repressor RBPJ? (CSL/CBF1) thereby converting RBPJ? into the active state. For instance, both EBNA2 and Notch activate the cellular HES1 promoter. In EBV-transformed lymphocytes, the RNA of the NP9 protein encoded by human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) Type 1 is strongly up-regulated. The NP9 protein is detectable both in EBV-positive Raji cells, a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, and in IB4, an EBV-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. NP9 binds to LNX that forms a complex with the Notch regulator Numb. Therefore, the function of NP9 vis-à-vis Notch and EBNA2 was analysed. Here, we show that NP9 binds to EBNA2 and negatively affects the EBNA2-mediated activation of the viral C- and LMP2A promoters. In contrast, NP9 did neither interfere in the activation of the HES1 promoter by Notch nor the induction of the viral LMP1 promoter by EBNA2. In an electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, NP9 reduced the binding of EBNA2 to DNA-bound RBPJ? by about 50%. The down-regulation of EBNA2-activity by NP9 might represent a cellular defence mechanism against viral infection or could, alternatively, represent an adaptation of the virus to prevent excessive viral protein production that might otherwise be harmful for the infected cell. PMID:21710493

Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Pfuhl, Thorsten; Willnecker, Vivienne; Spurk, Andreas; Gurtsevitch, Vladimir; Sauter, Marlies; Hu, Bin; Noessner, Elfriede; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A

2011-09-01

4

STAT3 Regulation by S-Nitrosylation: Implication for Inflammatory Disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims: S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation, redox-based modifications of protein thiols, are recently emerging as important signaling mechanisms. In this study, we assessed S-nitrosylation-based regulation of Janus-activated kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway that plays critical roles in immune/inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. Results: Our studies show that STAT3 in stimulated microglia underwent two distinct redox-dependent modifications, S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation. STAT3 S-nitrosylation was associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-produced nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), whereas S-glutathionylation of STAT3 was associated with cellular oxidative stress. NO produced by iNOS or treatment of microglia with exogenous GSNO inhibited STAT3 activation via inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation (Tyr(705)). Consequently, the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced microglial proliferation and associated gene expressions were also reduced. In cell-free kinase assay using purified JAK2 and STAT3, STAT3 phosphorylation was inhibited by its selective preincubation with GSNO, but not by preincubation of JAK2 with GSNO, indicating that GSNO-mediated mechanisms inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation through S-nitrosylation of STAT3 rather than JAK2. In this study, we identified that Cys(259) was the target Cys residue of GSNO-mediated S-nitrosylation of STAT3. The replacement of Cys(259) residue with Ala abolished the inhibitory role of GSNO in IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and transactivation, suggesting the role of Cys(259) S-nitrosylation in STAT3 phosphorylation. Innovation: Microglial proliferation is regulated by NO via S-nitrosylation of STAT3 (Cys(259)) and inhibition of STAT3 (Tyr(705)) phosphorylation. Conclusion: Our results indicate the regulation of STAT3 by NO-based post-translational modification (S-nitrosylation). These findings have important implications for the development of new therapeutics targeting STAT3 for treating diseases associated with inflammatory/immune responses and abnormal cell proliferation, including cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2514-2527. PMID:24063605

Kim, Jinsu; Won, Je-Seong; Singh, Avtar K; Sharma, Anand K; Singh, Inderjit

2014-06-01

5

Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through STAT3 but appear to do so through different modules, perhaps localized to different cell types.

O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

2014-01-01

6

STAT3 in Epithelial Cells Regulates Inflammation and Tumor Progression to Malignant State in Colon1  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism of tumorigenesis especially tumor progression to malignancy in the inflamed colon is still unclear. Our study shows that epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), persistently activated in inflamed colon, is not required for inflammation-induced epithelial overproliferation and the development of early-stage tumors; however, it is essential for tumor progression to advanced malignancy. We found that one of the mechanisms that epithelial STAT3 regulates in tumor progression might be to modify leukocytic infiltration in the large intestine. Activation of epithelial STAT3 promotes the infiltration of the CD8+ lymphocyte population but inhibits the recruitment of regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes. The loss of Stat3 in epithelial cells promoted the expression of cytokines/chemokines including CCL19, CCL28, and RANTES, which are known to be able to recruit Treg lymphocytes. Linked to these changes was the pathway mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate kinases, which is activated in colonic epithelial cells in inflamed colon with functional STAT3 but not in epithelial cells deleted of STAT3. Our data suggest that epithelial STAT3 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced tumor progression through regulation of leukocytic recruitment especially the infiltration of Treg cells in the large intestine.

Nguyen, Andrew V; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Donghai; Nguyen, Stephanie; Loh, Ricky; Pang, Joey; Friedman, Kenneth; Orlofsky, Amos; Augenlicht, Leonard; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Lin, Elaine Y

2013-01-01

7

STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 and serine 727 differentially regulates mouse ESC fates.  

PubMed

STAT3 can be transcriptionally activated by phosphorylation of its tyrosine 705 or serine 727 residue. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling maintains pluripotency by inducing JAK-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3 Y705 (pY705). However, the function of phosphorylated S727 (pS727) in mESCs remains unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in regulating mESC identities, using a small molecule-based system to post-translationally modulate the quantity of transgenic STAT3 in STAT3(-/-) mESCs. We demonstrated that pY705 is absolutely required for STAT3-mediated mESC self-renewal, while pS727 is dispensable, serving only to promote proliferation and optimal pluripotency. S727 phosphorylation is regulated directly by fibroblast growth factor/Erk signaling and crucial in the transition of mESCs from pluripotency to neuronal commitment. Loss of S727 phosphorylation resulted in significantly reduced neuronal differentiation potential, which could be recovered by a S727 phosphorylation mimic. Moreover, loss of pS727 sufficed LIF to reprogram epiblast stem cells to naïve pluripotency, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in the control of mESC fate. PMID:24302476

Huang, Guanyi; Yan, Hexin; Ye, Shoudong; Tong, Chang; Ying, Qi-Long

2014-05-01

8

Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively in epidermal growth factor signalling.  

PubMed Central

EGF (epidermal growth factor) binding to its receptor (EGFR) induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of the receptor at multiple tyrosine residues, which serve as docking sites for recruitment of proteins with SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that activate multiple downstream signalling pathways. The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-binding protein 2) binds to EGFR, which leads to activation of Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. The latent transcription factors, STAT (signal transduction and activator of transcription), can also be activated by EGF in certain cell types. Since Ras-MAPK and STAT pathways are simultaneously stimulated by EGF, and Tyr-1086 and Tyr-1068 of EGFR are reported to be the binding sites for both Grb2 and Stat3, we investigated the possible regulatory role of Grb2 in STAT activation. In the present study, we report that transient expression of Grb2 specifically down-regulates EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, which leads to a repression of Stat3 transcriptional activity. In contrast, depletion of Grb2 by RNA interference substantially increases Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by EGF. The inhibition is neither mediated by a direct interaction between Grb2 and Stat3 nor via activation of tyrosine phosphatases. However, the repression was abolished by a mutation in the SH2 domain, but not the SH3 domains of Grb2, suggesting that inhibition involves binding of the receptor. Indeed, Grb2 inhibits the interaction between Stat3 and EGFR by competitive binding to the EGFR. On the other hand, Grb2 does not interact with the same sites as Stat3 on the interleukin-6 receptor and, therefore, has no effect on interleukin-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in EGF signalling, Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively at the receptor level.

Zhang, Tong; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xinmin

2003-01-01

9

STAT5 Outcompetes STAT3 To Regulate the Expression of the Oncogenic Transcriptional Modulator BCL6  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5 has been shown to drive cancer pathogenesis through dysregulation of genes involved in cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Although STAT3 and STAT5 are structurally related, they can have opposite effects on key genes, including BCL6. BCL6, a transcriptional repressor, has been shown to be oncogenic in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. BCL6 also plays an important role in breast cancer pathogenesis, a disease in which STAT3 and STAT5 can be activated individually or concomitantly. To determine the mechanism by which these oncogenic transcription factors regulate BCL6 transcription, we analyzed their effects at the levels of chromatin and gene expression. We found that STAT3 increases expression of BCL6 and enhances recruitment of RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at a site associated with transcriptional initiation. STAT5, in contrast, represses BCL6 expression below basal levels and decreases the association of RNA polymerase II at the gene. Furthermore, the repression mediated by STAT5 is dominant over STAT3-mediated induction. STAT5 exerts this effect by displacing STAT3 from one of the two regulatory regions to which it binds. These findings may underlie the divergent biology of breast cancers containing activated STAT3 alone or in conjunction with activated STAT5.

Walker, Sarah R.; Nelson, Erik A.; Yeh, Jennifer E.; Pinello, Luca; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

2013-01-01

10

STAT3 Regulates ABCA3 Expression and Influences Lamellar Body Formation in Alveolar Type II Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expres- sion in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3

Yohei Matsuzaki; Valerie Besnard; Jean C. Clark; Yan Xu; Susan E. Wert; Machiko Ikegami; Jeffrey A. Whitsett

11

JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target genes. Furthermore, the expression level of nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity between COLO205 and LoVo cells. Taken together, these results suggest that nuclear JAB1 positively regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cell line COLO205.

Nishimoto, Arata, E-mail: anishimo@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Li, Tao-Sheng [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hamano, Kimikazu [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

2013-08-30

12

A perylene derivative regulates HIF-1? and Stat3 signaling pathways.  

PubMed

It is becoming increasingly evident that improving the cure rate of many cancers will require treatment regimens hit more than one validated tumor targets. Developing an anti-cancer agent that targets two oncoproteins simultaneously is a promising strategy for accomplishing this goal. It would be expected to promote drug efficacy, reduce therapy-resistant without introducing additional toxic side effects. HIF-1? is a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia and is involved in tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell survival, glucose metabolism, and invasion. Stat3 has several oncogenic functions, including suppression of anti-tumor immune responses and promotion of inflammation. Recently, we have identified the perylene derivative, TEL03, as a dual inhibitor that targets both HIF-1? and Stat3. TEL03 blocks the expression of both HIF-1? and Stat3, regulated oncogenes (e.g., Bcl-2, VEGF, Glut1, and others) in cancer cells, and induces cancer cell apoptosis. The results demonstrated that: (i) TEL03 blocks Stat3 phosphorylation, and inhibits Stat3 transcriptional activity; and (ii) interferes the binding of HIF-1? to p300/CBP inducing its degradation by proteasomes under hypoxic conditions. Our in vivo tests showed that as a dual inhibitor, TEL03 dramatically inhibited tumor growth, and provided the evidence that targeting both HIF-1? and Stat3 simultaneously could be a promising strategy for breast and pancreatic cancer therapies. PMID:24485121

Chen, Han; Guan, Yongli; Yuan, Gu; Zhang, Qiang; Jing, Naijie

2014-02-15

13

STAT3 down regulates LC3 to inhibit autophagy and pancreatic cancer cell growth  

PubMed Central

The dismal 5-year survival (<5%) for pancreatic cancer (PanCA) underscores the need for developing effective therapeutic options. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that Nexrutine® (Nx), a bark extract from Phellodendron amurense exhibits excellent anticancer activity in human pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of inflammatory signaling via STAT3/NF?B/Cox-2. Given the apparent high oxidative stress and autophagic activity in pancreatic tumors, we investigated the potential of Nx to modulate autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their crosstalk. Our results show that Nx inhibits autophagy and decreases ROS generation. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy led to decreased ROS generation and proliferation with no significant effect on apoptosis. Further, using combination index analysis we also found that combination of late-stage autophagy inhibitor with Nx exhibited a moderate synergistic to additive effect. Additionally, genetic or pharmacological inactivation of STAT3 reduced LC3-II levels and expression indicating a possible role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of autophagy. Since both inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling activate STAT3, our data implicates that STAT3 plays a vital role in the regulation of autophagy through its contributions to the positive feedback loop between ROS and autophagy. Overall, our findings reveal an important role for STAT3/LC3/ROS in Nx-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer effects.

Gong, Jingjing; Munoz, Amanda R.; Chan, Daniel; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P.

2014-01-01

14

STAT3 Regulates MMP3 in Heme-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported that free Heme generated during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice, is central to the pathogenesis of fatal ECM. Heme-induced up-regulation of STAT3 and CXCL10 promotes whereas up-regulation of HO-1 prevents brain tissue damage in ECM. We have previously demonstrated that Heme is involved in the induction of apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we further tested the hypothesis that Heme reduces blood-brain barrier integrity during ECM by induction of apoptosis of brain vascular endothelial cells through STAT3 and its target gene matrix metalloproteinase three (MMP3) signaling. Methods Genes associated with the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway induced upon stimulation by Heme treatment, were assessed using real time RT2 Profile PCR arrays. A human MMP3 promoter was cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, pMMP3, and its activity was examined following exposure to Heme treatment by a luciferase reporter gene assay. In order to determine whether activated nuclear protein STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter and regulates MMP3 gene, we conducted a ChIP analysis using Heme-treated and untreated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBVEC), and determined mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP3 using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Apoptosis in HBVEC treated with Heme was evaluated by MTT and TUNEL assay. Results The results show that (1) Heme activates a variety of JAK/STAT3 downstream pathways in HBVEC. STAT3 targeted genes such as MMP3 and C/EBPb (Apoptosis-related genes), are up regulated in HBVEC treated with Heme. (2) Heme-induced HBVEC apoptosis via activation of STAT3 as well as its downstream signaling molecule MMP3 and upregulation of CXCL10 and HO-1 expressions. (3) Phosphorylated STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter in HBVEC cells, STAT3 transcribed MMP3 and induced MMP3 protein expression in HBVEC cells. Conclusions Activated STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter region and regulates MMP3 in Heme-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

Liu, Mingli; Wilson, Nana O.; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

2013-01-01

15

Necdin, a negative growth regulator, is a novel STAT3 target gene down-regulated in human cancer.  

PubMed

Cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways involving STAT3 are frequently constitutively activated in many human primary tumors, and are known for the transcriptional role they play in controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. However, the extent of STAT3's reach on transcriptional control of the genome as a whole remains an important question. We predicted that this persistent STAT3 signaling affects a wide variety of cellular functions, many of which still remain to be characterized. We took a broad approach to identify novel STAT3 regulated genes by examining changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile by microarray, using cells expressing constitutively-activated STAT3. Using computational analysis, we were able to define the gene expression profiles of cells containing activated STAT3 and identify candidate target genes with a wide range of biological functions. Among these genes we identified Necdin, a negative growth regulator, as a novel STAT3 target gene, whose expression is down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels when STAT3 is constitutively active. This repression is STAT3 dependent, since inhibition of STAT3 using siRNA restores Necdin expression. A STAT3 DNA-binding site was identified in the Necdin promoter and both EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirm binding of STAT3 to this region. Necdin expression has previously been shown to be down-regulated in a melanoma and a drug-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. Further analysis of Necdin expression demonstrated repression in a STAT3-dependent manner in human melanoma, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. These results suggest that STAT3 coordinates expression of genes involved in multiple metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, integrating signals that lead to global transcriptional changes and oncogenesis. STAT3 may exert its oncogenic effect by up-regulating transcription of genes involved in promoting growth and proliferation, but also by down-regulating expression of negative regulators of the same cellular processes, such as Necdin. PMID:22046235

Haviland, Rachel; Eschrich, Steven; Bloom, Gregory; Ma, Yihong; Minton, Susan; Jove, Richard; Cress, W Douglas

2011-01-01

16

Inducible STAT3 NH2 terminal mono-ubiquitination promotes BRD4 complex formation to regulate apoptosis.  

PubMed

Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) are latent transcription factors that are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to cellular activation by the IL-6 superfamily of cytokines to regulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. Here we observe that STAT3 is inducibly mono-ubiquitinated and investigate its consequences. Using domain mapping and highly specific selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometric assays, we identify lysine (K) 97 in its NH2-terminal domain as the major mono-ubiquitin conjugation site. We constructed a mono-ubiquitinated mimic consisting of a deubiquitinase-resistant monomeric ubiquitin fused to the NH2 terminus of STAT3 (ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP). In complex assays of ectopically expressed ubi-STAT3-FP, we observed enhanced complex formation with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a component of the activated positive transcriptional elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in STAT3(+/-) and STAT3(-/-) MEFs showed BRD4 recruitment to STAT3-dependent suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 gene (SOCS3). The effect of a selective small molecule inhibitor of BRD4, JQ1, to inhibit SOCS3 expression demonstrated the functional role of BRD4 for STAT3-dependent transcription. Additionally, ectopic ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP expression upregulated BCL2, BCL2L1, APEX1, SOD2, CCND1 and MYC expression indicating the role of ubiquitinated STAT3 in anti-apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Finally we observed that ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP suppressed TNF?-induced apoptotic cell death, indicating the functional importance of mono-ubiquitinated STAT3 in antiapoptotic gene expression. We conclude that STAT3 mono-ubiquitination is a key trigger in BRD4-dependent antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative gene expression programs. Thus, inhibiting the STAT3 mono-ubiquitination-BRD4 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of STAT3-dependent proliferative diseases. PMID:24657799

Ray, Sutapa; Zhao, Yingxin; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Lee, Chang; Brasier, Allan R

2014-07-01

17

STAT3 regulates uterine epithelial remodeling and epithelial-stromal crosstalk during implantation.  

PubMed

Embryo implantation is regulated by a variety of endometrial factors, including cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors. Earlier studies identified the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine produced by uterine glands, as an essential regulator of implantation. LIF, acting via its cell surface receptor, activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the uterine epithelial cells. However, the precise mechanism via which activated STAT3 promotes uterine function during implantation remains unknown. To identify the molecular pathways regulated by STAT3, we created SW(d/d) mice in which Stat3 gene is conditionally inactivated in uterine epithelium. The SW(d/d) mice are infertile due to a lack of embryo attachment to the uterine luminal epithelium and consequent implantation failure. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelial cells of SW(d/d) mice revealed dysregulated expression of specific components of junctional complexes, including E-cadherin, ?- and ?-catenin, and several claudins, which critically regulate epithelial junctional integrity and embryo attachment. In addition, uteri of SW(d/d) mice exhibited markedly reduced stromal proliferation and differentiation, indicating that epithelial STAT3 controls stromal function via a paracrine mechanism. The stromal defect arose from a drastic reduction in the production of several members of the epidermal growth factor family in luminal epithelium of SW(d/d) uteri and the resulting lack of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and mitotic activity in the stromal cells. Collectively, our results uncovered an intricate molecular network operating downstream of STAT3 that regulates uterine epithelial junctional reorganization, and stromal proliferation, and differentiation, which are critical determinants of successful implantation. PMID:24100212

Pawar, Sandeep; Starosvetsky, Elina; Orvis, Grant D; Behringer, Richard R; Bagchi, Indrani C; Bagchi, Milan K

2013-12-01

18

Tyk2 and Stat3 Regulate Brown Adipose Tissue Differentiation and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active form of the transcription factor Stat3 (CAStat3) restores differentiation in Tyk2?/? brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, Tyk2?/? mice expressing CAStat3 transgene in BAT also show improved BAT development, normal levels of insulin and significantly lower body weights. Stat3 binds to PRDM16, a master regulator of BAT differentiation, and enhances the stability of PRDM16 protein. These results define Tyk2 and Stat3 as critical determinants of brown fat-lineage and suggest that altered levels of Tyk2 are associated with obesity in both rodents and humans.

Derecka, Marta; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Koralov, Sergei B.; Szczepanek, Karol; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Sisler, Jennifer; Zhang, Qifang; Otero, Dennis; Cichy, Joanna; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shimoda, Kazuya; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Pellegrini, Sandra; Harris, Thurl E.; Seale, Patrick; Russell, Aaron P.; McAinch, Andrew J.; O'Brien, Paul E.; Keller, Susanna R.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Kordula, Tomasz; Larner, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

19

Stat3 regulates genes common to both wound healing and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wound healing and cancer are both characterized by cell proliferation, remodeling of extracellular matrix, cell invasion and migration, new blood vessel formation, and modulation of blood coagulation. The mechanisms that link wound healing and cancer are poorly understood. We report here that Stat3, a common signaling mechanism involved in oncogenesis and tissue injury, regulates a common set of genes involved

Daniel J Dauer; Bernadette Ferraro; Lanxi Song; Bin Yu; Linda Mora; Ralf Buettner; Steve Enkemann; Richard Jove; Eric B Haura

2005-01-01

20

JAK2/STAT3 pathway is involved in the early stage of adipogenesis through regulating C/EBP? transcription.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was reported to be involved in adipogenesis. However, the regulating mechanism of STAT3 remains unclear. The present results showed that STAT3 was activated within 2-h adipogenic induction, in which the phosphorylated STAT3 translocated from cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, we detected Janus kinase2 (JAK2) acted upstream of the STAT3 activation at the early stage of adipogenesis. Accordingly, the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 and siRNAs led to the partial inhibition of the STAT3 activation, and the inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, the results based on luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and gel shift approaches indicated that STAT3 could regulate the transcription of C/EBP? by binding the distal region of C/EBP? promoter at the early stage of adipogenesis. Collectively, our findings reveal that JAK2/STAT3 pathway is involved in the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation though regulating the C/EBP? transcription. PMID:21268070

Zhang, Kunming; Guo, Wei; Yang, Ying; Wu, Jiarui

2011-02-01

21

Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN9 regulates erythroid cell development through STAT3 dephosphorylation in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are involved in hematopoiesis, but the function of many PTPs is not well characterized in vivo. Here, we have identified Ptpn9a, an ortholog of human PTPN9, as a crucial regulator of erythroid cell development in zebrafish embryos. ptpn9a, but not ptpn9b, was expressed in the posterior lateral plate mesoderm and intermediate cell mass - two primitive hematopoietic sites during zebrafish embryogenesis. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of ptpn9a caused erythrocytes to be depleted by inhibiting erythroid cell maturation without affecting erythroid proliferation and apoptosis. Consistently, both dominant-negative PTPN9 (with mutation C515S) and siRNA against PTPN9 inhibited erythroid differentiation in human K562 cells. Mechanistically, depletion of ptpn9 in zebrafish embryos in vivo or in K562 cells in vitro increased phosphorylated STAT3, and the hyper-phosphorylated STAT3 entrapped and prevented the transcription factors GATA1 and ZBP-89 (also known as ZNF148) from regulating erythroid gene expression. These findings imply that PTPN9 plays an important role in erythropoiesis by disrupting an inhibitory complex of phosphorylated STAT3, GATA1 and ZBP-89, providing new cellular and molecular insights into the role of ptpn9a in developmental hematopoiesis. PMID:24727614

Bu, Ye; Su, Fuqin; Wang, Xu; Gao, Hai; Lei, Lei; Chang, Nannan; Wu, Qing; Hu, Keping; Zhu, Xiaojun; Chang, Zhijie; Meng, Kun; Xiong, Jing-Wei

2014-06-15

22

MUC1 is a downstream target of STAT3 and regulates lung cancer cell survival and invasion  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is aberrantly activated in human cancer including lung cancer and has been implicated in transformation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. One putative downstream gene regulated by Stat3 is MUC1 which also has important roles in tumorigenesis. We determined if Stat3 regulates MUC1 in lung cancer cell lines and what function MUC1 plays in lung cancer cell biology. We examined MUC1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and found high levels of MUC1 protein expression associated with higher levels of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3. STAT3 knock-down downregulated MUC1 expression whereas constitutive STAT3 expression increased MUC1 expression at mRNA and protein levels. MUC1 knockdown induced cellular apoptosis concomitant with reduced Bcl-XL and sensitized cells to cisplatin treatment. MUC1 knockdown inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of lung cancer by activating apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation in vivo. These results demonstrate that constitutively activated STAT3 regulates expression of MUC1, which mediates lung cancer cell survival and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. MUC1 appears to be a cooperating oncoprotein with multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinase pathways and could be an effective target for the treatment of lung cancer.

Gao, Jingchun; Mcconnell, Matthew J.; Yu, Bin; Li, Jiannong; Balko, Justin M.; Black, Esther P.; Johnson, Joseph O.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Altiok, Soner; Haura, Eric B.

2014-01-01

23

Stat3 Binds to mtDNA and Regulates Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Keratinocytes.  

PubMed

The nuclear transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) has recently been reported to have a localized mitochondrial regulatory function. Current data suggest that mitochondrial Stat3 (mitoStat3) is necessary for maximal mitochondrial activity and for Ras-mediated transformation independent of Stat3 nuclear activity. We have previously shown that Stat3 has a pivotal role in epithelial carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine the role of mitoStat3 in epidermal keratinocytes. Herein, we show that normal and neoplastic keratinocytes contain a pool of mitoStat3. EGF and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induce Stat3 mitochondrial translocation mediated through the phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser(727). In addition, we report that mitoStat3 binds mtDNA and associates with the mitochondrial transcription factor A. Furthermore, Stat3 ablation resulted in an increase of mitochondrial-encoded gene transcripts. An increase in key nuclear-encoded metabolic genes, PGC-1? and NRF-1, was also observed in Stat3-null keratinocytes; however, no changes in nuclear-encoded electron transport chain gene transcripts or mtDNA copy number were observed. Collectively, our findings suggest a heretofore-unreported function for mitoStat3 as a potential mitochondrial transcription factor in keratinocytes. This mitoStat3-mtDNA interaction may represent an alternate signaling pathway that could alter mitochondrial function and biogenesis and have a role in tumorigenesis. PMID:24496235

Macias, Everardo; Rao, Dharanija; Carbajal, Steve; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

2014-07-01

24

Novel role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of NK immune cell targeting receptor MICA on cancer cells.  

PubMed

The role of natural killer group 2, member D receptor (NKG2D)-expressing natural killer (NK) cells in tumor immunosurveillance is now well established. Nevertheless, tumor progression occurs despite tumor immunosurveillance, leading to cancer persistence in immunocompetent hosts. STAT3 plays a pivotal role both in oncogenic functions and in immunosuppression. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 in suppressing NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance. Using a colorectal cancer cell line (HT29) that can poorly activate NK, we neutralized STAT3 with pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA and found that this led to an increase in NK degranulation and IFN-? production in a TGF-?1-independent manner. Exposure to NKG2D-neutralizing antibodies partially restored STAT3 activity, suggesting that it prevented NKG2D-mediated NK cell activation. On this basis, we investigated the expression of NKG2D ligands after STAT3 activation in HT29, mesenchymal stem cells, and activated lymphocytes. The NK cell recognition receptor MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) was upregulated following STAT3 neutralization, and a direct interaction between STAT3 and the MICA promoter was identified. Because cross-talk between DNA damage repair and NKG2D ligand expression has been shown, we assessed the influence of STAT3 on MICA expression under conditions of genotoxic stress. We found that STAT3 negatively regulated MICA expression after irradiation or heat shock, including in lymphocytes activated by CD3/CD28 ligation. Together, our findings reveal a novel role for STAT3 in NK cell immunosurveillance by modulating the MICA expression in cancer cells. PMID:21257710

Bedel, Romain; Thiery-Vuillemin, Antoine; Grandclement, Camille; Balland, Jeremy; Remy-Martin, Jean-Paul; Kantelip, Bernadette; Pallandre, Jean-René; Pivot, Xavier; Ferrand, Christophe; Tiberghien, Pierre; Borg, Christophe

2011-03-01

25

FTO contributes to hepatic metabolism regulation through regulation of leptin action and STAT3 signalling in liver  

PubMed Central

Background The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, but its function is still largely unknown. A link between leptin receptor-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (LepR-STAT3) signalling pathway and FTO was recently suggested in the hypothalamus. Because of the presence of FTO in liver and the role of LepR-STAT3 in the control of hepatic metabolism, we investigated both in vitro and in vivo the potential interrelationship between FTO and LepR-STAT3 signalling pathway in liver and the impact of FTO overexpression on leptin action and glucose homeostasis in liver of mice. Results We found that FTO protein expression is regulated by both leptin and IL-6, concomitantly to an induction of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, in leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing HuH7 cells. In addition, FTO overexpression in vitro altered both leptin-induced Y705 and S727 STAT3 phosphorylation, leading to dysregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression and mitochondrial density, respectively. In vivo, liver specific FTO overexpression in mice induced a reducetion of Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3 in nuclear fraction, associated with reduced SOCS3 and LepR mRNA levels and with an increased G6P expression. Interestingly, FTO overexpression also induced S727 STAT3 phosphorylation in liver mitochondria, resulting in an increase of mitochondria function and density. Altogether, these data indicate that FTO promotes mitochondrial recruitment of STAT3 to the detriment of its nuclear localization, affecting in turn oxidative metabolism and the expression of leptin-targeted genes. Interestingly, these effects were associated in mice with alterations of leptin action and hyperleptinemia, as well as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Altogether, these data point a novel regulatory loop between FTO and leptin-STAT3 signalling pathways in liver cells, and highlight a new role of FTO in the regulation of hepatic leptin action and glucose metabolism.

2014-01-01

26

Leptin differentially regulate STAT3 activation in ob/ob mouse adipose mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. Currently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. Methods Using leptin deficient ob/ob mice, we investigated whether leptin injection into ob/ob mice increases adipose stem cell numbers and adipose tissue inflammatory marker MCP-1 mRNA and secretion levels. We also determined leptin mediated signaling pathways in the adipose stem cells. Results We report here that adipose stem cell number is significantly increased following leptin injection in ob/ob mice and with treatment of isolated stem cells with leptin in vitro. Leptin also up-regulated MCP-1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further showed that increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were due to increased phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Ser727 but not STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, suggesting differential regulation of MCP-1 gene expression under basal and leptin-stimulated conditions in adipose stem cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies demonstrate that leptin increases adipose stem cell number and differentially activates STAT3 protein resulting in up-regulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Further studies of mechanisms mediating adipose stem cell hyperplasia and leptin signaling in obesity are warranted and may help identify novel anti-obesity target strategies.

2012-01-01

27

Involvement of STAT3-regulated hepatic soluble factors in attenuation of stellate cell activity and liver fibrogenesis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycoprotein 130 (gp130)\\/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in hepatocytes controls a variety of physiological and pathological processes including liver regeneration, apoptosis resistance and metabolism. Recent research has shed light on the importance of acute phase proteins (APPs) regulated by hepatic gp130\\/STAT3 in host defense through suppression of innate immune responses during systemic inflammation. To examine whether

Minoru Shigekawa; Tetsuo Takehara; Takahiro Kodama; Hayato Hikita; Satoshi Shimizu; Wei Li; Takuya Miyagi; Atsushi Hosui; Tomohide Tatsumi; Hisashi Ishida; Tatsuya Kanto; Naoki Hiramatsu; Norio Hayashi

2011-01-01

28

LRb-STAT3 signaling is required for the neuroendocrine regulation of energy expenditure by leptin.  

PubMed

Secretion of leptin from adipose tissue communicates body energy status to the neuroendocrine system by activating the long form of the leptin receptor (LRb). Lack of leptin or LRb (as in db/db mice) results in obesity that stems from the combined effects of hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. We have previously generated mice in which LRb is replaced with a mutant LRb (LRbS1138) that specifically disrupts LRb-->STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) signaling; mice homozygous for this mutant (s/s) display increased feeding and are obese. We have now examined energy expenditure in s/s and db/db mice. Consistent with the increased lean body mass of s/s animals, locomotor activity and acute cold tolerance (partly a measure of shivering thermogenesis) in s/s mice were modestly but significantly improved compared with db/db mice, although they were decreased compared with wild-type mice. Total and resting metabolic rates were similarly depressed in s/s and db/db mice, however. Indeed, s/s and db/db mice display similar reductions in thyroid function and brown adipose tissue expression of uncoupling protein-1, which is regulated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Thus, the LRb-->STAT3 signal is central to both the control of energy expenditure by leptin and the neuroendocrine regulation of the SNS and the thyroid axis. PMID:15561935

Bates, Sarah H; Dundon, Trevor A; Seifert, Matthew; Carlson, Michael; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Myers, Martin G

2004-12-01

29

The STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling axis: an emerging regulator of endogenous regeneration and cancer growth  

PubMed Central

Stem cells, by definition, are able to both self-renew (give rise to more cells of their own kind) and demonstrate multipotential (the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types). To accommodate this unique dual ability, stem cells interpret signal transduction pathways in specialized ways. Notable examples include canonical and non-canonical branches of the Notch signaling pathway, with each controlling different downstream targets (e.g., Hes1 vs. Hes3) and promoting either differentiation or self-renewal. Similarly, stem cells utilize STAT3 signaling uniquely. Most mature cells studied thus far rely on tyrosine phosphorylation (STAT3-Tyr) to promote survival and growth; in contrast, STAT3-Tyr induces the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs use an alternative phosphorylation site, STAT3-Ser, to regulate survival and growth, a site that is largely redundant for this function in most other cell types. STAT3-Ser regulates Hes3, and together they form a convergence point for several signals, including Notch, Tie2, and insulin receptor activation. Disregulation and manipulation of the STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling pathway is important in both tumorigenesis and regenerative medicine, and worthy of extensive study.

Poser, Steven W.; Park, Deric M.; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

2013-01-01

30

Identification of a PTEN-regulated STAT3 brain tumor suppressor pathway  

PubMed Central

Activation of the transcription factor STAT3 is thought to potently promote oncogenesis in a variety of tissues, leading to intense efforts to develop STAT3 inhibitors for many tumors, including the highly malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. However, the function of STAT3 in glioblastoma pathogenesis has remained unknown. Here, we report that STAT3 plays a pro-oncogenic or tumor-suppressive role depending on the mutational profile of the tumor. Deficiency of the tumor suppressor PTEN triggers a cascade that inhibits STAT3 signaling in murine astrocytes and human glioblastoma tumors. Specifically, we forge a direct link between the PTEN–Akt–FOXO axis and the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor ? (LIFR?)–STAT3 signaling pathway. Accordingly, PTEN knockdown induces efficient malignant transformation of astrocytes upon knockout of the STAT3 gene. Remarkably, in contrast to the tumor-suppressive function of STAT3 in the PTEN pathway, STAT3 forms a complex with the oncoprotein epidermal growth factor receptor type III variant (EGFRvIII) in the nucleus and thereby mediates EGFRvIII-induced glial transformation. These findings indicate that STAT3 plays opposing roles in glial transformation depending on the genetic background of the tumor, providing the rationale for tailored therapeutic intervention in glioblastoma.

de la Iglesia, Nuria; Konopka, Genevieve; Puram, Sidharth V.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Bachoo, Robert M.; You, Mingjian J.; Levy, David E.; DePinho, Ronald A.; Bonni, Azad

2008-01-01

31

Regulation of adipose tissue T cell subsets by Stat3 is crucial for diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased proinflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Tregs), contributes to obesity-associated insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown, however. Here we show a crucial role for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in T cells in skewing adaptive immunity in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thereby contributing to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance. Stat3 activity is elevated in obese VAT and in VAT-resident T cells. Functional ablation of Stat3 in T cells reduces DIO, improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and suppresses VAT inflammation. Importantly, Stat3 ablation reverses the high Th1/Treg ratio in VAT of DIO mice that is likely secondary to elevated IL-6 production, leading in turn to suppression of Tregs. In addition, Stat3 in T cells in DIO mice affects adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and M2 phenotype. Our study identifies Stat3 in VAT-resident T cells as an important mediator and direct target for regulating adipose tissue inflammation, DIO, and its associated metabolic dysfunctions. PMID:23878227

Priceman, Saul J; Kujawski, Maciej; Shen, Shudan; Cherryholmes, Gregory A; Lee, Heehyoung; Zhang, Chunyan; Kruper, Laura; Mortimer, Joanne; Jove, Richard; Riggs, Arthur D; Yu, Hua

2013-08-01

32

Regulation of adipose tissue T cell subsets by Stat3 is crucial for diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased proinflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Tregs), contributes to obesity-associated insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown, however. Here we show a crucial role for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in T cells in skewing adaptive immunity in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thereby contributing to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance. Stat3 activity is elevated in obese VAT and in VAT-resident T cells. Functional ablation of Stat3 in T cells reduces DIO, improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and suppresses VAT inflammation. Importantly, Stat3 ablation reverses the high Th1/Treg ratio in VAT of DIO mice that is likely secondary to elevated IL-6 production, leading in turn to suppression of Tregs. In addition, Stat3 in T cells in DIO mice affects adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and M2 phenotype. Our study identifies Stat3 in VAT-resident T cells as an important mediator and direct target for regulating adipose tissue inflammation, DIO, and its associated metabolic dysfunctions.

Priceman, Saul J.; Kujawski, Maciej; Shen, Shudan; Cherryholmes, Gregory A.; Lee, Heehyoung; Zhang, Chunyan; Kruper, Laura; Mortimer, Joanne; Jove, Richard; Riggs, Arthur D.; Yu, Hua

2013-01-01

33

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Protein Suppresses Adenoma-to-carcinoma Transition in Apcmin/+ Mice via Regulation of Snail-1 (SNAI) Protein Stability*  

PubMed Central

STAT3 was recently reported to suppress tumor invasion in Apcmin/+ mice. We investigated the mechanisms by which STAT3 inhibits intestinal epithelial tumors using Apcmin/+/Stat3IEC-KO mice (intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of STAT3 in the Apcmin/+ background) to determine the role of STAT3 in carcinogenesis in vivo as well as colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro. To inhibit invasion of IEC tumors, STAT3 functions as a molecular adaptor rather than a transcription factor. Accordingly, the tumors in Apcmin/+/Stat3IEC-KO mice undergo adenoma-to-carcinoma transition and acquire an invasive phenotype. Similarly, STAT3 knockdown in a colorectal cell line enhances IEC invasion. We demonstrate that STAT3 down-regulates SNAI (Snail-1) expression levels and hence suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells. Mechanistically, STAT3 facilitates glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3?-mediated degradation of SNAI by regulating phosphorylation of GSK3?. Our data identified a new role for STAT3 in the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence of intestinal tumors.

Lee, Jongdae; Kim, Joanna C. K.; Lee, Shee-Eun; Quinley, Christine; Kim, HyeRi; Herdman, Scott; Corr, Maripat; Raz, Eyal

2012-01-01

34

Regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses by Stat3 signaling in tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tumor progression involves processes such as tissue invasion that can activate inflammatory responses, the immune system largely ignores or tolerates disseminated cancers. The mechanisms that block initiation of immune responses during cancer development are poorly understood. We report here that constitutive activation of Stat-3, a common oncogenic signaling pathway, suppresses tumor expression of proinflammatory mediators. Blocking Stat-3 in tumor

Tianhong Wang; Guilian Niu; Marcin Kortylewski; Lyudmila Burdelya; Kenneth Shain; Shumin Zhang; Raka Bhattacharya; Dmitry Gabrilovich; Richard Heller; Domenico Coppola; William Dalton; Richard Jove; Drew Pardoll; Hua Yu

2003-01-01

35

Gamma interferon down-regulates Fer and induces its association with inactive Stat3 in colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is a regulator of cell growth, which suppresses the proliferation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. Here we show that in HT-29 cells IFN-gamma transiently increased the cellular level of the tyrosine kinase Fer, whose functioning was found to be essential for the proliferation of malignant cell-lines. The transient elevation in the level of Fer, was followed by its down-regulation, an effect which was most prominent after 6-8 h of IFN-gamma treatment. Up- and down-regulation of Fer was paralleled by the activation and subsequent deactivation of Stat3, which is a potent oncogene and a putative substrate of the tyrosine kinase Fer. Moreover, IFN-gamma induced the association of Fer and Stat3 and the newly formed complex was most stable at the down-regulated states of the two proteins. Formation of the Fer/Stat3 complex was accompanied by an attenuation in cell-cycle progression and accumulation of cells in the G1 phase. Thus, Fer and Stat3 are two proliferation-promoting factors whose down-regulation could contribute to the cytostatic activity of IFN-gamma in colon carcinoma cells. PMID:12118379

Orlovsky, Kira; Theodor, Livia; Malovani, Hana; Chowers, Yehuda; Nir, Uri

2002-07-25

36

The nuclear localization of SOCS6 requires the N-terminal region and negatively regulates Stat3 protein levels  

SciTech Connect

We determined that endogenous- and overexpressed- SOCS6 was localized in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The localization of SOCS6 depended on amino acids 1-210 in the N-terminal region of the protein, which contains an unidentified domain. GFP-tagged SOCS6 or the N-terminal region, was exclusively localized and widely distributed throughout the entire nucleus, whereas the C-terminal region displayed a nuclear omission pattern. We also demonstrated that the SOCS6 protein could decrease the levels of the Stat3 protein in the nucleus, and that its negative regulation of the Stat3 protein level was dependent on its C-terminal region. These observations suggest that SOCS6 is composed of at least two functional domains required for its biological role in localizing and degrading Stat3 in the nucleus.

Hwang, Mi-Na [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Chan-Hee [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kyong-Ah [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Sook [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu l-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do 411-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr

2007-08-24

37

The Ubiquitin Ligase TRAF6 Negatively Regulates the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway by Binding to STAT3 and Mediating Its Ubiquitination  

PubMed Central

STAT3 is a key transcription factor that mediates various cellular and organismal processes, such as cell growth, apoptosis, immune response and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of STAT3 regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we identified TRAF6 as a new STAT3 interactor. TRAF6 augmented the ubiquitination of STAT3 and deactivated its transcriptional activity induced by IFN? stimulation or overexpressed with JAK2. Both the RING domain and the TRAF-type zinc finger domain of TRAF6 were indispensable for STAT3 deactivation. Accordingly, TRAF6 also down-regulated the expression of two known STAT3 target genes, CRP and ACT. Therefore, we showed that TRAF6 is a new regulator of JAK/STAT signaling and provide a new mechanistic explanation for the crosstalk between the NF-?B and the JAK-STAT pathways.

Jin, Chaozhi; Chen, Hui; Leng, Ling; He, Fuchu; Wang, Jian

2012-01-01

38

B Cells Promote Tumor Progression via STAT3 Regulated-Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The role of B cells in cancer and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. Here, we show that tumor-associated B cells with activated STAT3 contribute to tumor development by promoting tumor angiogenesis. B cells with or without Stat3 have opposite effects on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in both B16 melanoma and Lewis Lung Cancer mouse models. Ex vivo angiogenesis assays show that B cell-mediated tumor angiogenesis is mainly dependent on the induction of pro-angiogenic gene expression, which requires Stat3 signaling in B cells. Furthermore, B cells with activated STAT3 are mainly found in or near tumor vasculature and correlate significantly with overall STAT3 activity in human tumors. Moreover, the density of B cells in human tumor tissues correlates significantly with expression levels of several STAT3-downstream pro-angiogenic genes, as well as the degree of tumor angiogenesis. Together, these findings define a novel role of B cells in promoting tumor progression through angiogenesis and identify STAT3 in B cells as potential therapeutic target for anti-angiogenesis therapy.

Pal, Sumanta; Jove, Veronica; Deng, Jiehui; Zhang, Wang; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Wakabayashi, Mark; Forman, Stephen; Yu, Hua

2013-01-01

39

Connective tissue growth factor reacts as an IL-6/STAT3-regulated hepatic negative acute phase protein  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the mechanisms involved in a possible modulator role of interleukin (IL)-6 signalling on CYR61-CTGF-NOV (CCN) 2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in hepatocytes (PC) and to look for a relation between serum concentrations of these two parameters in patients with acute inflammation. METHODS: Expression of CCN2/CTGF, p-STAT3, p-Smad3/1 and p-Smad2 was examined in primary freshly isolated rat or cryo-preserved human PC exposed to various stimuli by Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), reporter-gene-assays and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: IL-6 strongly down-regulated CCN2/CTGF protein and mRNA expression in PC, enhanceable by extracellular presence of the soluble IL-6 receptor gp80, and supported by an inverse relation between IL-6 and CCN2/CTGF concentrations in patients’ sera. The inhibition of TGF?1 driven CCN2/CTGF expression by IL-6 did not involve a modulation of Smad2 (and Smad1/3) signalling. However, the STAT3 SH2 domain binding peptide, a selective inhibitor of STAT3 DNA binding activity, counteracted the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on CCN2/CTGF expression much more pronounced than pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor primarily of STAT3 phosphorylation. An EMSA confirmed STAT3 binding to the proposed proximal STAT binding site in the CCN2/CTGF promoter. CONCLUSION: CCN2/CTGF is identified as a hepatocellular negative acute phase protein which is down-regulated by IL-6 via the STAT3 pathway through interaction on the DNA binding level.

Gressner, Olav A; Peredniene, Ieva; Gressner, Axel M

2011-01-01

40

Stat3 Dimerization Regulated by Reversible Acetylation of a Single Lysine Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon cytokine treatment, members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine and serine sites within the carboxyl-terminal region in cells. We show that in response to cytokine treatment, Stat3 is also acetylated on a single lysine residue, Lys685. Histone acetyltransferase p300-mediated Stat3 acetylation on Lys685 was reversible by type I histone

Zheng-long Yuan; Ying-jie Guan; Devasis Chatterjee; Y. Eugene Chin

2005-01-01

41

miR-125b suppresses the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells through down-regulation of STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic restoration of miR-125b suppresses cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 can bind to the promoter region of miR-125b and serves as a transactivator. -- Abstract: There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in development and tumor progression. Abnormally expressed miR-125b was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer; however, whether miR-125b participates in regulating the initiation and progress of osteosarcoma still remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that miR-125b is frequently down-regulated in osteosarcoma samples and human osteosarcoma cell lines. The ectopic restoration of miR-125b expression in human osteosarcoma cells suppresses proliferation and migration in vitro and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. We further identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as the direct and functional downstream target of miR-125b. Interestingly, we discovered that the expression of miR-125b is regulated by STAT3 at the level of transcription. STAT3 binds to the promoter region of miR-125b in vitro and serves as a transactivator. Taken together, our findings point to an important role in the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma and suggest that miR-125b is a potential target in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Liu, Li-hong; Li, Hui; Li, Jin-ping; Zhong, Hui; Zhang, Han-chon; Chen, Jia [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China); Xiao, Tao, E-mail: xiaotaoxyl@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410010 (China)

2011-12-09

42

The STAT3 Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is widely expressed and activated by various growth-regulating signals, as well as diverse cytokines, that activate gp130 signaling receptors. Hence, STAT3 is critical for embryonic development and stem cell biology, as well as inflammation, growth regulation, and multiple immune regulatory and homeostatic functions. STAT3 is also found in its activated state in a large number of human cancers and has been correlated with oncogenic activity and tumor maintenance in several systems. The Connections Map highlights activation of STAT3 by interleukin 6 and shows that STAT3 serves as an integration point for components in multiple signaling pathways in addition to those involving JAKs, for example, the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G proteins) of the Gi/o family, and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Science Viewpoint D. S. Aaronson, C. M. Horvath, A road map for those who don't know JAK-STAT. Science 296, 1653-1655 (2002). [Abstract] [Full Text

David S. Aaronson (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV); Curt M. Horvath (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV)

2003-08-26

43

Halofuginone-induced amino acid starvation regulates Stat3-dependent Th17 effector function and reduces established autoimmune inflammation.  

PubMed

The IL-23 pathway is genetically linked to autoimmune disease in humans and is required for pathogenic Th17 cell function in mice. However, because IL-23R-expressing mature Th17 cells are rare and poorly defined in mice at steady-state, little is known about IL-23 signaling. In this study, we show that the endogenous CCR6(+) memory T cell compartment present in peripheral lymphoid organs of unmanipulated mice expresses Il23r ex vivo, displays marked proinflammatory responses to IL-23 stimulation in vitro, and is capable of transferring experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor halofuginone blocks IL-23-induced Stat3 phosphorylation and IL-23-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression in endogenous CCR6(+) Th17 cells via activation of the amino acid starvation response (AAR) pathway. In vivo, halofuginone shows therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, reducing both established disease progression and local Th17 cell effector function within the CNS. Mechanistically, AAR activation impairs Stat3 responses downstream of multiple cytokine receptors via selective, posttranscriptional suppression of Stat3 protein levels. Thus, our study reveals latent pathogenic functions of endogenous Th17 cells that are regulated by both IL-23 and AAR pathways and identifies a novel regulatory pathway targeting Stat3 that may underlie selective immune regulation by the AAR. PMID:24489094

Carlson, Thaddeus J; Pellerin, Alex; Djuretic, Ivana M; Trivigno, Catherine; Koralov, Sergei B; Rao, Anjana; Sundrud, Mark S

2014-03-01

44

C-Terminal Region of EBNA-2 Determines the Superior Transforming Ability of Type 1 Epstein-Barr Virus by Enhanced Gene Regulation of LMP-1 and CXCR7  

PubMed Central

Type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strains immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro much more efficiently than type 2 EBV, a difference previously mapped to the EBNA-2 locus. Here we demonstrate that the greater transforming activity of type 1 EBV correlates with a stronger and more rapid induction of the viral oncogene LMP-1 and the cell gene CXCR7 (which are both required for proliferation of EBV-LCLs) during infection of primary B cells with recombinant viruses. Surprisingly, although the major sequence differences between type 1 and type 2 EBNA-2 lie in N-terminal parts of the protein, the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoblasts is mostly determined by the C-terminus of EBNA-2. Substitution of the C-terminus of type 1 EBNA-2 into the type 2 protein is sufficient to confer a type 1 growth phenotype and type 1 expression levels of LMP-1 and CXCR7 in an EREB2.5 cell growth assay. Within this region, the RG, CR7 and TAD domains are the minimum type 1 sequences required. Sequencing the C-terminus of EBNA-2 from additional EBV isolates showed high sequence identity within type 1 isolates or within type 2 isolates, indicating that the functional differences mapped are typical of EBV type sequences. The results indicate that the C-terminus of EBNA-2 accounts for the greater ability of type 1 EBV to promote B cell proliferation, through mechanisms that include higher induction of genes (LMP-1 and CXCR7) required for proliferation and survival of EBV-LCLs.

Cancian, Laila; Bosshard, Rachel; Lucchesi, Walter; Karstegl, Claudio Elgueta; Farrell, Paul J.

2011-01-01

45

Avicin D: A Protein Reactive Plant Isoprenoid Dephosphorylates Stat 3 by Regulating Both Kinase and Phosphatase Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avicins, a class of electrophilic triterpenoids with pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, have been shown to induce redox-dependant post-translational modification of cysteine residues to regulate protein function. Based on (a) the cross-talk that occurs between redox and phosphorylation processes, and (b) the role of Stat3 in the process of apoptosis and carcinogenesis, we chose to study the effects of avicins

Valsala Haridas; Goshi Nishimura; Zhi-Xiang Xu; Fiona Connolly; Margaret Hanausek; Zbigniew Walaszek; Robert Zoltaszek; Jordan U. Gutterman; Joseph Alan Bauer

2009-01-01

46

Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1? Regulates a SOCS3-STAT3-Adiponectin Signal Transduction Pathway in Adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) regulates pathways in energy metabolism that become dysregulated in obesity. Earlier studies revealed that HIF1? in adipose tissue is markedly elevated in high-fat diet-fed mice that are obese and insulin-resistant. Genetic ablation of HIF1? in adipose tissue decreased insulin resistance and obesity, accompanied by increased serum adiponectin levels. However, the exact mechanism whereby HIF1? regulates adiponectin remains unclear. Here, acriflavine (ACF), an inhibitor of HIF1?, induced the expression of adiponectin and reduced the expression of SOCS3 in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that HIF1? suppressed the expression of adiponectin through a SOCS3-STAT3 pathway. Socs3 was identified as a novel HIF1? target gene based on chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays. STAT3 directly regulated adiponectin in vitro in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACF was found to prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In vivo, ACF also regulated the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway, and inhibition of HIF1? in adipose tissue was essential for ACF to improve the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway to counteract insulin resistance. This study provides evidence for a novel target gene and signal transduction pathway in adipocytes and indicates that inhibitors of HIF1? have potential utility for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Jiang, Changtao; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Li, Fei; Qu, Aijuan; Gavrilova, Oksana; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

2013-01-01

47

TCPTP Regulates SFK and STAT3 Signaling and Is Lost in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling, as mediated by members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family (ErbB1 to -4) of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), Src family PTKs (SFKs), and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that signal via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is critical to the development and progression of many human breast cancers. EGFR, SFKs, and STAT3 can serve as substrates for the protein tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP (PTPN2). Here we report that TCPTP protein levels are decreased in a subset of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and that TCPTP protein is absent in a large proportion of “triple-negative” primary human breast cancers. Homozygous TCPTP deficiency in murine mammary fat pads in vivo is associated with elevated SFK and STAT3 signaling, whereas TCPTP deficiency in human breast cancer cell lines enhances SFK and STAT3 signaling. On the other hand, TCPTP reconstitution in human breast cancer cell lines severely impaired cell proliferation and suppressed anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo. These studies establish TCPTP's potential to serve as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer.

Shields, Benjamin J.; Wiede, Florian; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Wee, Kenneth; Hauser, Christine; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Molloy, Timothy J.; O'Toole, Sandra A.; Daly, Roger J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Mitchell, Christina A.; McLean, Catriona A.

2013-01-01

48

HLA-G regulates the invasive properties of JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells by controlling STAT3 activation.  

PubMed

The expression of human leucocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in trophoblasts plays a crucial role in successful embryonic implantation, and reduced HLA-G expression might contribute to adverse obstetric outcomes. In this study, we silenced HLA-G expression using RNA interference in JEG-3 cells, resulting in a notably attenuated invasion capacity of the cells in a Transwell assay; however, no alterations in cell proliferation or apoptosis were observed. The down-regulation of HLA-G dampened the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), whereas the up-regulation of HLA-G promoted STAT3 activation and invasion in JEG-3 cells treated with human galectin-1. Most importantly, interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not galectin-1, was shown to rescue invasion deficiency in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we demonstrate that HLA-G is able to regulate JEG-3 cell invasion by influencing STAT3 activation, which may underlie the implantation defects accompanying HLA-G hypo-expression in pre-eclampsia. PMID:24054889

Liu, X; Gu, W; Li, X

2013-11-01

49

Constitutive Activation of STAT3 Signaling Regulates hTERT and Promotes Stem Cell-Like Traits in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Mounting clinical data suggest that high telomerase activity is tightly associated with cancer progression and poor outcomes. Constitutively activated STAT3 is found in ?60% of human malignancies and shows a dismal prognosis. We previously reported that activated STAT3 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell phenotype in human breast cancer. However, little is known how STAT3 is regulated in the cancer stem cell and by which mechanisms STAT3 contributes to poor prognosis in aggressive breast cancer. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 physically interacts with CD44 and NF-kB and activates the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) in human breast cancer stem cells. STAT3 plays a role as a signal transducing molecule between CD44 and NF-kB. In addition to functioning as a catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT has been reported to function as a transcription co-factor which drives EMT and cancer stem cell phenotype in human cancer. We observed that activated hTERT increases CD44 (+) subpopulation, whereas targeted knock-down of hTERT abolished cancer stem cell phenotype. Targeted STAT3 knock-down cells also down-regulated hTERT and decreased CD44 subpopulation. Finally, CD44 knock-down resulted in the abrogation of cancer stem cell phenotype and concurrent down-regulation of pSTAT3 and hTERT. Our study delineates the signaling pathway where STAT3 functions as a modulator for CD44 and hTERT, promoting a cancer stem cell phenotype. The constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling that leads to regulation of hTERT pathway may provide novel therapeutic targets for human breast cancer stem cells.

Chung, Seyung S.; Aroh, Clement; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

2013-01-01

50

PLTP regulates STAT3 and NF?B in differentiated THP1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages  

PubMed Central

Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) plays an important role in regulation of inflammation. Previously published studies have shown that PLTP binds, transfers and neutralizes bacterial lipopolysaccharides. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLTP can also regulate anti-inflammatory pathways in macrophages. Incubation of macrophage-like differentiated THP1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages with wild-type PLTP in the presence or absence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) or interferon gamma (IFN?) significantly increased nuclear levels of active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, pSTAT3Tyr705 (p<0.01). Similar results were obtained in the presence of a PLTP mutant without lipid transfer activity (PLTPM159E), suggesting that PLTP-mediated lipid transfer is not required for activation of the STAT3 pathway. Inhibition of ABCA1 by chemical inhibitor, glyburide, as well as ABCA1 RNA inhibition, reversed the observed PLTP-mediated activation of STAT3. In addition, PLTP reduced nuclear levels of active nuclear factor kappa-B (NF?B) p65 and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in conditioned media of differentiated THP1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that PLTP has anti-inflammatory capabilities in macrophages.

Vuletic, S; Dong, W; Wolfbauer, G; Tang, C.; Albers, JJ

2011-01-01

51

Down-regulation of ATBF1 activates STAT3 signaling via PIAS3 in pacing-induced HL-1 atrial myocytes.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is progressive and is the most common clinical arrhythmia. It is associated with inflammatory changes characterized by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. A zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3, also named AT-motif binding factor 1, ATBF1) gene variant has been found in patients with AF. However, the mechanism by which the ATBF1 leads to inflammation in AF remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tachypacing induces a decrease in ATBF1 expression and then activates STAT3 signaling via protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3). Atrial (HL-1 myocytes) cells were cultured in the presence of rapid electrical stimulations. In tachypaced HL-1 cells, we found that ATBF1 and PIAS3 protein levels were decreased, while the level of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) was highly up-regulated compared with that of total STAT3. Knockdown of ATBF1 enhanced this trend, while the overexpression of ATBF1 had the opposite effect. A binary complex of ATBF1 and PIAS3 was formed and then the DNA-binding ability of activated STAT3 was enhanced in tachypaced HL-1 cells. These data indicate that tachypacing decreased ATBF1, leading to enhanced STAT3 DNA-binding activity due to the reduced formation of a binary complex of ATBF1 and PIAS3. PMID:24857987

Jiang, Qi; Ni, Buqing; Shi, Jiaojiao; Han, Zhonglin; Qi, Rundi; Xu, Wenhua; Wang, Dan; Wang, Dao W; Chen, Minglong

2014-07-01

52

Stat3 Activation by Src Induces Specific Gene Regulation and Is Required for Cell Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally discovered as intracellular\\u000aeffectors of normal signaling by cytokines, increasing evidence also points to a role for STAT transcription\\u000afactors in oncogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that one STAT family member, Stat3, possesses\\u000aconstitutively elevated tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity in fibroblasts stably transformed by\\u000athe Src oncoprotein. To determine

James Turkson; Tammy Bowman; Roy Gracia; Eric Caldenhoven; ROLF P. DE GROOT; Richard Jove

1998-01-01

53

Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates murine and human cell differentiation through STAT3/p63/Jagged/Notch cascade  

PubMed Central

The receptor tyrosine kinase/PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (RTK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway is frequently altered in cancer, but the underlying mechanism leading to tumorigenesis by activated mTOR remains less clear. Here we show that mTOR is a positive regulator of Notch signaling in mouse and human cells, acting through induction of the STAT3/p63/Jagged signaling cascade. Furthermore, in response to differential cues from mTOR, we found that Notch served as a molecular switch to shift the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. We determined that hyperactive mTOR signaling impaired cell differentiation of murine embryonic fibroblasts via potentiation of Notch signaling. Elevated mTOR signaling strongly correlated with enhanced Notch signaling in poorly differentiated but not in well-differentiated human breast cancers. Both human lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and mouse kidney tumors with hyperactive mTOR due to tumor suppressor TSC1 or TSC2 deficiency exhibited enhanced STAT3/p63/Notch signaling. Furthermore, tumorigenic potential of cells with uncontrolled mTOR signaling was suppressed by Notch inhibition. Our data therefore suggest that perturbation of cell differentiation by augmented Notch signaling might be responsible for the underdifferentiated phenotype displayed by certain tumors with an aberrantly activated RTK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Additionally, the STAT3/p63/Notch axis may be a useful target for the treatment of cancers exhibiting hyperactive mTOR signaling.

Ma, Jianhui; Meng, Yan; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Chen, Xinxin; Peng, Haiyong; Sun, Qian; Zha, Xiaojun; Wang, Fang; Wang, Ying; Jing, Yanling; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Rongrong; Wang, Lianmei; Wu, Erxi; Cai, Guifang; Malinowska-Kolodziej, Izabela; Liao, Qi; Liu, Yuqin; Zhao, Yi; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Kaifeng; Dai, Jianwu; Han, Jiahuai; Wu, Lizi; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Shen, Huangxuan; Zhang, Hongbing

2009-01-01

54

A Complex of Nuclear Factor I-X3 and STAT3 Regulates Astrocyte and Glioma Migration through the Secreted Glycoprotein YKL-40*  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor I-X3 (NFI-X3) is a newly identified splice variant of NFI-X that regulates expression of several astrocyte-specific markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein. Here, we identified a set of genes regulated by NFI-X3 that includes a gene encoding a secreted glycoprotein YKL-40. Although YKL-40 expression is up-regulated in glioblastoma multiforme, its regulation and functions in nontransformed cells of the central nervous system are widely unexplored. We find that expression of YKL-40 is activated during brain development and also differentiation of neural progenitors into astrocytes in vitro. Furthermore, YKL-40 is a migration factor for primary astrocytes, and its expression is controlled by both NFI-X3 and STAT3, which are known regulators of gliogenesis. Knockdown of NFI-X3 and STAT3 significantly reduced YKL-40 expression in astrocytes, whereas overexpression of NFI-X3 dramatically enhanced YKL-40 expression in glioma cells. Activation of STAT3 by oncostatin M induced YKL-40 expression in astrocytes, whereas expression of a dominant-negative STAT3 had a suppressive effect. Mechanistically, NFI-X3 and STAT3 form a complex that binds to weak regulatory elements in the YKL-40 promoter and activates transcription. We propose that NFI-X3 and STAT3 control the migration of differentiating astrocytes as well as migration and invasion of glioma cells via regulating YKL-40 expression.

Singh, Sandeep K.; Bhardwaj, Reetika; Wilczynska, Katarzyna M.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Kordula, Tomasz

2011-01-01

55

STAT3 Is a Negative Regulator of Granulopoiesis but Is Not Required for G-CSF-Dependent Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

STAT3 has been described as an essential component of G-CSF-driven cell proliferation and granulopoiesis. This notion was tested by conditional gene ablation in transgenic mice. Contrary to expectation, granulocytes developed from STAT3 null bone marrow progenitors, and STAT3 null neutrophils displayed mature effector functions. Rather than a deficit in granulopoiesis, mice lacking STAT3 in their hematopoietic progenitors developed neutrophilia, and

Chien-kuo Lee; Regina Raz; Ramon Gimeno; Rachel Gertner; Birte Wistinghausen; Kenichi Takeshita; Ronald A. DePinho; David E. Levy

2002-01-01

56

MicroRNA-18a modulates STAT3 activity through negative regulation of PIAS3 during gastric adenocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: MicroRNA (miRNA, miR)-18a is a member of the miR-17–92 cluster, an important locus that is markedly overexpressed in several cancers and associated with cancer development and progression. However, the mechanism of action of the miR-17–92 cluster and its individual miRNAs are largely unknown. Methods and Results: In this study, we investigated the expression of the miR-17–92 cluster by in situ hybridisation (ISH) assay and copy-number analysis in gastric tissue microarray (TMA) specimens. We determined that miR-18a was present at higher levels than the other five miRNAs in the cluster. In addition, we identified Protein Inhibitor of Activated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (PIAS3) as a direct target of miR-18a in gastric cancer. miR-18a level was positively correlated with levels of Survivin, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc, which are downstream transcriptional targets of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3-induced transcription can be negatively regulated by PIAS3; consistent with this, PIAS3 level was negatively correlated with levels of Survivin, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that miR-18a acts as an oncogene and plays a role in gastric adenocarcinogenesis, at least in part by negatively regulating PIAS3 and thereby modulating expression of STAT3 target genes.

Wu, W; Takanashi, M; Borjigin, N; Ohno, S-i; Fujita, K; Hoshino, S; Osaka, Y; Tsuchida, A; Kuroda, M

2013-01-01

57

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA2) binds to a component of the human SNF-SWI complex, hSNF5/Ini1.  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), one of the six viral nuclear proteins expressed in latently infected B lymphocytes, is essential to the immortalization of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBNA2 promotes transcriptional transactivation of viral and cellular genes by acting as an adapter molecule that binds to cellular sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, JK recombination signal-binding protein (RBP-JK), and PU.1 and engages multiple members of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex. In the present study, we show that EBNA2 also interacts with hSNF5/Ini1, the human homolog of the yeast transcription factor SNF5. Gel filtration fractionation of partially purified EBV-positive lymphocyte nuclear extracts shows that a fraction of EBNA2 coelutes with both hSNF5/Ini1 and BRG1, a human homolog of SWI/SNF2, in the high-molecular-mass region (1.5 to 2.0 MDa) of a Superose 6 chromatogram. An affinity-purified rabbit antibody directed against hSNF5/Ini1 coimmunoprecipitates EBNA2 from this high-molecular-mass nuclear protein fraction, demonstrating that EBNA2 and hSNF5/Ini1 interact in vivo. This interaction is restricted to a subpopulation of phosphorylated viral EBNA2. Deletion mutation analysis of EBNA2 shows that the proline-rich aminoterminal end and a domain within the divergent region of EBNA2 mediate EBNA2-hSNF5/Ini1 interaction. Since the SNF-SWI complex participates in gene regulation through the alteration of nucleosome configuration and may be a component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, the EBNA2-hSNF5/Ini1 interaction supports the hypothesis that EBNA2 facilitates transcriptional transactivation by acting as a transcription adapter molecule. We postulate that EBNA2 engages the hSNF-SWI complex to generate an open chromatin conformation at the EBNA2-responsive target genes, thereby potentiating the function of the RBP-JK-EBNA2-polymerase II transcription complex.

Wu, D Y; Kalpana, G V; Goff, S P; Schubach, W H

1996-01-01

58

Oncostatin M stimulates cell migration and proliferation by down-regulating E-cadherin in HTR8/SVneo cell line through STAT3 activation  

PubMed Central

Background During the first trimester of pregnancy, trophoblastic E-cadherin expression is down-regulated, thereby allowing extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to acquire the potential for migration and invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of OSM on the migration and proliferation of EVT cell line HTR8/SVneo with regard to its effects on the expression of E-cadherin and STAT3 activation. Methods We investigated the effects of OSM on RNA and protein expression of E-cadherin by real time RT-PCR analyses, western blotting, and indirect immunofluorescence staining in HTR8/SVneo cells, as well as the effects on cell migration and proliferation. The selective signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 inhibitor, stattic, and STAT3 siRNA were used to investigate STAT3 activation by OSM. Results OSM significantly reduced RNA and protein expression of E-cadherin. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of HTR8/SVneo cells also revealed the down-regulation of E-cadherin, compared with the controls. OSM-stimulated cell migration was attenuated by anti-gp130 antibodies. OSM-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin by OSM treatment was restored by stattic and STAT3 siRNA. In addition, OSM-stimulated migration and proliferation were significantly suppressed by STAT3 inhibition. Conclusions This study suggests that OSM stimulates the migration and proliferation of EVTs during the first trimester of pregnancy through the down-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, this study suggests that the effects of OSM on migration and proliferation are related to STAT3 activation, which is important in trophoblast invasiveness.

2013-01-01

59

The Stat3/Socs3a Pathway is a Key Regulator of Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors, i.e. hair cells (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals only possess a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals suffer from permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique, Digital Gene Expression (DGE), which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological up-regulation of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without over-producing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Zhu et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Dierssen et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing.

Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Burgess, Shawn M.

2012-01-01

60

STAT3, STAT4, NFATc1, and CTCF Regulate PD-1 through Multiple Novel Regulatory Regions in Murine T Cells.  

PubMed

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a crucial negative regulator of CD8 T cell development and function, yet the mechanisms that control its expression are not fully understood. Through a nonbiased DNase I hypersensitivity assay, four novel regulatory regions within the Pdcd1 locus were identified. Two of these elements flanked the locus, bound the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor, and interacted with each other, creating a potential regulatory compartmentalization of the locus. In response to T cell activation signaling, NFATc1 bound to two of the novel regions that function as independent regulatory elements. STAT binding sites were identified in these elements as well. In splenic CD8 T cells, TCR-induced PD-1 expression was augmented by IL-6 and IL-12, inducers of STAT3 and STAT4 activity, respectively. IL-6 or IL-12 on its own did not induce PD-1. Importantly, STAT3/4 and distinct chromatin modifications were associated with the novel regulatory regions following cytokine stimulation. The NFATc1/STAT regulatory regions were found to interact with the promoter region of the Pdcd1 gene, providing a mechanism for their action. Together these data add multiple novel distal regulatory regions and pathways to the control of PD-1 expression and provide a molecular mechanism by which proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 or IL-12, can augment PD-1 expression. PMID:24711622

Austin, James W; Lu, Peiyuan; Majumder, Parimal; Ahmed, Rafi; Boss, Jeremy M

2014-05-15

61

Astrocyte response to motor neuron injury promotes structural synaptic plasticity via STAT3-regulated TSP-1 expression  

PubMed Central

The role of remote astrocyte (AC) reaction to central or peripheral axonal insult is not clearly understood. Here we use a transgenic approach to compare the direct influence of normal with diminished AC reactivity on neuronal integrity and synapse recovery following extracranial facial nerve transection in mice. Our model allows straightforward interpretations of AC–neuron signalling by reducing confounding effects imposed by inflammatory cells. We show direct evidence that perineuronal reactive ACs play a major role in maintaining neuronal circuitry following distant axotomy. We reveal a novel function of astrocytic signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 regulates perineuronal astrocytic process formation and re-expression of a synaptogenic molecule, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), apart from supporting neuronal integrity. We demonstrate that, through this new pathway, TSP-1 is responsible for the remote AC-mediated recovery of excitatory synapses onto axotomized motor neurons in adult mice. These data provide new targets for neuroprotective therapies via optimizing AC-driven plasticity.

Tyzack, Giulia E.; Sitnikov, Sergey; Barson, Daniel; Adams-Carr, Kerala L.; Lau, Nike K.; Kwok, Jessica C.; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J. M.; Karadottir, Ragnhildur T.; Fawcett, James W.; Lakatos, Andras

2014-01-01

62

Epstein-Barr Virus encoded LMP1 regulates cyclin D1 promoter activity by nuclear EGFR and STAT3 in CNE1 cells  

PubMed Central

The principal Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a prevalent cancer in China. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is important in carcinogenesis, as it is a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a master transcriptional regulator in proliferation and apoptosis. Our previous study demonstrated that the nuclear EGFR could bind to the cyclin D1 promoter directly in the presence of LMP1, and the correlation between EGFR and STAT3 in NPC remains to be further explored. Here, we have shown that the interaction of EGFR and STAT3 increased in the nucleus in the presence of LMP1. LMP1 promoted both EGFR and STAT3 binding to the promoter region of cyclin D1, in turn, enhancing the promoter activity of cyclin D1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both transcriptional activity and mRNA levels of cyclin D1 were decreased by small molecule interference of EGFR and STAT3 activity. These findings may provide a novel linkage between the EGFR and STAT3 signaling pathways and the activation of cyclin D1 by LMP1 in the carcinogenesis of NPC.

2013-01-01

63

Role of MMP-2 in the Regulation of IL-6/Stat3 Survival Signaling via Interaction With ?5?1 Integrin in glioma  

PubMed Central

MMP-2 plays pivotal role in the degradation of extracellular matrix, and thereby enhances the invasive, proliferative and metastatic potential in cancer. Knockdown of MMP-2 using MMP-2 siRNA (pM) in human glioma xenograft cell lines 4910 and 5310 decreased cell proliferation compared to mock- and pSV-(scrambled vector)treatments, as determined by BrDU incorporation, Ki-67 staining and clonogenic survival assay. Cytokine array and Western blotting using tumor conditioned media displayed modulated secretory levels of various cytokines including GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-?, angiogenin, VEGF and PDGF-BB in MMP-2 knockdown cells. Further, cDNA PCR array indicated potential negative regulation of JAK/Stat3 pathway in pM-treated cells. Mechanistically, MMP-2 is involved in complex formation with ?5 and ?1 integrins and MMP-2 downregulation inhibited ?5?1 integrin mediated Stat3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. EMSA and ChIP assays showed inhibited Stat3 DNA-binding activity and recruitment at CyclinD1 and c-Myc promoters in pM-treated cells. In individual experiments, IL-6 or siRNA-insensitive MMP-2 overexpression by pM-FL-A141G counteracted and restored the pM-inhibited Stat3 DNA-binding activity suggesting IL-6/Stat3 signaling suppression in pM-treated 4910 and 5310 cells. MMP-2/?5?1 binding is enhanced in rhMMP-2 treatments resulting in elevated Stat3 DNA-binding activity and recruitment on CyclinD1 and c-Myc promoters. Activation of ?5?1 signaling by Fibronectin adhesion elevated pM-inhibited Stat3 phosphorylation whereas blocking ?5?1 abrogated constitutive Stat3 activation. In vivo experiments with orthotropic tumor model revealed the decreased tumor size in pM-treatment compared to mock- or pSV-treatments. Immunoflorescence studies in tumor sections corroborated our in vitro findings evidencing high expression and co-localization of MMP-2/?5?1, which is decreased upon pM-treatment along with significantly reduced IL-6, phospho-Stat3, CyclinD1, c-Myc, Ki-67 and PCNA expression levels. Our data indicates the possible role of MMP-2/?5?1 interaction in the regulation of ?5?1-mediated IL-6/Stat3 signaling activation and signifies the therapeutic potential of blocking MMP-2/?5?1 interaction in glioma treatment.

Kesanakurti, Divya; Chetty, Chandramu; Dinh, Dzung H.; Gujrati, Meena; Rao, Jasti S.

2012-01-01

64

Role of MMP-2 in the regulation of IL-6/Stat3 survival signaling via interaction with ?5?1 integrin in glioma.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) has pivotal role in the degradation of extracellular matrix, and thereby enhances the invasive, proliferative and metastatic potential in cancer. Knockdown of MMP-2 using MMP-2 small interfering RNA (pM) in human glioma xenograft cell lines 4910 and 5310 decreased cell proliferation compared with mock and pSV (scrambled vector) treatments, as determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, Ki-67 staining and clonogenic survival assay. Cytokine array and western blotting using tumor-conditioned media displayed modulated secretory levels of various cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-?, angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-BB in MMP-2 knockdown cells. Further, cDNA PCR array indicated potential negative regulation of Janus kinase/Stat3 pathway in pM-treated cells. Mechanistically, MMP-2 is involved in complex formation with ?5 and ?1 integrins and MMP-2 downregulation inhibited ?5?1 integrin-mediated Stat3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed inhibited Stat3 DNA-binding activity and recruitment at CyclinD1 and c-Myc promoters in pM-treated cells. In individual experiments, IL-6 or siRNA-insensitive MMP-2 overexpression by pM-FL-A141G counteracted and restored the pM-inhibited Stat3 DNA-binding activity, suggesting IL-6/Stat3 signaling suppression in pM-treated 4910 and 5310 cells. MMP-2/?5?1 binding is enhanced in human recombinant MMP-2 treatments, resulting in elevated Stat3 DNA-binding activity and recruitment on CyclinD1 and c-Myc promoters. Activation of ?5?1 signaling by Fibronectin adhesion elevated pM-inhibited Stat3 phosphorylation whereas blocking ?5?1 abrogated constitutive Stat3 activation. In vivo experiments with orthotropic tumor model revealed the decreased tumor size in pM treatment compared with mock or pSV treatments. Immunofluorescence studies in tumor sections corroborated our in vitro findings evidencing high expression and co-localization of MMP-2/?5?1, which is decreased upon pM treatment along with significantly reduced IL-6, phospho-Stat3, CyclinD1, c-Myc, Ki-67 and PCNA expression levels. Our data indicate the possible role of MMP-2/?5?1 interaction in the regulation of ?5?1-mediated IL-6/Stat3 signaling activation and signifies the therapeutic potential of blocking MMP-2/?5?1 interaction in glioma treatment. PMID:22349830

Kesanakurti, D; Chetty, C; Dinh, D H; Gujrati, M; Rao, J S

2013-01-17

65

RhoC regulates cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by overexpressing IL-6 and phosphorylation of STAT3.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the correlation between RhoC expression and cancer stem cells (CSCs) formation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The inhibition of RhoC function was achieved using shRNA. The expression of stem cell surface markers, ALDH and CD44 were significantly low in two RhoC depleted HNSCC cell carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, a striking reduction in tumorsphere formation was achieved in RhoC knockdown lines. The mRNA expression of RhoC in RhoC knockdown adherent and tumorspheres are dramatically down regulated as compared with the scrambled control. The mRNA expression of stem cell transcription factors; nanog, oct3/4 (Pouf1), and sox2 were significantly depleted in RhoC knockdown clones. Further, the phosphorylation of STAT3(ser727), and STAT3(tyr705) were significantly down regulated in RhoC knockdown clones. The overexpression of STAT3 in RhoC knockdown did not show any change in expression patterns of either-STAT3(tyr705) or stem cell transcription factors, signifying the role of RhoC in STAT3 activation and thus the expression of nanog, oct3/4 and sox2 in HNSCC. The expression of Inter leukin-6 (IL-6) in RhoC knockdown HNSCC cell lines was dramatically low as compared to the scrambled control. Further, we have shown a rescue in STAT3 phosphorylation by IL-6 stimulation in RhoC knockdown lines. This study is the first of its kind to establish the involvement of RhoC in STAT3 phosphorylation and hence in promoting the activation of core cancer stem cells (CSCs) transcription factors. These findings suggest that RhoC may be a novel target for HNSCC therapy. PMID:24533098

Islam, Mozaffarul; Sharma, Smita; Teknos, Theodoros N

2014-01-01

66

Touched and Moved by STAT3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STAT3, a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, is a known regulator of cell motility through its transcriptional activating functions. However, new evidence suggests a novel role for non–tyrosine-phosphorylated and cytoplasmically localized STAT3 in mediating cell migration by disrupting an interaction between microtubules and one of its partners, stathmin. The association of STAT3 with stathmin potentiates microtubule polymerization and cell movement.

S. Paul Gao (New York NY;Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center REV); Jacqueline F. Bromberg (New York NY;Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center REV)

2006-07-11

67

Zinc regulates the acute phase response and serum amyloid A production in response to sepsis through JAK-STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Sepsis rapidly activates the host inflammatory response and acute phase response. Severe sepsis, complicated by multiple organ failure, is associated with overwhelming inflammation and high mortality. We previously observed that zinc (Zn) deficiency significantly increases mortality in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis due to over-activation of the inflammatory response. In order to identify potential mechanisms that account for Zn-responsive effects, we generated whole exome expression profiles from the lung tissue of septic mice that were maintained on Zn modified diets. Based on systems analysis, we observed that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response and particularly the JAK-STAT3 pathway, resulting in increased serum amyloid A production. In vitro studies of primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells substantiated that Zn-deficiency augments serum amyloid A production through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 and NF-?B pathways. In contrast, Zn inhibited STAT3 activation through the up-regulation of SHP1 activity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 pathway, thereby perpetuating increased inflammation that may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in response to sepsis. PMID:24732911

Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Napolitano, Jessica R; Burris, Dara L; Yu, Lianbo; Tridandapani, Susheela; Knoell, Daren L

2014-01-01

68

STAT3 SIGNALING: Anticancer Strategies and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Multiple lines of evidence place STAT3 at a central node in the development, progression, and maintenance of many human tumors, and STAT3 has been validated as an anti-cancer target in several contexts. STAT3 modulates the transcription of a variety of genes involved in the regulation of critical functions, including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune responses. For many cancers, elevated levels of activated STAT3 have been associated with a poor prognosis. We review approaches that have been pursued to target STAT3, and we highlight some of the promises and challenges associated with developing an anticancer drug that might therapeutically inhibit the STAT3 signaling pathway.

Johnston, Paul A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

2011-01-01

69

The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, regulates survivin expression via an EGFR/STAT3 pathway in UVB-exposed mouse skin.  

PubMed

We previously reported that cycloogenase (COX)-2-generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) had anti-apoptotic effects in UVB-exposed mouse skin that involved EP2-mediated signaling (Chun et al., Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 2015). Because survivin is a regulator of cell survival, the possible involvement of COX-2 and EP2 in survivin expression following UVB exposure of mouse skin was investigated. In wild type mice, UVB exposure time-dependently increased the levels of survivin and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), a transcription factor that regulates survivin expression; and COX-2- or EP2-deficiency significantly reduced their induction. Topical application of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, also reduced UVB-induced survivin levels. To further investigate the roles of PGE2 and EP2 in the regulation of survivin, indomethacin was used to inhibit UVB-induced endogenous PG production. UVB-induced survivin levels were reduced by indomethacin, and PGE2 and the EP2 agonist, butaprost, partially restored survivin levels. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a downstream effector of EP2 and EGFR inhibition (AG1478) significantly reduced UVB activation of STAT3 and survivin levels. UVB-induced epidermal apoptosis in COX-2-/- mice was reduced by butaprost and EGFR inhibition blocked butaprost’s protective effects. Furthermore, butaprost in the absence of UVB exposure time-dependently increased p-EGFR, p-STAT3, and survivin levels in naïve mouse skin, whereas the EP4 agonist, PGE1 alcohol, did not significantly increase p-STAT3 or survivin levels. These data suggest that COX-2-generated PGE2 regulates survivin expression in mouse skin, in part, via an EP2-mediated EGFR/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, targeting the EP2/survivin pathway may provide a strategy for the chemoprevention/chemotherapy of skin cancer. PMID:21268125

Chun, Kyung-Soo; Langenbach, Robert

2011-06-01

70

STAT3 Genotypic Variation and Cellular STAT3 Activation and Colon Leukocyte Recruitment in Pediatric Crohn Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Genotypic variation in STAT3 increases risk for IBD, and STAT3 dependent inflammatory networks are induced in the colon in these patients. We hypothesized that STAT3 “A” risk allele carriage would be associated with increased cellular STAT3 activation and colon leukocyte recruitment. Methods Colonic expression of genes regulating STAT3 signaling and leukocyte recruitment and function was measured in pediatric CD patients stratified by STAT3 genotype. The frequency of colonic pSTAT3+ and CXCR2+ neutrophils was determined using immunohistochemistry. STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation (pSTAT3) was measured in circulating leukocytes by flow cytometry, and mechanisms regulating STAT3 activation were tested in IBD EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBL). Results Colonic expression of IL-6, the STAT3 target gene SOCS3, the neutrophil chemo-attractants IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL3, and the neutrophil products S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 were increased in patients carrying the STAT3 “A” risk allele. The frequency of neutrophils expressing the cognate receptor for IL-8, CXCR2, was increased in colonic biopsies from patients carrying the risk allele, and the frequency of pSTAT3+ or CXCR2+ neutrophils correlated with histologic severity. The frequency of CD4+ lymphocytes and granulocytes expressing pSTAT3 was increased in patients carrying the STAT3”A” risk allele. EBL's from patients carrying the STAT3”A” risk allele exhibited increased basal and IL-6 stimulated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, increased transcription of STAT3 and SOCS3 after IL-6 stimulation, and increased membrane localization of the IL-6 receptor, GP130, and JAK2. Conclusions The STAT3 “A” risk allele is associated with increased cellular STAT3 activation and up-regulation of pathways which promote recruitment of CXCR2+ neutrophils to the gut.

Willson, Tara A.; Kuhn, Benjamin R.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Gerad, Shaina; Moon, David; Bonkowski, Erin; Carey, Rebecca; Collins, Margaret; Xu, Huan; Jegga, Anil G.; Guthery, Stephen L.; Denson, Lee A.

2012-01-01

71

Leptin signaling regulates hypothalamic expression of nescient helix-loop-helix 2 (Nhlh2) through signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3).  

PubMed

Mice with a deletion of the hypothalamic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nhlh2 display adult onset obesity. We have previously shown that Nhlh2 expression is induced by leptin. In this study, we identify a small proximal leptin-responsive promoter region in the Nhlh2 gene. This 163bp promoter contains five putative binding sites for the leptin-activated Stat3 transcription factor, and two putative binding sites for the NF?B transcription factor. Results of mutagenesis studies reveal that deletion of the NF?B sites have little effect, mutagenesis of the third Stat3 site eliminates both leptin-induced and basal expression of Nhlh2. Mutagenesis of the 4th and 5th sites eliminates leptin-induced expression, and increases basal expression above the WT promoter. Stat3 can be preferentially pulled down from leptin-treated mouse hypothalamic chromatin extracts. This study identifies leptin-induced Stat3 transcription factor as the major transcriptional regulator of Nhlh2. As Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates genes within the melanocortin pathway, these findings have implications for human body weight control. PMID:24486192

Al Rayyan, Numan; Zhang, Jinhua; Burnside, Amy S; Good, Deborah J

2014-03-25

72

Effective down-regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by polyplexes of siRNA and lipid-substituted polyethyleneimine for sensitization of breast tumor cells to conventional chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that plays a major role in the development of resistance to conventional anti-cancer drugs in many types of cancer, when constitutively activated. Inhibition of STAT3 is considered as a promising strategy for inhibition of tumor growth and overcoming the drug resistance manifested. In this study, the capability of STAT3 knockdown by lipid substituted low molecular weight (2 kDa) polyethyleneimine (PEI2) complexes of STAT3-siRNA was assessed. The efficiency of PEI/STAT3-siRNA polyplexes in the induction of STAT3 associated cell death in wild type and drug-resistant MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells as monotherapy and upon combination with chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and paclitaxel, was also investigated. Our results identified linoleic acid-substituted (PEI-LA) polymer as the most efficient carrier among different lipid substituted PEI2 for siRNA delivery, leading to most STAT3 associated loss of cell viability in MDA-MB-435 cells. STAT3-siRNA delivery by the PEI-LA polymer resulted in efficient down-regulation of STAT3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cancer cells with STAT3-siRNA formulation increased the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin and paclitaxel in both wild type and drug resistant MDA-MB-435 cells. The results of this study point to the potential of PEI-LA polyplexes of STAT3-siRNA as inhibitors of STAT3 expression in breast tumor cells. The results also demonstrate an improved efficacy for chemotherapeutic drugs in combination with lipid-substituted low molecular weight PEI-LA/STAT3-siRNA complexes in comparison to drug therapy alone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3216-3228, 2014. PMID:24167124

Falamarzian, Arash; Montazeri Aliabadi, Hamidreza; Molavi, Ommoleila; Seubert, John M; Lai, Raymond; Uluda?, Hasan; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

2014-09-01

73

Regulation of PSMB5 protein and ? subunits of mammalian proteasome by constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3): potential role in bortezomib-mediated anticancer therapy.  

PubMed

The ubiquitin-proteasome system facilitates the degradation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins and performs a regulatory role in cells. Elevated proteasome activity and subunit expression are found in several cancers. However, the inherent molecular mechanisms responsible for increased proteasome function in cancers remain unclear despite the well investigated and defined role of the mammalian proteasome. This study was initiated to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of ? subunits of the mammalian proteasome. Suppression of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation coordinately decreased the mRNA and protein levels of the ? subunits of the 20 S core complex in DU145 cells. Notably, PSMB5, a molecular target of bortezomib, was shown to be a target of STAT3. Knockdown of STAT3 decreased PSMB5 protein. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 substantially reduced PSMB5 protein levels in cells expressing constitutively active-STAT3. Accumulation of activated STAT3 resulted in the induction of PSMB5 promoter and protein levels. In addition, a direct correlation was observed between the endogenous levels of PSMB5 and constitutively active STAT3. PSMB5 and STAT3 protein levels remained unaltered following the inhibition of proteasome activity. The EGF-induced concerted increase of ? subunits was blocked by inhibition of the EGF receptor or STAT3 but not by the PI3K/AKT or MEK/ERK pathways. Decreased proteasome activities were due to reduced protein levels of catalytic subunits of the proteasome in STAT3-inhibited cells. Combined treatments with bortezomib and inhibitor of STAT3 abrogated proteasome activity and enhanced cellular apoptosis. Overall, we demonstrate that aberrant activation of STAT3 regulates the expression of ? subunits, in particular PSMB5, and the catalytic activity of the proteasome. PMID:24627483

Vangala, Janakiram Reddy; Dudem, Srikanth; Jain, Nishant; Kalivendi, Shasi V

2014-05-01

74

Stat3 is a positive regulator of gap junctional intercellular communication in cultured, human lung carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Neoplastic transformation of cultured cells by a number of oncogenes such as src suppresses gap junctional, intercellular communication (GJIC); however, the role of Src and its effector Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) upon GJIC in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been defined. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high Src activity in NSCLC biopsy samples compared to normal tissues. Here we explored the potential effect of Src and Stat3 upon GJIC, by assessing the levels of tyr418-phosphorylated Src and tyr705-phosphorylated Stat3, respectively, in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Methods Gap junctional communication was examined by electroporating the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow into cells grown on a transparent electrode, followed by observation of the migration of the dye to the adjacent, non-electroporated cells under fluorescence illumination. Results An inverse relationship between Src activity levels and GJIC was noted; in five lines with high Src activity GJIC was absent, while two lines with extensive GJIC (QU-DB and SK-LuCi6) had low Src levels, similar to a non-transformed, immortalised lung epithelial cell line. Interestingly, examination of the mechanism indicated that Stat3 inhibition in any of the NSCLC lines expressing high endogenous Src activity levels, or in cells where Src was exogenously transduced, did not restore GJIC. On the contrary, Stat3 downregulation in immortalised lung epithelial cells or in the NSCLC lines displaying extensive GJIC actually suppressed junctional permeability. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that although Stat3 is generally growth promoting and in an activated form it can act as an oncogene, it is actually required for gap junctional communication both in nontransformed lung epithelial cells and in certain lung cancer lines that retain extensive GJIC.

2012-01-01

75

IL-17-mediated Bcl-2 expression regulates survival of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis through STAT3 activation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are a major cell population of the pannus that invades adjacent cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was undertaken to determine the effect of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the survival and/or proliferation of FLSs from RA patients and to investigate whether signal tranducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in this process. Methods Bcl-2 and Bax expression in FLSs was determined using the real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-2 and phosphoSTAT3 in synovial tissues was investigated by confocal microscope. Apoptosis of FLSs was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and/or phase contrast microscopy. The proliferation of FLSs was determined by CCK-8 ELISA assay. Results The pro-apoptotic Bax is decreased and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is increased in FLSs from RA patients compared with those from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). IL-17 upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 in FLSs from RA patients, but not in FLSs from OA patients. STAT3 was found to mediate IL-17-induced Bcl-2 upregulation in FLSs from RA patients. Additionally, IL-17 promoted the survival and proliferation of FLSs from RA patients. Most importantly, treatment with STAT3 inhibitor reversed the protective effect of IL-17 on FLSs apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that STAT3 is critical in IL-17-induced survival of FLS from RA patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target the IL-17/STAT3 pathway might be strong candidates for RA treatment modalities.

2013-01-01

76

JAK2-STAT3 blockade by AG490 suppresses autoimmune arthritis in mice via reciprocal regulation of regulatory T Cells and Th17 cells.  

PubMed

IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling is essential for Th17 differentiation and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the antirheumatic effects and T cell regulatory effects of STAT3 inhibition, we studied the effects of the JAK 2 inhibitor AG490 on Th17 cell/regulatory T cell (Treg) balance and osteoclastogenesis. AG490 was administered to mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) via i.p. injection, and its in vivo effects were determined. Differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-1?, and IL-6, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and STAT5 and differentiation of Th17 cells and Tregs after AG490 treatment in our CIA model were analyzed by immunostaining. In vitro development of Th17 cells and Tregs was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. AG490 ameliorated the arthritic phenotype in CIA and increased the proportion of Foxp3(+) Tregs. In contrast, the proportion of IL-17A-producing T cells and levels of inflammatory markers were reduced in AG490-treated mice. Numbers of p-STAT3(+) CD4(+) T cells and p-STAT5(+) CD4(+) T cells were reduced and elevated, respectively, after treatment with AG490. Furthermore, AG490 markedly increased the expression of molecules associated with Treg development (ICOS, programmed cell death protein 1, ICAM-1, and CD103). The development and function of osteoclasts were suppressed by AG490 treatment. Our results suggest that AG490, specifically regulating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, may be a promising treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24688026

Park, Jin-Sil; Lee, Jennifer; Lim, Mi-Ae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Min; Ryu, Jun-Geol; Lee, Jae Ho; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

2014-05-01

77

SHP2 is a downstream target of ZAP70 to regulate JAK1/STAT3 and ERK signaling pathways in mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Previous research indicated that ZAP70, a Syk family tyrosine kinase, is expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and regulates the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling through consolidating SHP1 enzymatic activity. In this study, we report that SHP2 is another downstream target of ZAP70 in mESCs. We found that SHP2 phosphorylation and enzymatic activity are affected by Zap70 expression. In addition, we present evidence that ERK pathways activated by ZAP70 and SHP2 reduce the protein level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor. Based on these results, we propose that SHP2 is an essential mediator of the ZAP70 signal to regulate JAK1/STAT3 and ERK pathways in undifferentiated mESCs. PMID:20846526

Cha, Young; Park, Kyung-Soon

2010-10-01

78

Stat3 activation regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and human pancreatic cancer angiogenesis and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key angiogenic protein, has been linked with pancreatic cancer progression. However, the molecular basis for VEGF overexpression remains unclear. Immunohistochemical studies have indicated that VEGF overexpression coincides with elevated Stat3 activation in human pancreatic cancer specimens. In our study, more than 80% of the human pancreatic cancer cell lines used exhibited constitutively

Daoyan Wei; Xiangdong Le; Leizhen Zheng; Liwei Wang; Jennifer A Frey; Allen C Gao; Zhihai Peng; Suyun Huang; Henry Q Xiong; James L Abbruzzese; Keping Xie

2003-01-01

79

Wnt5A Regulates Expression of Tumor Associated Antigens in Melanoma Via Changes in STAT3 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

There are currently no effective therapies for metastatic melanoma and targeted immunotherapy results in the remission of only a very small percentage of tumors. In this study we demonstrate that the non-canonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5A, can increase melanoma metastasis in vivo while downregulating the expression of tumor-associated antigens important in eliciting cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses (eg., MART-1, GP100, tyrosinase). Melanosomal antigen expression is governed by MITF, PAX3 and SOX10, and is inhibited upon STAT3 activation, via decreases in PAX3 and subsequently MITF expression. Increasing Wnt5A in Wnt5A-low cells activated STAT3, and STAT3 was decreased upon Wnt5A knockdown. Downstream targets such as PAX3, MITF amd MART-1 were also affected by Wnt5A treatment or knockdown. Staining of a melanoma tissue array also highlighted the inverse relationship between MART-1 and Wnt5A expression. PKC activation by phorbol ester mimicked Wnt5A effects, and Wnt5A treatment in the presence of STAT3 or PKC inhibitors did not lower MART-1 levels. CTL activation studies demonstrated that increases in Wnt5A correspond to decreased CTL activation and vice versa, suggesting that targeting Wnt5A before immunotherapy may lead to the enhancement of current targeted immunotherapy for patients with metastatic melanoma.

Dissanayake, Samudra K.; Olkhanud, Purevdorj B.; O'Connell, Michael P.; Carter, Arnell; French, Amanda D.; Camilli, Tura C.; Emeche, Chineye D.; Hewitt, Kyle J.; Rosenthal, Devin T.; Leotlela, Poloko D.; Wade, Michael S.; Yang, Sherry W.; Brant, Larry; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Messina, Jane L.; Biragyn, Arya; Hoek, Keith S.; Taub, Dennis D.; Longo, Dan L.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.

2008-01-01

80

STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression is crucial for persistent STAT3 activation in tumors.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression. PMID:21102457

Lee, Heehyoung; Deng, Jiehui; Kujawski, Maciej; Yang, Chunmei; Liu, Yong; Herrmann, Andreas; Kortylewski, Marcin; Horne, David; Somlo, George; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

2010-12-01

81

A STAT3-mediated metabolic switch is involved in tumour transformation and STAT3 addiction  

PubMed Central

The pro-oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 is constitutively activated in a wide variety of tumours that often become addicted to its activity, but no unifying view of a core function determining this widespread STAT3-dependence has yet emerged. We show here that constitutively active STAT3 acts as a master regulator of cell metabolism, inducing aerobic glycolysis and down-regulating mitochondrial activity both in primary fibroblasts and in STAT3-dependent tumour cell lines. As a result, cells are protected from apoptosis and senescence while becoming highly sensitive to glucose deprivation. We show that enhanced glycolysis is dependent on HIF-1? up-regulation, while reduced mitochondrial activity is HIF-1?-independent and likely caused by STAT3-mediated down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins. The induction of aerobic glycolysis is an important component of STAT3 pro-oncogenic activities, since inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in the tumour cell lines down-regulates glycolysis prior to leading to growth arrest and cell death, both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that this novel, central metabolic role is at the core of the addiction for STAT3 shown by so many biologically different tumours.

Demaria, Marco; Giorgi, Carlotta; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Esposito, Giovanna; D'Angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Gough, Daniel J.; Turkson, James; Levy, David E.; Watson, Christine J.; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Provero, Paolo; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

2010-01-01

82

Silencing of FGF-21 expression promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by regulation of the STAT3-SOCS3 signal.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder associated with type 2 diabetes. Recent reports have shown that fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) plays an important role in the progression of insulin resistance. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which changes in FGF-21 activation result in changes in the rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we developed adenovirus-mediated shRNA against FGF-21 to inhibit FGF-21 expression in ApoE knockout mice. Using this mouse model, we determined the effects of FGF-21 knockdown in vivo on hepatic glucose production, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and their relationship with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) signal pathways. We show that liver-specific knockdown of FGF-21 in high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice resulted in a 39% increase in glycogenolysis and a 75% increase in gluconeogenesis, accompanied by increased hepatic expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, FGF-21 knockdown decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and SOCS3 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice. Our data suggest that hepatic FGF-21 knockdown increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis by activation of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase via the STAT3/SOCS3 pathway, ultimately leading to exacerbation of hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:24593051

Wang, Cong; Dai, Jihuan; Yang, Mengliu; Deng, Guangjiang; Xu, Shengnan; Jia, Yanjun; Boden, Guenther; Ma, Zhongmin A; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling

2014-05-01

83

Regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and antitumor immune response in cancer by pharmacological selective inhibition of the Jak2/STAT3 pathway  

PubMed Central

Abnormal dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in cancer is one of the major factors of tumor non-responsiveness. We have previously demonstrated that hyper-activation of the Jak2/STAT3 induced by tumor-derived factors (TDF) is responsible for abnormal DC differentiation. Here, using a novel selective inhibitor of Jak2/STAT3 JSI-124, we investigated the possibility of pharmacological regulation of DC differentiation in cancer. Our experiments in vitro have demonstrated that JSI-124 overcomes the differentiation block induced by TDF and promotes the differentiation of mature DCs and macrophages. JSI-124 significantly reduced the presence of immature myeloid cells in vivo and promoted accumulation of mature DCs. In addition to a direct antitumor effect in several animal models, JSI-124 significantly enhanced the effect of cancer immunotherapy. This indicates that pharmacological inhibition of Jak2/STAT3 pathway can be an important new therapeutic strategy to enhance antitumor activity of cancer immunotherapy.

Nefedova, Yulia; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Rosenbauer, Amsler; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Sebti, Said M.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

2005-01-01

84

Stat3 Mediates Expression of Autotaxin in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

We determined that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is tyrosine phosphorylated in 37% of primary breast tumors and 63% of paired metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Examination of the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated (pStat3) in primary tumors revealed heterogenous expression within the tumor with the highest levels found in cells on the edge of tumors with relatively lower levels in the central portion of tumors. In order to determine Stat3 target genes that may be involved in migration and metastasis, we identified those genes that were differentially expressed in primary breast cancer samples as a function of pStat3 levels. In addition to known Stat3 transcriptional targets (Twist, Snail, Tenascin-C and IL-8), we identified ENPP2 as a novel Stat3 regulated gene, which encodes autotaxin (ATX), a secreted lysophospholipase which mediates mammary tumorigenesis and cancer cell migration. A positive correlation between nuclear pStat3 and ATX was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of primary breast cancer samples and matched axillary lymph nodes and in several breast cancer derived cell lines. Inhibition of pStat3 or reducing Stat3 expression led to a decrease in ATX levels and cell migration. An association between Stat3 and the ATX promoter, which contains a number of putative Stat3 binding sites, was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These observations suggest that activated Stat3 may regulate the migration of breast cancer cells through the regulation of ATX.

Azare, Janeen; Doane, Ashley; Leslie, Kenneth; Chang, Qing; Berishaj, Marjan; Nnoli, Jennifer; Mark, Kevin; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Gerald, William; Hassimi, Maryam; Viale, Agnes; Stracke, Mary; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

85

STAT3 activation  

PubMed Central

Cancer growth is controlled by cancer cells (cell intrinsic phenomenon), but also by the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (cell extrinsic phenomenon). Thus cancer progression is mediated by the activation of transcription programs responsible for cancer cell proliferation, but also induced proliferation/activation of immunosuppressive cells such as Th17, Treg or myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). One of the key transcription factors involved in these pathways is the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In this review we will focus on STAT3 activation in immune cells, and how it impacts on tumor progression.

Rebe, Cedric; Vegran, Frederique; Berger, Helene; Ghiringhelli, Francois

2013-01-01

86

STAT3 regulates proliferation and survival of CD8+ T cells: enhances effector responses to HSV-1 infection, and inhibits IL-10+ regulatory CD8+ T cells in autoimmune uveitis.  

PubMed

STAT3 regulates CD4+ T cell survival and differentiation. However, its effects on CD8+ T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that in comparison to WT CD8+ T cells, STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit a preactivated memory-like phenotype, produce more IL-2, proliferate faster, and are more sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD). The enhanced proliferation and sensitivity to AICD correlated with downregulation of class-O forkhead transcription factors (FoxO1, FoxO3A), p21(waf1), p27(KIP1), Bcl-2, OX-40, and upregulation of FasL, Bax, and Bad. We examined whether STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells can mount effective response during herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Compared to WT mice, HSV-1-infected STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3KO) produced less IFN-? and virus-specific KLRG-1+ CD8+ T cells. STAT3KO mice are also resistant to EAU and produced less IL-17-producing Tc17 cells. Resistance of STAT3KO to EAU correlated with marked expansion of IL-10-producing regulatory CD8+ T cells (CD8-Treg) implicated in recovery from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, increases of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation observed during inflammation may inhibit expansion of CD8-Tregs, thereby impeding recovery from uveitis. These results suggest that STAT3 is a potential therapeutic target for upregulating CD8+ T cell-mediated responses to viruses and suggest the successful therapeutic targeting of STAT3 as treatment for uveitis, derived, in part, from promoting CD8-Treg expansion. PMID:24204098

Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M; Lee, Yong-Jun; Frank, Gregory M; Egwuagu, Charles E

2013-01-01

87

STAT3 Regulates Proliferation and Survival of CD8+ T Cells: Enhances Effector Responses to HSV-1 Infection, and Inhibits IL-10+ Regulatory CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Uveitis  

PubMed Central

STAT3 regulates CD4+ T cell survival and differentiation. However, its effects on CD8+ T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that in comparison to WT CD8+ T cells, STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit a preactivated memory-like phenotype, produce more IL-2, proliferate faster, and are more sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD). The enhanced proliferation and sensitivity to AICD correlated with downregulation of class-O forkhead transcription factors (FoxO1, FoxO3A), p21waf1, p27KIP1, Bcl-2, OX-40, and upregulation of FasL, Bax, and Bad. We examined whether STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells can mount effective response during herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Compared to WT mice, HSV-1-infected STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3KO) produced less IFN-? and virus-specific KLRG-1+ CD8+ T cells. STAT3KO mice are also resistant to EAU and produced less IL-17-producing Tc17 cells. Resistance of STAT3KO to EAU correlated with marked expansion of IL-10-producing regulatory CD8+ T cells (CD8-Treg) implicated in recovery from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, increases of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation observed during inflammation may inhibit expansion of CD8-Tregs, thereby impeding recovery from uveitis. These results suggest that STAT3 is a potential therapeutic target for upregulating CD8+ T cell-mediated responses to viruses and suggest the successful therapeutic targeting of STAT3 as treatment for uveitis, derived, in part, from promoting CD8-Treg expansion.

Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M.; Lee, Yong-Jun; Frank, Gregory M.; Egwuagu, Charles E.

2013-01-01

88

Leptin increases HER2 protein levels through a STAT3-mediated up-regulation of Hsp90 in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Obesity condition confers risks to breast cancer development and progression, and several reports indicate that the adipokine leptin, whose synthesis and plasma levels increase with obesity, might play an important role in modulating breast cancer cell phenotype. Functional crosstalk occurring between leptin and different signaling molecules contribute to breast carcinogenesis. In this study, we show, in different human breast cancer cell lines, that leptin enhanced the expression of a chaperone protein Hsp90 resulting in increased HER2 protein levels. Silencing of Hsp90 gene expression by RNA interference abrogated leptin-mediated HER2 up-regulation. Leptin effects were dependent on JAK2/STAT3 activation, since inhibition of this signaling cascade by AG490 or ectopic expression of a STAT3 dominant negative abrogated leptin-induced HER2 and Hsp90 expressions. Functional experiments showed that leptin treatment significantly up-regulated human Hsp90 promoter activity. This occurred through an enhanced STAT3 transcription factor binding to its specific responsive element located in the Hsp90 promoter region as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Analysis of HER2, Akt and MAPK phosphorylation levels revealed that leptin treatment amplified the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to growth factor stimulation. Furthermore, we found that long-term leptin exposure reduced sensitivity of breast cancer cells to the antiestrogen tamoxifen. In the same experimental conditions, the combined treatment of tamoxifen with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG completely abrogated leptin-induced anchorage-independent breast cancer cell growth. In conclusion, our results highlight, for the first time, the ability of the adipocyte-secreted factor leptin to modulate Hsp90/HER2 expressions in breast cancer cells providing novel insights into the molecular mechanism linking obesity to breast cancer growth and progression. PMID:23228483

Giordano, Cinzia; Vizza, Donatella; Panza, Salvatore; Barone, Ines; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Sisci, Diego; De Amicis, Francesca; Fuqua, Suzanne A W; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

2013-06-01

89

The role of constitutively activated STAT3 in B16 melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Constitutively activated STAT3 is found frequently in a wide variety of human tumors, including melanoma. Moreover, constitutive STAT3 activation actively participates in tumor formation and progression, making STAT3 an attractive target for cancer therapy. We report here that in murine B16 melanoma cells, which have been previously shown to express constitutively active STAT3, the expression of a mutant form of STAT3 with the canonical tyrosine phosphorylation site (residue 705) mutated to phenylanaine has dominant-negative properties (STAT3-DN). STAT3-DN inhibits STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and STAT3-dependent DNA binding activity. Most importantly, STAT3-DN expression in B16 cells inhibits their invasiveness, as well as their melanogenesis by down-regulation of tyrosinase mRNA and protein expression as well as tyrosinase activity. These results suggest that STAT3 signaling plays a critical role in regulating melanoma behavior, and may represent a druggable target for melanoma therapy.

Yang, Chuan He; Fan, Meiyun; Slominski, Andrzej T; Yue, Junming; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

2010-01-01

90

Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling.

Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

2013-01-01

91

Role of STAT3 in cancer metastasis and translational advances.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

Kamran, Mohammad Zahid; Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P

2013-01-01

92

TEL/ETV6 is a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3)-induced repressor of Stat3 activity.  

PubMed

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transcription factor is required for the antiproliferative effects induced by cytokines, such as the interleukin-6 type. In order to investigate the role of Stat3 in inhibition of cell proliferation, we have used an inducible Stat3 construct in A375 melanoma cells. We found that activation of Stat3 to moderate levels was sufficient to repress A375 proliferation, by slowing cell transit through the cell cycle. Enhanced and prolonged Stat3 activity led to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Genes whose expression was altered by Stat3 activation were identified by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. We found that TEL (ETV6), a novel Stat3 target identified in this study, is a negative regulator of Stat3 activity. Small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of TEL expression resulted in increased Stat3-dependent transcriptional activity and stronger Stat3 antiproliferative activity. Confirming these results, overexpression of TEL repressed Stat3 transcriptional activity. Intriguingly, Stat3 repression did not require TEL DNA binding and appeared to proceed via recruitment of TEL to Stat3. Inhibition of Stat3 activity by TEL represents a novel mechanism regulating the Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:15229229

Schick, Nicole; Oakeley, Edward J; Hynes, Nancy E; Badache, Ali

2004-09-10

93

PKM2, STAT3 and HIF-1?  

PubMed Central

The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase, highly expressed in tumor cells, is known to engage a feed forward loop with the glycolysis master transcription factor HIF-1?. Gao and co-authors recently showed that dimeric PKM2 localizes to the nucleus in highly proliferating cancer cells, where it regulates in vivo growth by acting as a protein kinase and directly activating STAT3. STAT3 is therefore a novel player of the PKM2/HIF-1? feedback loop, since HIF-induced PKM2 activates STAT3 that in turn induces HIF-1? expression. These findings have profound implications for understanding the complex connections between gene regulation, metabolism, survival and proliferation in cancer.

Demaria, Marco; Poli, Valeria

2012-01-01

94

An RNA biding protein, Y14 interacts with and modulates STAT3 activation  

SciTech Connect

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which mediates biological actions in many physiological processes, is activated by cytokines and growth factors via specific tyrosine-phosphorylation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of STAT3 activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Y14, an RNA-binding protein, as a novel STAT3 binding partner. Y14 bound to STAT3 through the C-terminal region of STAT3 in vivo. Importantly, small-interfering RNA-mediated reduction of endogenous Y14 expression decreased IL-6-induced tyrosine-phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and DNA-binding activity of STAT3, as well as IL-6/STAT3-dependent gene expression. These results indicate that Y14 interacts with STAT3 and regulates the transcriptional activation of STAT3 by influencing the tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT3.

Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Taira, Naohisa; Kawakami, Shiho; Togi, Sumihito; Sato, Noriko; Ikeda, Osamu; Kamitani, Shinya; Muromoto, Ryuta; Sekine, Yuichi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Kita-ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Kita-ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)], E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

2008-08-01

95

mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3  

SciTech Connect

The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

Busch, Susann [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Renaud, Stephen J. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Schleussner, Ekkehard [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Graham, Charles H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Markert, Udo R., E-mail: markert@med.uni-jena.de [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

2009-06-10

96

Bovine lactoferricin-induced anti-inflammation is, in part, via up-regulation of interleukin-11 by secondary activation of STAT3 in human articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), a multifunctional peptide, was recently demonstrated to be anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory in human articular cartilage. LfcinB blocks IL-1-mediated proteoglycan depletion, matrix-degrading enzyme expression, and pro-inflammatory mediator induction. LfcinB selectively activates ERK1/2, p38 (but not JNK), and Akt signaling. However, the relationship between these pathways and LfcinB target genes has never been explored. In this study, we uncovered the remarkable ability of LfcinB in the induction of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-11. LfcinB binds to cell surface heparan sulfate to initiate ERK1/2 signaling and activate AP-1 complexes composed of c-Fos and JunD, which transactivate the IL-11 gene. The induced IL-11 functions as an anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective cytokine in articular chondrocytes. Our data show that IL-11 directly attenuates IL-1-mediated catabolic and inflammatory processes ex vivo and in vitro. Moreover, IL-11 activates STAT3 signaling pathway to critically up-regulate TIMP-1 expression, as a consecutive secondary cellular response after IL-11 induction by LfcinB-ERK-AP-1 axis in human adult articular chondrocytes. The pathological relevance of IL-11 signaling to osteoarthritis is evidenced by significant down-regulation of its cognate receptor expression in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Together, our results suggest a two-step mechanism, whereby LfcinB induces TIMP-1 through an IL-11-dependent pathway involving transcription factor AP-1 and STAT3. PMID:24036113

Yan, Dongyao; Kc, Ranjan; Chen, Di; Xiao, Guozhi; Im, Hee-Jeong

2013-11-01

97

Water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate exerts anti-sepsis action in mice through down-regulating p38 MAPK, STAT3 and NF-?B pathways.  

PubMed

Andrographolide is a prescribed drug used for preventing and treating the common cold, influenza, viral infections or allergies. However, its poor water solubility enormously limits its bioavailability. In the present study, we aimed at examining and comparing the effect of andrographolide sulfonate (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, on the treatment of murine sepsis model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pretreatment with andrographolide sulfonate significantly decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and transaminase activities in serum, attenuated liver and lung damage, and improved the survival of mice with experimental sepsis. Andrographolide sulfonate also remarkably reduced the expression levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the injured liver from septic mice. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate time-dependently suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, pretreatment with andrographolide sulfonate markedly inhibited the activation of p65 subunit of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) as well as signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the injured liver from mice with endotoxic shock. Notably, andrographolide sulfonate showed a much stronger alleviation of LPS-induced sepsis in mice compared with andrographolide. Taken together, these results reveal that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates sepsis in mice through suppressing p38 MAPK, STAT3 and NF-?B pathways and suggest that andrographolide sulfonate has an advantage of andrographolide for the treatment of endotoxin shock. PMID:23036579

Guo, Wenjie; Liu, Wen; Chen, Gong; Hong, Shaocheng; Qian, Cheng; Xie, Ning; Yang, Xiaoling; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

2012-12-01

98

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates STAT3 and androgen receptor activation through phosphorylation of Ser?²? on STAT3 in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known to regulate prostate cancer metastasis. Our previous results indicated that Cdk5 activates androgen receptor (AR) and supports prostate cancer growth. We also found that STAT3 is a target of Cdk5 in promoting thyroid cancer cell growth, whereas STAT3 may play a role as a regulator to AR activation under cytokine control. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Cdk5 and its activator p35 on STAT3/AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our results show that Cdk5 biochemically interacts with STAT3 and that this interaction depends on Cdk5 activation in prostate cancer cells. The phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser?²? (p-Ser?²?-STAT3) is regulated by Cdk5 in cells and xenograft tumors. The mutant of STAT3 S727A reduces its interaction with Cdk5. We further show that the nuclear distribution of p-Ser?²?-STAT3 and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes (junB, c-fos, c-myc, and survivin) are regulated by Cdk5 activation. STAT3 mutant does not further decrease cell proliferation upon Cdk5 inhibition, which implies that the role of STAT3 regulated by Cdk5 correlates to cell proliferation control. Interestingly, Cdk5 may regulate the interaction between STAT3 and AR through phosphorylation of Ser?²?-STAT3 and therefore upregulate AR protein stability and transactivation. Correspondingly, clinical evidence shows that the level of p-Ser?²?-STAT3 is significantly correlated with Gleason score and the levels of upstream regulators (Cdk5 and p35) as well as downstream protein (AR). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cdk5 regulates STAT3 activation through Ser?²? phosphorylation and further promotes AR activation by protein-protein interaction in prostate cancer cells. PMID:23941877

Hsu, Fu-Ning; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Peng, Yu-Ting; Li, Pei-Chi; Lin, Eugene; Chiang, Ming-Ching; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Lin, Ho

2013-10-15

99

STAT3 expression, activity and functional consequences of STAT3 inhibition in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and Barrett's adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is altered in several epithelial cancers and represents a potential therapeutic target. Here, STAT3 expression, activity and cellular functions were examined in two main histotypes of esophageal carcinomas. In situ, immunohistochemistry for STAT3 and STAT3-Tyr705 phosphorylation (P-STAT3) in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC, n=49) and Barrett's adenocarcinomas (BAC, n=61) revealed similar STAT3 expression in ESCCs and BACs (P=0.109), but preferentially activated P-STAT3 in ESCCs (P=0.013). In vitro, strong STAT3 activation was seen by epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation in OE21 (ESCC) cells, whereas OE33 (BAC) cells showed constitutive weak STAT3 activation. STAT3 knockdown significantly reduced cell proliferation of OE21 (P=0.0148) and OE33 (P=0.0243) cells. Importantly, STAT3 knockdown reduced cell migration of OE33 cells by 2.5-fold in two types of migration assays (P=0.073, P=0.015), but not in OE21 cells (P=0.1079, P=0.386). Investigation of transcriptome analysis of STAT3 knockdown revealed a reduced STAT3 level associated with significant downregulation of cell cycle genes in both OE21 (P<0.0001) and OE33 (P=0.01) cells. In contrast, genes promoting cell migration (CTHRC1) were markedly upregulated in OE21 cells, whereas a gene linked to tight-junction stabilization and restricted cell motility (SHROOM2) was downregulated in OE21 but upregulated in OE33 cells. This study shows frequent, but distinct, patterns of STAT3 expression and activation in ESCCs and BACs. STAT3 knockdown reduces cell proliferation in ESCC and BAC cells, inhibits migration of BAC cells and may support cell migration of ESCC cells. Thereby, novel STAT3-regulated genes involved in ESCC and BAC cell proliferation and cell migration were identified. Thus, STAT3 may be further exploited as a potential novel therapeutic target, however, by careful distinction between the two histotypes of esophageal cancers. PMID:23912451

Timme, S; Ihde, S; Fichter, C D; Waehle, V; Bogatyreva, L; Atanasov, K; Kohler, I; Schöpflin, A; Geddert, H; Faller, G; Klimstra, D; Tang, L; Reinheckel, T; Hauschke, D; Busch, H; Boerries, M; Werner, M; Lassmann, S

2014-06-19

100

PLTP regulates STAT3 and NF?B in differentiated THP1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) plays an important role in regulation of inflammation. Previously published studies have shown that PLTP binds, transfers and neutralizes bacterial lipopolysaccharides. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLTP can also regulate anti-inflammatory pathways in macrophages. Incubation of macrophage-like differentiated THP1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages with wild-type PLTP in the presence or absence

S. Vuletic; W. Dong; G. Wolfbauer; C. Tang; J. J. Albers

2011-01-01

101

Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Disrupts Interleukin-6 Signaling by Sequestering STAT3 in the Nucleus  

PubMed Central

In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection.

Reitsma, Justin M.; Sato, Hiromi; Nevels, Michael

2013-01-01

102

STAT3 Target Genes Relevant to Human Cancers  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery, the STAT3 transcription factor has been extensively studied for its function as a transcriptional regulator and its role as a mediator of development, normal physiology, and pathology of many diseases, including cancers. These efforts have uncovered an array of genes that can be positively and negatively regulated by STAT3, alone and in cooperation with other transcription factors. Through regulating gene expression, STAT3 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in many cellular processes including oncogenesis, tumor growth and progression, and stemness. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that STAT3 may behave as a tumor suppressor by activating expression of genes known to inhibit tumorigenesis. Additional evidence suggested that STAT3 may elicit opposing effects depending on cellular context and tumor types. These mixed results signify the need for a deeper understanding of STAT3, including its upstream regulators, parallel transcription co-regulators, and downstream target genes. To help facilitate fulfilling this unmet need, this review will be primarily focused on STAT3 downstream target genes that have been validated to associate with tumorigenesis and/or malignant biology of human cancers.

Carpenter, Richard L.; Lo, Hui-Wen

2014-01-01

103

IL-26 Promotes the Proliferation and Survival of Human Gastric Cancer Cells by Regulating the Balance of STAT1 and STAT3 Activation  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is one of the cytokines secreted by Th17 cells whose role in human tumors remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and potential role of IL-26 in human gastric cancer (GC). The expression of IL-26 and related molecules such as IL-20R1, STAT1 and STAT3 was examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemisty. The effects of IL-26 on cell proliferation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis were analyzed by BrdU cooperation assay and PI-Annexin V co-staining, respectively. Lentiviral mediated siRNA was used to explore its mechanism of action, and IL-26 related signaling was analyzed by western blotting. Human GC tissues showed increased levels of IL-26 and its related molecules and activation of STAT3 signaling, whereas STAT1 activation did not differ significantly between GC and normal gastric tissues. Moreover, IL-26 was primarily produced by Th17 and NK cells. IL-26 promoted the proliferation and survival of MKN45 and SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-20R2 and IL-10R1, which are two essential receptors for IL-26 signaling, were expressed in both cell lines. IL-26 activated STAT1 and STAT3 signaling; however, the upregulation of the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and c-myc indicated that the effect of IL-26 is mediated by STAT3 activation. Knockdown of STAT1 and STAT3 expression suggested that the proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of IL-26 are mediated by the modulation of STAT1/STAT3 activation. In summary, elevated levels of IL-26 in human GC promote proliferation and survival by modulating STAT1/STAT3 signaling.

Zhang, Chuanyong; Wu, Jindao; Gu, Chunrong; Wu, Zhengshan; Li, Xiangcheng

2013-01-01

104

STAT3: An Anti-Invasive Factor in Colorectal Cancer?  

PubMed

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in a majority of cancers, and promotes tumorigenesis and even metastasis through transcriptional activation of its target genes. Recently, we discovered that STAT3 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and thus metastasis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC), while it did not affect the overall tumor burden. Furthermore, we found that STAT3 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) suppresses EMT by regulating stability of an EMT inducer, SNAI-1 (Snail-1). Here, STAT3 functions as an adaptor rather than a transcription factor in the post-translational modification of SNAI-1. In this review, we discuss the unexpected and contradictory role of STAT3 in metastasis of CRC and its clinical implications. PMID:24995503

de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Mo, Ji-Hun; Harris, Alexandra R; Lee, Jongdae; Raz, Eyal

2014-01-01

105

STAT3 Activation in Glioblastoma: Biochemical and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a potent regulator of gliomagenesis through its induction of angiogenesis, host immunosuppression, and tumor invasion. Gain of function mutations result in constitutive activation of STAT3 in glioma cells, making STAT3 an attractive target for inhibition in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, some studies show that STAT3 also participates in terminal differentiation and apoptosis of various cell lines and in glioma with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient genetic backgrounds. In light of these findings, the utility of STAT3 as a prognostic indicator and as a target of drug therapies will be contingent on a more nuanced understanding of its pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects.

Kim, Jennifer E.; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Jackson, Christopher M.; Lim, Michael

2014-01-01

106

Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors.

Fang, Bingliang

2014-01-01

107

Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6-JAK2-STAT3 that in concert with NF-{kappa}B regulated protection against TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

2011-07-01

108

Multiple signaling pathways induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor involving activation of JAKs, STAT5, and/or STAT3 are required for regulation of three distinct classes of immediate early genes.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the major regulator of proliferation and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells. G-CSF activates multiple signaling molecules, including the JAK1 and JAK2 kinases and the STAT transcription factors. To investigate G-CSF signaling events regulated by the JAK-STAT pathway, we have generated UT7-epo cells stably expressing either wild-type (wt) G-CSF receptor or a series of C-terminal deletion mutants. Gel mobility shift and immunoprecipitation/Western analysis showed that STAT5 is rapidly activated by G-CSF in cells expressing the wt G-CSF receptor, in addition to the previously reported STAT3 and STAT1. Mutants lacking any tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain maintain their ability to activate STAT5 and STAT1 but cannot activate STAT3, implying that STAT5 and STAT1 activation does not require receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. We also observed significant changes in the ratio of STAT1:STAT3:STAT5 activated by various G-CSF receptor C-terminal deletion mutants. These mutant receptors were further used to investigate the role of JAKs and STATs in G-CSF-mediated responses in these cells. We found that JAK activation correlates with G-CSF-induced cell proliferation, whereas STAT activation is not required. We have also identified three classes of G-CSF immediate early genes, whose activation correlates with the activation of distinct JAK-STAT pathways. Our data show that, whereas c-fos is regulated through a pathway independent of STAT activation, oncostatin M, IRF-1, and egr-1 are regulated by an STAT5-dependent pathway and fibrinogen is regulated by an STAT3-dependent pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that G-CSF regulates its complex biologic activities by selectively activating distinct early response genes through different JAK-STAT signaling molecules. PMID:8977235

Tian, S S; Tapley, P; Sincich, C; Stein, R B; Rosen, J; Lamb, P

1996-12-15

109

STAT5A-mediated SOCS2 expression regulates Jak2 and STAT3 activity following c-Src inhibition in head and neck squamous carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose The inhibition of c-Src results in a striking reduction in cancer cell invasion, but the effect on cell survival is modest. Defining mechanisms that limit apoptosis following c-Src inhibition could result in an ideal therapeutic approach that both inhibits invasion and leads to apoptosis. In this regard, we discovered a novel feedback loop that results in STAT3 reactivation following sustained c-Src inhibition. Here we define the mechanism underlying this feedback loop and examine the effect of inhibiting it in vivo. Methods We measured levels and activity of pathway components using PCR, Western blotting, and kinase assays following their manipulation using both molecular and pharmacologic approaches. We utilized a heterotransplant animal model in which human oral squamous cancer is maintained exclusively in vivo. Results Following c-Src inhibition, STAT5 is durably inhibited. The inhibition of STAT5A, but not STAT5B, subsequently reduces the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2). SOCS2 inhibits Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) activity and Jak2-STAT3 binding. SOCS2 expression is necessary for STAT3 inhibition by c-Src inhibitors. Overexpression of SOCS2 is adequate to prevent STAT3 reactivation and to enhance the cytotoxic effects of c-Src inhibition. Likewise, the combination of Jak and c-Src inhibitors led to significantly more apoptosis than either agent alone in vivo. Conclusions To our knowledge, ours is the first study that fully defines the mechanism underlying this feedback loop, in which sustained c-Src inhibition leads to diminished SOCS2 expression via sustained inhibition of STAT5A, allowing activation of Jak2 and STAT3, Jak2-STAT3 binding, and survival signals.

Sen, Banibrata; Peng, Shaohua; Woods, Denise M.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Bell, Diana; El-Nagar, Adel; Lai, Stephen Y.; Johnson, Faye M.

2011-01-01

110

Protein kinase C? regulation of translocator protein (18 kDa) Tspo gene expression is mediated through a MAPK pathway targeting STAT3 and c-Jun transcription factors†  

PubMed Central

Translocator protein TSPO is an 18 kDa protein implicated in numerous cell functions and is highly expressed in secretory and glandular tissues, especially in steroidogenic cells. TSPO expression is altered in pathological conditions such as certain cancers and neurological diseases. In search of the factors regulating Tspo expression, we recently showed that high levels of TSPO in steroidogenic cells may be due to high constitutive expression of protein kinase C? (PKC?), while phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) activation of PKC? drives inducible TSPO expression in non-steroidogenic cells, likely through activator protein 1 (AP1). In this study, we aimed to identify the signal transduction pathway through which PKCe regulates Tspo gene expression. The MEK1/2 specific inhibitor U0126, but not NF?B inhibitors, reduced basal Tspo promoter activity in TSPO-rich steroidogenic cells (MA-10 Leydig), as well as basal and PMA-induced Tspo promoter levels in TSPO-poor non-steroidogenic cells (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts). AP1 and signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) have binding sites in the Tspo promoter and are downstream targets of PKC? and MAPK (Raf-1 -ERK1/2) pathways. PKCe overexpression induced STAT3 phosphorylation in NIH-3T3 cells, while PKCe knockdown reduced STAT3 and c-Jun phosphorylation in Leydig cells. MEK1/2, ERK2, c-Jun, and STAT3 knockdown reduced Tspo mRNA and protein levels in Leydig cells. Additionally, Raf-1 reduced Tspo mRNA levels in the same cells. MEK1/2, c-Jun, and STAT3 knockdown also reduced basal as well as PMA-induced Tspo mRNA levels in NIH-3T3 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that PKCe regulates Tspo gene expression through a MAPK (Raf-1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway, acting at least in part through c-Jun and STAT3 transcription factors.

Batarseh, Amani; Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2010-01-01

111

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3/suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (STAT3/SOCS3) axis in myeloid cells regulates neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS3 has a crucial role in inhibiting STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages/microglia. To determine the role of SOCS3 in myeloid cells in neuroinflammation, mice with conditional SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells (LysMCre-SOCS3fl/fl) were tested for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice are vulnerable to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, with a severe, nonresolving atypical form of disease. In vivo, enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination is prominent in the cerebellum of myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice, as is enhanced STAT3 signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an immune response dominated by Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient macrophages exhibit heightened STAT3 activation and are polarized toward the classical M1 phenotype. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages provide the microenvironment to polarize Th1 and Th17 cells and induce neuronal death. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages into myeloid SOCS3-deficient mice leads to delayed onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE by decreasing STAT3 activation, Th1/Th17 cells, and proinflammatory mediators in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that myeloid cell SOCS3 provides protection from EAE through deactivation of neuroinflammatory responses.

Qin, Hongwei; Yeh, Wen-I; De Sarno, Patrizia; Holdbrooks, Andrew T.; Liu, Yudong; Muldowney, Michelle T.; Reynolds, Stephanie L.; Yanagisawa, Lora L.; Fox, Thomas H.; Park, Keun; Harrington, Laurie E.; Raman, Chander; Benveniste, Etty N.

2012-01-01

112

SOCS 3 and PPAR-? ligands inhibit the expression of IL6 and TGF-?1 by regulating JAK2\\/STAT3 signaling in pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TGF-?1 are the hallmark of human pancreatitis. Cerulein pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis involving dysregulation of digestive enzyme production, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and increased cytokine production. We previously showed that cerulein induced IL-1? expression through the Janus kinase (JAK) 2\\/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 pathway in pancreatic acinar cells. Suppressor

Ji Hoon Yu; Kyung Hwan Kim; Hyeyoung Kim

2008-01-01

113

Down-Regulation of GRIM-19 Expression Is Associated With Hyperactivation of STAT3-Induced Gene Expression and Tumor Growth in Human Cervical Cancers  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the most common malignant disease responsible for the deaths of a large number of women in the developing world. Although certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been identified as the cause of this disease, events that lead to formation of malignant tumors are not fully clear. STAT3 is a major oncogenic transcription factor involved in the development and progression of a number of human tumors. However, the mechanisms that result in loss of control over STAT3 activity are not understood. Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality-19 (GRIM-19) is a tumor-suppressive protein identified using a genetic technique in the interferon/retinoid-induced cell death pathway. Here, we show that reduction in GRIM-19 protein levels occur in a number of primary human cervical cancers. Consequently, these tumors tend to express a high basal level of STAT3 and its downstream target genes. More importantly, using a surrogate model, we show that restoration of GRIM-19 levels reestablishes the control over STAT3-dependent gene expression and tumor growth in vivo. GRIM-19 suppressed the expression of tumor invasion- and angiogenesis-associated factors to limit tumor growth. This study identifies another major novel molecular pathway inactivated during the development of human cervical cancer.

Zhou, Ying; Li, Min; Wei, Ying; Feng, Dingqing; Peng, Cheng; Weng, Haiyan; Ma, Yang; Bao, Liang; Nallar, Shreeram; Kalakonda, Sudhakar; Xiao, Weihua

2009-01-01

114

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Inhibits STAT3-Dependent Suppression of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis via Dephosphorylation and Deacetylation  

PubMed Central

In the liver, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the suppression of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. While obesity-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to increase hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression, the role of ER stress in STAT3-dependent regulation of such expression is unclear. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of ER stress on the STAT3-dependent regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression. Genetically obese/diabetic db/db mice and db/db mouse–derived isolated hepatocytes were used as ER stress models. A tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, a deacetylation inhibitor, and an acetylated mutant of STAT3 were used to examine the effect of ER stress on hepatic STAT3 action. ER stress inhibited STAT3-dependent suppression of gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression by suppressing hepatic Janus kinase (JAK)2 and STAT3 phosphorylation. A tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor restored ER stress–induced suppression of JAK2 phosphorylation but exhibited no improving effect on suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation. STAT3 acetylation is known to correlate with its phosphorylation. ER stress also decreased STAT3 acetylation. An acetylated mutant of STAT3 was resistant to ER stress–induced inhibition of STAT3-phosphorylation and STAT3-dependent suppression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, ameliorated ER stress–induced inhibition of STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation. The current study revealed that ER stress inhibits STAT3-dependent suppression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes via JAK2 dephosphorylation and HDAC-dependent STAT3 deacetylation, playing an important role in the increase of hepatic glucose production in obesity and diabetes.

Kimura, Kumi; Yamada, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Matsuda, Tomokazu; Ota, Tsuguhito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

115

A Critical Role for Stat3 Signaling in Immune Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can induce T cell activation as well as T cell tolerance. The molecular mechanisms by which APCs regulate this critical decision of the immune system are not well understood. Here we show that Stat3 signaling plays a critical role in the induction of antigen-specific T cell tolerance. Targeted disruption of Stat3 signaling in APCs resulted in priming

Fengdong Cheng; Hong-Wei Wang; Alex Cuenca; Mei Huang; Tomar Ghansah; Jason Brayer; William G. Kerr; Kiyoshi Takeda; Shizuo Akira; Stephen P. Schoenberger; Hua Yu; Richard Jove; Eduardo M. Sotomayor

2003-01-01

116

A membrane penetrating peptide aptamer inhibits STAT3 function and suppresses the growth of STAT3 addicted tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells are characterized by the aberrant activation of signaling pathways governing proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, migration and immune evasion. These processes are partially regulated by the transcription factor STAT3. This factor is inappropriately activated in diverse tumor types. Since tumor cells can become dependent on its persistent activation, STAT3 is a favorable drug target. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinant STAT3 inhibitor, rS3-PA. This inhibitor is based on a 20 amino acid peptide which specifically interacts with the dimerization domain of STAT3. It is integrated into a thioredoxin scaffold and fused to a protein transduction domain. Protein gel blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that rS3-PA is efficiently taken up by cells via an endocytosis independent mechanism. Intracellularly, it reduces the phosphorylation of STAT3 and enhances its degradation. This leads to the downregulation of STAT3 target gene expression on the mRNA and protein levels. Subsequently, tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration and the induction of angiogenesis are inhibited. In contrast, normal cells remain unaffected. Systemic administration of rS3-PA at doses of 7.5 mg/kg reduced P-STAT3 levels and significantly inhibited tumor growth up to 35% in a glioblastoma xenograft mouse model.

Borghouts, Corina; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Weiss, Astrid; Mack, Laura; Lucks, Peter; Groner, Bernd

2012-01-01

117

Constitutive activation of Stat3 by the Src and JAK tyrosine kinases participates in growth regulation of human breast carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins has been detected in a wide variety of human primary tumor specimens and tumor cell lines including blood malignancies, head and neck cancer, and breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of Stat3 DNA-binding activity that is constitutively-induced by an unknown mechanism in human breast cancer cell

Roy Garcia; Tammy L Bowman; Guilian Niu; Hua Yu; Sue Minton; Carlos A Muro-Cacho; Charles E Cox; Robert Falcone; Rita Fairclough; Sarah Parsons; Andy Laudano; Aviv Gazit; Alexander Levitzki; Alan Kraker; Richard Jove

2001-01-01

118

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is required for decidualization, interacting with progesterone receptor (PR) in uterus. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that crosstalk between STAT3 and PR signaling is required for successful implantation. To identify the interaction between STAT3 and PR isoforms, we performed immunoprecipitation following transient cotransfection and found that STAT3 physically interacted with PR-A, which is known to be important for uterine development and function, but not with PR-B. To further investigate the role of Stat3 in uterine function, Stat3 was conditionally ablated only in the PR-positive cells (PR(cre/+) Stat3(f/f); Stat3(d/d)). Our studies revealed that ovarian function and uterine development of Stat3(d/d) mice were normal. However, Stat3(d/d) female mice were infertile due to defective embryo implantation. Unlike Stat3(f/f) mice, Stat3(d/d) mice exhibited an unclosed uterine lumen. Furthermore, uteri of Stat3(d/d) mice were unable to undergo a well-characterized hormonally induced decidual reaction. The expression of stromal PR was decreased during decidualization and preimplantation period in Stat3(d/d) mice, and PR target genes were significantly down-regulated after progesterone induction. Our results suggest that STAT3 and PR crosstalk is required for successful implantation in the mouse uterus. PMID:23531596

Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Oh, Seo Jin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Akira, Shizuo; Ku, Bon Jeong; Lydon, John P; Jeong, Jae-Wook

2013-07-01

119

Sphingosine Phosphate Lyase Regulates Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Pluripotency through an S1P2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that activates a family of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) implicated in mammalian development, angiogenesis, immunity and tissue regeneration. S1P functions as a trophic factor for many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P. We found SPL to be highly expressed in murine ESCs (mESCs). To investigate the role of SPL in mESC biology, we silenced SPL in mESCs via stable transfection with a lentiviral SPL-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct. SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) mESCs showed a 5-fold increase in cellular S1P levels, increased proliferation rates and high expression of cell surface pluripotency markers SSEA1 and OCT4 compared to vector control cells. Compared to control mESCs, SPL-KD cells showed robust activation of STAT3 and a 10-fold increase in S1P2 expression. Inhibition of S1P2 or STAT3 reversed the proliferation and pluripotency phenotypes of SPL-KD mESCs. Further, inhibition of S1P2 attenuated, in a dose-dependent fashion, the high levels of OCT4 and STAT3 activation observed in SPL-KD mESCs. Finally, we showed that SPL-KD cells are capable of generating embryoid bodies from which muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, can be isolated. These findings demonstrate an important role for SPL in ESC homeostasis and suggest that SPL inhibition could facilitate ex vivo ESC expansion for therapeutic purposes.

Smith, Gaelen S.; Kumar, Ashok; Saba, Julie D.

2014-01-01

120

IL-6-STAT3 signaling and premature senescence  

PubMed Central

Cytokines play several roles in developing and/or reinforcing premature cellular senescence of young cells. One such cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), regulates senescence in some systems in addition to its known functions of immune regulation and promotion of tumorigenesis. In this review, we describe recent advances in studies on the roles of IL-6 and its downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in regulating premature cellular senescence. IL-6/sIL-6R? stimulation forms a senescence-inducing circuit involving the STAT3-insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) as a key axis triggering and reinforcing component in human fibroblasts. We describe how cytokines regulate the process of senescence by activating STAT3 in one system and anti-senescence or tumorigenesis in other systems. The roles of other STAT members in premature senescence also will be discussed to show the multiple mechanisms leading to cytokine-induced senescence.

Kojima, Hirotada; Inoue, Toshiaki; Kunimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Koichi

2013-01-01

121

Reduced phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser-727 mediated by casein kinase 2 - Protein phosphatase 2A enhances Stat3 Tyr-705 induced tumorigenic potential of glioma cells.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a transcription factor that is involved in cell survival and proliferation and has been found to be persistently activated in most human cancers mainly through its phosphorylation at Tyr-705. However, the role and regulation of Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation in cancer cells have not been clearly evaluated. In our findings, correlation studies on the expression of CK2 and Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation levels in human glioma patient samples as well as rat orthotopic tumor model show a degree of negative correlation. Moreover, brain tumor cell lines were treated with various pharmacological inhibitors to inactivate the CK2 pathway. Here, increased Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation upon CK2 inhibition was observed. Overexpression of CK2 (?, ?' or ? subunits) by transient transfection resulted in decreased Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation. Stat3 Tyr-705 residue was conversely phosphorylated in similar situations. Interestingly, we found PP2A, a protein phosphatase, to be a mediator in the negative regulation of Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation by CK2. In vitro assays prove that Ser-727 phosphorylation of Stat3 affects the transcriptional activity of its downstream targets like SOCS3, bcl-xl and Cyclin D1. Stable cell lines constitutively expressing Stat3 S727A mutant showed increased survival, proliferation and invasion which are characteristics of a cancer cell. Rat tumor models generated with the Stat3 S727A mutant cell line formed more aggressive tumors when compared to the Stat3 WT expressing stable cell line. Thus, in glioma, reduced Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation enhances tumorigenicity which may be regulated in part by CK2-PP2A pathway. PMID:24726840

Mandal, Tapashi; Bhowmik, Arijit; Chatterjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Uttara; Chatterjee, Sandip; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

2014-08-01

122

Resveratrol inhibits Src and Stat3 signaling and induces the apoptosis of malignant cells containing activated Stat3 protein.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phytoalexin with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recent studies suggest that resveratrol possesses anticancer effects, although its mechanism of action is not well understood. We now show that resveratrol inhibits Src tyrosine kinase activity and thereby blocks constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) protein activation in malignant cells. Analyses of resveratrol-treated malignant cells harboring constitutively-active Stat3 reveal irreversible cell cycle arrest of v-Src-transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), human breast (MDA-MB-231), pancreatic (Panc-1), and prostate carcinoma (DU145) cell lines at the G0-G1 phase or at the S phase of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-468) and pancreatic cancer (Colo-357) cells, and loss of viability due to apoptosis. By contrast, cells treated with resveratrol, but lacking aberrant Stat3 activity, show reversible growth arrest and minimal loss of viability. Moreover, in malignant cells harboring constitutively-active Stat3, including human prostate cancer DU145 cells and v-Src-transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), resveratrol treatment represses Stat3-regulated cyclin D1 as well as Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 genes, suggesting that the antitumor cell activity of resveratrol is in part due to the blockade of Stat3-mediated dysregulation of growth and survival pathways. Our study is among the first to identify Src-Stat3 signaling as a target of resveratrol, further defining the mechanism of antitumor cell activity of resveratrol and raising its potential application in tumors with an activated Stat3 profile. PMID:16546976

Kotha, Anupama; Sekharam, Madhavi; Cilenti, Lucia; Siddiquee, Khandaker; Khaled, Annette; Zervos, Antonis S; Carter, Bradford; Turkson, James; Jove, Richard

2006-03-01

123

Interplay between MITF, PIAS3, and STAT3 in Mast Cells and Melanocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and STAT3 are two transcription factors that play a major role in the regulation of growth and function in mast cells and melanocytes. In the present study, we explored the MITF-PIAS3-STAT3 network of interactions, how these interactions regulate gene expression, and how cyto- kine-mediated phosphorylation of MITF and STAT3 is involved in the in vivo interplay

Amir Sonnenblick; Carmit Levy; Ehud Razin

2004-01-01

124

STAT3 inhibition in prostate and pancreatic cancer lines by STAT3 binding sequence oligonucleotides: differential activity between 5' and 3' ends.  

PubMed

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) were originally discovered as components of signal transduction pathways. Persistent aberrant activation of STAT3 is a feature of many malignancies including prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer. One consequence of persistently activated STAT3 in malignant cells is that they depend on it for survival; thus, STAT3 is an excellent molecular target for therapy. Previously, we reported that single-stranded oligonucleotides containing consensus STAT3 binding sequences (13410 and 13411) were more effective for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells than antisense STAT3 oligonucleotides. Control oligonucleotides (scrambled sequences) had no effect. Here, we report that authentic STAT3 binding sequences, identified from published literature, were more effective for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cells than was oligonucleotide 13410. Moreover, the authentic STAT3 binding sequences showed differing efficacies in the malignant cell lines depending on whether the canonical STAT3 binding sequence was truncated at the 5' or the 3' end. Finally, expression of one STAT3-regulated gene was decreased following treatment, suggesting that STAT3 may regulate the same set of genes in the two types of cancer. We conclude that truncating the 5' end left intact enough of the canonical STAT3 binding site for effective hybridization to the genome, whereas truncation of the 3' end, which is outside the canonical binding site, may have affected binding of required cofactors essential for STAT3 activity, thereby reducing the capacity of this modified oligonucleotide to induce apoptosis. Additional experiments to answer this hypothesis are under way. PMID:18566225

Lewis, H Dan; Winter, Ashley; Murphy, Thomas F; Tripathi, Snehlata; Pandey, Virendra N; Barton, Beverly E

2008-06-01

125

STAT3 Inhibition in Prostate and Pancreatic Cancer Lines by STAT3 Binding Sequence Oligonucleotides: Differential Activity Between 5? and 3? Ends  

PubMed Central

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally discovered as components of signal transduction pathways. Persistent aberrant activation of STAT3 is a feature of many malignancies including prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer. One consequence of persistently-activated STAT3 in malignant cells is that they depend upon it for survival, thus STAT3 is an excellent molecular target for therapy. Previously we reported that single-stranded oligonucleotides containing consensus STAT3 binding sequences (13410 and 13411) were more effective for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells than antisense STAT3 oligonucleotides. Control oligonucleotides (scrambled sequences) had no effect. Here we report that authentic STAT3 binding sequences, identified from published literature, were more effective for inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and pancreatic cancer cells than was oligonucleotide 13410. Moreover, the authentic STAT3 binding sequences showed differing efficacies in the malignant cell lines depending upon whether the canonical STAT3 binding sequence was truncated at the 5? or the 3? end. Finally, expression of one STAT3-regulated gene was decreased following treatment, suggesting that STAT3 may regulate the same set of genes in the two types of cancer. We conclude that truncating the 5? end left intact enough of the canonical STAT3 binding site for effective hybridization to the genome, whereas truncation of the 3? end, which is outside the canonical binding site, may have affected binding of required cofactors essential for STAT3 activity, thereby reducing the capacity of this modified oligonucleotide to induce apoptosis. Additional experiments to answer this hypothesis are underway.

Lewis, H. Dan; Winter, Ashley; Murphy, Thomas F.; Tripathi, Snehlata; Pandey, Virendra N.; Barton, Beverly E.

2008-01-01

126

STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated on serine 727 residues, binds DNA, and activates transcription in CLL cells  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western hemisphere, but its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation (p) of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 occurs in several solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. In CLL, however, STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated on serine 727, not tyrosine 705, residues. Because the biologic significance of serine pSTAT3 in CLL is not known, we studied peripheral blood cells of 106 patients with CLL and found that, although tyrosine pSTAT3 was inducible, serine pSTAT3 was constitutive in all patients studied, regardless of blood count, disease stage, or treatment status. In addition, we demonstrated that constitutive serine pSTAT3 translocates to the nucleus by the karyopherin-? nucleocytoplasmic system and binds DNA. Dephosphorylation of inducible tyrosine pSTAT3 did not affect STAT3-DNA binding, suggesting that constitutive serine pSTAT3 binds DNA. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with lentiviral STAT3-small hairpin RNA reduced the expression of several STAT3-regulated survival and proliferation genes and induced apoptosis, suggesting that constitutive serine pSTAT3 initiates transcription in CLL cells. Taken together, our data suggest that constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 on serine 727 residues is a hallmark of CLL and that STAT3 be considered a therapeutic target in this disease.

Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Liu, Jie; Li, Ping; Chen, Xiaomin; Shanker, Sreejesh; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.

2010-01-01

127

STAT3 Inhibition by Microtubule-Targeted Drugs: Dual Molecular Effects of Chemotherapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

To improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies, it is necessary to identify molecular targets that are essential to a tumor cell but dispensable in a normal cell. Increasing evidence indicates that the transcription factor STAT3, which regulates the expression of genes controlling proliferation, survival, and self-renewal, constitutes such a target. Recently it has been found that STAT3 can associate with the cytoskeleton. Since many of the tumors in which STAT3 is activated, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer, are responsive to drugs that target microtubules, we examined the effect of these compounds on STAT3. We found that microtubule stabilizers, such as paclitaxel, or microtubule inhibitors, such as vinorelbine, decrease the activating tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in tumor cells and inhibit the expression of STAT3 target genes. Paclitaxel decreases the association between STAT3 and microtubules, and appears to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of a negative feedback regulator. The cytotoxic activity of paclitaxel in breast cancer cell lines correlates with its ability to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation. However, consistent with the necessity for expression of a negative regulator, treatment of resistant MDA-MB-231 cells with the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine restores the ability of paclitaxel to block STAT3-dependent gene expression. Finally, the combination of paclitaxel and agents that directly target STAT3 has beneficial effects in killing STAT3-dependent cell lines. Thus, microtubule-targeted agents may exert some of their effects by inhibiting STAT3, and understanding this interaction may be important for optimizing rational targeted cancer therapies.

Walker, Sarah R.; Chaudhury, Mousumi; Frank, David A.

2011-01-01

128

Mechanisms of STAT3 activation in the liver of FXR knockout mice.  

PubMed

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is essential in maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis, and FXR(-/-) mice develop cholestasis, inflammation, and spontaneous liver tumors. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to regulate liver growth, and STAT3 is feedback inhibited by its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Strong activation of STAT3 was detected in FXR(-/-) mouse livers. However, the mechanism of STAT3 activation with FXR deficiency remains elusive. Wild-type (WT) and FXR(-/-) mice were used to detect STAT3 pathway activation in the liver. In vivo BA feeding or deprivation was used to determine the role of BAs in STAT3 activation, and in vitro molecular approaches were used to determine the direct transcriptional regulation of SOCS3 by FXR. STAT3 was activated in FXR(-/-) but not WT mice. BA feeding increased, but deprivation by cholestyramine reduced, serum inflammatory markers and STAT3 activation. Furthermore, the Socs3 gene was determined as a direct FXR target gene. The elevated BAs and inflammation, along with reduced SOCS3, collectively contribute to the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway in the liver of FXR(-/-) mice. This study suggests that the constitutive activation of STAT3 may be a mechanism of liver carcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice. PMID:24091600

Li, Guodong; Zhu, Yan; Tawfik, Ossama; Kong, Bo; Williams, Jessica A; Zhan, Le; Kassel, Karen M; Luyendyk, James P; Wang, Li; Guo, Grace L

2013-12-01

129

Studies of Jak/STAT3 expression and signalling in psoriasis identifies STAT3-Ser727 phosphorylation as a modulator of transcriptional activity.  

PubMed

Jak/Tyk proteins have recently aroused as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of psoriasis. In psoriasis, these proteins signal through STAT molecules including STAT3, and STAT3 expression and activation has been shown augmented in psoriatic lesions. Here, we characterized the expression of Jak/Tyk proteins in lesional compared with non-lesional psoriatic skin. Jak1, Jak2 mRNA and protein and Tyk2 mRNA appeared to be downregulated, whereas Jak3 mRNA expression was increased. Moreover, STAT3 expression and activation was examined in psoriasis. STAT3 is activated at two phosphorylation sites: Tyr705 and Ser727. Both phosphorylation sites were phosphorylated in lesional psoriatic skin. The activation of STAT3 by Jak/Tyk proteins was studied in cultured normal human keratinocytes. Tyr705 phosphorylation was induced by IL-6 and IL-20 in a Jak2-dependent manner, and moreover, phosphorylation of Tyr705 produced a strong increase in STAT3 transcriptional activity. TNF?, 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and UVB irradiation induced Ser727 phosphorylation of STAT3 in an ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-dependent manner, which resulted in a modulatory effect on STAT3 transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate how different signalling pathways can integrate and lead to regulation of STAT3 transcriptional activity. PMID:23614738

Andrés, Rosa M; Hald, Anne; Johansen, Claus; Kragballe, Knud; Iversen, Lars

2013-05-01

130

Modulation of STAT3 folding and function by TRiC/CCT chaperonin.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transduces signals of many peptide hormones from the cell surface to the nucleus and functions as an oncoprotein in many types of cancers, yet little is known about how it achieves its native folded state within the cell. Here we show that Stat3 is a novel substrate of the ring-shaped hetero-oligomeric eukaryotic chaperonin, TRiC/CCT, which contributes to its biosynthesis and activity in vitro and in vivo. TRiC binding to Stat3 was mediated, at least in part, by TRiC subunit CCT3. Stat3 binding to TRiC mapped predominantly to the ?-strand rich, DNA-binding domain of Stat3. Notably, enhancing Stat3 binding to TRiC by engineering an additional TRiC-binding domain from the von Hippel-Lindau protein (vTBD), at the N-terminus of Stat3, further increased its affinity for TRiC as well as its function, as determined by Stat3's ability to bind to its phosphotyrosyl-peptide ligand, an interaction critical for Stat3 activation. Thus, Stat3 levels and function are regulated by TRiC and can be modulated by manipulating its interaction with TRiC. PMID:24756126

Kasembeli, Moses; Lau, Wilson Chun Yu; Roh, Soung-Hun; Eckols, T Kris; Frydman, Judith; Chiu, Wah; Tweardy, David J

2014-04-01

131

Transcription Factor STAT3 as a Novel Molecular Target for Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 has a critical role in the development of multiple cancer types. Because it is constitutively activated during disease progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, STAT3 has promise as a drug target for cancer therapeutics. Recently, STAT3 was found to have an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells in vitro and in mouse tumor models, suggesting STAT3 is integrally involved in tumor initiation, progression and maintenance. STAT3 has been traditionally considered as nontargetable or undruggable, and the lag in developing effective STAT3 inhibitors contributes to the current lack of FDA-approved STAT3 inhibitors. Recent advances in cancer biology and drug discovery efforts have shed light on targeting STAT3 globally and/or specifically for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the potential importance of STAT3 as a novel target for cancer prevention and of STAT3 inhibitors as effective chemopreventive agents.

Xiong, Ailian; Yang, Zhengduo; Shen, Yicheng; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang

2014-01-01

132

Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3.  

PubMed

Constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3 contributes to the pathogenesis of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, targeted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds known to be safe in humans. We found the drug nifuroxazide to be an effective inhibitor of STAT3 function. Nifuroxazide inhibits the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in MM cells by reducing Jak kinase autophosphorylation, and leads to down-regulation of the STAT3 target gene Mcl-1. Nifuroxazide causes a decrease in viability of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines containing STAT3 activation, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although bone marrow stromal cells provide survival signals to myeloma cells, nifuroxazide can overcome this survival advantage. Reflecting the interaction of STAT3 with other cellular pathways, nifuroxazide shows enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with either the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide or the MEK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, using a mechanistic-based screen, we identified the clinically relevant drug nifuroxazide as a potent inhibitor of STAT signaling that shows cytotoxicity against myeloma cells that depend on STAT3 for survival. PMID:18824601

Nelson, Erik A; Walker, Sarah R; Kepich, Alicia; Gashin, Laurie B; Hideshima, Teru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C; Frank, David A

2008-12-15

133

Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3  

PubMed Central

Constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3 contributes to the pathogenesis of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, targeted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds known to be safe in humans. We found the drug nifuroxazide to be an effective inhibitor of STAT3 function. Nifuroxazide inhibits the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in MM cells by reducing Jak kinase autophosphorylation, and leads to down-regulation of the STAT3 target gene Mcl-1. Nifuroxazide causes a decrease in viability of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines containing STAT3 activation, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although bone marrow stromal cells provide survival signals to myeloma cells, nifuroxazide can overcome this survival advantage. Reflecting the interaction of STAT3 with other cellular pathways, nifuroxazide shows enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with either the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide or the MEK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, using a mechanistic-based screen, we identified the clinically relevant drug nifuroxazide as a potent inhibitor of STAT signaling that shows cytotoxicity against myeloma cells that depend on STAT3 for survival.

Nelson, Erik A.; Walker, Sarah R.; Kepich, Alicia; Gashin, Laurie B.; Hideshima, Teru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C.

2008-01-01

134

Expression of the JAK/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway in herniated lumbar discs.  

PubMed

The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in causing symptoms of lumbar disk herniation. The present study clarifies the expression of the signaling pathway of IL-6 in herniated discs. Homogenates prepared from lumbar herniated discs from 10 patients were assessed. The expression of janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 at Tyr(705), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and actin was examined by Western blot analysis. The expression of JAK1, STAT3, and p-STAT3 at Tyr(705) was also examined by immunostaining. JAK1, STAT3, p-STAT3 at Tyr(705) and SOCS3 were detected in almost all cases. Immunoreactivity against JAK1 and STAT3 was observed mainly in chondrocytes, whereas immunoreactivity against p-STAT3 at Tyr(705) was observed in the nuclei of chondrocytes. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway might be activated by IL-6 and transmit messages from the cell surface to the nucleus, and the pathway is negatively regulated by SOCS3. These JAK1, STAT3 and SOCS3 molecules might tightly regulate and play a role in the degeneration of chondrocytes within herniated discs. PMID:24686183

Osuka, Koji; Usuda, Nobuteru; Aoyama, Masahiro; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Takayasu, Masakazu

2014-05-21

135

Immunologic Consequences of STAT3 Activation in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Paracrine cross-talk between tumor cells and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment underlies local mechanisms of immune evasion. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), which is constitutively activated in diverse cancer types, has been shown to be a key regulator of cytokine and chemokine expression in murine tumors, resulting in suppression of both innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity. However, the immunologic effects of STAT3 activation in human cancers have not been studied in detail. To investigate how STAT3 activity in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) might alter the tumor microenvironment to enable immune escape, we used siRNA and small molecule inhibitors to suppress STAT3 activity. STAT3 inhibition in multiple primary and established human squamous carcinoma lines resulted in enhanced expression and secretion of both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. While conditioned medium containing supernatants from human HNSCC inhibited LPS-induced dendritic cell activation in vitro, supernatants from STAT3 silenced tumor cells reversed this immune evasion mechanism. Moreover, supernatants from STAT3 silenced tumor cells were able to stimulate the migratory behavior of lymphocytes from human peripheral blood in vitro. These results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 activation in regulating the immunomodulatory mediators by human tumors and further validate STAT3 as a promising target for therapeutic intervention.

Albesiano, Emilia; Davis, Meghan; See, Alfred P; Han, James E; Lim, Michael; Pardoll, Drew M; Kim, Young

2010-01-01

136

NANOG Amplifies STAT3 Activation and They Synergistically Induce the Naive Pluripotent Program  

PubMed Central

Summary Reprogramming of a differentiated cell back to a naive pluripotent identity is thought to occur by several independent mechanisms. Two such mechanisms include NANOG and activated STAT3 (pSTAT3), known master regulators of naive pluripotency acquisition [1–5]. Here, we investigated the relationship between NANOG and pSTAT3 during the establishment and maintenance of naive pluripotency. Surprisingly, we found that NANOG enhances LIF signal transduction, resulting in elevated pSTAT3. This is mediated, at least in part, by suppression of the expression of the LIF/STAT3 negative regulator SOCS3. We also discovered NANOG to be limiting for the expression of KLF4, a canonical “Yamanaka” reprogramming factor [6] and key pSTAT3 target [2, 7, 8]. KLF4 expression resulted from the codependent and synergistic action of NANOG and pSTAT3 in embryonic stem cells and during initiation of reprogramming. Additionally, within 48 hr, the combined actions of NANOG and pSTAT3 in a reprogramming context resulted in reactivation of genes associated with naive pluripotency. Importantly, we show that NANOG can be bypassed during reprogramming by exogenous provision of its downstream effectors, namely pSTAT3 elevation and KLF4 expression. In conclusion, we propose that mechanisms of reprogramming are linked, rather than independent, and are centered on a small number of genes, including NANOG.

Stuart, Hannah T.; van Oosten, Anouk L.; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Martello, Graziano; Miller, Anzy; Dietmann, Sabine; Nichols, Jennifer; Silva, Jose C.R.

2014-01-01

137

Cooperative Interaction between Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 with EGFR blockade in Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) targeting in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an established treatment modality, yet only benefits a minority of patients. STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) plays an important role in the oncogenic signal transduction pathway of NSCLC. Inhibition of STAT3 results in NSCLC growth inhibition and apoptosis. We have previously shown that combined inhibition of EGFR and STAT3 by small molecules resulted in improved therapeutic efficacy as compared to blocking EGFR alone. However, the STAT3 protein has a number of endogenous negative regulators including PIAS3 (Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3). In this study we investigated for the first time the role of PIAS3 in modulating oncogenic EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway in lung cancer and the antiproliferative effect of using PIAS3 in conjunction with EGFR blockade in NSCLC. We demonstrate that PIAS3 is expressed in variable degrees in all NSCLC cells. EGF and IL-6 stimulation resulted in the association of PIAS3 with STAT3. The PIAS3/STAT3 complex then bound the STAT3 DNA binding sequence resulting in STAT3 regulated gene expression. Over-expression of PIAS3, using a PIAS3 expression construct, decreases STAT3 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, over-expression of PIAS3 consistently decreased proliferation. EGFR blockade and PIAS3 over-expression in combination had significantly greater anti-proliferative effects as compared to either EGFR blockade or PIAS3 over-expression alone. In conclusion, PIAS3 is expressed in NSCLC cell lines and its over-expression decreased STAT3 transcriptional activity, decreased proliferation of NSCLC cells and when used in conjunction with EGFR inhibitors, increased the anti-proliferative effects.

Kluge, Amy; Dabir, Snehal; Kern, Jeffrey; Nethery, David; Halmos, Balazs; Ma, Patrick; Dowlati, Afshin

2009-01-01

138

Nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibits the activity of STAT3  

SciTech Connect

STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a key transcription factor of the JAK-STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of STAT3 is under tight regulation, and yet the different signaling pathways and the mechanisms that regulate its activity remain to be elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} that interacts in a novel way with STAT3. This physical interaction was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction regions were mapped to the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 and the C-terminal of I{kappa}B-{zeta}. Overexpression of I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibited the transcriptional activity of STAT3. It also suppressed cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in SRC-simulated cells, which is partially mediated by down-regulation of expression of a known STAT3 target gene, MCL1. Our results suggest that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is a negative regulator of STAT3, and demonstrate a novel mechanism in which a component of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway inhibits the activation of STAT3.

Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Xiaoai; Yang, Juntao; Wu, Guangzhou; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yanzhi; Jin, Chaozhi [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chang, Zhijie [Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian@nic.bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmyang2@nic.bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); He, Fuchu, E-mail: hefc@nic.bmi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2009-09-18

139

STAT3 Revs Up the Powerhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) promotes their dimerization and ability to bind target genes in the nucleus. However, evidence shows that one member of the STAT family, STAT3, has an additional property independent of its classical role in the nucleus. STAT3 modifed by serine phosphorylation augmented oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and supported cellular transformation by oncogenic Ras.

Nancy C. Reich (Stony Brook University;Molecular Genetics and Microbiology REV)

2009-09-29

140

Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and PI3K/Akt Signaling Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Survival through Regulation of Stat3 Activation in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Recent studies have emphasized the important role of Stat3 activation in a number of human tumors from the viewpoint of its oncogenic and antiapoptotic activity. In this study, we examined the role and related signaling molecules of Stat3 in the carcinogenesis of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In 35 human cutaneous SCC samples, 86% showed overexpression of phosphorylated (p)-Stat3, and most of those simultaneously overexpressed p-EGFR or p-Akt. Constitutive activation of EGFR and Stat3 was observed in three SCC cell lines and four of five SCC tissues. AG1478, an inhibitor of the EGFR, downregulated Stat3 activation in HSC-1 human SCC cells. AG1478 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of HSC-1 cells but did not inhibit the growth of normal human epidermal keratinocytes that did not show Stat3 activation. Furthermore, a PI3K inhibitor also suppressed Stat3 activation in HSC-1 cells to some degree. Combined treatment with the PI3K inhibitor and AG1478 strongly suppressed Stat3 activity and dramatically induced apoptosis of HSC-1 cells. These data suggest that Stat3 activation through EGFR and/or PI3K/Akt activation plays a critical role in the proliferation and survival of human cutaneous SCC. PMID:21197106

Bito, Toshinori; Sumita, Nahoko; Ashida, Masashi; Budiyanto, Arief; Ueda, Masato; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Tokura, Yoshiki; Nishigori, Chikako

2011-01-01

141

Deregulation of a STAT3-IL8 Signaling Pathway Promotes Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN is recognized as a major event in the pathogenesis of the brain tumor glioblastoma. However, the mechanisms by which PTEN loss specifically impacts the malignant behavior of glioblastoma cells including their proliferation and propensity for invasiveness remain poorly understood. Genetic studies suggest that the transcription factor STAT3 harbors a PTEN-regulated tumor suppressive function in mouse astrocytes. Here, we report that STAT3 plays a critical tumor suppressive role in PTEN-deficient human glioblastoma cells. Endogenous STAT3 signaling is specifically inhibited in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells. Strikingly, reactivation of STAT3 in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells inhibits their proliferation, invasiveness, and ability to spread on myelin. We also identify the chemokine IL8 as a novel target gene of STAT3 in human glioblastoma cells. Activated STAT3 occupies the endogenous IL8 promoter and directly represses IL8 transcription. Consistent with these results, IL8 is upregulated in PTEN-deficient human glioblastoma tumors. Importantly, IL8 repression mediates STAT3-inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and spreading on myelin. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel link between STAT3 and IL8 whose deregulation plays a key role in the malignant behavior of PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells. These studies suggest that STAT3 activation or IL8 inhibition may have potential in patient-tailored treatment of PTEN-deficient brain tumors.

de la Iglesia, Nuria; Konopka, Genevieve; Lim, Kah Leong; Nutt, Catherine L.; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.; Frank, David A.; Mischel, Paul S.; Louis, David N.; Bonni, Azad

2009-01-01

142

Cucurbitacin B and cucurbitacin I suppress adipocyte differentiation through inhibition of STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Cucurbitacin B, a member of the cucurbitaceae family, can act as a STAT3 signaling inhibitor to regulate the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. STAT3 signaling has been shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation through C/EBP? and PPAR?. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that cucurbitacin B would prevent PPAR? mediated adipocyte differentiation through STAT3 signaling. To test this hypothesis, mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were treated with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of cucurbitacin B. Cucurbitacin B treatment inhibits lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers including PPAR? and its target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Cucurbitacin B treatment impairs STAT3 signaling as manifested by reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and suppression of STAT3 target gene expression in preadipocytes. The anti-adipogenic effects of cucurbitacin B are significantly blunted in cells with STAT3 silenced by introducing small interfering RNA. Finally, our data show that cucurbitacin I, another cucurbitacin family member, also inhibits adipocyte differentiation by suppressing STAT3 signaling. Together, our data suggest the possibility of utilizing cucurbitacins as a new strategy to treat metabolic diseases and implicate STAT3 as a new target for the development of functional foods and drugs. PMID:24316209

Seo, Cho-Rong; Yang, Dong Kwon; Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Cho, Jae Youl; Yoon, Keejung; Ahn, Jee-Yin; Nho, Chu Won; Park, Woo Jin; Yang, Seung Yul; Park, Kye Won

2014-02-01

143

Death-associated protein kinase controls STAT3 activity in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The TNF-IL-6-STAT3 pathway plays a crucial role in promoting ulcerative colitis-associated carcinoma (UCC). To date, the negative regulation of STAT3 is poorly understood. Interestingly, intestinal epithelial cells of UCC in comparison to ulcerative colitis show high expression levels of anti-inflammatory death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and low levels of pSTAT3. Accordingly, epithelial DAPK expression was enhanced in STAT3(IEC-KO) mice. To unravel a possible regulatory mechanism, we used an in vitro TNF-treated intestinal epithelial cell model. We identified a new function of DAPK in suppressing TNF-induced STAT3 activation as DAPK siRNA knockdown and treatment with a DAPK inhibitor potentiated STAT3 activation, IL-6 mRNA expression, and secretion. DAPK attenuated STAT3 activity directly by physical interaction shown in three-dimensional structural modeling. This model suggests that DAPK-induced conformational changes in the STAT3 dimer masked its nuclear localization signal. Alternatively, pharmacological inactivation of STAT3 led to an increase in DAPK mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that STAT3 restricted DAPK expression by promoter binding, thereby reinforcing its own activation by inducing IL-6. This novel negative regulation principle might balance TNF-induced inflammation and seems to play an important role in the inflammation-associated transformation process as confirmed in an AOM+DSS colon carcinogenesis mouse model. DAPK as a negative regulator of STAT3 emerges as therapeutic option in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and UCC. PMID:23438478

Chakilam, Saritha; Gandesiri, Muktheshwar; Rau, Tilman T; Agaimy, Abbas; Vijayalakshmi, Mahadevan; Ivanovska, Jelena; Wirtz, Ralph M; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Benderska, Natalya; Wittkopf, Nadine; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Ruemmele, Petra; Vieth, Michael; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Christiansen, Hans; Hartmann, Arndt; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Raja; Becker, Christoph; Steinberg, Pablo; Schneider-Stock, Regine

2013-03-01

144

Activation of STAT3 stimulates AHSP expression in K562 cells.  

PubMed

Studies on the chaperone protein ?-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) reveal that abundant AHSP in erythroid cells enhance the cells' tolerance to oxidative stress imposed by excess ?-hemoglobin in pathological conditions. However, the potential intracellular modulation of AHSP expression itself in response to oxidative stress is still unknown. The present study examined the effect and molecular mechanism of STAT3, an oxidative regulator, on the expression of AHSP. AHSP expression increased in K562 cells upon cytokine IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and decreased in STAT3 knock-down K562 cells. Regulation of AHSP in oxidative circumstance was then examined in ?-globin-overloaded K562 cells, and real-time PCR showed strengthened expression of both AHSP and STAT3. ChIP analysis showed binding of STAT3 to AHSP promoter and binding was significantly augmented with IL6 stimulation and upon ?-globin overexpression. Dual luciferase reporter assays of the wildtype and mutated SB3 element, an IL-6RE site, in the AHSP promoter in K562 cells highlighted the direct regulatory effect of STAT3 on AHSP gene. Finally, direct binding of STAT3 to SB3 site of AHSP promoter was confirmed with EMSA assays. Our work reveals an adaptive AHSP regulation mediated by the redox-sensitive STAT3 signaling pathway, and provides clues to the therapeutic strategy for AHSP enhancement. PMID:24740453

Cao, Cong; Zhao, GuoWei; Yu, Wei; Xie, XueMin; Wang, WenTian; Yang, RuiFeng; Lv, Xiang; Liu, DePei

2014-05-01

145

STAT3 activation promotes oncolytic HSV1 replication in glioma cells.  

PubMed

Recent studies report that STAT3 signaling is a master regulator of mesenchymal transformation of gliomas and that STAT3 modulated genes are highly expressed in the mesenchymal transcriptome of gliomas. A currently studied experimental treatment for gliomas consists of intratumoral injection of oncolytic viruses (OV), such as oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV). We have described one particular oHSV (rQNestin34.5) that exhibits potent anti-glioma activity in animal models. Here, we hypothesized that alterations in STAT3 signaling in glioma cells may affect the replicative ability of rQNestin34.5. In fact, human U251 glioma cells engineered to either over-express STAT3 or with genetic down-regulation of STAT3 supported oHSV replication to a significantly higher or lesser degree, respectively, when compared to controls. Administration of pharmacologic agents that increase STAT3 phosphorylation/activation (Valproic Acid) or increase STAT3 levels (Interleukin 6) also significantly enhanced oHSV replication. Instead, administration of inhibitors of STAT3 phosphorylation/activation (LLL12) significantly reduced oHSV replication. STAT3 led to a reduction in interferon signaling in oHSV infected cells and inhibition of interferon signaling abolished the effect of STAT3 on oHSV replication. These data thus indicate that STAT3 signaling in malignant gliomas enhances oHSV replication, likely by inhibiting the interferon response in infected glioma cells, thus suggesting avenues for possible potentiation of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:23936533

Okemoto, Kazuo; Wagner, Benjamin; Meisen, Hans; Haseley, Amy; Kaur, Balveen; Chiocca, Ennio Antonio

2013-01-01

146

Metformin targets Stat3 to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancers.  

PubMed

A distinct group of breast cancers, called "basal" or "triple-negative" (TN) cancers express both basal cytokeratins and the epidermal growth factor receptor, but fail to express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors or HER2 and have stem-like or mesenchymal features. They are particularly aggressive, are frequently chemo-resistant, with p53 mutation, up-regulation of IL-6 and Stat3. Because TN cells are particularly sensitive to the anti-diabetic agent metformin, we hypothesized that it may target JAK2/Stat3 signaling. The effects of metformin upon Stat3 expression and activation were examined in four human TN cell lines. Metformin's effects were also studied in sublines with forced over-expression of constitutively active (CA) Stat3, as well as lines with stable knockdown of Stat3. Metformin inhibited Stat3 activation (P-Stat3) at Tyr705 and Ser727 and downstream signaling in each of the four parental cell lines. CA-Stat3 transfection attenuated, whereas Stat3 knockdown enhanced, the effects of metformin upon growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. A Stat3 specific inhibitor acted synergistically with metformin in reducing cell growth and inducing apoptosis. An mTOR inhibitor showed no significant interaction with metformin. In summary, Stat3 is a critical regulator of metformin action in TN cancer cells, providing the potential for enhancing metformin's efficacy in the clinical setting. PMID:22189713

Deng, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Shuiliang; Deng, Anlong; Liu, Bolin; Edgerton, Susan M; Lind, Stuart E; Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema; Thor, Ann D

2012-01-15

147

Assessing the Role of STAT3 in DC Differentiation and Autologous DC Immunotherapy in Mouse Models of GBM.  

PubMed

Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF? were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors. PMID:24806510

Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

2014-01-01

148

Assessing the Role of STAT3 in DC Differentiation and Autologous DC Immunotherapy in Mouse Models of GBM  

PubMed Central

Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF? were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors.

Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

2014-01-01

149

The R(h)oads to Stat3: Stat3 activation by the Rho GTPases  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is a member of the STAT family of cytoplasmic transcription factors. Overactivation of Stat3 is detected with high frequency in human cancer and is considered a molecular abnormality that supports the tumor phenotype. Despite concerted investigative efforts, the molecular mechanisms leading to the aberrant Stat3 activation and Stat3-mediated transformation and tumorigenesis are still not clearly defined. Recent evidence reveals a crosstalk close relationship between Stat3 signaling and members of the Rho family of small GTPases, including Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA. Specifically, Rac1, acting in a complex with the MgcRacGAP (male germ cell RacGAP), promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 by the IL6-receptor family/Jak kinase complex, as well as its translocation to the nucleus. Studies have further revealed that the mutational activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 results in Stat3 activation, which occurs in part through the upregulation of IL6 family cytokines that in turn stimulates Stat3 through the Jak kinases. Interestingly, evidence also shows that the engagement of cadherins, cell to cell adhesion molecules, specifically induces a striking increase in Rac1 and Cdc42 protein levels and activity, which in turn results in Stat3 activation. In this review we integrate recent findings clarifying the role of the Rho family GTPases in Stat3 activation in the context of malignant progression.

Raptis, Leda; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Turkson, James

2011-01-01

150

Activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling by osteopontin promotes tumor growth in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Deregulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling plays crucial role in oncogenesis of various cancers. However, the molecular mechanism by which osteopontin (OPN), a chemokine-like extracellular matrix-associated protein, regulates STAT3 activation that leads to tumor progression and inhibits apoptosis in breast cancer cells is not well understood. In this study, we for the first time report that OPN upregulates alphavbeta3 integrin-mediated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) phosphorylation and STAT3 activation in breast cancer (MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7) cells. Pretreatment of cells with JAK2 inhibitor (AG 490) suppresses OPN-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, its nuclear localization and DNA binding indicating that JAK2 is involved in this process. Transfection of cells with wild-type (wt) STAT3 enhanced whereas mutant STAT3 (STAT3 Y705F) suppressed OPN-induced breast tumor cell migration. Treatment of cells with OPN followed by staurosporine (STS) showed that OPN protects the cells from STS-induced apoptosis. Moreover, transfection of cells with wt STAT3 upregulates whereas STAT3 Y705F downregulates Bcl2 and cyclin D1 expressions in response to OPN. Interestingly, STAT3-overexpressing cells when injected to non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice followed by OPN treatment, the mice developed enhanced tumor growth as compared with STAT3 Y705F-injected mice or mice injected with OPN alone. The levels of Bcl2 and cyclin D1 in wt STAT3 tumors were significantly higher than controls. Clinical specimen analysis revealed that increased OPN and pSTAT3 expressions correlate with enhanced breast tumor progression. Thus, targeting OPN and its regulated STAT3 signaling could be a potent therapeutic approach and understanding these mechanisms may form the basis of new therapeutic regimen for the management of breast cancer. PMID:19926637

Behera, Reeti; Kumar, Vinit; Lohite, Kirti; Karnik, Swapnil; Kundu, Gopal C

2010-02-01

151

IKBKE is induced by STAT3 and tobacco carcinogen and determines chemosensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Serine/threonine kinase IKBKE is a newly identified oncogene; however, its regulation remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that IKBKE is a downstream target of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and that tobacco components induce IKBKE expression through STAT3. Ectopic expression of constitutively active STAT3 increased IKBKE mRNA and protein levels, whereas inhibition of STAT3 reduced IKBKE expression. Furthermore, expression levels of IKBKE are significantly associated with STAT3 activation and tobacco use history in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients examined. In addition, we show induction of IKBKE by two components of cigarette smoke, nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK). Upon exposure to nicotine or NNK, cells express high levels of IKBKE protein and mRNA, which are largely abrogated by inhibition of STAT3. Characterization of the IKBKE promoter revealed two STAT3-response elements. The IKBKE promoter directly bound to STAT3 and responded to nicotine and NNK stimulation. Notably, enforcing expression of IKBKE induces chemoresistance, whereas knockdown of IKBKE not only sensitizes NSCLC cells to chemotherapy but also abrogates STAT3- and nicotine-induced cell survival. These data indicate for the first time that IKBKE is a direct target of STAT3 and is induced by tobacco carcinogens through STAT3 pathway. In addition, our study also suggests that IKBKE is an important therapeutic target and could have a pivotal role in tobacco-associated lung carcinogenesis.

Guo, J; Kim, D; Gao, J; Kurtyka, C; Chen, H; Yu, C; Wu, D; Mittal, A; Beg, AA; Chellappan, SP; Haura, EB; Cheng, JQ

2014-01-01

152

Interleukin-6 induces transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in astrocytes in vivo and regulates VEGF promoter activity in glioblastoma cells via direct interaction between STAT3 and Sp1.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression is strongly correlated with the degree of human glioma malignancy and necessary for tumor formation in a mouse model of spontaneous astrocytomas. Yet, exactly how IL-6 contributes to malignant progression of these brain tumors is still unclear. We have scrutinized the mechanism of transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by IL-6 in the mouse brain and in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate here that IL-6 drives transcriptional upregulation of VEGF in astrocytes in vivo using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-IL-6/VEGF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) double transgenic mice. We further show that IL-6-induced VEGF transcription and VEGF secretion by human glioblastoma cells is dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). By progressive 5'-deletion analysis we defined the minimal VEGF promoter region for IL-6-responsiveness to nucleotides -88/-50. Surprisingly, this promoter region is rich in GC-boxes and does not contain STAT3 binding elements. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays revealed binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the -88/-50 element upon IL-6 stimulation. Interestingly, preincubation with STAT3 antibody prevented the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the -88/-50 element, indicating that STAT3 is involved in IL-6-driven Sp1/Sp3 protein-DNA complex formation. Physical interaction of STAT3 and Sp1 was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation. The functional relevance of the STAT3/Sp1 association was corroborated by transient transfection experiments, which showed that overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 increased the minimal VEGF promoter activity. Taken together, our study suggests that IL-6 promotes tumor angiogenesis in gliomas and describes a novel transcriptional activation mechanism for STAT3 in the context of a STAT3 binding element (SBE)-free promoter. PMID:15688401

Loeffler, Sébastien; Fayard, Bérengère; Weis, Joachim; Weissenberger, Jakob

2005-06-10

153

MicroRNA21 Expression in CD4+ T Cells Is Regulated by STAT3 and Is Pathologically Involved in Sézary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that control gene expression, and are involved in the regulation of fundamental biological processes including development, cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs regulate gene expression in normal hematopoiesis, and aberrant miRNA expression might contribute to leukomogenesis. Specifically, miR-21 is abundantly expressed in various tumors including leukemia and lymphoma, and is functionally involved in oncogenic processes.

Leslie van der Fits; Marloes S van Kester; Yongjun Qin; Jacoba J Out-Luiting; Fiona Smit; Willem H Zoutman; Rein Willemze; Cornelis P Tensen; Maarten H Vermeer

2011-01-01

154

STAT3 mediates resistance to MEK inhibitor through microRNA miR-17  

PubMed Central

AZD6244 is a small molecule inhibitor of the MEK kinase pathway currently in clinical trials. However, the mechanisms mediating intrinsic resistance to MEK inhibition are not fully characterized. To define molecular mechanisms of MEK inhibitor resistance, we analyzed responses of 38 lung cancer cell lines following AZD6244 treatment and their genome-wide gene expression profiles and identified a panel of genes correlated with sensitivity or resistance to AZD6244 treatment. In particular, Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that activation of the STAT3 pathway was associated with MEK inhibitor resistance. Inhibition of this pathway by JSI-124, a STAT3-specific small molecule inhibitor, or with STAT3-specific siRNA sensitized lung cancer cells to AZD6244 and induced apoptosis. Moreover, combining a STAT3 inhibitor with AZD6244 induced expression of BIM and polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, whereas activation of the STAT3 pathway inhibited BIM expression and elicited resistance to MEK inhibitors. We found that the STAT3-regulated microRNA miR-17 played a critical role in MEK inhibitor resistance, such that miR-17 inhibition sensitized resistant cells to AZD6244 by inducing BIM and PARP cleavage. Together, these results indicated that STAT3-mediated overexpression of miR-17 blocked BIM expression and caused resistance to AZD6244. Our findings suggest novel approaches to overcome resistance to MEK inhibitors by combining AZD6244 with STAT3 or miR-17 inhibitors.

Dai, Bingbing; Meng, Jieru; Peyton, Michael; Girard, Luc; Bornmann, William G.; Ji, Lin; Minna, John D.; Fang, Bingliang; Roth, Jack A.

2012-01-01

155

Functional regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor constitutively active and aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer. However, the functional role of STAT3 in regulation of HPV's viral oncogene expression and downstream events associated with cervical carcinogenesis is not known. Our present study performed on HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa and CaSki) and primary tumor tissues revealed a strong positive correlation of constitutively active STAT3 with expression of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and a negative association with levels of p53 and pRB. Pharmacologic targeting of STAT3 expression in cervical cancer cell lines either by STAT3-specific siRNA or blocking its tyrosine phosphorylation by AG490 or curcumin led to dose-dependent accumulation of p53 and pRb in cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, the suppression of STAT3 expression or activation was associated with the gradual loss of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression and was accompanied by loss of cell viability. The viability loss was specifically high in HPV16-positive cells as compared to HPV negative C33a cells. These findings substantiate the regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. Leads obtained from the present study provide a strong rationale for developing novel STAT3-based approaches for therapeutic interventions against HPV infection to control cervical cancer. PMID:23874455

Shukla, Shirish; Mahata, Sutapa; Shishodia, Gauri; Pandey, Arvind; Tyagi, Abhishek; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Basir, Seemi F; Das, Bhudev C; Bharti, Alok C

2013-01-01

156

Functional Regulatory Role of STAT3 in HPV16-Mediated Cervical Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor constitutively active and aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer. However, the functional role of STAT3 in regulation of HPV's viral oncogene expression and downstream events associated with cervical carcinogenesis is not known. Our present study performed on HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa and CaSki) and primary tumor tissues revealed a strong positive correlation of constitutively active STAT3 with expression of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and a negative association with levels of p53 and pRB. Pharmacologic targeting of STAT3 expression in cervical cancer cell lines either by STAT3-specific siRNA or blocking its tyrosine phosphorylation by AG490 or curcumin led to dose-dependent accumulation of p53 and pRb in cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, the suppression of STAT3 expression or activation was associated with the gradual loss of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression and was accompanied by loss of cell viability. The viability loss was specifically high in HPV16-positive cells as compared to HPV negative C33a cells. These findings substantiate the regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. Leads obtained from the present study provide a strong rationale for developing novel STAT3-based approaches for therapeutic interventions against HPV infection to control cervical cancer.

Shukla, Shirish; Mahata, Sutapa; Shishodia, Gauri; Pandey, Arvind; Tyagi, Abhishek; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Basir, Seemi F.; Das, Bhudev C.; Bharti, Alok C.

2013-01-01

157

Cryptotanshinone inhibits human glioma cell proliferation by suppressing STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas (MGs) are among the most aggressive types of cancers in the human brain. Frequent tumor recurrence caused by a lack of effective therapeutic approaches results in a poor prognosis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an oncogenic protein, is constitutively activated in MGs and predicts a poor clinical outcome. STAT3 therefore is considered to be a promising target for the treatment of MGs. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), the main bioactive compound from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to have various pharmacological effects. However, little is known about its function in MG cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CTS on the proliferation of human glioma cell lines (T98G and U87). Our results revealed that CTS significantly suppresses glioma cell proliferation. The phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, but not Ser727, was inhibited by CTS, and STAT3 nuclear translocation was attenuated. Overexpression of constitutively active mutant STAT3C reversed the inhibitory effect of CTS, while knockdown STAT3 showed a similar inhibitory effect as CTS treatment. Following the downregulation of STAT3-regulated proteins cyclinD1 and survivin, cell cycle progression significantly arrested in G1/G0 phase. These results indicate that CTS may be a potential antiproliferation agent for the treatment of MGs and that its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. PMID:23740516

Lu, Liang; Li, Cuixian; Li, Dong; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chun; Shao, Weiwei; Peng, Jin; You, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Shen, Xiaoyan

2013-09-01

158

The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed.

Bishop, Jennifer L.; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina

2014-01-01

159

The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer.  

PubMed

The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed. PMID:24722453

Bishop, Jennifer L; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina

2014-01-01

160

Glucosamine suppresses proliferation of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells through inhibition of STAT3 signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Glucosamine is known as a toxic agent for several malignant cell lines and transplanted tumors with little toxicity to normal host tissues. However, the mechanisms underlying anticancer activity of glucosamine are poorly understood. To study the mechanisms, the human prostate cancer DU145 cells were used for the model. Results Glucosamine at concentration 2 mM suppressed proliferation and induced death of DU145 cells. Detailed analysis showed that glucosamine decreased DNA synthesis, arrested cell cycle at G1 phase and induced apoptosis. The effects of glucosamine were associated with up-regulation of p21waf1/cip, a CDK inhibitor. Our further studies identified glucosamine as an inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 which is constitutively activated in many cancer cells including DU145 cells. Glucosamine inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 at the Tyr705 residue and as a result, reduced STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activities. Indeed, the expression of apoptosis inhibitor survivin, which is well known target of STAT3, was suppressed. Contrary to DU145 cells, glucosamine did not affect proliferation of other human prostate cancer PC-3 and C4-2B cells, in which STAT 3 signal pathway is not constitutively active. Conclusion Our data identifies glucosamine as a suppressor of STAT3 signaling and suggests that anticancer activity of glucosamine may be attributed to the suppression of STAT3 activity. Potential application of glucosamine for the treatment of tumors with constitutively active STAT3 is proposed.

Chesnokov, Viktor; Sun, Chao; Itakura, Keiichi

2009-01-01

161

STAT3 and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas.

Wendt, Michael K; Balanis, Nikolas; Carlin, Cathleen R; Schiemann, William P

2014-01-01

162

STAT3 and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in carcinomas.  

PubMed

Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas. PMID:24843831

Wendt, Michael K; Balanis, Nikolas; Carlin, Cathleen R; Schiemann, William P

2014-01-01

163

CYLD Enhances Severe Listeriosis by Impairing IL-6/STAT3-Dependent Fibrin Production  

PubMed Central

The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) may cause severe infection in humans and livestock. Control of acute listeriosis is primarily dependent on innate immune responses, which are strongly regulated by NF-?B, and tissue protective factors including fibrin. However, molecular pathways connecting NF-?B and fibrin production are poorly described. Here, we investigated whether the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, which is an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent immune responses, regulated these protective host responses in murine listeriosis. Upon high dose systemic infection, all C57BL/6 Cyld?/? mice survived, whereas 100% of wildtype mice succumbed due to severe liver pathology with impaired pathogen control and hemorrhage within 6 days. Upon in vitro infection with Lm, CYLD reduced NF-?B-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, and control of bacteria in macrophages. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that CYLD impaired STAT3-dependent fibrin production in cultivated hepatocytes. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CYLD interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and strongly reduced K63-ubiquitination of STAT3 in IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, CYLD diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 activity by reducing nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3. In vivo, CYLD also reduced hepatic STAT3 K63-ubiquitination and activation, NF-?B activation, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA production as well as fibrin production in murine listeriosis. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 by anti-IL-6 antibody, STAT3 by siRNA, and fibrin by warfarin treatment, respectively, demonstrated that IL-6-induced, STAT3-mediated fibrin production significantly contributed to protection in Cyld?/? mice. In addition, in vivo Cyld siRNA treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation, fibrin production, pathogen control and survival of Lm-infected WT mice illustrating that therapeutic inhibition of CYLD augments the protective NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and fibrin production.

Nishanth, Gopala; Deckert, Martina; Wex, Katharina; Massoumi, Ramin; Schweitzer, Katrin; Naumann, Michael; Schluter, Dirk

2013-01-01

164

Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration  

SciTech Connect

Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Feracci, Helene [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France)] [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France); Raptis, Leda, E-mail: raptisl@queensu.ca [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2010-03-10

165

Dancing rhinos in stilettos: The amazing saga of the genomic and nongenomic actions of STAT3 in the heart.  

PubMed

A substantial body of evidence has shown that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has an important role in the heart in protecting the myocardium from ischemia and oxidative stress. These actions are attributed to STAT3 functioning as a transcription factor in upregulating cardioprotective genes. Loss of STAT3 has been implicated as well in the pathogenesis of heart failure and, in that context and in addition to the loss of a cardioprotective gene program, nuclear STAT3 has been identified as a transcriptional repressor important for the normal functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system for protein degradation. The later finding establishes a genomic role for STAT3 in controlling cellular homeostasis in cardiac myocytes independent of stress. Surprisingly, although a well-studied area, very few downstream gene targets of STAT3 in the heart have been definitively identified. In addition, STAT3 is now known to induce gene expression by noncanonical means that are not well characterized in the heart. On the other hand, recent evidence has shown that STAT3 has important nongenomic actions in cardiac myocytes that affect microtubule stability, mitochondrial respiration, and autophagy. These extranuclear actions of STAT3 involve protein-protein interactions that are incompletely understood, as is their regulation in both the healthy and injured heart. Moreover, how the diverse genomic and nongenomic actions of STAT3 crosstalk with each other is unchartered territory. Here we present an overview of what is and is not known about both the genomic and nongenomic actions of STAT3 in the heart from a structure-function perspective that focuses on the impact of posttranslational modifications and oxidative stress in regulating the actions and interactions of STAT3. Even though we have learnt a great deal about the role played by STAT3 in the heart, much more awaits to be discovered. PMID:24069556

Zouein, Fouad A; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W

2013-07-01

166

Systemic leptin dose-dependently increases STAT3 phosphorylation within hypothalamic and hindbrain nuclei.  

PubMed

Leptin released peripherally acts within the central nervous system (CNS) to modulate numerous physiological and behavioral functions. Histochemical identification of leptin-responsive CNS cells can reveal the specific cellular phenotypes and neural circuits through which leptin signaling modulates these functions. Leptin signaling elicits phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), making pSTAT3-immunoreactivity (ir) a useful proxy for identifying leptin-responsive cells. Relatively low systemic doses of leptin (i.e., 10-130 ?g/kg body wt) are sufficient to decrease food intake, inhibit gastric emptying, and increase sympathetic activity, but there are no histological reports of central pSTAT3-ir following leptin doses within this range. Considering this, we quantified central pSTAT3-ir in rats after intraperitoneal injections of leptin at doses ranging from 50 to 800 ?g/kg body wt. Tissue sections were processed to identify pSTAT3-ir alone or in combination with immunolabeling for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), or dopamine-?-hydroxylase (D?H). Leptin doses as low as 50, 100, and 200 ?g/kg body wt significantly increased the number of pSTAT3-ir cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, respectively, and also led to robust pSTAT3 labeling in neural processes. The differential dose-dependent increases in pSTAT3-ir across brain regions provide new information regarding central leptin sensitivity. Within the ARC, CART-ir and pSTAT3-ir were often colocalized, consistent with evidence of leptin sensitivity in this neural population. Conversely, within the NTS, pSTAT3 only rarely colocalized with PrRP and/or D?H, and never with GLP-1. PMID:24523344

Maniscalco, James W; Rinaman, Linda

2014-04-01

167

Gambogic Acid Inhibits STAT3 Phosphorylation Through Activation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1: Potential Role in Proliferation and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is associated with proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone derived from the resin of traditional Chinese medicine, Gamboge hanburyi (mangosteen), can regulate the STAT3 pathway, leading to suppression of growth and sensitization of cancer cells. We found that GA induced apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells that correlated with the inhibition of both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation. STAT3 phosphorylation at both tyrosine residue 705 and serine residue 727 was inhibited by GA. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of the protein tyrosine kinases Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1, and JAK2. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the GA-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. We also found that GA induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of GA to inhibit STAT3 activation and to induce apoptosis, suggesting the critical role of SHP-1 in its action. Moreover, GA down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins, and this correlated with suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that GA blocks STAT3 activation, leading to suppression of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

Prasad, Sahdeo; Pandey, Manoj K.; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2011-01-01

168

JAK-STAT3 and somatic cell reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency, especially by the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, has become widely used today to generate various types of stem cells for research and for regenerative medicine. However the mechanism(s) of reprogramming still need detailed elucidation, including the roles played by the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling pathway. LIF is central in maintaining the ground state pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPSCs by activating the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK-STAT3) pathway. Characterizing and understanding this pathway holds the key to generate naïve pluripotent human iPSCs which will facilitate the development of patient-specific stem cell therapy. Here we review the historical and recent developments on how LIF signaling pathway regulates ESC pluripotency maintenance and somatic cell reprogramming, with a focus on JAK-STAT3.

Tang, Yong; Tian, Xiuchun (Cindy)

2013-01-01

169

Monocytes Induce STAT3 Activation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Osteoblast Formation  

PubMed Central

A major therapeutic challenge is how to replace bone once it is lost. Bone loss is a characteristic of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Cells and cytokines of the immune system are known to regulate bone turnover by controlling the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. However, less is known about the regulation of osteoblasts (OB), the bone forming cells. This study aimed to investigate whether immune cells also regulate OB differentiation. Using in vitro cell cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), it was shown that monocytes/macrophages potently induced MSC differentiation into OBs. This was evident by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after 7 days and the formation of mineralised bone nodules at 21 days. This monocyte-induced osteogenic effect was mediated by cell contact with MSCs leading to the production of soluble factor(s) by the monocytes. As a consequence of these interactions we observed a rapid activation of STAT3 in the MSCs. Gene profiling of STAT3 constitutively active (STAT3C) infected MSCs using Illumina whole human genome arrays showed that Runx2 and ALP were up-regulated whilst DKK1 was down-regulated in response to STAT3 signalling. STAT3C also led to the up-regulation of the oncostatin M (OSM) and LIF receptors. In the co-cultures, OSM that was produced by monocytes activated STAT3 in MSCs, and neutralising antibodies to OSM reduced ALP by 50%. These data indicate that OSM, in conjunction with other mediators, can drive MSC differentiation into OB. This study establishes a role for monocyte/macrophages as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation via OSM production and the induction of STAT3 signalling in MSCs. Inducing the local activation of STAT3 in bone cells may be a valuable tool to increase bone formation in osteoporosis and arthritis, and in localised bone remodelling during fracture repair.

Nicolaidou, Vicky; Wong, Mei Mei; Redpath, Andia N.; Ersek, Adel; Baban, Dilair F.; Williams, Lynn M.; Cope, Andrew P.; Horwood, Nicole J.

2012-01-01

170

Phosphorylation of STAT3 correlates with HER2 status, but not with survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Activation of signal-transcriptional factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with more aggressive behaviour in a variety of human malignancies. As selective STAT3 inhibitors exist, this protein might represent a novel therapeutic target. Although STAT3 seems to play an important role in progression of pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC), only few data on this subject exist. The aim of our study was the investigation of STAT3 activation and its correlation with its possible regulator HER2. Expression of tyrosine-705 phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was determined immunohistochemically in 79 PDACs. HER2 status assessed by immunohistochemistry and double colour silver in situ hybridization was available from a previous study. PSTAT3 expression was seen in 33 (41.8%) patients. Six patients were scored as HER2 positive having strong correlation with pSTAT3 expression (p = 0.004, Fisher's exact test). No association of pSTAT3 expression with patients' age, tumour staging and grading, perineural invasion of tumour cells or survival time was seen. pSTAT3 is frequently expressed in PDAC. Nevertheless, its immediate clinical relevance seems to be low. However, further research needs to determine whether STAT3 status in PDAC is predictive for the response to novel targeting therapies. PMID:24164699

Koperek, Oskar; Aumayr, Klaus; Schindl, Martin; Werba, Gregor; Soleiman, Afschin; Schoppmann, Sebastian; Sahora, Klaus; Birner, Peter

2014-06-01

171

Role of STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on cell invasion and chemosensitivity in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported that STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer. STAT3 has been proposed to play an important role in ovarian cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. This mechanism, however, is still not thoroughly understood. In this study, to investigate the role of STAT3 on ovarian cancer cells, we used decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) technology to regulate STAT3 in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells in vitro. Cell invasive power and chemo-sensitivity were assessed in the cells transfected with STAT3 decoy ODN and control ODN. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of EMMPRIN, P-gp, and Akt. Results showed that STAT3 decoy ODN inhibited cancer cell invasive power and enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel for SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. The mechanism involved the inhibition of EMMPRIN, P-gp, and pAkt by STAT3 decoy ODN. These three proteins were probably the target proteins of STAT3. These findings suggest that STAT3 is a key factor for ovarian cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. STAT3 decoy ODN may prove to be a beneficial therapeutic agent, especially for invasive or chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:20113836

Zhang, Xiaolei; Liu, Peishu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Ancong; Yang, Meixiang

2010-02-01

172

Betulinic Acid Suppresses STAT3 Activation Pathway Through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1 in Human Multiple Myeloma Cells  

PubMed Central

STAT3 activation has been associated with survival, proliferation and invasion of various human cancers. Whether betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, can modulates the STAT3 pathway, was investigated in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We found that betulinic acid inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3, Src kinase, JAK1 and JAK2. Pervanadate reversed the betulinic acid -induced down regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, betulinic acid induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1 and silencing of the SHP-1 gene abolished the ability of betulinic acid to inhibit STAT3 activation and rescues betulinic acid-induced cell death. Betulinic acid also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as bcl-xL, bcl-2, cyclin D1, and survivin. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and an increase in caspase-3–induced PARP cleavage. Consistent with these results, over expression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the betulinic acid-induced apoptosis. Betulinic acid also enhanced the apoptosis induced by thalidomide (from 10% to 55%) and bortezomib (from 5% to 70%) in MM cells. Overall, our results suggest that betulinic acid down regulates STAT3 activation through upregulation of SHP-1 and this may have potential in sensitization of STAT3 over expressing tumors to chemotherapeutic agents.

Pandey, Manoj K.; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2009-01-01

173

MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3?-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

2013-11-29

174

Stat3 Programs Th17-Specific Regulatory T Cells to Control GN.  

PubMed

A pathogenic role for Th17 cells in inflammatory renal disease is well established. The mechanisms underlying their counter-regulation are, however, largely unknown. Recently, Th17 lineage-specific regulatory T cells (Treg17) that depend on activation of the transcription factor Stat3 were identified. We studied the function of Treg17 in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of crescentic GN. The absence of Treg17 cells in Foxp3(Cre)×Stat3(fl/fl) mice resulted in the aggravation of NTN and skewing of renal and systemic immune responses toward Th17. Detailed analysis of Stat3-deficient Tregs revealed that the survival, activation, proliferation, and suppressive function of these cells remained intact. However, Tregs from Foxp3(Cre)×Stat3(fl/fl) mice lacked surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR6, which resulted in impaired renal trafficking. Furthermore, aggravation of NTN was reversible in the absence of Th17 responses, as shown in CD4(Cre)×Stat3(fl/fl) mice lacking both Treg17 and Th17 cells, suggesting that Th17 cells are indeed the major target of Treg17 cells. Notably, immunohistochemistry revealed CCR6-bearing Treg17 cells in kidney biopsy specimens of patients with GN. CCR6 expression on human Treg17 cells also appears dependent on STAT3, as shown by analysis of Tregs from patients with dominant-negative STAT3 mutations. Our data indicate the presence and involvement of Stat3/STAT3-dependent Treg17 cells that specifically target Th17 cells in murine and human crescentic GN, and suggest the kidney-specific action of these Treg17 cells is regulated by CCR6-directed migration into areas of Th17 inflammation. PMID:24511136

Kluger, Malte A; Luig, Michael; Wegscheid, Claudia; Goerke, Boeren; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Brix, Silke R; Yan, Isabell; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Hagl, Beate; Renner, Ellen D; Tiegs, Gisa; Wiech, Thorsten; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Steinmetz, Oliver M

2014-06-01

175

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein localizes to promoters and enhancers with cell transcription factors and EBNA2  

PubMed Central

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are critical for lymphoblastoid cell line outgrowth. LP removes NCOR and RBPJ repressive complexes from promoters, enhancers, and matrix-associated deacetylase bodies, whereas E2 activates transcription from distal enhancers. LP ChIP-seq analyses identified 19,224 LP sites of which ?50% were ±2 kb of a transcriptional start site. LP sites were enriched for B-cell transcription factors (TFs), YY1, SP1, PAX5, BATF, IRF4, ETS1, RAD21, PU.1, CTCF, RBPJ, ZNF143, SMC3, NF?B, TBLR, and EBF. E2 sites were also highly enriched for LP-associated cell TFs and were more highly occupied by RBPJ and EBF. LP sites were highly marked by H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H2Az, H3K9ac, RNAPII, and P300, indicative of activated transcription. LP sites were 29% colocalized with E2 (LP/E2). LP/E2 sites were more similar to LP than to E2 sites in associated cell TFs, RNAPII, P300, and histone H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K27ac, and H2Az occupancy, and were more highly transcribed than LP or E2 sites. Gene affected by CTCF and LP cooccupancy were more highly expressed than genes affected by CTCF alone. LP was at myc enhancers and promoters and of MYC regulated ccnd2, 23 med complex components, and MYC regulated cell survival genes, igf2r and bcl2. These data implicate LP and associated TFs and DNA looping factors CTCF, RAD21, SMC3, and YY1/INO80 chromatin-remodeling complexes in repressor depletion and gene activation necessary for lymphoblastoid cell line growth and survival.

Portal, Daniel; Zhou, Hufeng; Zhao, Bo; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Lowry, Elizabeth; Wong, Limsoon; Quackenbush, John; Holloway, Dustin; Jiang, Sizun; Lu, Yong; Kieff, Elliott

2013-01-01

176

Identification of a New Series of STAT3 Inhibitors by Virtual Screening  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target for oncology drug development. We identified a N-[2-(1,3,4-oxadiazolyl)]-4-quinolinecarboxamide derivative, STX-0119, as a novel STAT3 dimerization inhibitor by a virtual screen using a customized version of the DOCK4 program with the crystal structure of STAT3. In addition, we used in vitro cell-based assays such as the luciferase reporter gene assay and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based STAT3 dimerization assay. STX-0119 selectively abrogated the DNA binding activity of STAT3 and suppressed the expression of STAT3-regulated oncoproteins such as c-myc and survivin in cancer cells. In contrast, a truncated inactive analogue, STX-0872, did not exhibit those activities. Oral administration of STX-0119 effectively abrogated the growth of human lymphoma cells in a SCC-3 subcutaneous xenograft model without visible toxicity. Structure?activity relationships of STX-0119 derivatives were investigated using the docking model of the STAT3-SH2 domain/STX-0119.

2010-01-01

177

STAT3 and the Hyper-IgE syndrome  

PubMed Central

During recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies resulting from impaired function of JAK-STAT molecules have been described. One of these is the Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) characterized by elevated IgE levels, eczema, recurrent staphylococcal skin and pulmonary infections and pleiotropic somatic manifestations. In 2007 the genetic basis of HIES was revealed by identification of dominant negative STAT3 mutations in HIES patients. Subsequently impaired function of Tyk2 and DOCK8 have been implicated in milder forms of HIES. Since STAT3 acts as a central transcription factor downstream of multiple cytokine and growth factor receptors and thus regulates antimicrobial responses and cell survival, impaired STAT3 function results in immunodeficiency and in some cases tumorigenesis. However, as the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important biological and immunological insight into JAK-STAT signaling is emerging that may have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with HIES.

Mogensen, Trine H.

2013-01-01

178

Gambogic acid inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1: potential role in proliferation and apoptosis.  

PubMed

The transcription factor, STAT3, is associated with proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone derived from the resin of traditional Chinese medicine, Garcinia hanburyi (mangosteen), can regulate the STAT3 pathway, leading to suppression of growth and sensitization of cancer cells. We found that GA induced apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells that correlated with the inhibition of both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation. STAT3 phosphorylation at both tyrosine residue 705 and serine residue 727 was inhibited by GA. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of the protein tyrosine kinases Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1) and JAK2. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the GA-induced downregulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. We also found that GA induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA suppressed the ability of GA to inhibit STAT3 activation and to induce apoptosis, suggesting the critical role of SHP-1 in its action. Moreover, GA downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins, and this correlated with suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that GA blocks STAT3 activation, leading to suppression of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. PMID:21490133

Prasad, Sahdeo; Pandey, Manoj K; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2011-07-01

179

A Role for Transcription Factor STAT3 Signaling in Oncogene Smoothened-driven Carcinogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is known to drive development of basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastomas and to associate with many other types of cancer, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis process remain elusive. We discovered that skin tumors derived from epidermal expression of oncogenic Smo, SmoM2, have elevated levels of IL-11, IL-11R?, and STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705. The relevance of our data to human conditions was reflected by the fact that all human basal cell carcinomas examined have detectable STAT3 phosphorylation, mostly in keratinocytes. The functional relevance of STAT3 in Smo-mediated carcinogenesis was revealed by epidermal specific knockout of STAT3. We showed that removal of STAT3 from mouse epidermis dramatically reduced SmoM2-mediated cell proliferation, leading to a significant decrease in epidermal thickness and tumor development. We also observed a significant reduction of epidermal stem/progenitor cell population and cyclin D1 expression in mice with epidermis-specific knockout of STAT3. Our evidence indicates that STAT3 signaling activation may be mediated by the IL-11/IL-11R? signaling axis. We showed that tumor development was reduced after induced expression of SmoM2 in IL-11R? null mice. Similarly, neutralizing antibodies for IL-11 reduced the tumor size. In two Hh-responsive cell lines, ES14 and C3H10T1/2, we found that addition of Smo agonist purmorphamine is sufficient to induce STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705, but this effect was abolished after IL-11R? down-regulation by shRNAs. Taken together, our results support an important role of the IL-11R?/STAT3 signaling axis for Hh signaling-mediated signaling and carcinogenesis.

Gu, Dongsheng; Fan, Qipeng; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Jingwu

2012-01-01

180

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Kaposin B Induces Unique Monophosphorylation of STAT3 at Serine 727 and MK2-Mediated Inactivation of the STAT3 Transcriptional Repressor TRIM28  

PubMed Central

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), and the inflammation-driven neoplasm Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A triad of processes, including abnormal proliferation of endothelial cells, aberrant angiogenesis, and chronic inflammation, characterize KS lesions. STAT3 is a key transcription factor governing these processes, and deregulation of STAT3 activity is linked to a wide range of cancers, including PEL and KS. Using primary human endothelial cells (ECs), I demonstrate that KSHV infection modulated STAT3 activation in two ways: (i) KSHV induced uncoupling of canonical tyrosine (Y) and serine (S) phosphorylation events while (ii) concomitantly inducing the phosphorylation and inactivation of TRIM28 (also known as KAP-1 or TIF-1?), a newly identified negative regulator of STAT3 activity. KSHV infection of primary ECs induced chronic STAT3 activation characterized by a shift from the canonical dual P-STAT3 Y705 S727 form to a mono P-STAT3 S727 form. Expression of the latent protein kaposin B promoted the unique phosphorylation of STAT3 at S727, in the absence of Y705, activated the host kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase 2 (MK2), and stimulated increased expression of STAT3-dependent genes, including CCL5, in ECs. TRIM28-mediated repression of STAT3 is relieved by phosphorylation of S473, and in vitro kinase assays identified TRIM28 S473 as a bona fide target of MK2. Together, these data suggest that kaposin B significantly contributes to the chronic inflammatory environment that is a hallmark of KS by unique activation of the proto-oncogene STAT3, coupled with MK2-mediated inactivation of the STAT3 transcriptional repressor TRIM28.

2013-01-01

181

Betulinic acid suppresses STAT3 activation pathway through induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in human multiple myeloma cells.  

PubMed

STAT3 activation has been associated with survival, proliferation and invasion of various human cancers. Whether betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, can modulate the STAT3 pathway, was investigated in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We found that betulinic acid inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3, Src kinase, JAK1 and JAK2. Pervanadate reversed the betulinic acid-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, betulinic acid induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1 and silencing of the SHP-1 gene abolished the ability of betulinic acid to inhibit STAT3 activation and rescued betulinic acid-induced cell death. Betulinic acid also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as bcl-xL, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and survivin. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and an increase in caspase-3-induced PARP cleavage. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the betulinic acid-induced apoptosis. Betulinic acid also enhanced the apoptosis induced by thalidomide (from 10 to 55%) and bortezomib (from 5 to 70%) in MM cells. Overall, our results suggest that betulinic acid downregulates STAT3 activation through upregulation of SHP-1, and this may have potential in sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:19937797

Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2010-07-15

182

Inhibition of JAK1, 2/STAT3 Signaling Induces Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Reduces Tumor Cell Invasion in Colorectal Cancer Cells1  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in the STAT3 pathway are involved in the oncogenesis of several cancers. However, the mechanism by which dysregulated STAT3 signaling contributes to the progression of human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been elucidated, nor has the role of JAK, the physiological activator of STAT3, been evaluated. To investigate the role of both JAK and STAT3 in CRC progression, we inhibited JAK with AG490 and depleted STAT3 with a SiRNA. Our results demonstrate that STAT3 and both JAK1 and 2 are involved in CRC cell growth, survival, invasion, and migration through regulation of gene expression, such as Bcl-2, p16ink4a, p21waf1/cip1, p27kip1, E-cadherin, VEGF, and MMPs. Importantly, the FAK is not required for STAT3-mediated regulation, but does function downstream of JAK. In addition, our data show that proteasome-mediated proteolysis promotes dephosphorylation of the JAK2, and consequently, negatively regulates STAT3 signaling in CRC. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining reveals that nuclear staining of phospho-STAT3 mostly presents in adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and a positive correlation is found between phospho-JAK2 immunoreactivity and the differentiation of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Therefore, our findings illustrate the biologic significance of JAK1, 2/STAT3 signaling in CRC progression and provide novel evidence that the JAK/STAT3 pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of CRC.

Xiong, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Dan-Feng; Liang, Qin-Chuan; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Lu, Rong; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

2008-01-01

183

TIS21(/BTG2/PC3) inhibits interleukin-6 expression via downregulation of STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

Cancer cell growth was increased when co-cultured with fibroblasts, however, no effect was observed when co-cultured with TIS21-overexpressed fibroblast. Therefore, the role of TIS21 played in cancer microenvironment was investigated. TIS21 decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in human dermal fibroblast (HDF). Adenoviral transduction of TIS21 gene to HDF decreased the secretion of IL-6, whereas knockdown of the gene increased IL-6 expression. Furthermore, TIS21 overexpression inhibited STAT3 binding to IL-6 promoter region as well as JAK2-STAT3 signaling by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by being localized in mitochondria. Mitochondria-target TIS21 (MT-TIS21) also inhibited IL-6 expression by downregulating STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas NF-?B pathway was not influenced by TIS21 expression. These results indicate that TIS21 negatively regulated cancer cell growth by inhibiting IL-6 expression through downregulation of STAT3 activation. PMID:23917204

Quy, Linh Nguyen; Choi, Yong Won; Kim, Yeong Hwa; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Tae Jun; Lim, In Kyoung

2013-12-01

184

BCR-ABL activates STAT3 via JAK and MEK pathways in human cells.  

PubMed

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is characterised by a progression from a chronic towards an acute phase. We previously reported that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a major oncogenic signalling protein, is the target of p210-BCR-ABL in a murine embryonic stem (ES) cell model and in primary CD34+ CML cells. This activation was associated with inhibition of differentiation in ES cells. The present study found that BCR-ABL greatly phosphorylated STAT3 Ser727 residue and, to a lesser extent, Tyr705 residue in BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines (UT7-p210, MO7E-p210, and K562) and in primary CD34+ CML cells. Using BCR-ABL mutants, it was shown that BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity and its Tyr177 residue were necessary for STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation. Constitutive STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation was associated with constitutive phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK)1 and JAK2, and was inhibited by the JAK inhibitor AG490, suggesting the involvement of JAK proteins in this process. Specific MEK [mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase] inhibitors PD98056 and UO126, as well as the use of a dominant-negative form of MEK1 abrogated STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation, suggesting involvement of MAP-Kinase/Erk pathway. Inhibition of BCR-ABL with imatinib mesylate led to a dose-dependent downregulation of total STAT3 protein and mRNA, suggesting that BCR-ABL is involved in the transcriptional regulation of STAT3. Targeting JAK, MEK and STAT3 pathways could therefore be of therapeutic value, especially in advanced stage CML. PMID:16846476

Coppo, Paul; Flamant, Stéphane; De Mas, Véronique; Jarrier, Peggy; Guillier, Martine; Bonnet, Marie-Laure; Lacout, Catherine; Guilhot, François; Vainchenker, William; Turhan, Ali G

2006-07-01

185

A Negative Feedback Loop Mediated by STAT3 Limits Human Th17 Responses.  

PubMed

The transcription factor STAT3 is critically required for the differentiation of Th17 cells, a T cell subset involved in various chronic inflammatory diseases. In this article, we report that STAT3 also drives a negative-feedback loop that limits the formation of IL-17-producing T cells within a memory population. By activating human memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+) T cells at a high density (HiD) or a low density (LoD) in the presence of the pro-Th17 cytokines IL-1?, IL-23, and TGF-?, we observed that the numbers of Th17 cells were significantly higher under LoD conditions. Assessment of STAT3 phosphorylation revealed a more rapid and stronger STAT3 activation in HiD cells than in LoD cells. Transient inhibition of active STAT3 in HiD cultures significantly enhanced Th17 cell numbers. Expression of the STAT3-regulated ectonucleotidase CD39, which catalyzes ATP hydrolysis, was higher in HiD, than in LoD, cell cultures. Interestingly, inhibition of CD39 ectonucleotidase activity enhanced Th17 responses under HiD conditions. Conversely, blocking the ATP receptor P2X7 reduced Th17 responses in LoD cultures. These data suggest that STAT3 negatively regulates Th17 cells by limiting the availability of ATP. This negative-feedback loop may provide a safety mechanism to limit tissue damage by Th17 cells during chronic inflammation. Furthermore, our results have relevance for the design of novel immunotherapeutics that target the STAT3-signaling pathway, because inhibition of this pathway may enhance, rather than suppress, memory Th17 responses. PMID:24973454

Purvis, Harriet A; Anderson, Amy E; Young, David A; Isaacs, John D; Hilkens, Catharien M U

2014-08-01

186

Distinct transcriptional regulatory modules underlie STAT3's cell type-independent and cell type-specific functions  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding to short DNA sequence motifs, yet their binding specificities alone cannot explain how certain TFs drive a diversity of biological processes. In order to investigate the factors that control the functions of the pleiotropic TF STAT3, we studied its genome-wide binding patterns in four different cell types: embryonic stem cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages and AtT-20 cells. We describe for the first time two distinct modes of STAT3 binding. First, a small cell type-independent mode represented by a set of 35 evolutionarily conserved STAT3-binding sites that collectively regulate STAT3’s own functions and cell growth. We show that STAT3 is recruited to sites with E2F1 already pre-bound before STAT3 activation. Second, a series of different transcriptional regulatory modules (TRMs) assemble around STAT3 to drive distinct transcriptional programs in the four cell types. These modules recognize cell type-specific binding sites and are associated with factors particular to each cell type. Our study illustrates the versatility of STAT3 to regulate both universal- and cell type-specific functions by means of distinct TRMs, a mechanism that might be common to other pleiotropic TFs.

Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Diez, Diego; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ahmad, Shandar; Jauch, Ralf; Tremblay, Michel Lucien; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

2013-01-01

187

hSulf-1 inhibits cell proliferation and migration and promotes apoptosis by suppressing stat3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Human sulfatase-1 (hSulf-1) has been shown to desulfate cellular heparin sulfate proteoglycans and modulate several growth factors and cytokines. However, hSulf-1 has not been previously shown to mediate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (stat3) signaling pathway, which is known to regulate cell proliferation, motility and apoptosis. The present study investigated the role of hSulf-1 in stat3 signaling in hepatocellular cancer. hSulf-1 expression vector and stat3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were constructed to control the expression of hSulf-1 and stat3 in HepG2 cells. hSulf-1 was found to inhibit the phosphorylation of stat3 and downregulate its targeted protein. MTT and Transwell chamber assays, as well as Annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining methods, were used to examine the effects of hSulf-1 on stat3-mediated motility, proliferation and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Transfection with hSulf-1 cDNA and/or stat3 siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and motility, concurrent with G0/G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overall, the results of the current study suggested that hSulf-1 functions as a negative regulator of proliferation and migration and as a positive regulator of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma, at least partly via the downregulation of stat3 signaling.

LIU, LING; DING, FENG; CHEN, JIWEI; WANG, BOYONG; LIU, ZHISU

2014-01-01

188

STAT3 activation in response to IL-6 is prolonged by the binding of IL-6 receptor to EGF receptor  

PubMed Central

The activation of STAT3 by tyrosine phosphorylation, essential for normal development and for a normal inflammatory response to invading pathogens, is kept in check by negative regulators. Abnormal constitutive activation of STAT3, which contributes to the pathology of cancer and to chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, occurs when negative regulation is not fully effective. SOCS3, the major negative regulator of STAT3, is induced by tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 and terminates STAT3 phosphorylation about 2 h after initial exposure of cells to members of the IL-6 family of cytokines by binding cooperatively to the common receptor subunit gp130 and JAKs 1 and 2. We show here that when the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present and active, STAT3 is rephosphorylated about 4 h after exposure of cells to IL-6 or oncostatin M and remains active for many hours. Newly synthesized IL-6 drives association of the IL-6 receptor and gp130 with EGFR, leading to EGFR-dependent rephosphorylation of STAT3, which is not inhibited by the continued presence of SOCS3. This second wave of STAT3 activation supports sustained expression of a subset of IL-6-induced proteins, several of which play important roles in inflammation and cancer, in which both IL-6 secretion and EGFR levels are often elevated.

Wang, Yuxin; van Boxel-Dezaire, Anette H. H.; Cheon, HyeonJoo; Yang, Jinbo; Stark, George R.

2013-01-01

189

Mild oxidative stress induces S-glutathionylation of STAT3 and enhances chemosensitivity of tumoural cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.  

PubMed

STAT3 is a transcription factor constitutively activated in a variety of cancers that has a critical role in the inhibition of apoptosis and induction of chemoresistance. Inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway suppresses cell survival signals and leads to apoptosis in cancer cells, suggesting that direct inhibition of STAT3 function is a viable therapeutic approach. Herein, we identify the naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin as a potent inhibitor of both IL-6-inducible and constitutive STAT3 activation (IC50=12 ?M). Cynaropicrin, which contains an ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl moiety and acts as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induces a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Furthermore, glutathione ethylene ester, the cell permeable form of GSH, reverts the inhibitory action of cynaropicrin on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings suggest that this sesquiterpene lactone is able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein to regulate its function. STAT3 inhibition led to the suppression of two anti-apoptotic genes, Bcl-2 and survivin, in DU145 cells that constitutively express active STAT3. This event may be responsible for the decline in cell viability after cynaropicrin treatment. As revealed by PI/annexin-V staining, PARP cleavage, and DNA ladder formation, cynaropicrin cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. Finally, cynaropicrin displayed a slight to strong synergism with two well-established chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin and docetaxel. Taken together our studies suggest that cynaropicrin suppresses the STAT3 pathway, leading to the down-regulation of STAT3-dependent gene expression and chemosensitization of tumour cells to chemotherapy. PMID:24095958

Butturini, Elena; Carcereri de Prati, Alessandra; Chiavegato, Giulia; Rigo, Antonella; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Darra, Elena; Mariotto, Sofia

2013-12-01

190

STAT3 controls matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in colon carcinoma cells by both direct and AP-1-mediated interaction with the MMP-1 promoter.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of STAT3 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissue is correlated with elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We analyzed transcriptional regulation of the human MMP-1 promoter in CRC cells by tyrosine phosphorylated (pY-) STAT3. One of six putative STAT binding elements within a 4.3 kb MMP-1 trancriptional promoter fragment showed a particular high affinity for STAT3 in vitro. However, the most profound regulatory influence on MMP-1 promoter activity resides in a proximal region relative to the transcriptional start, bearing a pair of putative binding sites for STAT3 and AP-1. Mutational analysis of the combined STAT3/AP-1 recognition element revealed that the integrity of the STAT3 binding site is necessary, but not sufficient for both DNA interaction and transcriptional regulation by activated STAT3. Instead, the adjacent AP-1 site was essential for pY-STAT3-mediated transcription on the MMP-1 promoter. DNA-protein binding assays provided strong evidence for complex formation of STAT3 and c-Jun governed by protein-protein contacts. We observed striking coincidence for concerted aberrant activation of both STAT3 and AP-1 in human colon cancer specimens. This finding supports the notion that the combination of inappropriate STAT3 and AP-1 activities drives elevated MMP-1 expression and tissue invasion in colorectal cancer and is of clinical relevance. PMID:21410405

Zugowski, Constance; Lieder, Franziska; Müller, Annekatrin; Gasch, Josephine; Corvinus, Florian M; Moriggl, Richard; Friedrich, Karlheinz

2011-05-01

191

Cancer Stem Cells Activate STAT3 the EZ Way  

PubMed Central

Summary Activated STAT3 and increased expression of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 are independently associated with the most malignant subset of gliomas. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kim and colleagues discover that EZH2 enhances STAT3 activation by trimethylatinglysine 180 in STAT3 and does so preferentially in glioma stem-like cells.

Fouse, Shaun D.

2013-01-01

192

Stat3 Expression and Its Correlation with Proliferation and Apoptosis/Autophagy in Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) was studied along with several steps of the PI3/Akt pathway in a series of 64 gliomas that included both malignant and low-grade tumors, using quantitative immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and molecular biology techniques. The goal of the study was to investigate whether activated Stat3 (phospho-Stat3) levels correlated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Stat3 and activated Akt (phospho-Akt) expression increased with malignancy grade, but did not correlate with proliferation and survival within the category of glioblastomas. A correlation of Stat3 with Akt was found, indicating a regulation of the former by the PI3/Akt pathway, which, in turn, was in relation with EGFR amplification. Stat3 and Akt did not show any correlation with apoptosis, whereas they showed an inverse correlation with Beclin 1, a stimulator of autophagy, which was rarely positive in glioblastomas. Autophagy seems then to be inactivated in malignant gliomas.

Caldera, Valentina; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Valente, Guido; Tessitore, Luciana; Schiffer, Davide

2008-01-01

193

The Import of the Transcription Factor STAT3 into Mitochondria Depends on GRIM-19, a Component of the Electron Transport Chain  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a nuclear transcription factor, is also present in mitochondria and regulates cellular respiration in a transcriptional-independent manner. The mechanism of STAT3 import into mitochondria remains obscure. In this report we show that mitochondrial-localized STAT3 resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In vitro import studies show that the gene associated with retinoid interferon induced cell mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a complex I subunit that acts as a chaperone to recruit STAT3 into mitochondria. In addition, GRIM-19 enhances the integration of STAT3 into complex I. A S727A mutation in STAT3 reduces its import and assembly even in the presence of GRIM-19. Together, our studies unveil a novel chaperone function for GRIM-19 in the recruitment of STAT3 into mitochondria.

Tammineni, Prasad; Anugula, Chandrashekhar; Mohammed, Fareed; Anjaneyulu, Murari; Larner, Andrew C.; Sepuri, Naresh Babu Venkata

2013-01-01

194

STAT3 targets the regulatory regions of gluconeogenic genes in vivo.  

PubMed

The regulation of expression of gluconeogenic genes including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, because aberrant expression of these genes contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous reports demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in regulating gluconeogenic gene expression, but the mechanism remains unclear. Herein we demonstrate that phosphorylated STAT3 is required for repression of G6Pase expression by IL-6 in both HepG2 cells and mouse liver. Interestingly, PEPCK expression is regulated by STAT3 independent of IL-6 activation. Using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that STAT3 binds to the promoters of the G6Pase, PEPCK, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 genes, and its recruitment increases at the G6Pase and SOCS3 promoters with IL-6 treatment. Whereas persistent recruitment of RNA polymerase II is seen on the SOCS3 promoter, consistent with its induction by IL-6, a decrease in polymerase II recruitment and histone H4 acetylation is seen at the G6Pase promoter with IL-6 treatment. Thus STAT3 mediates negative regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in vivo by interacting with regulatory regions of these genes. PMID:19264844

Ramadoss, Preeti; Unger-Smith, Nathan E; Lam, Francis S; Hollenberg, Anthony N

2009-06-01

195

Essential Role of STAT3 in Postnatal Survival and Growth Revealed by Mice Lacking STAT3 Serine 727 Phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of extracellular polypeptides bound to their cognate receptors activate the transcription factor STAT3 by phosphorylation of tyrosine 705. Supplemental activation occurs when serine 727 is also phosphorylated. STAT3 deletion in mice leads to embryonic lethality. We have produced mice with alanine substituted for serine 727 in STAT3 (the SA allele) to examine the function of serine 727

Yuhong Shen; Karni Schlessinger; Xuejun Zhu; Eric Meffre; Fred Quimby; David E. Levy; J. E. Darnell

2004-01-01

196

Binding of the Heterogeneous Ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) to the Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2 (EBNA2) Enhances Viral LMP2A Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG) repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively). EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN) and

Henrik Gross; Christine Hennard; Ilias Masouris; Christian Cassel; Stephanie Barth; Ute Stober-Grässer; Alfredo Mamiani; Bodo Moritz; Dirk Ostareck; Antje Ostareck-Lederer; Nils Neuenkirchen; Utz Fischer; Wen Deng; Heinrich Leonhardt; Elfriede Noessner; Elisabeth Kremmer; Friedrich A. Grässer

2012-01-01

197

Binding of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) enhances viral LMP2A expression.  

PubMed

The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG) repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively). EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN) and via the ADMA-RG-repeat to the NP9 protein of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K (HML-2) Type 1). The hypothesis of this work was that the methylated RG-repeat mimics an epitope shared with cellular proteins that is used for interaction with target structures. With monoclonal antibodies against the modified RG-repeat, we indeed identified cellular homologues that apparently have the same surface structure as methylated EBNA2. With the SDMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the Sm protein D3 (SmD3) which, like EBNA2, binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to SMN. With the ADMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). Specific binding of the ADMA- antibody to hnRNP K was demonstrated using E. coli expressed/ADMA-methylated hnRNP K. In addition, we show that EBNA2 and hnRNP K form a complex in EBV- infected B-cells. Finally, hnRNP K, when co-expressed with EBNA2, strongly enhances viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) expression by an unknown mechanism as we did not detect a direct association of hnRNP K with DNA-bound EBNA2 in gel shift experiments. Our data support the notion that the methylated surface of EBNA2 mimics the surface structure of cellular proteins to interfere with or co-opt their functional properties. PMID:22879910

Gross, Henrik; Hennard, Christine; Masouris, Ilias; Cassel, Christian; Barth, Stephanie; Stober-Grässer, Ute; Mamiani, Alfredo; Moritz, Bodo; Ostareck, Dirk; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Neuenkirchen, Nils; Fischer, Utz; Deng, Wen; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Noessner, Elfriede; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A

2012-01-01

198

[Prosapogenin A inhibits cell growth of MCF7 via downregulating STAT3 and glycometabolism-related gene].  

PubMed

This study is to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of prosapogenin A (PSA) on MCF7. MTT assay was performed to determine the inhibitory effect of PSA on MCF7 cells. PI/Hoechst 33342 double staining was used to detect cell apoptosis. RT-PCR was used to test the mRNA levels of STAT3, GLUT1, HK and PFKL. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of STAT3 and pSTAT3 protein in MCF7 cells. The results showed that PSA could dose-dependently inhibit cell growth of MCF7 followed by IC50 of 9.65 micrmol x L(-1) and promote cell apoptosis of MCF7. Reduced mRNA levels of STAT3, HK and PFKL were observed in MCF7 cells treated with 5 micromol x L(-1) of PSA. PSA also decreased the level of pSTAT3 protein. STAT3 siRNA caused decrease of mRNA of GLUT1, HK and PFKL which indicated STAT3 could regulate the expressions of GLUT1, HK and PFKL. The results suggested that PSA could inhibit cell growth and promote cell apoptosis of MCF7 via inhibition of STAT3 and glycometabolism-related gene. PMID:24358789

Wang, Tian-xiao; Shi, Xiao-yan; Cong, Yue; Zhang, Zhong-qing; Liu, Ying-hua

2013-09-01

199

Anomalous behaviour of the STAT3 binding site in the human c-myc P2 promoter  

SciTech Connect

The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is necessary for ES cell renewal, plays critical roles during vertebrate development, and has oncogenic potential. STAT3 also mediates cytokine responses notably in the induction of acute phase response genes in the liver. Thus STAT3 is a pleiotropic regulator during cell proliferation and a cell-specific mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. How STAT3 fulfils both roles is unclear. To address this question we attempted to characterise pre-initiation complexes (PICs) on STAT3-responsive promoters containing the c-myc P2 promoter element (P2E) or c-fos Serum-Inducible Element (SIE). Although both promoters mediated cytokine responses in HepG2 cells, poor binding of STAT1 and STAT3 in vitro precluded isolation of active promoter complexes on the P2E. The inability of STAT3 to bind the P2E in vitro correlated with failure of the P2E to mediate cytokine-responsive gene expression in several other cell types. Thus the c-myc P2E behaves as a dual-purpose STAT3 element with anomalous characteristics in HepG2 cells.

Vougier, Stephanie; Cheung, S.-H.; Li Li; Hodgson, Glenn [Centre for Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Shaw, Peter E [Centre for Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.shaw@nottingham.ac.uk

2007-12-21

200

Identification of a natural product-like STAT3 dimerization inhibitor by structure-based virtual screening.  

PubMed

STAT3 regulates a variety of genes involved with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, inflammation, and immunity. The purpose of this study was to apply molecular docking techniques to identify STAT3 inhibitors from a database of over 90?000 natural product and natural product-like compounds. The virtual screening campaign furnished 14 hit compounds, from which compound 1 emerged as a top candidate. Compound 1 inhibited STAT3 DNA-binding activity in vitro and attenuated STAT3-directed transcription in cellulo with selectivity over STAT1 and with comparable potency to the well-known STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited STAT3 dimerization and decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in cells without affecting STAT1 dimerization and phosphorylation. Compound 1 also exhibited selective anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells over normal cells in vitro. Molecular docking analysis suggested that compound 1 might putatively function as an inhibitor of STAT3 dimerization by binding to the SH2 domain. This study also validates the use of in silico techniques to identify inhibitors of protein-protein interactions, which are typically considered difficult to target with small molecules. PMID:24922077

Liu, L-J; Leung, K-H; Chan, D S-H; Wang, Y-T; Ma, D-L; Leung, C-H

2014-01-01

201

A Functional Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Src and Stat3 Heteromeric Complex in Pancreatic Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented for the nuclear presence of a functional heteromeric complex of epidermal growth factor (EGFR), Src and the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat)3 proteins in pancreatic cancer cells. Stat3 remains nuclear and associated with Src or EGFR, respectively, upon the siRNA knockdown of EGFR or Src, demonstrating the resistance of the complex to the modulation of EGFR or Src alone. Significantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses reveal the nuclear EGFR, Src and Stat3 complex is bound to the c-Myc promoter. The siRNA knockdown of EGFR or Src, or the pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity only marginally suppressed c-Myc expression. By contrast, the concurrent modulation of Stat3 and EGFR, or Stat3 and Src, or EGFR and Src strongly suppressed c-Myc expression, demonstrating that the novel nuclear heteromeric complex intricately regulates the c-Myc gene. The prevalence of the transcriptionally functional EGFR, Src, and Stat3 nuclear complex provides an additional and novel mechanism for supporting the pancreatic cancer phenotype and explains in part the insensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to the inhibition of EGFR, Src or Stat3 alone.

Jaganathan, Soumya; Yue, Peibin; Paladino, David C.; Bogdanovic, Jelena; Huo, Qun; Turkson, James

2011-01-01

202

A functional nuclear epidermal growth factor receptor, SRC and Stat3 heteromeric complex in pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Evidence is presented for the nuclear presence of a functional heteromeric complex of epidermal growth factor (EGFR), Src and the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat)3 proteins in pancreatic cancer cells. Stat3 remains nuclear and associated with Src or EGFR, respectively, upon the siRNA knockdown of EGFR or Src, demonstrating the resistance of the complex to the modulation of EGFR or Src alone. Significantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses reveal the nuclear EGFR, Src and Stat3 complex is bound to the c-Myc promoter. The siRNA knockdown of EGFR or Src, or the pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity only marginally suppressed c-Myc expression. By contrast, the concurrent modulation of Stat3 and EGFR, or Stat3 and Src, or EGFR and Src strongly suppressed c-Myc expression, demonstrating that the novel nuclear heteromeric complex intricately regulates the c-Myc gene. The prevalence of the transcriptionally functional EGFR, Src, and Stat3 nuclear complex provides an additional and novel mechanism for supporting the pancreatic cancer phenotype and explains in part the insensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to the inhibition of EGFR, Src or Stat3 alone. PMID:21573184

Jaganathan, Soumya; Yue, Peibin; Paladino, David C; Bogdanovic, Jelena; Huo, Qun; Turkson, James

2011-01-01

203

Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration  

SciTech Connect

Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

2012-05-01

204

Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration.  

PubMed

Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:22394507

Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Béliveau, Richard

2012-05-01

205

STAT3 serine 727 phosphorylation influences clinical outcome in glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Besides STAT3 tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (pTyr705-STAT3), phosphorylation of STAT3 at serine 727 (pSer727-STAT3) is shown to contribute to tumorigenesis and be closely related with resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma, but there is currently no study regarding its relevance to prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 was detected in tumor specimens from 88 patients with newly diagnosed GBM by immunohistochemistry, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and COX proportional hazards regression model were applied to estimate its influences on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Immunohistochemical assay showed elevated expression of pSer727-STAT3 in GBM compared with normal brain tissue. Univariate analysis indicated significant correlations of high percentage of pSer727-STAT3 positive tumor cells with shorter PFS (P = 0.006) and OS (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, high pSer727-STAT3 expression was demonstrated as an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator for PFS (HR 1.830, P = 0.022) and OS (HR 1.797, P = 0.040). And patients with high expression of both pTyr705-STAT3 and pSer727-STAT3 had a poorer prognosis compared with the remainder (P < 0.005). In conclusion, the high proportion of pSer727-STAT3 positive neoplastic cells in GBM is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor, and increased expression of both pTyr705-STAT3 and pSer727-STAT3 is predictive of poorer clinical outcome, thereby adding to the growing evidence that STAT3 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma.

Lin, Guo-Shi; Chen, Yu-Peng; Lin, Zhi-Xiong; Wang, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Zong-Qing; Chen, Long

2014-01-01

206

Arginine residues within the DNA binding domain of STAT3 promote intracellular shuttling and phosphorylation of STAT3.  

PubMed

Acetylation-dependent inactivation of STAT1 can be mimicked by the exchange of its lysine residues K410 and K413 to glutamine residues. STAT3 harbors non-acetylatable arginine moieties at the corresponding sites R414 and R417. It is unclear whether the mutation of these sites to glutamine residues antagonizes STAT3 activation. Here, we show that an arginine-glutamine-exchange at the STAT3 moieties R414 and R417 (R414Q and R417Q) reduces cytokine-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. This inhibitory effect can be partially rescued by phosphatase inhibition. In addition, the R414Q and R417Q mutations enhance the nuclear accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3. STAT3 R414Q and STAT3 R417Q show a reduced response to cytokine stimulation emanating from the plasma membrane. Moreover, these STAT3 mutants have no direct inhibitory effect on the cytokine-induced activation of STAT1/STAT3-mediated gene expression. Since the mutations R414Q and R417Q reside within the STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD), the STAT3 R414Q and R417Q mutants also lack intrinsic activity as transcription factors. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type STAT3 they cannot compensate for a loss of STAT1 and they cannot promote STAT1/STAT3-dependent transcriptional activation. We further analyzed a STAT3 arginine-lysine-exchange mutant (R414K/R417K). This molecule mimics corresponding lysine residues found within the DBD of STAT1. Compared to wild-type STAT3, the STAT3 R414K/R417K mutant shows attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation and it is a less active transcription factor. In addition, STAT3 R414K/R417K is not activated by deacetylase inhibition. On the other hand, C-terminal acetylation of STAT3 is intact in STAT3 R414K/R417K. Our results suggest that the exchange of amino acid residues within the DBDs of STAT1/STAT3 affects their phosphorylation as well as their intracellular shuttling. PMID:24721162

Ginter, Torsten; Fahrer, Jörg; Kröhnert, Ulrike; Fetz, Verena; Garrone, Alessio; Stauber, Roland H; Reichardt, Werner; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Kosan, Christian; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

2014-08-01

207

STAT-3 inhibitory bisabolanes from Carthamus glaucus.  

PubMed

Apart from a large amount (ca. 2.0%) of ?-bisabolol ?-D-fucopyranoside (2a), the aerial parts of the Mediterranean weed Carthamus glaucus afforded an unusual triglyceride (E-2-crotonyl-1,3-distearolylglycerol, 7), two lipophilic flavonoids (6a,b), and a series of bisabolane fucopyranosides variously acylated on the sugar moiety (2b-e) or oxidized on the terpenoid core (3, 4a,b, 5a,b). The fucopyranoside 2a is more soluble in polar media and more versatile in terms of formulation than its aglycone [(-)-?-bisabolol, 1], an anti-inflammatory cosmetic ingredient in current short supply in its natural form. A comparative investigation of the activity of ?-bisabolol (1a), the fucopyranoside 2a, and its senecioate 2b on transcription factors involved in inflammation and cancer pathways (NF-?B and STAT-3) showed only marginal activity on NF-?B inhibition for all compounds, while STAT-3 was inhibited potently by the fucoside 2a and, to a lesser extent, also by ?-bisabolol. These observations qualify 2a as an easily available compound, both as an apoptotic lead structure and as a potential alternative to natural ?-bisabolol (1) for pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic development. PMID:22309250

Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Cicione, Lavinia; Chianese, Giuseppina; Bellido, Maria Luz; Munoz, Eduardo; Özen, Hasan Çetin; Toker, Zuhal; Appendino, Giovanni

2012-03-23

208

Inhibition of STAT3 reduces astrocytoma cell invasion and constitutive activation of STAT3 predicts poor prognosis in human astrocytoma.  

PubMed

Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma's invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines (U251 and U87), and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell's adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705) correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthermore, pSTAT3(Tyr705) is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3(Tyr705) is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3(Tyr705)could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis. PMID:24386409

Liang, Qinchuan; Ma, Chenkai; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Guodong; Ma, Jie

2013-01-01

209

Inhibition of STAT3 Reduces Astrocytoma Cell Invasion and Constitutive Activation of STAT3 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Astrocytoma  

PubMed Central

Astrocytoma cells characteristically possess high invasion potentials. Recent studies have revealed that knockdown of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression by RNAi induces apoptosis in astrocytoma cell. Nevertheless, the distinct roles of STAT3 in astrocytoma’s invasion and recurrence have not been elucidated. In this study, we silenced STAT3 using Small interfering RNAs in two human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines (U251 and U87), and investigated the effect on GBM cell adhesion and invasion. Our results demonstrate that disruption of STAT3 inhibits GBM cell’s adhesion and invasion. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly increased E-cadherin but decreased N-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Additionally, expression of pSTAT3Tyr705 correlates with astrocytoma WHO classification, Karnofsky performance status scale score, tumor recurrence and survival. Furthmore, pSTAT3Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in astrocytoma. In conclusion, STAT3 may affect astrocytoma invasion, expression of pSTAT3Tyr705 is a significant prognostic factor in tumor recurrence and overall survival in astrocytoma patients. Therefore, STAT3 may provide a potential target for molecular therapy in human astrocytoma, and pSTAT3Tyr705could be an important biomarker for astrocytoma prognosis.

Liang, Qinchuan; Ma, Chenkai; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Guodong; Ma, Jie

2013-01-01

210

STAT3 Activity and Function in Cancer: Modulation by STAT5 and miR-146b  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor STAT3 regulates genes that control critical cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, pluripotency, and motility. Thus, under physiological conditions, the transcriptional function of STAT3 is tightly regulated as one part of a complex signaling matrix. When these processes are subverted through mutation or epigenetic events, STAT3 becomes highly active and drives elevated expression of genes underlying these phenotypes, leading to malignant cellular behavior. However, even in the presence of activated STAT3, other cellular modulators can have a major impact on the biological properties of a cancer cell, which is reflected in the clinical behavior of a tumor. Recent evidence has suggested that two such key modulators are the activation status of other STAT family members, particularly STAT5, and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes that are part of negative feedback circuits, including microRNAs such as miR-146b. With attention to these newly emerging areas, we will gain greater insight into the consequence of STAT3 activation in the biology of human cancers. In addition, understanding these subtleties of STAT3 signaling in cancer pathogenesis will allow the development of more rational molecular approaches to cancer therapy.

Walker, Sarah R.; Xiang, Michael; Frank, David A.

2014-01-01

211

STAT3 Activity and Function in Cancer: Modulation by STAT5 and miR-146b.  

PubMed

The transcription factor STAT3 regulates genes that control critical cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, pluripotency, and motility. Thus, under physiological conditions, the transcriptional function of STAT3 is tightly regulated as one part of a complex signaling matrix. When these processes are subverted through mutation or epigenetic events, STAT3 becomes highly active and drives elevated expression of genes underlying these phenotypes, leading to malignant cellular behavior. However, even in the presence of activated STAT3, other cellular modulators can have a major impact on the biological properties of a cancer cell, which is reflected in the clinical behavior of a tumor. Recent evidence has suggested that two such key modulators are the activation status of other STAT family members, particularly STAT5, and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes that are part of negative feedback circuits, including microRNAs such as miR-146b. With attention to these newly emerging areas, we will gain greater insight into the consequence of STAT3 activation in the biology of human cancers. In addition, understanding these subtleties of STAT3 signaling in cancer pathogenesis will allow the development of more rational molecular approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:24762632

Walker, Sarah R; Xiang, Michael; Frank, David A

2014-01-01

212

Uterine deletion of Gp130 or Stat3 shows implantation failure with increased estrogenic responses.  

PubMed

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a downstream target of estrogen, is essential for implantation in mice. LIF function is thought to be mediated by its binding to LIF receptor (LIFR) and recruitment of coreceptor GP130 (glycoprotein 130), and this receptor complex then activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. However, the importance of LIFR and GP130 acting via STAT3 in implantation remains uncertain, because constitutive inactivation of Lifr, Gp130, or Stat3 shows embryonic lethality in mice. To address this issue, we generated mice with conditional deletion of uterine Gp130 or Stat3 and show that both GP130 and STAT3 are critical for uterine receptivity and implantation. Implantation failure in these deleted mice is associated with higher uterine estrogenic responses prior to the time of implantation. These heightened estrogenic responses are not due to changes in ovarian hormone levels or expression of their nuclear receptors. In the deleted mice, estrogen-responsive gene, Lactoferrin (Ltf), and Mucin 1 protein, were up-regulated in the uterus. In addition, progesterone-responsive genes, Hoxa10 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were markedly down-regulated in STAT3-inactivated uteri. These changes in uteri of deleted mice were reflected by the failure of differentiation of the luminal epithelium, which is essential for blastocyst attachment. PMID:23885093

Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Dey, Sudhansu K

2013-09-01

213

Two naturally occurring terpenes, dehydrocostuslactone and costunolide, decrease intracellular GSH content and inhibit STAT3 activation.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action of dehydrocostuslactone (DCE) and costunolide (CS), two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC(50) of 10 µM with concomitant down-regulation of the phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS), the reduced form of CS lacking only the ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE), the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function. PMID:21625597

Butturini, Elena; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; de Prati, Alessandra Carcereri; Darra, Elena; Rigo, Antonella; Shoji, Kazuo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Suzuki, Hisanori; Mariotto, Sofia

2011-01-01

214

STAT3-Stathmin Interactions Control Microtubule Dynamics in Migrating T-cells*S?  

PubMed Central

T-cell migration is a complex highly coordinated process that involves cell adhesion to the high endothelial venules or to the extracellular matrix by surface receptor/ligand interactions, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascades. The mechanism(s) that regulates T-cell migration is of considerable relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer metastasis. This study was designed to identify potential involvement of STAT3, a latent transcription factor, in mediating integrin-induced T-cell migration. Using our previously characterized in vitro model for lymphocyte migration, we demonstrate that STAT3 is activated and translocated to the nucleus during the process of active motility of Hut78 T-lymphoma cells triggered via LFA-1. Blocking STAT3 signaling by multiple approaches inhibited LFA-1-induced T-cell locomotion via destabilization of microtubules and post-translational modification of tubulin. Here, we show that STAT3 physically interacts with stathmin to regulate microtubule dynamics in migrating T-cells. These observations strongly indicate that STAT3 is critically important for T-cell migration and associated signaling events.

Verma, Navin K.; Dourlat, Jennifer; Davies, Anthony M.; Long, Aideen; Liu, Wang-Qing; Garbay, Christiane; Kelleher, Dermot; Volkov, Yuri

2009-01-01

215

Crosstalk of Sp1 and Stat3 signaling in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer progression is attributed to genetic and epigenetic alterations and a chaotic tumor microenvironment. Those diverse “upstream signal” factors appear to converge on specific sets of central nuclear regulators, namely, transcription factors. Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) are central transcription factors that regulate a number of pathways important to tumorigenesis, including tumor cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and evasion of the immune system. Recently, researchers demonstrated many types of crosstalk of Sp1 and Stat3 in tumor signal transduction and that these factors function cooperatively to activate targeted genes and promote tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, targeting both Sp1 and Stat3 is a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

Huang, Chen; Xie, Keping

2012-01-01

216

Cytoplasmic STAT3 represses autophagy by inhibiting PKR activity.  

PubMed

In a screen designed to identify novel inducers of autophagy, we discovered that STAT3 inhibitors potently stimulate the autophagic flux. Accordingly, genetic inhibition of STAT3 stimulated autophagy in vitro and in vivo, while overexpression of STAT3 variants, encompassing wild-type, nonphosphorylatable, and extranuclear STAT3, inhibited starvation-induced autophagy. The SH2 domain of STAT3 was found to interact with the catalytic domain of the eIF2? kinase 2 EIF2AK2, best known as protein kinase R (PKR). Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of STAT3 stimulated the activating phosphorylation of PKR and consequent eIF2? hyperphosphorylation. Moreover, PKR depletion inhibited autophagy as initiated by chemical STAT3 inhibitors or free fatty acids like palmitate. STAT3-targeting chemicals and palmitate caused the disruption of inhibitory STAT3-PKR interactions, followed by PKR-dependent eIF2? phosphorylation, which facilitates autophagy induction. These results unravel an unsuspected mechanism of autophagy control that involves STAT3 and PKR as interacting partners. PMID:23084476

Shen, Shensi; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Adjemian, Sandy; Takehara, Tetsuo; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Minoux, Hervé; Souquere, Sylvie; Mariño, Guillermo; Lachkar, Sylvie; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Pierron, Gérard; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Hikita, Hayato; Kroemer, Romano; Kroemer, Guido

2012-12-14

217

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate inhibits melanoma growth by inactivation of STAT3 through protein kinase C-activated tyrosine phosphatase(s).  

PubMed

The growth of most melanoma cells in vitro is inhibited by the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In this study, the involvement of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the TPA-induced growth inhibition of melanoma cells was examined. The in vitro growth and DNA synthesis of five melanoma cell lines, whose STAT3 was activated (phosphorylated), was inhibited by TPA, whereas that of WM35 and WM39 cells, whose STAT3 activity was at negligible levels, was considerably slow and not affected by TPA. Blockade of STAT3 activity by small interfering RNAs suppressed the growth of WM1205Lu cells containing constitutively activated STAT3. Treatment of WM1205Lu cells with TPA decreased both the phosphorylated STAT3 and the DNA-binding activity of STAT3. Pretreatment of WM1205Lu cells with either a protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor or a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor prevented the inhibitory effects of TPA on the level of phosphorylated STAT3. The five melanoma cell lines containing phosphorylated STAT3 commonly expressed PKCalpha, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon. Introduction of the dominant negative mutant of one of these PKC isoforms into WM1205Lu cells inhibited the TPA-induced dephosphorylation of STAT3. A Src inhibitor attenuated the STAT3 phosphorylation in WM1205Lu cells. These results indicate that constitutively activated STAT3 is positively regulated by c-Src and negatively regulated by a PKC-activated tyrosine phosphatase(s) in melanoma cells. Because TPA did not affect c-Src activity, we conclude that the growth inhibitory effect of TPA on melanoma cells is mediated through inactivation of STAT3 by a PKC-activated tyrosine phosphatase(s). PMID:19755418

Oka, Masahiro; Sumita, Naoko; Sakaguchi, Masanobu; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Bito, Toshinori; Kageshita, Toshiro; Sato, Ken-ichi; Fukami, Yasuo; Nishigori, Chikako

2009-10-30

218

HGF/c-met/Stat3 signaling during skin tumor cell invasion: indications for a positive feedback loop  

PubMed Central

Background Stat3 is a cytokine- and growth factor-inducible transcription factor that regulates cell motility, migration, and invasion under normal and pathological situations, making it a promising target for cancer therapeutics. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway is responsible for stimulation of cell motility and invasion, and Stat3 is responsible for at least part of the c-met signal. Methods We have stably transfected a human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line (SRB12-p9) to force the expression of a dominant negative form of Stat3 (S3DN), which we have previously shown to suppress Stat3 activity. The in vitro and in vivo malignant behavior of the S3DN cells was compared to parental and vector transfected controls. Results Suppression of Stat3 activity impaired the ability of the S3DN cells to scatter upon stimulation with HGF (c-met ligand), enhanced their adhesion, and diminished their capacity to invade in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, S3DN cells also showed suppressed HGF-induced activation of c-met, and had nearly undetectable basal c-met activity, as revealed by a phospho-specific c-met antibody. In addition, we showed that there is a strong membrane specific localization of phospho-Stat3 in the wild type (WT) and vector transfected control (NEO4) SRB12-p9 cells, which is lost in the S3DN cells. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that S3DN interfered with Stat3/c-met interaction. Conclusion These studies are the first confirm that interference with the HGF/c-met/Stat3 signaling pathway can block tumor cell invasion in an in vivo model. We also provide novel evidence for a possible positive feedback loop whereby Stat3 can activate c-met, and we correlate membrane localization of phospho-Stat3 with invasion in vivo.

2011-01-01

219

LacdiNAc (GalNAc?1-4GlcNAc) contributes to self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by regulating leukemia inhibitory factor/STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is maintained by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling. However, this signaling control does not function in neither mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) nor human ESCs (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). To date, the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine this differential LIF-responsiveness have not been clarified. Here, we show that the cell surface glycan LacdiNAc (GalNAc?1-4GlcNAc) is required for LIF/STAT3 signaling. Undifferentiated state mESCs expressed LacdiNAc at a higher level than differentiated state cells. Knockdown of ?4GalNAc-T3 reduced LacdiNAc expression and caused a decrease in LIF/STAT3 signaling that lessened the rate of self-renewal of mESCs. A biochemical analysis showed that LacdiNAc expression on LIF receptor (LIFR) and gp130 was required for the stable localization of the receptors with lipid raft/caveolar components, such as caveolin-1. This localization is required for transduction of a sufficiently strong LIF/STAT3 signal. In primed state pluripotent stem cells, such as hiPSCs and mEpiSC-like cells produced from mESCs, LacdiNAc expression on LIFR and gp130 was extremely weak and the level of localization of these receptors on rafts/caveolae was also low. Furthermore, knockdown of ?4GalNAc-T3 decreased LacdiNAc expression and reduced the efficiency of reversion of primed state mEpiSC-like cells into naïve state mESCs. These findings show that the different LIF-responsiveness of naïve state (mESCs) and primed state (mEpiSCs, hESCs, and hiPSCs) cells is dependent on the expression of LacdiNAc on LIFR and gp130 and that this expression is required for the induction and maintenance of the naïve state. PMID:21305673

Sasaki, Norihiko; Shinomi, Masahito; Hirano, Kazumi; Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Nishihara, Shoko

2011-04-01

220

Potent selective inhibition of STAT 3 versus STAT 1 by cardiac hormones.  

PubMed

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are the final "switches" that activate gene expression patterns that lead to human malignancy. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK 1/2) activate STAT 3; four cardiovascular hormones inhibit ERK 1/2 kinases, leading to the hypothesis that they may also inhibit STATs. These four cardiac hormones, i.e., vessel dilator, long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), kaliuretic peptide, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), eliminate human cancers growing in mice. These four cardiac hormones' effects on STATs 1 and 3 were examined in human small-cell lung cancer and human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Vessel dilator, LANP, kaliuretic peptide, and ANP maximally decreased STAT 3 by 88, 54, 55, and 65 %, respectively, at their 1 ?M concentrations in human small-cell lung cancer cells and STAT 3 by 66, 57, 70, and 77 % in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, respectively. The cardiac hormones (except LANP) also significantly decreased STAT 3 measured by Western blots. These cardiac hormones did not decrease STAT 1 in either human small-cell lung cancer or pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude that these four cardiac hormones are significant inhibitors of STAT 3, but not STAT 1, in human small-cell lung cancer and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, which suggests a specificity for these hormones' anticancer mechanism(s) of action enzymology in human cancer cells. PMID:22965761

Lane, Meghan L; Frost, Chelsea D; Nguyen, Jennifer P; Skelton, William P; Skelton, Michelle; Vesely, David L

2012-12-01

221

IL-6 stimulates STAT3 and Pim-1 kinase in pancreatic cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the signaling pathways activated in response to Interleukin (IL-6) in pancreatic cell lines, with a focus on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein (Pim-1) kinase. Methods IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression and IL-6 induced cell signaling was measured by Western blotting in human pancreatic cell lines. Cucurbitacin I was used as a pharmacological tool to investigate the role of STAT3 in Pim-1 activation. Stably over-expressing Pim-1 kinase cell lines were characterized for their response to IL-6 in vitro, and for their growth rate as flank tumors in scid mice. Results IL-6R was expressed across multiple cancer cell lines. In Panc-1 cells, IL-6 treatment increased expression of P-STAT3 and Pim-1 kinase. Cucurbitacin I treatment alone increased pErk1/2 expression in wild-type and Pim-1 over-expressing cell lines and resulted in exaggerated Pim-1 kinase protein levels in control and IL-6 stimulated cells, suggesting upregulation of Pim-1 may be partially STAT3 independent. Pim-1 over-expression did not significantly impact growth rate in vitro or in vivo in Panc-1 or MiaPaCa2 cell lines. Conclusions IL-6 activates STAT3 and stimulates Pim-1 kinase in pancreatic cell line models. The regulation and consequence of Pim-1 expression appears to be highly context dependent.

Block, Katherine M.; Hanke, Neale T.; Maine, Erin A.; Baker, Amanda F.

2011-01-01

222

STAT3 in Cancer-Friend or Foe?  

PubMed

The roles and significance of STAT3 in cancer biology have been extensively studied for more than a decade. Mounting evidence has shown that constitutive activation of STAT3 is a frequent biochemical aberrancy in cancer cells, and this abnormality directly contributes to tumorigenesis and shapes many malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from more recent experimental and clinicopathologic studies have suggested that STAT3 also can exert tumor suppressor effects under specific conditions. Importantly, some of these studies have demonstrated that STAT3 can function either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background or presence/absence of specific coexisting biochemical defects. Thus, in the context of cancer biology, STAT3 can be a friend or foe. In the first half of this review, we will highlight the "evil" features of STAT3 by summarizing its oncogenic functions and mechanisms. The differences between the canonical and non-canonical pathway will be highlighted. In the second half, we will summarize the evidence supporting that STAT3 can function as a tumor suppressor. To explain how STAT3 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we will discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT3?, one of the two STAT3 splicing isoforms. Taken together, it is clear that the roles of STAT3 in cancer are multi-faceted and far more complicated than one appreciated previously. The new knowledge has provided us with new approaches and strategies when we evaluate STAT3 as a prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. PMID:24995504

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Raymond

2014-01-01

223

Targeting STAT3 in cancer: how successful are we?  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 occurs in many human tumors. Moreover, studies utilizing genetic and pharmacological approaches to modulate constitutive STAT3 activity have provided compelling evidence for the critical role of aberrant STAT3 activity in malignant transformation and tumor progression, and thereby validated STAT3 as a novel cancer drug target. Objective This review is intended to be a full coverage of the efforts to develop direct STAT3 inhibitors and will provide a discussion on the inhibitory modalities developed to date. Methods Review of the literature focused on the modalities and mechanisms that directly target and inhibit the STAT protein or its functions. Results/conclusion While a variety of STAT3 inhibitors have been identified that induce antitumor cell effects in vitro and in vivo, the landscape remains murky. With a few exceptions, most of the STAT3 inhibitors reported to date have not undergone an in vivo efficacy, pharmacology or toxicity testing. Also, there is no evidence, per the published literature of an impending clinical development for the few agents that were reported to exhibit in vivo efficacy. Overall, there is the need for a reassessment of the ongoing strategies to target STAT3 intended not only for refinement, but also for incorporating some new technologies to strengthen our efforts and ensure the success – sooner, rather than later – of identifying suitable anti-STAT3 agents for development into clinically useful anticancer therapeutics.

Yue, Peibin; Turkson, James

2008-01-01

224

Activation of the NF-?B pathway by the STAT3 inhibitor JSI-124 in human glioblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma tumors are characterized by their invasiveness and resistance to therapies. The transcription factor STAT3 was recently identified as a master transcriptional regulator in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM, which has generated an increased interest in targeting STAT3. We have evaluated more closely the mechanism of action of one particular STAT3 inhibitor, JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I). In this study, we confirmed that JSI-124 inhibits both constitutive and stimulus-induced JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreases cell proliferation while inducing apoptosis in cultured GBM cells. However, we discovered that prior to the inhibition of STAT3, JSI-124 activates the NF-?B pathway, via NF-?B p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In addition, JSI-124 treatment induces the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and SOCS3 mRNA, which leads to a corresponding increase in IL-6, IL-8 and SOCS3 protein expression. Moreover, the NF-?B driven SOCS3 expression acts as a negative regulator of STAT3, abrogating any subsequent STAT3 activation and provides a mechanism of STAT3 inhibition following JSI-124 treatment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirms that NF-?B p65 in addition to other activating co-factors are found at the promoters of IL-6, IL-8 and SOCS3, following JSI-124 treatment. Using pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B and inducible knockdown of NF-?B p65, we found that JSI-124-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8 and SOCS3 was significantly inhibited, demonstrating an NF-?B dependent mechanism. Our data indicate that although JSI-124 may demonstrate potential anti-tumor effects through inhibition of STAT3, other off-target pro-inflammatory pathways are activated, emphasizing that more careful and thorough pre-clinical investigations must be implemented to prevent potential harmful effects.

McFarland, Braden C.; Gray, G. Kenneth; Nozell, Susan E.; Hong, Suk W.; Benveniste, Etty N.

2013-01-01

225

Role of unphosphorylated transcription factor STAT3 in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms behind increased cerebral vasospasm and local inflammation in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly elucidated. Using system biology tools and experimental SAH models, we have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor as a possible major regulatory molecule. On the basis of the presence of transcription factor binding sequence in the promoters of differentially regulated genes (significant enrichment PE: 6 × 10(5)) and the consistent expression of STAT3 (mRNA, P=0.0159 and Protein, P=0.0467), we hypothesize that unphosphorylated STAT3 may directly DNA bind and probably affect the genes that are involved in inflammation and late cerebral ischemia to influence the pathologic progression of SAH. PMID:24517975

Samraj, Ajoy K; Müller, Anne H; Grell, Anne-Sofie; Edvinsson, Lars

2014-05-01

226

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin promotes asthmatic airway remodelling in human lung fibroblast cells through STAT3 signalling pathway.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the role and regulation of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in asthmatic airway remodelling. To identify the expression of TSLP, ? smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen I in bronchial tissues, bronchial biopsy specimens were collected from patients with asthma and healthy controls and stained with specific antibodies, respectively. To characterize the signalling pathways regulated by TSLP, we silenced or overexpressed TSLP in human lung fibroblast (HLF-1) cells by shRNA approaches or transfection and detected the expression of TSLP receptor (TSLPR) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. In TSLP signalling pathway, the protein expression of total signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), STAT5, the phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3) and STAT5 (pSTAT5), TSLP, ?-SMA and collagen I were also detected by Western blotting. In addition, the ?-SMA, collagen I and mRNA expression were determined by real-time reverse-transcription. To further confirm the TSLP-STAT3 signalling pathway in HLF-1 cells, we inhibited STAT3 activity by targeted small molecules and then detected TSLP-induced expression of ?-SMA and collagen I in both mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription and Western blotting, respectively. First, overexpression of TSLP, ?-SMA and collagen I was detected in epithelium collected from patients with asthma. Second, STAT3 activity and the expression of ?-SMA and collagen I were controlled, regulated by TSLP. Specifically, the pSTAT3, ?-SMA and collagen I were induced by the introduction of TSLP in HLF-1 cells, and the repression of ?-SMA and collagen I was detected after TSLP silencing. Third, no changes of pSTAT5 were found in the presence of the STAT3 inhibitor, and TSLP-induced ?-SMA and collagen I upregulation is in a STAT3 dependent manner. If we inhibit STAT3 activity by STAT3 targeted small molecules, TSLP-induced ?-SMA and collagen I upregulation cannot be detected. The functions of TSLP in asthmatic airway remodelling were performed through STAT3 signalling pathway. PMID:23192865

Wu, Jinxiang; Liu, Fen; Zhao, Jiping; Wei, Yuping; Lv, Jinghu; Dong, Fangzheng; Bi, Wenxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Junfei; Liu, Wen; Dong, Liang; Tian, Hong

2013-08-01

227

Inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 Pathway Reduces Gastric Cancer Growth In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many cancers where it promotes growth, inflammation, angiogenesis and inhibits apoptosis. We have shown that STAT3 is constitutively activated in human gastric cancer, and that chronic IL-11-driven STAT3 transcriptional activity induces gastric tumourigenesis in the gp130757FF mouse model of gastric cancer development. Here we show that treatment of human AGS gastric cancer cells with the Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor WP1066 dose-, and time-dependently inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation, in conjunction with reduced JAK2 phosphorylation, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. In addition, application of intraperitoneal WP1066 for 2 weeks, reduced gastric tumour volume by 50% in the gp130757FF mouse coincident with reduced JAK2 and STAT3 activation compared with vehicle-treated, littermate controls. Gastric tumours from WP1066- treated mice had reduced polymorphonuclear inflammation, coincident with inhibition of numerous proinflammatory cytokines including IL-11, IL-6 and IL-1?, as well as the growth factors Reg1 and amphiregulin. These results show that WP1066 can block proliferation, reduce inflammation and induce apoptosis in gastric tumour cells by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation, and that many cytokines and growth factors that promote gastric tumour growth are regulated by STAT3-dependent mechanisms. WP1066 may form the basis for future therapeutics against gastric cancer.

Ling, Hui; Jackson, Cameron B.; Howlett, Meegan; Kalantzis, Anastasia; Priebe, Waldemar; Giraud, Andrew S.

2014-01-01

228

RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

2012-12-14

229

Structural and Functional Characterization of a Complex between the Acidic Transactivation Domain of EBNA2 and the Tfb1/p62 Subunit of TFIIH  

PubMed Central

Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can lead to a number of human diseases including Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas. The development of these EBV-linked diseases is associated with the presence of nine viral latent proteins, including the nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2). The EBNA2 protein plays a crucial role in EBV infection through its ability to activate transcription of both host and viral genes. As part of this function, EBNA2 associates with several host transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the Tfb1/p62 (yeast/human) subunit of the general transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and the histone acetyltransferase CBP(CREB-binding protein)/p300, through interactions with its C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD). In this manuscript, we examine the interaction of the acidic TAD of EBNA2 (residues 431–487) with the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH and CBP/p300 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) and transactivation studies in yeast. NMR studies show that the TAD of EBNA2 binds to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Tfb1 (Tfb1PH) and that residues 448–471 (EBNA2448–471) are necessary and sufficient for this interaction. NMR structural characterization of a Tfb1PH-EBNA2448–471 complex demonstrates that the intrinsically disordered TAD of EBNA2 forms a 9-residue ?-helix in complex with Tfb1PH. Within this helix, three hydrophobic amino acids (Trp458, Ile461 and Phe462) make a series of important interactions with Tfb1PH and their importance is validated in ITC and transactivation studies using mutants of EBNA2. In addition, NMR studies indicate that the same region of EBNA2 is also required for binding to the KIX domain of CBP/p300. This study provides an atomic level description of interactions involving the TAD of EBNA2 with target host proteins. In addition, comparison of the Tfb1PH-EBNA2448–471 complex with structures of the TAD of p53 and VP16 bound to Tfb1PH highlights the versatility of intrinsically disordered acidic TADs in recognizing common target host proteins.

Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Morse, Thomas; Arseneault, Genevieve; Archambault, Jacques; Omichinski, James G.

2014-01-01

230

Essential Role of STAT3 for Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro requires exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or related cytokines. Potential downstream effectors of the LIF signal in ES cells include kinases of the Src, Jak, and mitogen-activated protein families and the signal transducer and transcriptional activator STAT3. Activation of nuclear STAT3 and the ability of ES cells to grow as undifferentiated

Regina Raz; Chien-Kuo Lee; Linda A. Cannizzaro; Peter D'Eustachio; David E. Levy

1999-01-01

231

Modulation of Stat3 Alternative Splicing in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stat3 is a transcription factor constitutively active in a large number of breast cancers and other tumors, where it works as a central player in the activation of multiple oncogenic pathways. We developed a method to modulate endogenous Stat3 alternative...

L. Cartegni

2010-01-01

232

Depletion of Cellular Glutathione Modulates LIF-Induced JAK1-STAT3 Signaling in Cardiac Myocytes  

PubMed Central

Previously we reported that the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide induces oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes, which blocks Janus kinase (JAK) activation by the interleukin 6 (IL-6)-type cytokines. One implication suggested by this finding is that IL-6 signaling is dependent upon cellular anti-oxidant defenses or redox status. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to directly test the hypothesis that JAK1 signaling by the IL-6-type cytokines in cardiac myocytes is impaired by glutathione (GSH) depletion, since this tripeptide is one of the major anti-oxidant molecules and redox-buffers in cells. Cardiac myocytes were pretreated for 6 h with L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) to inhibit GSH synthesis. After 24 h, cells were dosed with the IL-6-like cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). BSO treatment decreased GSH levels and dose-dependently attenuated activation of JAK1, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), and extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Addition of glutathione monoethyl ester, which is cleaved intracellularly to GSH, prevented attenuation of LIF-induced JAK1 and STAT3 activation, as did the reductant N-acetyl-cysteine. Unexpectedly, LIF-induced STAT1 activation was unaffected by GSH depletion. Evidence was found that STAT3 is more resistant than STAT1 to intermolecular disulfide bond formation under oxidizing conditions and more likely to retain the monomeric form, suggesting that conformational differences explain the differential effect of GSH depletion on STAT1 and STAT3. Overall, our findings indicate that activation of both JAK1 and STAT3 are redox-sensitive and the character of IL-6 type cytokine signaling in cardiac myocytes is sensitive to changes in the cellular redox status. In cardiac myocytes, activation of STAT1 may be favored over STAT3 under oxidizing conditions due to GSH depletion and/or augmented reactive oxygen species production, such as in ischemia-reperfusion and heart failure.

Kurdi, Mazen; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Duhe, Roy J.; Aon, Miguel A.; Paolocci, Nazareno; Booz, George W.

2012-01-01

233

AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net

2013-06-14

234

Depletion of cellular glutathione modulates LIF-induced JAK1-STAT3 signaling in cardiac myocytes.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide induces oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes, which blocks Janus kinase (JAK) activation by the interleukin 6 (IL-6)-type cytokines. One implication suggested by this finding is that IL-6 signaling is dependent upon cellular anti-oxidant defenses or redox status. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to directly test the hypothesis that JAK1 signaling by the IL-6-type cytokines in cardiac myocytes is impaired by glutathione (GSH) depletion, since this tripeptide is one of the major anti-oxidant molecules and redox-buffers in cells. Cardiac myocytes were pretreated for 6h with l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) to inhibit GSH synthesis. After 24h, cells were dosed with the IL-6-like cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). BSO treatment decreased GSH levels and dose-dependently attenuated activation of JAK1, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), and extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Addition of glutathione monoethyl ester, which is cleaved intracellularly to GSH, prevented attenuation of LIF-induced JAK1 and STAT3 activation, as did the reductant N-acetyl-cysteine. Unexpectedly, LIF-induced STAT1 activation was unaffected by GSH depletion. Evidence was found that STAT3 is more resistant than STAT1 to intermolecular disulfide bond formation under oxidizing conditions and more likely to retain the monomeric form, suggesting that conformational differences explain the differential effect of GSH depletion on STAT1 and STAT3. Overall, our findings indicate that activation of both JAK1 and STAT3 is redox-sensitive and the character of IL-6 type cytokine signaling in cardiac myocytes is sensitive to changes in the cellular redox status. In cardiac myocytes, activation of STAT1 may be favored over STAT3 under oxidizing conditions due to GSH depletion and/or augmented reactive oxygen species production, such as in ischemia-reperfusion and heart failure. PMID:22939972

Kurdi, Mazen; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Duhé, Roy J; Aon, Miguel A; Paolocci, Nazareno; Booz, George W

2012-12-01

235

STAT3 is a substrate of SYK tyrosine kinase in B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells exposed to oxidative stress.  

PubMed

We provide unprecedented genetic and biochemical evidence that the antiapoptotic transcription factor STAT3 serves as a substrate for SYK tyrosine kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Induction of SYK in an ecdysone-inducible mammalian expression system results in STAT3 activation, as documented by tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3, as well as amplified expression of several STAT3 target genes. STAT3 activation after oxidative stress (OS) is strongly diminished in DT40 chicken B-lineage lymphoma cells rendered SYK-deficient by targeted disruption of the syk gene. Introduction of a wild-type, C-terminal or N-terminal SH2 domain-mutated, but not a kinase domain-mutated, syk gene into SYK-deficient DT40 cells restores OS-induced enhancement of STAT-3 activity. Thus, SYK plays an important and indispensable role in OS-induced STAT3 activation and its catalytic SH1 domain is critical for this previously unknown regulatory function. These results provide evidence for the existence of a novel mode of cytokine-independent cross-talk that operates between SYK and STAT3 pathways and regulates apoptosis during OS. We further provide experimental evidence that SYK is capable of associating with and phosphorylating STAT3 in human B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells challenged with OS. In agreement with a prerequisite role of SYK in OS-induced STAT3 activation, OS does not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in SYK-deficient human proB leukemia cells. Notably, inhibition of SYK with a small molecule drug candidate prevents OS-induced activation of STAT3 and overcomes the resistance of human B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells to OS-induced apoptosis. PMID:20133729

Uckun, Fatih M; Qazi, Sanjive; Ma, Hong; Tuel-Ahlgren, Lisa; Ozer, Zahide

2010-02-16

236

Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)  

PubMed Central

Hand–foot skin reaction is a most common multi-kinase inhibitor-related adverse event. This study aimed to examine whether the toxicity of sorafenib and sunitinib for human keratinocytes was associated with inhibiting signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We studied whether STAT3 activity affects sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition in HaCaT cells by WST-8 assay. Stattic enhanced the cell-growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of sorafenib and sunitinib. HaCaT cells transfected with constitutively-active STAT3 (STAT3C) were resistant to the sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. STAT3 activity decreased after short-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib in a dose-dependent manner and recovered after long-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib at low doses. Moreover, the expression of survivin and bcl-2 decreased after treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib was concomitant with variations in STAT3 activity. Sorafenib-induced STAT3 inhibition was mediated by regulation via MAPK pathways in HaCaT cells, while sunitinib-induced STAT3 inhibition was not. Thus, STAT3 activation mediating apoptosis suppressors may be a key factor in sorafenib and sunitinib-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Nishimura, Kohji; Uda, Atsushi; Mukai, Akira; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Kume, Manabu; Makimoto, Hiroo; Bito, Toshinori; Nishigori, Chikako; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori

2014-01-01

237

STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 attenuates miRNA-21 to suppress human oral squamous cell carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are involved in the oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an important gene expression regulator to OSCC. miR-21 induction by STAT3 has been reported in multiple human cancers. In the present study, we found that STAT3 (-/p) expression was positively correlated with miR-21 in 60 OSCC samples. A reporter gene assay showed that miR-21 overexpression was dependent on STAT3 activation. WP1066, a small molecular inhibitor of STAT3, was used to suppress STAT3 expression in OSCC cells. TSCCA and TCA8113 showed reduction in tumor cell proliferation, invasion ability and miR-21 expression by WP1066 treatment. In addition, the expression of miR-21 target proteins [programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)] was upregulated. Restored STAT3 expression by IL-6 induced miR-21 overexpression, which further confirmed the correlation between STAT3 and miR-21. WP1066 inhibited tumor growth and induced tumor cell apoptosis in the TSCCA xenograft tumor model. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining indicated that STAT3 (-/p), Ki67, Bcl-2 and MMP-2 expressions decreased in the WP1066-treated group; PDCD4, TIMP-3 and PTEN expression increased simulta-neously. The present study provides evidence that targeting STAT3 could regulate OSCC cell growth in a miR-21-dependent manner and WP1066 could be a novel candidate drug to treat OSCC by inhibiting STAT3/miR-21 axis. PMID:24676554

Zhou, Xuan; Ren, Yu; Liu, Aiqin; Han, Lei; Zhang, Kailiang; Li, Shasha; Li, Peng; Li, Ping; Kang, Chunsheng; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Lun

2014-05-01

238

CNTF regulates neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration through JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways of DRG explants with gp120-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.  

PubMed

HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 is highly involved in HIV infection-related peripheral neuropathy, but its mechanism remains incompletely understood. The therapy of this neuropathy is still a big clinical challenge for neurologists. The organotypically cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were used to test the neurotoxic actions of gp120 and the therapeutic effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on gp120-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that gp120 inhibited neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration from the DRG explants in a dose-dependent manner. HIV-gp120 also inhibited growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) expression and induced apoptosis of the migrating neurons. CNTF improved neurite outgrowth, neuronal migration, and GAP-43 expression inhibited by gp120. CNTF also rescued neuronal apoptosis induced by gp120. Either Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor AG490 or phosphatidyl inositol-3'-phosphate-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effects of CNTF. These data imply that CNTF improved neuronal status by promoting GAP-43 expression and inhibiting apoptosis through JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways of DRG neurons with gp120-induced neurotoxicity. These data offered a new clue for elucidating the mechanisms of HIV infection-related peripheral neuropathy and facilitating the development of novel therapy. PMID:24708926

Liu, Huaxiang; Liu, Guixiang; Bi, Yanwen

2014-05-21

239

IL-27 inhibits the development of regulatory T cells via STAT3.  

PubMed

Regulatory CD4+ T cells are important for the homeostasis of the immune system and their absence correlates with autoimmune disorders. Here, we investigate the capacity of IL-27, a cytokine with pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, to regulate the generation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-inducible forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive regulatory T (Treg) cells. Our results demonstrate that IL-27 inhibits the acquisition of the Treg phenotype at the level of Foxp3, CD25 and CTLA-4 (CD152) expression as well as the suppressive function. In contrast to TGFbeta-induced Treg cells, the cells generated after differentiation in the presence of TGFbeta and IL-27 maintained the ability for IL-2 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production. The inhibitory effect of IL-27 on Treg generation was at least partially signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dependent as examined by targeted STAT3 protein inhibition using small interfering RNA (siRNA), while STAT1-dependent signals seemed to oppose the STAT3 signals. In turn, TGFbeta blocked IL-27-induced T(h)1 differentiation. Thus, IL-27 and TGFbeta mutually control their effects on CD4+ T-cell differentiation, whereby IL-27 favours inflammatory conditions through a STAT3-dependent inhibition of Treg generation. PMID:18156621

Huber, Magdalena; Steinwald, Vera; Guralnik, Anna; Brüstle, Anne; Kleemann, Peter; Rosenplänter, Christine; Decker, Thomas; Lohoff, Michael

2008-02-01

240

Pentoxifylline inhibits melanoma tumor growth and angiogenesis by targeting STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to have anti-metastatic or anti-angiogenic activity against many human cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we report that, PTX at sub-toxic doses can inhibit melanoma tumor growth and angiogenesis by targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway. Despite minimal cytotoxicity against normal cells, PTX suppressed phosphorylation and DNA binding of STAT3 in a dose-dependent manner. Also, PTX inhibited phosphorylation of the upstream kinases JAK1 and JAK2 and increased the expression of pSHP2 phosphatase. Expression of various STAT3 regulated gene products, such as cylinD1, CDK6, cMyc, BclXL, and VEGF was downregulated following PTX treatment. Tumor microenvironment favours tumor growth and metastasis. PTX alters tumor microenvironment by limiting IL-6 secretion and also by disrupting VEGF-VEGFR2 autocrine/paracrine signaling. PTX treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis in intra-dermal xenograft mouse model in vivo without having any visible toxicity. These findings identified STAT3 signaling as a target of PTX and have thus, augmented its potential application in the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. PMID:23639230

Kamran, Mohammad Zahid; Gude, Rajiv P

2013-06-01

241

A genetic and developmental pathway from STAT3 to the OCT4-NANOG circuit is essential for maintenance of ICM lineages in vivo  

PubMed Central

Although it is known that OCT4–NANOG are required for maintenance of pluripotent cells in vitro, the upstream signals that regulate this circuit during early development in vivo have not been identified. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent regulation of the OCT4–NANOG circuitry necessary to maintain the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM), the source of in vitro-derived embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We show that STAT3 is highly expressed in mouse oocytes and becomes phosphorylated and translocates to the nucleus in the four-cell and later stage embryos. Using leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif)-null embryos, we found that STAT3 phosphorylation is dependent on LIF in four-cell stage embryos. In blastocysts, interleukin 6 (IL-6) acts in an autocrine fashion to ensure STAT3 phosphorylation, mediated by janus kinase 1 (JAK1), a LIF- and IL-6-dependent kinase. Using genetically engineered mouse strains to eliminate Stat3 in oocytes and embryos, we firmly establish that STAT3 is essential for maintenance of ICM lineages but not for ICM and trophectoderm formation. Indeed, STAT3 directly binds to the Oct4 and Nanog distal enhancers, modulating their expression to maintain pluripotency of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. These results provide a novel genetic model of cell fate determination operating through STAT3 in the preimplantation embryo and pluripotent stem cells in vivo.

Do, Dang Vinh; Ueda, Jun; Messerschmidt, Daniel M.; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Bo; Guo, Guoji; Lin, Peiyu J.; Hossain, Md Zakir; Zhang, Wenjun; Moh, Akira; Wu, Qiang; Robson, Paul; Ng, Huck Hui; Poellinger, Lorenz; Knowles, Barbara B.; Solter, Davor; Fu, Xin-Yuan

2013-01-01

242

STAT3-silenced human dendritic cells have an enhanced ability to prime IFN? production by both ?? and ?? T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) are an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of the immune system to enhance insufficient immune responses, such those occurring in cancer, or to dampen dangerous responses in allergic and autoimmune diseases. Main goal of this study was to manipulate human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) function by silencing STAT3, since this transcription factor plays a key role as a negative regulator of immune surveillance, and is strongly involved in inflammation. STAT3 silencing did not affect the immunophenotype of both immature and toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-matured DC. However, an altered cytokine secretion profile, characterized by lower IL10 and higher IL12 and TNF? levels, was observed in silenced DC with respect to control cells upon TLR triggering. Accordingly, STAT3 silenced MDDC promoted a higher IFN? production by CD4(+) naïve T cells. Furthermore, STAT3 silencing in MDDC favored the activation of ?? T lymphocytes, an immune cell population with important antitumor effector activities. This effect was at least in part mediated by the increased IL12 production by silenced cells. STAT3 silencing also increased the levels of CCL4, a CCR5-binding chemokine known to be involved in T helper 1 (Th1) cell recruitment. Altogether these results strengthen the role of STAT3 as a critical check point of the suppression of Th1 responses, unraveling its potential to dampen DC capability to both induce and recruit different IFN? producing T lymphocyte subsets. PMID:24674241

Sanseverino, Isabella; Purificato, Cristina; Varano, Barbara; Conti, Lucia; Gessani, Sandra; Gauzzi, M Cristina

2014-07-01

243

HBx-dependent activation of Twist mediates STAT3 control of epithelium-mesenchymal transition of liver cells.  

PubMed

This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of liver cells with HBx expression on epithelium-mesenchymal transition (EMT) change using Western blot analysis and Transwell assay to assess EMT-related protein expression and cell mobility. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to test the Twist promoter containing different STAT3 binding loci. Electrophoretic mobility band-shift assay (EMSA) was used to detect Twist activity. Results showed that HBx expression affected the EMT-related protein expression and the cell mobility of liver cancer cells (MHCC97) and liver cells (HL-7702) in vitro or in vivo. These proteins exhibited reversed expression to a certain extent after Twist inhibition. In addition, the wound-healing capability and the mobility of HL-7702/HBx cells were lower than those treated with control-siRNA. The expressions of p-STAT3 and Twist were positively correlated with HBx expression. The second STAT-3 binding sequence in the Twist promoter region of the HL-7702/HBx cells was the first locus. Twist activity in the HL-7702/HBx2 cells was higher than that in HL-7702 cells. Moreover, the activity decreased when the cells were treated with HBx-siRNA to inhibit HBx expression, or with STAT3 inhibitor to reduce STAT3 activation. Therefore, Twist is essential for the regulation of the mobility of liver cells with HBx expression. HBx activates the Twist promoter by activating STAT3 and promotes EMT occurrence in liver cells. PMID:23161342

Teng, Jing; Wang, Xiaoqian; Xu, Zhenxing; Tang, Nanhong

2013-05-01

244

CpG-STAT3siRNA for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Majority of human prostate cancers show STAT3 activation, which promotes more aggressive castration-resistant phenotype. In addition, STAT3 is activated in diverse immune cell associated with prostate tumors. Therefore, STAT3 is a highly desirable target ...

M. Kortylewski

2013-01-01

245

Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Blocks Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation in Breast and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein (PEBP) family that modulates the action of many kinases involved in cellular growth, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we described an inverse association between RKIP and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which RKIP regulates STAT3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RKIP over expression inhibited c-Src auto-phosphorylation and activation, as well as IL-6-, JAK1 and 2-, and activated Raf-mediated STAT3 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and subsequent activation. In MDA-231 breast cancer cells that stably over express RKIP, IL-6 treatment blocked STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Conversely, in RKIP knockdown MDA-231 cells: STAT3 phosphorylation and activation increased in comparison to parental MDA-231 cells. RKIP over expression resulted in constitutive physical interaction with STAT3 and blocked c-Src and STAT3 association. The treatment of DU145 prostate, but not PC3 prostate or MDA-231 breast, cancer cell lines with ENMD-1198 or MKC-1 dramatically increased expression of RKIP. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PC3 and MDA-231 cells to MTI-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MTI treatment resulted in a decrease in Src-mediated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by RKIP over expression. In stable RKIP over expressing MDA-231 cells, tumor xenograft growth induced by activated STAT3 is inhibited. RKIP synergizes with MTIs to induce apoptosis and inhibit STAT3 activation of breast and prostate cancer cells. RKIP plays a critical role in opposing the effects of pro-oncogenic STAT3 activation.

Moen, Erika L.; Cross-Knorr, Sam; Brilliant, Kate; Bonavida, Benjamin; LaValle, Theresa; Yeung, Kam C.; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chin, Eugene; Chatterjee, Devasis

2014-01-01

246

Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) blocks signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in breast and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein (PEBP) family that modulates the action of many kinases involved in cellular growth, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we described an inverse association between RKIP and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which RKIP regulates STAT3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RKIP over expression inhibited c-Src auto-phosphorylation and activation, as well as IL-6-, JAK1 and 2-, and activated Raf-mediated STAT3 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and subsequent activation. In MDA-231 breast cancer cells that stably over express RKIP, IL-6 treatment blocked STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Conversely, in RKIP knockdown MDA-231 cells: STAT3 phosphorylation and activation increased in comparison to parental MDA-231 cells. RKIP over expression resulted in constitutive physical interaction with STAT3 and blocked c-Src and STAT3 association. The treatment of DU145 prostate, but not PC3 prostate or MDA-231 breast, cancer cell lines with ENMD-1198 or MKC-1 dramatically increased expression of RKIP. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PC3 and MDA-231 cells to MTI-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MTI treatment resulted in a decrease in Src-mediated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by RKIP over expression. In stable RKIP over expressing MDA-231 cells, tumor xenograft growth induced by activated STAT3 is inhibited. RKIP synergizes with MTIs to induce apoptosis and inhibit STAT3 activation of breast and prostate cancer cells. RKIP plays a critical role in opposing the effects of pro-oncogenic STAT3 activation. PMID:24658061

Yousuf, Saad; Duan, MeiLi; Moen, Erika L; Cross-Knorr, Sam; Brilliant, Kate; Bonavida, Benjamin; LaValle, Theresa; Yeung, Kam C; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chin, Eugene; Chatterjee, Devasis

2014-01-01

247

STAT-3: A Molecular Hub for Signaling Pathways in Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and severe primary brain tumor in adults. Its aggressive and infiltrative nature renders the current therapeutics of surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy relatively ineffective. Accordingly, recent research has focused on the elucidation of various signal transduction pathways in GBM, particularly aberrant activation. This review focuses on the STAT-3 signal transduction pathway in the context of this devastating tumor. STAT-3 is aberrantly activated in human GBM tissues, and this activation is implicated in controlling critical cellular events thought to be involved in gliomagenesis such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune evasion. There are no reports of gain of function mutations in GBM; rather, the activation of STAT-3 is thought to be a consequence of either dysregulation of upstream kinases or loss of endogenous inhibitors. This review provides detailed insight into the multiple mechanisms of STAT-3 activation in GBM, as well as describing endogenous and chemical inhibitors of this pathway and their clinical significance. In GBM, STAT-3 acts a “molecular hub” to link extracellular signals to transcriptional control of proliferation, cell cycle progression, and immune evasion. Because STAT-3 plays this central role in GBM signal transduction, it has significant potential as a therapeutic target.

Brantley, Emily C.; Benveniste, Etty N.

2013-01-01

248

SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation.

Chetty, Chandramu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Dontula, Ranadheer [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States)] [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States); Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Gujrati, Meena [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, One Illini Drive, Peoria, IL-61605 (United States); Lakka, Sajani S., E-mail: slakka@uic.edu [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Suite 820-E, Chicago, IL-60612 (United States)

2012-01-13

249

Embelin reduces colitis-associated tumorigenesis through limiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

The interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling regulates survival and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Embelin is a small molecule inhibitor of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. We previously showed that embelin inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro, and effectively suppresses 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice. Here, we explored the antitumor effects and mechanisms of embelin on colitis-associated cancer (CAC) using the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) model, with a particular focus on whether embelin exerts its effect through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. We found that embelin significantly reduced incidence and tumor size in CAC-bearing mice. In addition to inhibiting proliferation of tumor epithelial cells, embelin suppressed colonic IL-6 expression and secretion, and subsequently STAT3 activation in vivo. Importantly, in vitro studies have revealed that in colon cancer cells, embelin diminished both the constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation by stimulating Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) activity. Moreover, embelin protected mice from AOM/DSS-induced colitis before tumor development. Embelin decreased IL-1?, IL-17a, and IL-23a expression as well as the number of CD4(+) T cells and macrophages infiltrating the colonic tissues. Thus, our findings demonstrated that embelin suppresses CAC tumorigenesis, and its antitumor effect is partly mediated by limiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and Th17 immune response. Embelin may be a potential agent in the prevention and treatment of CAC. PMID:24651526

Dai, Yun; Jiao, Hongmei; Teng, Guigen; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Rongxin; Wang, Yunhong; Hebbard, Lionel; George, Jacob; Qiao, Liang

2014-05-01

250

Novel CD47: SIRP? Dependent Mechanism for the Activation of STAT3 in Antigen-Presenting Cell  

PubMed Central

Cell surface CD47 interacts with its receptor, signal-regulatory-protein ? (SIRP?) that is expressed predominantly on macrophages, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. This “don’t eat me” signal is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRP? at the cytoplasmic ITIM motifs and the recruitment of the phosphatase, SHP-1. We previously revealed a novel mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 pathway and the regulation of human APC maturation and function that is based on cell:cell interaction. In this study, we present evidence supporting the notion that CD47:SIRP? serves as a cell surface receptor: ligand pair involved in this contact-dependent STAT3 activation and regulation of APC maturation. We show that upon co-culturing APC with various primary and tumor cell lines STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 expression are induced, and such regulation could be suppressed by specific CD47 siRNAs and shRNAs. Significantly, >50% reduction in CD47 expression abolished the contact-dependent inhibition of T cell activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association between SIRP? and STAT3. Thus, we suggest that in addition to signaling through the ITIM-SHP-1 complex that transmit an anti-phagocytotic, CD47:SIRP? also triggers STAT3 signaling that is linked to an immature APC phenotype and peripheral tolerance under steady state and pathological conditions.

Toledano, Natan; Gur-Wahnon, Devorah; Ben-Yehuda, Adi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

2013-01-01

251

Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs. PMID:24342613

Murano, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

2014-01-17

252

Pyruvate kinase M2 facilitates colon cancer cell migration via the modulation of STAT3 signalling.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastatic progression is essential to reducing its morbidity and mortality. Pyruvate kinase (PK) catalyses the final step of glycolysis and has been identified as a critical regulator of glucose consumption. However, the mechanisms and roles of PKM1 and PKM2 in the regulation of CRC cell migration and cell adhesion remain elusive. Here, we report that PKM2 rather than PKM1 drives CRC cell migration and cell adhesion, whereas PKM attenuation reverses these phenomena. Furthermore, the overexpression of PKM2 significantly increases the expression of N-cadherin, MMP-2, MMP-9, STAT3, Snail-2, pFAK and active ?1-integrin, while E-cadherin expression is suppressed. More importantly, the results indicated that PKM2 overexpression facilitates STAT3 nuclear translocation, and it is required for PKM2 function in the regulation of migration and adhesion associated signalling. In addition, the dimeric form of PKM2, which lacks the pyruvate kinase activities but possesses protein kinase activity, is critical for CRC cell migration and cell adhesion. Overall, this study suggests that PKM2 overexpression promotes CRC cell migration and cell adhesion by regulating STAT3-associated signalling and that PKM2 may serve as a therapeutic target for CRC metastasis. PMID:24686087

Yang, Peng; Li, Zongwei; Fu, Rong; Wu, Haili; Li, Zhuoyu

2014-09-01

253

Essential role of STAT3 in postnatal survival and growth revealed by mice lacking STAT3 serine 727 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

A large number of extracellular polypeptides bound to their cognate receptors activate the transcription factor STAT3 by phosphorylation of tyrosine 705. Supplemental activation occurs when serine 727 is also phosphorylated. STAT3 deletion in mice leads to embryonic lethality. We have produced mice with alanine substituted for serine 727 in STAT3 (the SA allele) to examine the function of serine 727 phosphorylation in vivo. Embryonic fibroblasts from SA/SA mice had approximately 50% of the transcriptional response of wild-type cells. However, SA/SA mice were viable and grossly normal. STAT3 wild-type/null (+/-) animals were also normal and were interbred with SA/SA mice to study SA/- mice. The SA/- mice progressed through gestation, showing 10 to 15% reduced birth weight, three-fourths died soon after birth, and the SA/- survivors reached only 50 to 60% of normal size at 1 week of age. The lethality and decreased growth were accompanied by altered insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in serum, establishing a role for the STAT3 serine phosphorylation acting through IGF-1 in embryonic and perinatal growth. The SA/- survivors have decreased thymocyte number associated with increased apoptosis, but unexpectedly normal STAT3-dependent liver acute phase response. These animals offer the opportunity to study defined reductions in the transcriptional capacity of a widely used signaling pathway. PMID:14673173

Shen, Yuhong; Schlessinger, Karni; Zhu, Xuejun; Meffre, Eric; Quimby, Fred; Levy, David E; Darnell, J E

2004-01-01

254

STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1? are associated with vasculogenic mimicry and impact on survival in gastric adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation is important for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The present study aimed to investigate the association between signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphor-STAT3 (p-STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and VM formation in GAC, and discuss their clinical significance and correlation with the prognosis of patients with GAC. The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM were assessed in 60 cases of patients with GAC and 20 cases of patients with gastritis on tissue microarrays by immunohistochemical methods. The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM were higher in patients with GAC (particularly in poorly differentiated GAC) than in those with gastritis (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1? were higher in VM tissues compared with non-VM tissues (P<0.05). Positive correlations existed between STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1? and VM expression (P<0.05). The expression levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and HIF-1?, VM, status of lymph node metastasis and tumor differentiation degree were associated with the overall survival time of patients with GAC (P<0.05). However, only p-STAT3 and VM expression were identified as the independent risk factors of GAC OS when analyzed with multivariate analysis. p-STAT3 and VM play a significant role in indicating the prognosis of patients with GAC. STAT3 activation may play a positive role in VM formation of GAC by the STAT3-p-STAT3-HIF-1?-VM effect axis.

SONG, YAN-YAN; SUN, LI-DAN; LIU, MIN-LI; LIU, ZHONG-LIANG; CHEN, FEI; ZHANG, YING-ZHE; ZHENG, YAN; ZHANG, JIAN-PING

2014-01-01

255

STAT3 Activation Is Required for Normal G-CSF-Dependent Proliferation and Granulocytic Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-regulated biological responses, we generated transgenic mice with a targeted mutation of their G-CSF receptor (termed d715F) that abolishes G-CSF-dependent STAT-3 activation and attenuates STAT-5 activation. Homozygous mutant mice are severely neutropenic with an accumulation of immature myeloid precursors in their bone marrow.

Morgan L. McLemore; Satkiran Grewal; Fulu Liu; Angela Archambault; Jennifer Poursine-Laurent; Jeff Haug; Daniel C. Link

2001-01-01

256

LRIG1 inhibits STAT3-dependent inflammation to maintain corneal homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Corneal integrity and transparency are indispensable for good vision. Cornea homeostasis is entirely dependent upon corneal stem cells, which are required for complex wound-healing processes that restore corneal integrity following epithelial damage. Here, we found that leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is highly expressed in the human holoclone-type corneal epithelial stem cell population and sporadically expressed in the basal cells of ocular-surface epithelium. In murine models, LRIG1 regulated corneal epithelial cell fate during wound repair. Deletion of Lrig1 resulted in impaired stem cell recruitment following injury and promoted a cell-fate switch from transparent epithelium to keratinized skin-like epidermis, which led to corneal blindness. In addition, we determined that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of the STAT3-dependent inflammatory pathway. Inhibition of STAT3 in corneas of Lrig1–/– mice rescued pathological phenotypes and prevented corneal opacity. Additionally, transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active form of STAT3 in the corneal epithelium had abnormal features, including corneal plaques and neovascularization similar to that found in Lrig1–/– mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that LRIG1 also coordinates the function of bone marrow–derived inflammatory cells. Together, our data indicate that LRIG1 orchestrates corneal-tissue transparency and cell fate during repair, and identify LRIG1 as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis.

Nakamura, Takahiro; Hamuro, Junji; Takaishi, Mikiro; Simmons, Szandor; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zaffalon, Andrea; Bentley, Adam J.; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nagata-Takaoka, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Itami, Satoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Barrandon, Yann; Kinoshita, Shigeru

2013-01-01

257

LRIG1 inhibits STAT3-dependent inflammation to maintain corneal homeostasis.  

PubMed

Corneal integrity and transparency are indispensable for good vision. Cornea homeostasis is entirely dependent upon corneal stem cells, which are required for complex wound-healing processes that restore corneal integrity following epithelial damage. Here, we found that leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is highly expressed in the human holoclone-type corneal epithelial stem cell population and sporadically expressed in the basal cells of ocular-surface epithelium. In murine models, LRIG1 regulated corneal epithelial cell fate during wound repair. Deletion of Lrig1 resulted in impaired stem cell recruitment following injury and promoted a cell-fate switch from transparent epithelium to keratinized skin-like epidermis, which led to corneal blindness. In addition, we determined that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of the STAT3-dependent inflammatory pathway. Inhibition of STAT3 in corneas of Lrig1-/- mice rescued pathological phenotypes and prevented corneal opacity. Additionally, transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active form of STAT3 in the corneal epithelium had abnormal features, including corneal plaques and neovascularization similar to that found in Lrig1-/- mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that LRIG1 also coordinates the function of bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells. Together, our data indicate that LRIG1 orchestrates corneal-tissue transparency and cell fate during repair, and identify LRIG1 as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. PMID:24316976

Nakamura, Takahiro; Hamuro, Junji; Takaishi, Mikiro; Simmons, Szandor; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zaffalon, Andrea; Bentley, Adam J; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nagata-Takaoka, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J; Itami, Satoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Barrandon, Yann; Kinoshita, Shigeru

2014-01-01

258

Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of mammary gland involution is associated with STAT5 and STAT3 signaling modulation.  

PubMed

The mammary epithelium undergoes cyclical periods of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and regression. During lactation, the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor (STAT)-5A and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) synergize to induce milk protein expression and also act as survival factors. During involution, STAT3 activation mediates epithelial cell apoptosis and mammary gland remodeling. It has been shown that the administration of glucocorticoids at weaning prevents epithelial cell death, probably by extracellular matrix breakdown prevention. Our results show that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) modulates STAT5A and STAT3 signaling and inhibits apoptosis induction in postlactating mouse mammary glands, only when administered within the first 48 h upon cessation of suckling. DEX administration right after weaning delayed STAT5A inactivation and degradation, preserving gene expression of target genes as ?-casein (bcas) and prolactin induced protein (pip). Weaning-triggered GR down-regulation is also delayed by the hormone treatment. Moreover, DEX administration delayed STAT3 activation and translocation into epithelial cells nuclei. In particular, DEX treatment impaired the increment in gene expression of signal transducer subunit gp130, normally up-regulated from lactation to involution and responsible for STAT3 activation. Therefore, the data shown herein indicate that glucocorticoids are able to modulate early involution by controlling the strong cross talk that GR, STAT5, and STAT3 pathways maintains in the mammary epithelium. PMID:20881248

Bertucci, Paola Y; Quaglino, Ana; Pozzi, Andrea G; Kordon, Edith C; Pecci, Adali

2010-12-01

259

Interleukin-10 induces inhibitory C/EBPbeta through STAT-3 and represses HIV-1 transcription in macrophages.  

PubMed

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been characterized by inflammation with increased pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. We have reported that IFN produces inhibitory C/EBPbeta and represses transcription of the HIV-1 LTR in macrophages. STAT-1 and type I IFN receptor knockout mice have macrophages that are defective in IFN signaling, yet LPS stimulation induces inhibitory C/EBPbeta, demonstrating that other cytokines can induce this repressor. LPS or Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived lipoarabinomannan induce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, which represses the HIV-1 LTR in differentiated THP-1 macrophages by inducing inhibitory C/EBPbeta. In contrast, in undifferentiated THP-1 monocytes, IL-10 did not inhibit HIV-1 replication or induce C/EBPbeta. IL-10 signal transduction uses STAT-3, and macrophages from STAT-3-/- mice fail to produce inhibitory C/EBPbeta after LPS or IL-10 stimulation. Transfection of STAT-3 into THP-1 cells enhances C/EBPbeta promoter activity. THP-1 differentiation also increases STAT-3 protein, but not STAT-3 gene transcription, and induces a translational regulator, CUG-binding protein, that was essential for production of C/EBPbeta. Differentiation induced post-transcriptional regulation is required to produce inhibitory C/EBPbeta in response to IL-10. Only macrophages are able to repress HIV-1 LTR promoter activity and inhibit viral replication in response to IL-10 or type I IFN. PMID:16014896

Tanaka, Naohiko; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Gold, Jeffrey; Hoshino, Satomi; Martiniuk, Frank; Kurata, Takeshi; Pine, Richard; Levy, David; Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael

2005-10-01

260

NLRC5 Mediates Cytokine Secretion in RAW264.7 Macrophages and Modulated by the JAK2/STAT3 Pathway.  

PubMed

The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs), a class of innate immune receptors that respond to pathogen attack or cellular stress, have gained increasing attention. NLRC5 is the largest member of NLR family, which has recently been identified as a critical regulator of immune responses. In this study, we explore the role of NLRC5 in cytokine secretion and the role of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced NLRC5 expression in RAW264.7 cells. We demonstrated that overexpression of NLRC5 results in a downregulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) secretion; on the other hand, knockdown of NLRC5 by transfecting siRNA enhanced IL-6 and TNF-? secretion in RAW264.7 cells. These results indicated that NLRC5 plays a negative role in the regulation of IL-6 and TNF-?. Meanwhile, AG490 (a specific inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway) and JAK2 siRNA were used to manipulate JAK2/STAT3 activity. Finally, the results showed that AG490 and JAK2 siRNA inhibited NLRC5 expression and the expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3. We, for the first time, demonstrate that the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway results in decrease of NLRC5 expression. PMID:24445959

Li, Lin; Xu, Tao; Huang, Cheng; Peng, Yunyun; Li, Jun

2014-06-01

261

Expression and Activation of STAT3 in the Astrocytes of Optic Nerve in a Rat Model of Transient Intraocular Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Lamina cribosa, an astrocyte-rich region, is the origin of axonal degeneration in glaucomatous neuropathy. Astrocytes are particularly activated during optic nerve (ON) degeneration and are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Signalling mechanisms that regulate different aspects of astrocyte reactiviation in response to intraocular hypertensive injury are not well defined. Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein-3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that participates in many biological processes and has been implicated as activator of reactive astrogliosis. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 in regulating the activation of astrocytes to transient intraocular hypertension in vivo by using a rat ocular hypertension model. ON astrocytes hypertrophy was observed early after intraocular hypertensive stress. Morphological changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells coupled with axon loss in the optic nerve was detected at day 7 after the injury. Nestin was significantly upregulated in ON astrocytes as early as day 2 post injury and kept elevated through post injury day 7. Phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was markedly upregulated in ON astrocytes at post injury day 1, prior to the reactivation of ON astrocytes. These findings indicate that STAT3 signalling is involved in the initiation of astrocyte reactivation in optic nerve injury.

Zhang, Shaodan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Wenqian; Zhang, Samuel S.; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun

2013-01-01

262

Plumbagin, Vitamin K3 Analogue, Suppresses STAT3 Activation Pathway through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-1: Potential Role in Chemosensitization  

PubMed Central

The activation of STAT3 has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), an analogue of Vitamin K and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, JAK1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1; and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and VEGF, activated caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and increased the sub-G1 population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents.

Sandur, Santosh K.; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2009-01-01

263

Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway in osteosarcoma cells and overexpression of phosphorylated-Stat3 correlates with poor prognosis.  

PubMed

Stat3 expression in cancer may have important prognostic and therapeutic value, but there has been no reports correlating Stat3 expression with prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma. The goal of this study is to correlate patient prognosis with the expression of Stat3 in osteosarcoma tissue and determine the effectiveness of blocking this pathway in osteosarcoma cell lines by Stat3 inhibitor, CDDO-Me. We examine the expression levels of Stat3 and pStat3 in osteosarcoma cell lines and primary tissues by Western blot analysis. We also evaluate the levels of pStat3 expression in osteosarcoma tissue microarray (TMA) by immunohistochemistry. We use clinical data to determine the impact of levels of Stat3 expression on patient prognosis. Finally, we evaluated the effect of CDDO-Me on the inhibition of activated Stat3 pathway in osteosarcoma cell lines using MTT assay and Western blot analysis. Stat3 is observed to be activated in osteosarcoma tissues as well as in cultured cell lines. Overexpression of pStat3 is associated with poor prognosis. CDDO-Me inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cell lines and induces apoptosis as well. Our results suggest that Stat3 may be a prognostic indicator and potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma. Blocking the pathway of Stat3 may lead to develop new therapeutic strategies against osteosarcoma. PMID:20063378

Ryu, Keinosuke; Choy, Edwin; Yang, Cao; Susa, Michiro; Hornicek, Francis J; Mankin, Henry; Duan, Zhenfeng

2010-07-01

264

HPV16 E2-mediated potentiation of NF-?B activation induced by TNF-? involves parallel activation of STAT3 with a reduction in E2-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus is associated with cervical and other tumors, and several cellular conditions also play an important role in carcinogenesis. Human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected cells exhibit activation of NF-?B and STAT3 (mediators of inflammation), but little is known about their regulation by HPV. This study attempts to understand the role of HPV16 E2, an important early protein of HPV16, in the regulation of NF-?B and STAT3 by reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. We demonstrate that E2 enhances NF-?B activation induced by TNF-?, a proinflammatory cytokine, in both non-tumor- and tumor-derived epithelial cell lines besides potentiating STAT3 transcriptional activity induced by TNF-? in HEK293 cells. E2 increases the expression of RelA and its transcriptional activation, and retention of E2 was observed in the nucleus with significant interaction with RelA (immunoprecipitation) upon TNF-? treatment. Transfection with shRNA-RelA or pretreatment with a STAT3 inhibitor had a negative effect on the ability of E2 to enhance TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation. Experiments with co-expression of a mutant of STAT3 with E2 also suggested that the activation of STAT3 is indispensible for TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation. Inhibition of STAT3 activation enhanced E2-induced apoptosis, whereas parallel activation of NF-?B and STAT3 by the combined action of E2 and TNF-? increased the expression of their common targets, cyclin-D1, c-Myc, survivin, and Bcl-2, leading to a decrease in E2-induced apoptosis (viability and cell cycle). Our results reveal novel mechanisms by which E2 may regulate NF-?B and STAT3 activation in the presence of TNF-? with implications on the survival of HPV-infected cells. PMID:24833467

Prabhavathy, Devan; Prabhakar, Bandaru Niranjana; Karunagaran, Devarajan

2014-09-01

265

Role of Stat3 and ErbB2 in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stat3 is activated by cytokine receptors as well as receptor and non- receptor tyrosine kinases. Activation of Stat3 has been demonstrated in breast and other cancers, while a constitutively active form of Stat3, Stat3C, is able to transform cultured cell...

M. Geletu

2010-01-01

266

Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive activation of the transcrip- tion factor STAT3 contributes to the patho- genesis of many cancers, including mul- tiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, tar- geted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we devel- oped a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds

Erik A. Nelson; Sarah R. Walker; Alicia Kepich; Laurie B. Gashin; Teru Hideshima; Hiroshi Ikeda; Dharminder Chauhan; Kenneth C. Anderson; David A. Frank

2008-01-01

267

RKIP phosphorylation and STAT3 activation is inhibited by oxaliplatin and camptothecin and are associated with poor prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background A major obstacle in treating colorectal cancer (CRC) is the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. An important protein in the regulation of cancer cell death and clinical outcome is Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). In contrast, activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a protein that promotes tumor cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and has an important role in cancer progression in many of cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of RKIP and STAT3 after treatment with clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents (camptothecin (CPT) and oxaliplatin (OXP)) and the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCT116 colon cancer cells as well as evaluate the association between RKIP and STAT3 with clinical outcome of Stage II colon cancer patients. Methods HCT-116 colon cancer cells were treated with CPT, OXP, and IL-6 separately or in combination in a time and dose-dependent manner and examined for phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated RKIP and STAT3 via Western blot analysis. STAT3 transcriptional activity was measured via a luciferase reporter assay in HCT116 cells treated with CPT, IL-6 or transfected with JAK 1, 2 separately or in combination. We extended these observations and determined STAT3 and RKIP/ pRKIP in tumor microarrays (TMA) in stage II colon cancer patients. Results We demonstrate IL-6-mediated activation of STAT3 occurs in conjunction with the phosphorylation of RKIP in vitro in human colon cancer cells. OXP and CPT block IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation and RKIP phosphorylation via the inhibition of the interaction of STAT3 with gp130. We determined that STAT3 and nuclear pRKIP are significantly associated with poor patient prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients. Conclusions In the analysis of tumor samples from stage II colon cancer patients and the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116, pRKIP and STAT3, 2 proteins potentially involved in the resistance to conventional treatments were detected. The phosphorylation of pRKIP and STAT3 are induced by the cytokine IL-6 and suppressed by the chemotherapeutic drugs CPT and OXP. Therefore, these results suggest that STAT3 and pRKIP may serve as prognostic biomarkers in stage II colon cancer patients and may improve chemotherapy.

2013-01-01

268

IL-6, IL-17 and STAT3: a holy trinity in auto-immunity?  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the regulation of the cross talk between haematopoietic/immune cells and stromal cells, including the onset and resolution of inflammation, responses to infection, tissue remodelling and cancer. It is produced, among others, by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. IL-6 can interact with both membrane-bound and soluble forms of its ligand-binding receptor, the IL-6Ralpha, triggering signalling via dimerization of gp130, the signalling subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex. This leads to the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway and mainly culminates in the activation of the STAT3 transcription factor. Both IL-6 and STAT3 have recently emerged as main regulators of the differentiation and function of Th17 cells, via a positive feedback loop enhancing expression and/or activation of IL-6 itself, IL-17 and STAT3. Dysregulated IL-6 production and signalling are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, auto-immunity and cancer, and are the object of intense translational research as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:22652781

Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

2012-01-01

269

STAT-3 activates NF-kappaB in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

NF-?B plays a major role in the pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasms. A broad array of mostly extracellular stimuli has been reported to activate NF-?B, to various degrees, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Because CLL cells harbor high levels of unphosphorylated STAT-3 (USTAT-3) and USTAT-3 was reported to activate NF-?B, we sought to determine whether USTAT-3 activates NF-?B in CLL. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we studied peripheral blood low-density cells from 15 patients with CLL and found that CLL cell nuclear extracts from all the samples bound to an NF-?B DNA probe, suggesting that NF-?B is constitutively activated in CLL. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that STAT-3 bound NF-?B p65, and confocal microscopy studies detected USTAT-3/NF-?B complexes in the nuclei of CLL cells, thereby confirming these findings. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with retroviral STAT-3-short hairpin RNA attenuated the binding of NF-?B to DNA, as assessed by EMSA, and downregulated mRNA levels of NF-?B-regulated genes, as assessed by quantitative PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that USTAT-3 binds to the NF-?B p50/p65 dimers and that the USTAT-3/NF-?B complexes bind to DNA and activate NF-?B-regulated genes in CLL cells. PMID:21364020

Liu, Zhiming; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

2011-04-01

270

Binding Modes of Peptidomimetics Designed to Inhibit STAT3  

PubMed Central

STAT3 is a transcription factor that has been found to be constitutively activated in a number of human cancers. Dimerization of STAT3 via its SH2 domain and the subsequent translocation of the dimer to the nucleus leads to transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. Prevention of the dimerization is thus an attractive strategy for inhibiting the activity of STAT3. Phosphotyrosine-based peptidomimetic inhibitors, which mimic pTyr-Xaa-Yaa-Gln motif and have strong to weak binding affinities, have been previously investigated. It is well-known that structures of protein-inhibitor complexes are important for understanding the binding interactions and designing stronger inhibitors. Experimental structures of inhibitors bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3 are, however, unavailable. In this paper we describe a computational study that combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics to model structures of 12 peptidomimetic inhibitors bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3. A detailed analysis of the modeled structures was performed to evaluate the characteristics of the binding interactions. We also estimated the binding affinities of the inhibitors by combining MMPB/GBSA-based energies and entropic cost of binding. The estimated affinities correlate strongly with the experimentally obtained affinities. Modeling results show binding modes that are consistent with limited previous modeling studies on binding interactions involving the SH2 domain and phosphotyrosine(pTyr)-based inhibitors. We also discovered a stable novel binding mode that involves deformation of two loops of the SH2 domain that subsequently bury the C-terminal end of one of the stronger inhibitors. The novel binding mode could prove useful for developing more potent inhibitors aimed at preventing dimerization of cancer target protein STAT3.

Dhanik, Ankur; McMurray, John S.; Kavraki, Lydia E.

2012-01-01

271

A cell-permeable Stat3 SH2 domain mimetic inhibits Stat3 activation and induces antitumor cell effects in vitro.  

PubMed

Given the role of constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat) 3 in human tumors, Stat3 inhibitors would be useful as novel therapeutics and as tools for probing Stat3-mediated tumor processes. We herein report that a 28-mer peptide, SPI, derived from the Stat3 SH2 domain, replicates Stat3 biochemical properties. Studies show SPI and Stat3 (or Stat3 SH2 domain) bind with similar affinities to known Stat3-binding phosphotyrosine (pY) peptide motifs, including those of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the high-affinity, IL-6R/gp130-derived pY-peptide, GpYLPQTV-NH(2). Consequently, SPI functions as a potent and selective inhibitor of Stat3 SH2 domain:pTyr interactions and disrupts the binding of Stat3 to the IL-6R/gp130 peptide, GpYLPQTV-NH(2). Fluorescence imaging and immunofluorescence staining/laser-scanning confocal microscopy show SPI is cell membrane-permeable, associates with the cytoplasmic tail of EGFR in NIH3T3/hEGFR, and is present in the cytoplasm, but strongly localized at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus in malignant cells harboring persistently active Stat3. Moreover, SPI specifically blocks constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, DNA binding activity, and transcriptional function in malignant cells, with little or no effect on the induction of Stat1, Stat5, and Erk1/2(MAPK) pathways, or on general pTyr profile at the concentrations that inhibit Stat3 activity. Significantly, treatment with SPI of human breast, pancreatic, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring constitutively active Stat3 induced extensive morphology changes, associated with viability loss and apoptosis. Our study identifies SPI as a novel molecular probe for interrogating Stat3 signaling and that functions as a selective inhibitor of Stat3 activation with antitumor cell effects. PMID:20807764

Zhao, Wei; Jaganathan, Soumya; Turkson, James

2010-11-12

272

A Cell-permeable Stat3 SH2 Domain Mimetic Inhibits Stat3 Activation and Induces Antitumor Cell Effects in Vitro*  

PubMed Central

Given the role of constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat) 3 in human tumors, Stat3 inhibitors would be useful as novel therapeutics and as tools for probing Stat3-mediated tumor processes. We herein report that a 28-mer peptide, SPI, derived from the Stat3 SH2 domain, replicates Stat3 biochemical properties. Studies show SPI and Stat3 (or Stat3 SH2 domain) bind with similar affinities to known Stat3-binding phosphotyrosine (pY) peptide motifs, including those of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the high-affinity, IL-6R/gp130-derived pY-peptide, GpYLPQTV-NH2. Consequently, SPI functions as a potent and selective inhibitor of Stat3 SH2 domain:pTyr interactions and disrupts the binding of Stat3 to the IL-6R/gp130 peptide, GpYLPQTV-NH2. Fluorescence imaging and immunofluorescence staining/laser-scanning confocal microscopy show SPI is cell membrane-permeable, associates with the cytoplasmic tail of EGFR in NIH3T3/hEGFR, and is present in the cytoplasm, but strongly localized at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus in malignant cells harboring persistently active Stat3. Moreover, SPI specifically blocks constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, DNA binding activity, and transcriptional function in malignant cells, with little or no effect on the induction of Stat1, Stat5, and Erk1/2MAPK pathways, or on general pTyr profile at the concentrations that inhibit Stat3 activity. Significantly, treatment with SPI of human breast, pancreatic, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring constitutively active Stat3 induced extensive morphology changes, associated with viability loss and apoptosis. Our study identifies SPI as a novel molecular probe for interrogating Stat3 signaling and that functions as a selective inhibitor of Stat3 activation with antitumor cell effects.

Zhao, Wei; Jaganathan, Soumya; Turkson, James

2010-01-01

273

Stat3 is involved in angiotensin II-induced expression of MMP2 in gastric cancer cells.  

PubMed

The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) has been linked with tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. It has been reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) can induce MMP2 expression in gastric cancer cells. However, the molecular basis for Ang II regulates MMP2 expression in gastric cancer cells remains unclear. The aim of our study is to explore whether angiotensin II could induce MMP2 expression mediated through the Stat signaling pathway and its potential mechanism. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-binding assays was employed to determine the DNA-STAT binding activity. MMP2 and VEGF expression was analyzed with real-time PCR and Western blots. To examine the role of Stat3 in angiotensin II-induced MMP2 expression, A JAK-specific inhibitor and AG490 were used. Angiotensin II activated STAT-DNA binding activity in dose-dependent manners in gastric cancer cells. AG490 markedly inhibited angiotensin II-induced Stat3 activation and the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in gastric cancer cells. These results indicate that Stat3 may at least in part mediate angiotensin II-induced MMP2 mRNA expression in human gastric cancer cells. The activation of the JAK/Stat3 signaling pathway plays an important role in the progression of gastric cancer and that blockade of JAK/Stat3 signals may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:19082717

Huang, Wei; Yu, Li-Fen; Zhong, Jie; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Yun-Lin

2009-10-01

274

The JAK2/STAT3 and mitochondrial pathways are essential for quercetin nanoliposome-induced C6 glioma cell death.  

PubMed

The formulation of quercetin nanoliposomes (QUE-NLs) has been shown to enhance QUE antitumor activity in C6 glioma cells. At high concentrations, QUE-NLs induce necrotic cell death. In this study, we probed the molecular mechanisms of QUE-NL-induced C6 glioma cell death and examined whether QUE-NL-induced programmed cell death involved Bcl-2 family and mitochondrial pathway through STAT3 signal transduction pathway. Downregulation of Bcl-2 and the overexpression of Bax by QUE-NL supported the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins upstream of C6 glioma cell death. In addition, the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 were altered following exposure to QUE-NLs in C6 glioma cells, suggesting that QUE-NLs downregulated Bcl-2 mRNAs expression and enhanced the expression of mitochondrial mRNAs through STAT3-mediated signaling pathways either via direct or indirect mechanisms. There are several components such as ROS, mitochondrial, and Bcl-2 family shared by the necrotic and apoptotic pathways. Our studies indicate that the signaling cross point of the mitochondrial pathway and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in C6 glioma cell death is modulated by QUE-NLs. In conclusion, regulation of JAK2/STAT3 and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway agonists alone or in combination with treatment by QUE-NLs could be a more effective method of treating chemical-resistant glioma. PMID:23907460

Wang, G; Wang, J J; Chen, X L; Du, S M; Li, D S; Pei, Z J; Lan, H; Wu, L B

2013-01-01

275

The JAK2/STAT3 and mitochondrial pathways are essential for quercetin nanoliposome-induced C6 glioma cell death  

PubMed Central

The formulation of quercetin nanoliposomes (QUE-NLs) has been shown to enhance QUE antitumor activity in C6 glioma cells. At high concentrations, QUE-NLs induce necrotic cell death. In this study, we probed the molecular mechanisms of QUE-NL-induced C6 glioma cell death and examined whether QUE-NL-induced programmed cell death involved Bcl-2 family and mitochondrial pathway through STAT3 signal transduction pathway. Downregulation of Bcl-2 and the overexpression of Bax by QUE-NL supported the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins upstream of C6 glioma cell death. In addition, the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 were altered following exposure to QUE-NLs in C6 glioma cells, suggesting that QUE-NLs downregulated Bcl-2 mRNAs expression and enhanced the expression of mitochondrial mRNAs through STAT3-mediated signaling pathways either via direct or indirect mechanisms. There are several components such as ROS, mitochondrial, and Bcl-2 family shared by the necrotic and apoptotic pathways. Our studies indicate that the signaling cross point of the mitochondrial pathway and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in C6 glioma cell death is modulated by QUE-NLs. In conclusion, regulation of JAK2/STAT3 and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway agonists alone or in combination with treatment by QUE-NLs could be a more effective method of treating chemical-resistant glioma.

Wang, G; Wang, J J; Chen, X L; Du, S M; Li, D S; Pei, Z J; Lan, H; Wu, L B

2013-01-01

276

STAT3 activation: A key factor in tumor immunoescape.  

PubMed

Cancer growth is controlled by cancer cells (cell intrinsic phenomenon), but also by the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (cell extrinsic phenomenon). Thus cancer progression is mediated by the activation of transcription programs responsible for cancer cell proliferation, but also induced proliferation/activation of immunosuppressive cells such as Th17, Treg or myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). One of the key transcription factors involved in these pathways is the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In this review we will focus on STAT3 activation in immune cells, and how it impacts on tumor progression. PMID:24058791

Rébé, Cédric; Végran, Frédérique; Berger, Hélène; Ghiringhelli, François

2013-01-01

277

Obatoclax analog SC-2001 inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation through enhancing SHP-1 expression and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Interfering oncogenic STAT3 signaling is a promising anti-cancer strategy. We examined the efficacy and drug mechanism of an obatoclax analog SC-2001, a novel STAT3 inhibitor, in human breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Apoptosis was examined by both flow cytometry and western blot. Signaling pathways were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of SC-2001 was tested in xenograft nude mice. SC-2001 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in breast cancer cells. STAT3-regulated proteins, including Mcl-1, survivin, and cyclin D1, were repressed by SC-2001. Over-expression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected cells from SC-2001-induced apoptosis. Moreover, SC-2001 enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, a negative regulator of STAT3. Furthermore, the enhanced SHP-1 expression, in conjunction with increased SHP-1 phosphatase activity, was mediated by upregulated transcription by RFX-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that SC-2001 increased the binding capacity of RFX-1 to the SHP-1 promoter. Knockdown of either RFX-1 or SHP-1 reduced SC-2001-induced apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of RFX-1 increased SHP-1 expression and enhanced the apoptotic effect of SC-2001. Importantly, SC-2001 suppressed tumor growth in association with enhanced RFX-1 and SHP-1 expression and p-STAT3 downregulation in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. SC-2001 induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, an effect that was mediated by RFX-1 upregulated SHP-1 expression and SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation. Our study indicates targeting STAT3 signaling pathway may be a useful approach for the development of targeted agents for anti-breast cancer. PMID:24903225

Liu, Chun-Yu; Su, Jung-Chen; Ni, Mei-Huei; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Duen-Shian; Tai, Wei-Tien; Kao, Yuan-Ping; Hung, Man-Hsin; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

2014-07-01

278

EGCG inhibits the growth and tumorigenicity of nasopharyngeal tumor-initiating cells through attenuation of STAT3 activation  

PubMed Central

A subset of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) could initiate tumors and are responsible for tumor recurrence and chemotherapeutic resistance. In this study, we enriched TICs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by the spheres formation and characterized the stem-like signatures such as self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. By this method, we investigated that epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea could target TICs and potently inhibit sphere formation, eliminate the stem-like properties and enhance chemosensitivity in NPC through attenuation of STAT3 activation, which could be important in regulating the stemness expression in NPC. Our results demonstrated that STAT3 pathway plays an important role in mediating tumor-initiating capacities in NPC and suggest that inactivation of STAT3 with EGCG may represent a potential preventive and therapeutic approach for NPC.

Lin, Chien-Hung; Chao, Li-Keng; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chen, Yann-Jang

2014-01-01

279

Suppression of STAT3 and HIF-1 Alpha Mediates Anti-Angiogenic Activity of Betulinic Acid in Hypoxic PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that regulates various cellular processes such as cell survival, angiogenesis and proliferation. In the present study, we examined that betulinic acid (BA), a triterpene from the bark of white birch, had the inhibitory effects on hypoxia-mediated activation of STAT3 in androgen independent human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings BA inhibited the protein expression and the transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) under hypoxic condition. Consistently, BA blocked hypoxia-induced phosphorylation, DNA binding activity and nuclear accumulation of STAT3. In addition, BA significantly reduced cellular and secreted levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a critical angiogenic factor and a target gene of STAT3 induced under hypoxia. Furthermore, BA prevented in vitro capillary tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) maintained in conditioned medium of hypoxic PC-3 cells, implying anti-angiogenic activity of BA under hypoxic condition. Of note, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChiP) assay revealed that BA inhibited binding of HIF-1? and STAT3 to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, silencing STAT3 using siRNA transfection effectively enhanced the reduced VEGF production induced by BA treatment under hypoxia. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results suggest that BA has anti-angiogenic activity by disturbing the binding of HIF-1? and STAT3 to the VEGF promoter in hypoxic PC-3 cells.

Jung, Deok-Beom; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seok Geun; Shim, Beom Sang; Choi, Seung Hoon; Ko, Seong Gyu; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2011-01-01

280

Dynamic Balance of pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 in C57BL/6 Mice Infected with Lethal Or Nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play an important role in cytokine signaling pathways and regulation of immune responses. The balance of the phosphorylated (activated) STAT1 (pSTAT1) and STAT3 (pSTAT3) has been documented in cancer immunology. In this study, we investigated the dynamic balance of pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 in C57BL/6 mice infected with either a nonlethal (Py17XNL) or lethal (Py17XL) strain of Plasmodium yoelii. Both Py17XNL and Py17XL infections induced a maximum activation of STAT1 and STAT3 on the first day after parasite inoculation. Additionally, the Py17XNL infection induced a pSTAT1-dominant response in mice during the early stage of infection, with the resolution of parasitemia. In contrast, Py17XL infection induced a pSTAT3-dominant response during the early phase of infection, with the death of the animals. Our results indicated that maximum activation of STAT1 and STAT3 occurred much earlier than the peak levels of cytokines induced by Plasmodium yoelii infection based on previous reports and that infection with Py17XNL and Py17XL induced different dynamic patterns of pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 balance.

Shi, Xibao; Qin, Li; Liu, Guangjie; Zhao, Siting; Peng, Nanzheng; Chen, Xiaoping

2008-01-01

281

STAT3-mediated activation of microRNA cluster 17~92 promotes proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which can be further subdivided into two distinct entities (ALK+ and ALK?) based on the presence or absence of ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways triggered by ALK signaling, constitutive activation of STAT3 is strictly required for ALK-mediated transformation and survival. Here we performed genome-wide microRNA profiling and identified 48 microRNA concordantly modulated by the inducible knock-down of ALK and STAT3. To evaluate the functional role of differentially expressed miRNA, we forced their expression in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and monitored their influence after STAT3 depletion. We found that the expression of the microRNA-17~92 cluster partially rescues STAT3 knock-down by sustaining proliferation and survival of ALK+ cells. Experiments in a xenograft mouse model indicated that forced expression of microRNA-17~92 interferes with STAT3 knock-down in vivo. High expression levels of the microRNA-17~92 cluster resulted in down-regulation of BIM and TGF?RII proteins, suggesting that their targeting might mediate resistance to STAT3 knock-down in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. We speculate that the microRNA-17~92 cluster is involved in lymphomagenesis of STAT3+ ALCL and that its inhibition might represent an alternative avenue to interfere with ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

Spaccarotella, Elisa; Pellegrino, Elisa; Ferracin, Manuela; Ferreri, Cristina; Cuccuru, Giuditta; Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Cantarella, Daniela; Taulli, Riccardo; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Medico, Enzo; Negrini, Massimo; Chan, Wing C.; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

2014-01-01

282

Benzyl Isothiocyanate Suppresses Pancreatic Tumor Angiogenesis and Invasion by Inhibiting HIF-?/VEGF/Rho-GTPases: Pivotal Role of STAT-3  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have shown that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) suppresses pancreatic tumor growth by inhibiting STAT-3; however, the exact mechanism of tumor growth suppression was not clear. Here we evaluated the effects and mechanism of BITC on pancreatic tumor angiogenesis. Our results reveal that BITC significantly inhibits neovasularization on rat aorta and Chicken-Chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, BITC blocks the migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PanC-1 pancreatic cancer cells in a dose dependant manner. Moreover, secretion of VEGF and MMP-2 in normoxic and hypoxic BxPC-3 and PanC-1 cells was significantly suppressed by BITC. Both VEGF and MMP-2 play a critical role in angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results reveal that BITC significantly suppresses the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 (Tyr-1175), and expression of HIF-?. Rho-GTPases, which are regulated by VEGF play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer progression. BITC treatment reduced the expression of RhoC whereas up-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor RhoB. STAT-3 over-expression or IL-6 treatment significantly induced HIF-1? and VEGF expression; however, BITC substantially suppressed STAT-3 as well as STAT-3-induced HIF-1? and VEGF expression. Finally, in vivo tumor growth and matrigel-plug assay show reduced tumor growth and substantial reduction of hemoglobin content in the matrigel plugs and tumors of mice treated orally with 12 µmol BITC, indicating reduced tumor angiogenesis. Immunoblotting of BITC treated tumors show reduced expression of STAT-3 phosphorylation (Tyr-705), HIF-?, VEGFR-2, VEGF, MMP-2, CD31 and RhoC. Taken together, our results suggest that BITC suppresses pancreatic tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis through STAT-3-dependant pathway.

Boreddy, Srinivas Reddy; Sahu, Ravi P.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

2011-01-01

283

Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Inhibits Breast Tumor Kinase Activation of STAT3*  

PubMed Central

Breast tumor kinase (Brk) was originally isolated from a human metastatic breast tumor, but also is found expressed in other epithelial tumors and in a subset of normal epithelia. Brk is a tyrosine kinase and its expression in breast carcinoma has been linked to tumor progression. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of the substrate targets of Brk, and elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is known to contribute to oncogenesis. Conventional activation of STAT3 occurs in response to cytokine stimulation of Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK). One of the negative regulators discovered in cytokine signaling of the JAK-STAT pathway is the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this report we describe the finding that SOCS3 can also inhibit the unconventional target, Brk. Investigation of the mechanism by which SOCS3 inhibits Brk reveals the SOCS3 protein binds to Brk primarily via its SH2 domain, and its main inhibitory effect is mediated by the SOCS3 kinase inhibitory region (KIR). SOCS3 has only a modest effect on promoting Brk degradation, and this requires the C-terminal SOCS box domain. SOCS3 is the only known inhibitor of Brk, and knowledge of the mechanisms by which SOCS3 inhibits Brk may lead to methods that block Brk in cancer progression.

Gao, Yiwei; Cimica, Velasco; Reich, Nancy C.

2012-01-01

284

Sorafenib inhibits STAT3 signaling associated with growth arrest and apoptosis of medulloblastomas  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas are the most frequent malignant brain tumors in children. Sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43-9006), a multi-kinase inhibitor, blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. Sorafenib inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in two established cell lines (Daoy and D283) and a primary culture (VC312) of human medulloblastomas. In addition, sorafenib inhibited phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in both cell lines and the primary tumor cells. The inhibition of phosphorylated STAT3 (Tyr705) occurs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, AKT (protein kinase B) was only decreased in D283 and VC312 medulloblastoma cells and MAPKs (ERK1/2) were not inhibited by sorafenib in these cells. Both D-type cyclins (D1, D2, D3) and E-type cyclin were down-regulated by sorafenib. Also, expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, a member of the Bcl-2 family, was decreased and correlated with apoptosis induced by sorafenib. Finally, sorafenib suppressed the growth of human medulloblastoma cells in a mouse xenograft model. Together, our data demonstrate that sorafenib blocks STAT3 signaling as well as expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, associated with inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in medulloblastomas. These findings provide a rationale for treatment of pediatric medulloblastomas with sorafenib.

Yang, Fan; Van Meter, Timothy E.; Buettner, Ralf; Hedvat, Michael; Liang, Wei; Kowolik, Claudia M.; Mepani, Nilesh; Mirosevich, Janni; Nam, Sangkil; Chen, Mike Y.; Tye, Gary; Kirschbaum, Mark; Jove, Richard

2008-01-01

285

The molecular pathogenesis of STAT3-driven gastric tumourigenesis in mice is independent of IL-17.  

PubMed

Chronic activation of the gastric mucosal adaptive immune response is a characteristic trait of gastric cancer. It has recently emerged that a new class of T helper (Th) cells, defined by their ability to produce interleukin (IL)-17A (Th17), is associated with a host of inflammatory responses, including gastritis. However, the role of these Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer is less clear. To formally address this, we employed gp130(F/F) mice, which spontaneously develop gastric inflammation-associated tumours akin to human intestinal-type gastric cancer. At the molecular level, these tumours demonstrate hyper-activation of the latent transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 via the IL-6 cytokine family member, IL-11. In gp130(F/F) mice, the generation of Th17 cells, as well as the gastric expression of IL-17a and other Th17-related factors (Ror?t, IL-23), were augmented compared to wild-type gp130(+/+) mice. Consistent with a role for IL-6 and STAT3 in regulating IL-17A, increased Th17 generation and gastric expression of Th17-related factors in gp130(F/F) mice were reduced to wild-type levels in gp130(F/F) :Stat3(-/+) mice displaying normalized STAT3 activity, and also in gp130(F/F) :IL-6(-/-) mice. Importantly, genetic ablation of IL-17A in gp130(F/F) :IL-17a(-/-) mice did not suppress the initiation and growth of gastric tumours. Furthermore, IL-17A and RORC gene expression was strongly increased in human gastric biopsies from patients with gastritis, but not gastric cancer. Collectively, our data suggest that increased expression of Th17-related factors does not correlate with the molecular pathogenesis of gastric tumourigenesis. PMID:21710691

Kennedy, Catherine L; Najdovska, Meri; Jones, Gareth W; McLeod, Louise; Hughes, Norman R; Allison, Cody; Ooi, Chia Huey; Tan, Patrick; Ferrero, Richard L; Jones, Simon A; Dev, Anouk; Sievert, William; Bhathal, Prithi S; Jenkins, Brendan J

2011-10-01

286

SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation.

Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S.

2012-01-01

287

SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation. PMID:22206672

Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S

2012-01-13

288

STAT3 Mutations in the Hyper-IgE Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We collected longitudinal clinical data on patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome and their families and assayed the levels of cytokines secreted by stimulated leuko- cytes and the gene expression in resting and stimulated cells. These data impli- cated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) as a candi- date gene, which we then sequenced. Results We

Steven M. Holland; Frank R. DeLeo; Houda Z. Elloumi; Amy P. Hsu; Nina Brodsky; Alexandra F. Freeman; Andrew Demidowich; Joie Davis; Maria L. Turner; Victoria L. Anderson; Dirk N. Darnell; Pamela A. Welch; Douglas B. Kuhns; David M. Frucht; Harry L. Malech; John I. Gallin; Scott D. Kobayashi; Adeline R. Whitney; Jovanka M. Voyich; James M. Musser; Cristina Woellner; Alejandro A. Schäffer; Jennifer M. Puck; Bodo Grimbacher

2010-01-01

289

Activation of Stat3 in Human Melanoma Promotes Brain Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with melanoma. The molecular changes that lead to brain metastasis remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed a model to study human melanoma brain metastasis and found that Stat3 activity was increased in human brain metastatic melanoma cells when compared with that in cutaneous melanoma cells. The

Tong-xin Xie; Feng-Ju Huang; Kenneth D. Aldape; Mingguang Liu; Jeffrey E. Gershenwald; Keping Xie; Raymond Sawaya; Suyun Huang

290

Suppression of STAT3 and HIF-1 Alpha Mediates Anti-Angiogenic Activity of Betulinic Acid in Hypoxic PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSignal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that regulates various cellular processes such as cell survival, angiogenesis and proliferation. In the present study, we examined that betulinic acid (BA), a triterpene from the bark of white birch, had the inhibitory effects on hypoxia-mediated activation of STAT3 in androgen independent human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsBA

Jimin Shin; Hyo-Jeong Lee; Deok-Beom Jung; Ji Hoon Jung; Hyo-Jung Lee; Eun-Ok Lee; Seok Geun Lee; Beom Sang Shim; Seung Hoon Choi; Seong Gyu Ko; Kwang Seok Ahn; Soo-Jin Jeong; Sung-Hoon Kim

2011-01-01

291

Biologically active leptin-related synthetic peptides activate STAT3 via phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI-3K.  

PubMed

The effects of leptin-related synthetic peptides [d-Leu-4]-OB3 and OB3 on energy balance and glucose homeostasis in ob/ob and db/db mice have been confirmed. The molecular basis of these effects, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the ability of these peptides to activate signal transduction pathways known to be involved in transduction of the leptin signal. In a specific and concentration-dependent manner, [d-Leu-4]-OB3 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, PI-3K, Ser-727 STAT3, and Tyr-705 of STAT3. OB3 also induced activation of STAT3 via phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT3 Ser-727, STAT3 Tyr-705 and PI-3K p85, but to a lesser degree. Using PD98059 and LY294002, specific inhibitors of MEK and PI-3K, respectively, we were able to identify the signal transduction pathways involved in peptide-induced STAT3 activation. [d-Leu-4]-OB3 induced serine phosphorylation of STAT3 primarily through activation of ERK1/2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, however, was induced primarily through activation of PI-3K. Our data suggest that in db/db mice, [d-Leu-4]-OB3 binding to short isoforms of the leptin receptor induces intracellular signaling cascades which do not require OB-Rb activation. These signals may ultimately result in peptide effects on transcriptional and translational events associated with energy balance and glycemic regulation. In summary, we have shown for the first time that, similar to leptin, bioactive leptin-related synthetic peptide analogs activate STAT3 via phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues by multiple signal transduction pathways. PMID:24819473

Lin, Hung-Yun; Yang, Sheng-Huei; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Cheng, Guei-Yun; Davis, Paul J; Grasso, Patricia

2014-07-01

292

Acyloxy Nitroso Compounds Inhibit LIF Signaling in Endothelial Cells and Cardiac Myocytes: Evidence That STAT3 Signaling Is Redox-Sensitive  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that oxidative stress inhibits leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling by targeting JAK1, and the catalytic domains of JAK 1 and 2 have a cysteine-based redox switch. Thus, we postulated that the NO sibling and thiophylic compound, nitroxyl (HNO), would inhibit LIF-induced JAK-STAT3 activation. Pretreatment of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) or neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the HNO donors Angeli’s salt or nitrosocyclohexyl acetate (NCA) inhibited LIF-induced STAT3 activation. NCA pretreatment also blocked the induction of downstream inflammatory genes (e.g. intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta). The related 1-nitrosocyclohexyl pivalate (NCP; not a nitroxyl donor) was equally effective in inhibiting STAT3 activation, suggesting that these compounds act as thiolate targeting electrophiles. The JAK1 redox switch is likely not a target of acyloxy nitroso compounds, as NCA had no effect on JAK1 catalytic activity and only modestly affected JAK1-induced phosphorylation of the LIF receptor. However, pretreatment of recombinant human STAT3 with NCA or NCP reduced labeling of free sulfhydryl residues. We show that NCP in the presence of diamide enhanced STAT3 glutathionylation and dimerization in adult mouse cardiac myocytes and altered STAT3 under non-reducing conditions. Finally, we show that monomeric STAT3 levels are decreased in the G?q model of heart failure in a redox-sensitive manner. Altogether, our evidence indicates that STAT3 has redox-sensitive cysteines that regulate its activation and are targeted by HNO donors and acyloxy nitroso compounds. These findings raise the possibility of new therapeutic strategies to target STAT3 signaling via a redox-dependent manner, particularly in the context of cardiac and non-cardiac diseases with prominent pro-inflammatory signaling.

Zgheib, Carlos; Kurdi, Mazen; Zouein, Fouad A.; Gunter, Barak W.; Stanley, Brian A.; Zgheib, Joe; Romero, Damian G.; King, S. Bruce; Paolocci, Nazareno; Booz, George W.

2012-01-01

293

Acyloxy nitroso compounds inhibit LIF signaling in endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes: evidence that STAT3 signaling is redox-sensitive.  

PubMed

We previously showed that oxidative stress inhibits leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling by targeting JAK1, and the catalytic domains of JAK 1 and 2 have a cysteine-based redox switch. Thus, we postulated that the NO sibling and thiophylic compound, nitroxyl (HNO), would inhibit LIF-induced JAK-STAT3 activation. Pretreatment of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) or neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with the HNO donors Angeli's salt or nitrosocyclohexyl acetate (NCA) inhibited LIF-induced STAT3 activation. NCA pretreatment also blocked the induction of downstream inflammatory genes (e.g. intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta). The related 1-nitrosocyclohexyl pivalate (NCP; not a nitroxyl donor) was equally effective in inhibiting STAT3 activation, suggesting that these compounds act as thiolate targeting electrophiles. The JAK1 redox switch is likely not a target of acyloxy nitroso compounds, as NCA had no effect on JAK1 catalytic activity and only modestly affected JAK1-induced phosphorylation of the LIF receptor. However, pretreatment of recombinant human STAT3 with NCA or NCP reduced labeling of free sulfhydryl residues. We show that NCP in the presence of diamide enhanced STAT3 glutathionylation and dimerization in adult mouse cardiac myocytes and altered STAT3 under non-reducing conditions. Finally, we show that monomeric STAT3 levels are decreased in the G?q model of heart failure in a redox-sensitive manner. Altogether, our evidence indicates that STAT3 has redox-sensitive cysteines that regulate its activation and are targeted by HNO donors and acyloxy nitroso compounds. These findings raise the possibility of new therapeutic strategies to target STAT3 signaling via a redox-dependent manner, particularly in the context of cardiac and non-cardiac diseases with prominent pro-inflammatory signaling. PMID:22905257

Zgheib, Carlos; Kurdi, Mazen; Zouein, Fouad A; Gunter, Barak W; Stanley, Brian A; Zgheib, Joe; Romero, Damian G; King, S Bruce; Paolocci, Nazareno; Booz, George W

2012-01-01

294

Molecular Integration of HoxB4 and STAT3 for Self-Renewal of Hematopoietic Stem Cells: A Model of Molecular Convergence for Stemness.  

PubMed

The upregulation of HoxB4 promotes self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) without overriding the normal stem cell pool size. A similar enhancement of HSC self-renewal occurs when signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in HSCs. In this study, to gain insight into the functional organization of individual transcription factors (TFs) that have similar effects on HSCs, we investigated the molecular interplay between HoxB4 and STAT3 in the regulation of HSC self-renewal. We found that while STAT3-C or HoxB4 similarly enhanced the in vitro self-renewal and in vivo repopulating activities of HSCs, simultaneous transduction of both TFs did not have additive effects, indicating their functional redundancy in HSCs. In addition, activation of STAT3 did not cause changes in the expression levels of HoxB4. In contrast, the inhibition of STAT3 activity in HoxB4-overexpressing hematopoietic cells significantly abrogated the enhancing effects of HoxB4, and the upregulation of HoxB4 caused a ligand-independent Tyr-phosphorylation of STAT3. Microarray analysis revealed a significant overlap of the transcriptomes regulated by STAT3 and HoxB4 in undifferentiated hematopoietic cells. Moreover, a gene set enrichment analysis showed significant overlap in the candidate TFs that can recapitulate the transcriptional changes induced by HoxB4 or STAT3. Interestingly, among these common TFs were the pluripotency-related genes Oct-4 and Nanog. These results indicate that tissue-specific TFs regulating HSC self-renewal are functionally organized to play an equivalent role in transcription and provide insights into the functional convergence of multiple entries of TFs toward a conserved transcription program for the stem cell state. Stem Cells 2014;32:1313-1322. PMID:24446131

Hong, Sung-Hyun; Yang, Seung-Jip; Kim, Tae-Min; Shim, Jae-Seung; Lee, Ho-Sun; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Bo-Bae; Woo Nam, Suk; Young Ryoo, Zae; Oh, Il-Hoan

2014-05-01

295

A specific epitope of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 is responsible for the induction of apoptosis in rat transformed mast cells.  

PubMed

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) functions in vivo as a key molecule in suppressing the transcriptional activity of both microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and STAT3, two transcription factors that play a major role in the development, phenotypic expression, and survival of mast cells and melanocytes. In the present study we have investigated the role played by PIAS3 in the regulation of cell cycle in mast cells and melanocytes. We have characterized the biological role of a 23-aa domain derived from PIAS3 that induces apoptosis in these cells by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of both MITF and STAT3. This PIAS3 inhibitor peptide could serve as the beginning of an in depth study for the development of peptide inhibitors for MITF and STAT3. PMID:19201870

Yagil, Zohar; Kay, Gillian; Nechushtan, Hovav; Razin, Ehud

2009-02-15

296

Design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of novel hybrid peptidomimetic inhibitors of STAT3 protein.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of oncogenic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein signaling pathways has been extensively implicated in human cancers. Given STAT3's prominent dysregulatory role in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis, there has been a significant effort to discover STAT3-specific inhibitors as chemical probes for defining the aberrant STAT3-mediated molecular events that support the malignant phenotype. To identify novel, STAT3-selective inhibitors suitable for interrogating STAT3 signaling in tumor cells, we explored the design of hybrid molecules by conjugating a known STAT3 inhibitory peptidomimetic, ISS610 to the high-affinity STAT3-binding peptide motif derived from the ILR/gp-130. Several hybrid molecules were examined in in vitro biophysical and biochemical studies for inhibitory potency against STAT3. Lead inhibitor 14aa was shown to strongly bind to STAT3 (K(D)=900 nM), disrupt STAT3:phosphopeptide complexes (K(i)=5 ?M) and suppress STAT3 activity in in vitro DNA binding activity/electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Moreover, lead STAT3 inhibitor 14aa induced a time-dependent inhibition of constitutive STAT3 activation in v-Src transformed mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3/v-Src), with 80% suppression of constitutively-active STAT3 at 6h following treatment of NIH3T3/v-Src. However, STAT3 activity recovered at 24h after treatment of cells, suggesting potential degradation of the compound. Results further showed a suppression of aberrant STAT3 activity in NIH3T3/v-Src by the treatment with compound 14aa-OH, which is the non-pTyr version of compound 14aa. The effect of compounds 14aa and 14aa-OH are accompanied by a moderate loss of cell viability. PMID:21216604

Shahani, Vijay M; Yue, Peibin; Fletcher, Steven; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Luu, Diana P; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron D; Turkson, James; Gunning, Patrick T

2011-03-01

297

MUC1-C Oncoprotein Promotes STAT3 Activation in an Autoinductive Regulatory Loop  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in human breast cancer and other malignancies. Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a heterodimeric cell surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human carcinomas and, like STAT3, promotes cell survival and induces transformation. Here, we showed that in breast cancer cells, the MUC1 carboxyl-terminal receptor subunit (MUC1-C) associated with the gp130–Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1)–STAT3 complex. The MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain interacted directly with JAK1 and STAT3, and MUC1-C was necessary for JAK1-mediated STAT3 activation. In turn, MUC1-C and activated STAT3 occupied the promoter of MUC1, and MUC1-C contributed to STAT3-mediated activation of MUC1 transcription. The MUC1-C inhibitor GO-201 blocked the MUC1-C interaction with STAT3, thereby decreasing MUC1-C and STAT3 occupancy on the MUC1 and STAT3 promoters and activation of STAT3 target genes, including MUC1 itself. These findings indicate that MUC1-C promotes STAT3 activation and that MUC1-C and STAT3 function in an autoinductive lopp that may play a role in cancer cell survival.

Ahmad, Rehan; Rajabi, Hasan; Kosugi, Michio; Joshi, Maya Datt; Alam, Maroof; Vasir, Baldev; Kawano, Takeshi; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald

2011-01-01

298

p42/p44 MAPK-mediated Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation is required for progestin-induced full activation of Stat3 and breast cancer growth.  

PubMed

Stat3 is a signaling node for multiple oncogenic pathways and is therefore frequently active in breast cancer. As experimental and clinical evidence reveals that progestins are key players in controlling mammary gland tumorigenesis, we studied Stat3 participation in this event. We have previously shown that progestins induce Stat3Tyr705 phosphorylation and its transcriptional activation in breast cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that progestins also induce Stat3 phosphorylation at Ser727 residue, which occurs via activation of c-Src/p42/p44 MAPK pathways in murine progestin-dependent C4HD cells and in T-47D cells. Expression of a Stat3S727A vector, which carries a serine-to-alanine substitution at codon 727, shows that Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation is required for full transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 gene expression by progestins and for in vivo Stat3 recruitment on cyclin D1 promoter. Transfection of Stat3S727A in murine and human breast cancer cells abolished progestin-induced in vitro and in vivo growth. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between progesterone receptor expression and nuclear localization of Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation in breast cancer biopsies. These data highlight Stat3 phosphorylation in Ser727 residue as a nongenomic action by progestins, necessary to promote breast cancer growth. PMID:23329648

Tkach, Mercedes; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Rivas, Martín A; Proietti, Cecilia J; Díaz Flaqué, María Celeste; Mercogliano, María Florencia; Beguelin, Wendy; Maronna, Esteban; Guzmán, Pablo; Gercovich, Felipe G; Deza, Ernesto Gil; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

2013-04-01

299

STAT3 controls the neutrophil migratory response to CXCR2 ligands by direct activation of G-CSF-induced CXCR2 expression and via modulation of CXCR2 signal transduction.  

PubMed

Neutrophil mobilization, the release of neutrophils from the bone marrow reserve into circulating blood, is important to increase peripheral neutrophil amounts during bacterial infections. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokines, such as macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; CXCL2), can induce neutrophil mobilization, but the mechanism(s) they use remain unclear. Signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is the principal intracellular signaling molecule activated upon G-CSF ligation of its receptor. Using a murine model with conditional STAT3 deletion in bone marrow, we demonstrated previously that STAT3 regulates acute G-CSF-responsive neutrophil mobilization and MIP-2-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis. In this study, we show STAT3 is also necessary for MIP-2-elicited neutrophil mobilization. STAT3 appears to function by controlling extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which is important for MIP-2-mediated chemotaxis. In addition, we demonstrate that G-CSF stimulates the expression of the MIP-2 receptor via STAT3-dependent transcriptional activation of Il8rb. G-CSF treatment also induces STAT3-dependent changes in bone marrow chemokine expression levels which may further affect neutrophil retention and release. Taken together, our study demonstrates that STAT3 regulates multiple aspects of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression and function within the bone marrow, indicating a central role in the neutrophil mobilization response. PMID:20185584

Nguyen-Jackson, Hoainam; Panopoulos, Athanasia D; Zhang, Huiyuan; Li, Haiyan S; Watowich, Stephanie S

2010-04-22

300

Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

Conway, Greg

2008-01-01

301

A20 Promotes Liver Regeneration by Decreasing SOCS3 Expression to Enhance IL-6/STAT3 Proliferative Signals  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration is of major clinical importance in the setting of liver injury, resection, and transplantation. A20, a potent anti-inflammatory and NF-?B inhibitory protein, has established pro-proliferative properties in hepatocytes, in part through decreasing expression of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21. Both C-terminal (7-Zinc fingers; 7Zn) and N-terminal (Nter) domains of A20 were required to decrease p21 and inhibit NF-?B. However, both independently increased hepatocyte proliferation, suggesting that additional mechanisms contributed to the pro-proliferative function of A20 in hepatocytes. We ascribed one of A20’s pro-proliferative mechanisms to increased and sustained IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation, as a result of decreased hepatocyte expression of the negative regulator of IL-6 signaling, SOCS3. This novel A20 function segregates with its 7Zn not Nter domain. Conversely, total and partial loss of A20 in hepatocytes increased SOCS3 expression, hampering IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Following liver resection in mice pro-proliferative targets downstream of IL-6/STAT3 signaling were increased by A20 overexpression and decreased by A20 knockdown. In contrast, IL-6/STAT3 pro-inflammatory targets were increased in A20 deficient livers, and decreased or unchanged in A20 overexpressing livers. Upstream of SOCS3, levels of its microRNA regulator miR203 were significantly decreased in A20-deficient livers. Altogether these results demonstrate that A20 enhances IL-6/STAT3 pro-proliferative signals in hepatocytes by down-regulating SOCS3, likely through a miR203-dependent manner. This finding together with A20 reducing the levels of the potent cell cycle brake p21 establishes its pro-proliferative properties in hepatocytes and prompts the pursuit of A20-based therapies to promote liver regeneration and repair.

da Silva, Cleide G.; Studer, Peter; Skroch, Marco; Mahiou, Jerome; Minussi, Darlan C.; Peterson, Clayton R.; Wilson, Suzhuei W.; Patel, Virendra I.; Ma, Averil; Csizmadia, Eva; Ferran, Christiane

2013-01-01

302

Ethanolamine is a novel STAT3 dependent cardioprotective agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolamine is a biogenic amine found naturally in the body as part of membrane lipids and as a metabolite of the cardioprotective\\u000a substances, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and anandamide. In the brain, ethanolamine, formed from the breakdown of anandamide\\u000a protects against ischaemic apoptosis. However, the effects of ethanolamine in the heart are unknown. Signal transducer and\\u000a activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is

Roisin F. KellyKim; Kim T. Lamont; Sarin Somers; Damian Hacking; Lydia Lacerda; Paul Thomas; Lionel H. Opie; Sandrine Lecour

2010-01-01

303

Linkage between STAT Regulation and Epstein-Barr Virus Gene Expression in Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines is regulated by EBNA2. However, the factors regulating viral expression in EBV-associated tumors that do not express EBNA2 are poorly understood. In EBV-associated tumors, EBNA1 and frequently LMP1 are synthesized. We found that an alternative latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promoter, L1-TR, located within the terminal repeats is active in

H. Chen; J. M. Lee; Y. Zong; M. Borowitz; M. H. Ng; R. F. Ambinder; S. D. Hayward

2001-01-01

304

The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-?B, and WNT/?-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis. PMID:24662939

Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

2014-01-01

305

The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-?B, and WNT/?-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

2014-01-01

306

Angoline: A selective IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitor isolated from Zanthoxylum nitidum.  

PubMed

STAT3 signaling pathway is an important target for human cancer therapy. Thus, the identification of small-molecules that target STAT3 signaling will be of great interests in the development of anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to identify novel inhibitors of STAT3 pathway from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. The bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract of Z. nitidum using a STAT3-responsive gene reporter assay led to the isolation of angoline (1) as a potent and selective inhibitor of the STAT3 signaling pathway (IC50=11.56?M). Angoline inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and its target gene expression and consequently induced growth inhibition of human cancer cells with constitutively activated STAT3 (IC50=3.14-4.72?M). This work provided a novel lead for the development of anti-cancer agents targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:24863036

Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Qing; Ye, Yushan; Li, Wuguo; Qiu, Junxin; Liu, Jingli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yu, Qiang

2014-01-01

307

Stat3 Activation Is Required for Cellular Transformation by v-src  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stat3 activation has been associated with cytokine-induced proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and transforma- tion. Constitutively activated Stat3 has been found in many human tumors as well as v-abl- and v-src- transformed cell lines. Because of these correlations, we examined directly the relationship of activated Stat3 to cellular transformation and found that wild-type Stat3 enhances the transforming potential of v-src while three dominant

JACQUELINE F. BROMBERG; CURT M. HORVATH; DANIEL BESSER; WYNDHAM W. LATHEM

1998-01-01

308

Imaging of STAT3 Signaling Pathway During Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic transcription factor involved in a variety of physiological processes. STAT3 acts as a key transcriptional determinant of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and plays a pivotal function in early mammalian embryogenesis because the development of many organs requires STAT3 activation. However, little is known about the role of STAT3 function during ES cell differentiation. To answer this question, we built a lentiviral construct with 7-repeat STAT3-binding sequence (enhancer) and minimal TA (promoter) driving renilla luciferase and monomeric red fluorescence protein (Rluc-mRFP), followed by a constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter driving green fluorescent protein as a selection marker. The specificity of our custom-designed 7-repeat STAT3 reporter construct was first confirmed by cotransfection with constitutively active version of STAT3 (STAT3C) into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Next, a mouse ES cell line stably transduced with STAT3 reporter construct was isolated. This ES cell line showed a tight response in reporter gene expression with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induction and was chosen as a developmental model for the STAT3 functional study. Using serial noninvasive bioluminescence imaging, we showed that the onset of embryoid body (EB) formation involved inhibition of STAT3 activity. However, during differentiation, STAT3 activity steadily increased from day 5 to 14 and was reduced by day 21. STAT3 activity was also confirmed separately by Western blots. Finally, phosphorylation of STAT3 was also found to correspond with cardiomyocyte differentiation. In summary, this is the first study to monitor real-time STAT3 activity during ES cell differentiation. This genetically modified line can be used to study the biological role of STAT3 during ES cell differentiation into different derivatives.

Xie, Xiaoyan; Chan, Keith S.; Cao, Feng; Huang, Mei; Li, Zongjin; Lee, Andrew; Weissman, Irving L.

2009-01-01

309

Therapeutic effects of STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide on human lung cancer in xenograft mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is usually constitutively activated in a variety of malignancies. Therefore, STAT3 may be a promising target for treatment of tumor cells. To explore the possibility of a double-stranded decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) targeted blocking STAT3 over-activated tumor cells, we, here, evaluate the efficacy of STAT3 decoy ODN on human lung cancer cells

Xulong Zhang; Jian Zhang; Lihua Wang; Haiming Wei; Zhigang Tian

2007-01-01

310

Stat3 activation is limiting for reprogramming to ground state pluripotency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by activating Jak kinase and the transcription factor Stat3. Here we investigate whether Jak\\/Stat3 may also contribute to induction of pluripotency. EpiSCs derived from postimplantation embryos express low levels of Lif receptor and Stat3. We introduced into EpiSCs a Jak\\/Stat3 activating receptor (GY118F) responsive

Jian Yang; Anouk L. van Oosten; Thorold W. Theunissen; Ge Guo; Jose C. R. Silva; Austin Smith

2010-01-01

311

STAT3 deletion during hematopoiesis causes Crohn's disease-like pathogenesis and lethality: A critical role of STAT3 in innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key transcriptional mediator for many cytokines and is essential for normal embryonic development. We have generated a unique strain of mice with tissue-specific disruption of STAT3 in bone marrow cells during hematopoiesis. This specific STAT3 deletion causes death of these mice within 4-6 weeks after birth with Crohn's disease-like pathogenesis

Thomas Welte; Samuel S. M. Zhang; Tian Wang; Zhiyuan Zhang; David G. T. Hesslein; Zhinan Yin; Arihiro Kano; Yoshiki Iwamoto; En Li; Joseph E. Craft; Alfred L. M. Bothwell; Erol Fikrig; Pandelakis A. Koni; Richard A. Flavell; Xin-Yuan Fu

2003-01-01

312

Tumor-mediated inhibition of human dendritic cell differentiation and function is consistently counteracted by combined p38 MAPK and STAT3 inhibition  

PubMed Central

Targeting dendritic cells (DC) through the release of suppressive factors is an effective means for tumors to escape immune control. We assessed the involvement of downstream signaling through the JAK2/STAT3 and p38 MAPK pathways in tumor-induced suppression of human DC development. Whereas the JAK2/STAT3 pathway has been pinpointed in mouse studies as a key regulator of myeloid suppression, in human DC this is less well established. We studied the effects of STAT3 inhibition on the suppression of monocyte-derived DC differentiation mediated by a short-list of four predominant suppressive factors and found that pharmacological STAT3 inhibition could only counteract the effects of IL-6. Accordingly, in testing a panel of supernatants derived from 11 cell lines representing various types of solid tumors, STAT3 inhibition only modestly affected the suppressive effects of a minority of supernatants. Importantly, combined interference in the STAT3 and p38 pathways completely prevented inhibition of DC differentiation by all tested supernatants and effected superior DC function, evidenced by increased allogeneic T cell reactivity with elevated IL-12p70/IL-10 ratios and Th1 skewing. Combined STAT3 and p38 inhibition also afforded superior protection against the suppressive effects of primary glioma and melanoma supernatants and induced a shift from CD14+ cells to CD1a+ cells in metastatic melanoma single-cell suspensions, indicating a potential for improved DC differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. We conclude that combined interference in the STAT3 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways is a promising approach to overcome tumor-induced inhibitory signaling in DC precursors and will likely support clinical immunotherapeutic strategies.

Oosterhoff, Dinja; Lougheed, Sinead; van de Ven, Rieneke; Lindenberg, Jelle; van Cruijsen, Hester; Hiddingh, Lotte; Kroon, Jan; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J.M.; Hangalapura, Basav; Scheper, Rik J.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.

2012-01-01

313

Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell–dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10– and IL-21–mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21–induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells.

Deenick, Elissa K.; Avery, Danielle T.; Chan, Anna; Berglund, Lucinda J.; Ives, Megan L.; Moens, Leen; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D.; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Roesler, Joachim; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; French, Martyn A.; Fulcher, David A.; Cook, Matthew C.; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Klein, Christoph; Holland, Steven M.; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ma, Cindy S.

2013-01-01

314

G-protein-coupled Receptor Agonist BV8/Prokineticin-2 and STAT3 Protein Form a Feed-forward Loop in Both Normal and Malignant Myeloid Cells*  

PubMed Central

An important role of BV8 in mobilization of myeloid cells and myeloid cell-dependent angiogenesis has been established. Recently, it has also been shown that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced BV8 expression is STAT3 dependent in CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells. However, the BV8 downstream signaling pathway(s) intrinsic to myeloid cells crucial for angiogenesis, and potentially also for development of cancers of myeloid origin, remains largely unknown. Here we show that BV8 activates STAT3, which is critical for regulating genes important for both tumor cell proliferation/survival and tumor angiogenesis, in both normal and malignant myeloid cells. Further, BV8-induced STAT3 activation requires Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) activity as shown by both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition. Knocking down BV8 in human myeloid leukemia cells inhibits STAT3 activity and expression of STAT3 downstream angiogenic and pro-proliferation/survival genes, leading to a decrease in tumor cell viability. BV8 shRNA expressing leukemia cells exhibit reduced STAT3 activity and tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, we have delineated a signaling pathway downstream of BV8 that plays critical roles in both the tumor microenvironment and malignant myeloid cells for angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation/survival.

Xin, Hong; Lu, Rongze; Lee, Heehyoung; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Jiehui; Liu, Yong; Shen, Shudan; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

2013-01-01

315

Chrysin overcomes TRAIL resistance of cancer cells through Mcl-1 downregulation by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills various types of cancer cells without harming normal cells, but TRAIL resistance has been frequently observed in cancer cells. Propolis (bee glue) is a material collected from various plants by honeybees and is a rich source of bioactive compounds, including the natural flavonoid chrysin, which possesses multiple anticancer effects. We investigated the mechanism underlying the TRAIL sensitization effect of chrysin, which is a major constituent of Thai propolis, in human lung and cervical cancer cell lines. Propolis extract and chrysin sensitizes A549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The TRAIL sensitization effect of chrysin is not mediated by inhibition of TRAIL-induced NF-?B activation or by glutathione depletion. Immunoblot analysis using a panel of anti-apoptotic proteins revealed that chrysin selectively decreases the levels of Mcl-1 protein, by downregulating Mcl-1 gene expression as determined by qRT-PCR. The contribution of Mcl-1 in TRAIL resistance was confirmed by si-Mcl-1 knockdown. Among signaling pathways that regulate Mcl-1 gene expression, only constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation was suppressed by chrysin. The proposed action of chrysin in TRAIL sensitization by inhibiting STAT3 and downregulating Mcl-1 was supported by using a STAT3?specific inhibitor, cucurbitacin-I, which decreased Mcl-1 levels and enhanced TRAIL-induced cell death, similar to that observed with chrysin treatment. In conclusion, we show the potential of chrysin in overcoming TRAIL resistance of cancer cells and elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:23636231

Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Abdelhamed, Sherif; Yokoyama, Satoru; Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Viriyaroj, Amornrat; Awale, Suresh; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Svasti, Jisnuson; Saiki, Ikuo

2013-07-01

316

LPLUNC1 suppresses IL-6-induced nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation via inhibiting the Stat3 activation.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-related chronic inflammation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we characterized TAMs and IL-6 expression in 212 biopsied NPC and 119 non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium (NPE) tissues by tissue array. In comparison with that in the NPE tissues, more TAM infiltrates and a higher density of IL-6 expression were detected in NPC tissues, which were associated with the poor survival of NPC patients. In contrast, little or no LPLUNC1, a regulator of inflammation, expression was detected in NPC tissues, and the levels of LPLUNC1 expression in the NPC were associated negatively with the numbers of TAMs and the levels of IL-6 expression, but positively with the survival of NPC patients. Induction of LPLUNC1 overexpression in NPC cells mitigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-? and IL-1? expression or treatment of THP-1 macrophages with LPLUNC1 inhibited spontaneous and LPS-induced IL-6 expression in vitro. IL-6-promoted NPC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by increasing cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expression and the Stat3 activation, but inhibiting Bax and p21 expression. Induction of LPLUNC1 overexpression inhibited NPC cell proliferation, induced NPC cell arrest, promoted NPC cell apoptosis even after IL-6 stimulation and inhibited the growth of implanted NPC tumors in vivo, which were associated with decreasing cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expression and the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/Stat3 activation, but enhancing Bax and p21 expression. These results suggest that LPLUNC1 can inhibit inflammation and NPC growth by downregulating the Stat3 pathway. PMID:23708661

Liao, Q; Zeng, Z; Guo, X; Li, X; Wei, F; Zhang, W; Li, X; Chen, P; Liang, F; Xiang, B; Ma, J; Wu, M; Tang, H; Deng, M; Zeng, X; Tang, K; Xiong, W; Li, G

2014-04-17

317

Inhibition of a novel specific neuroglial integrin signaling pathway increases STAT3-mediated CNTF expression  

PubMed Central

Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression is repressed in astrocytes by neuronal contact in the CNS and is rapidly induced by injury. Here, we defined an inhibitory integrin signaling pathway. Results The integrin substrates laminin, fibronectin and vitronectin, but not collagen, thrombospondin or fibrinogen, reduced CNTF expression in C6 astroglioma cells. Antibodies against ?v and ?5, but not ?6 or ?1, integrin induced CNTF. Together, the ligand and antibody specificity suggests that CNTF is repressed by ?v?5 integrin. Antibodies against Thy1, an abundant neuronal surface protein whose function is unclear, induced CNTF in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures indicating that it is a neuroglial CNTF repressor. Inhibition of the integrin signaling molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) or the downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 MAPK, greatly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression within 4 hours. This selective inhibitory pathway phosphorylated STAT3 on its inhibitory ser-727 residue interfering with activity of the pro-transcription Tyr-705 residue. STAT3 can activate CNTF transcription because it bound to its promoter and FAK antagonist-induced CNTF was reduced by blocking STAT3. Microinjection of FAK inhibitor directly into the brain or spinal cord in adult mice rapidly induced CNTF mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, systemic treatment with FAK inhibitors over 3 days induced CNTF in the subventricular zone and increased neurogenesis. Conclusions Neuron-astroglia contact mediated by integrins serves as a sensor to enable rapid neurotrophic responses and provides a new pharmacological avenue to exploit the neuroprotective properties of endogenous CNTF.

2013-01-01

318

Dominant-negative activity of the STAT3-Y705F mutant depends on the N-terminal domain  

PubMed Central

Background STAT3 is a transcription factor of central importance in chronic inflammation and cancer. In response to cytokine stimulation STAT3 is phosphorylated on a single tyrosine residue at position 705, dimerizes and accumulates in the nucleus to induce target gene expression. The substitution of tyrosine 705 to phenylalanine leads to a dominant-negative STAT3 mutant (STAT3-YF) which influences the activation of WT-STAT3 in stimulated cells through a mechanism that is not completely understood. In this study we analyzed the molecular mechanism of STAT3-YF dominant-negative activity in IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling and the relevance of the N-terminal domain. Results Expression of STAT3-YF-YFP impairs tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activity of WT-STAT3 in IL-6-stimulated cells. The fluorescently labelled STAT3-YF mutant binds to a phosphorylated gp130 receptor-peptide comparable to WT-STAT3-YFP. STAT3-YF-YFP forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with WT-STAT3 in the presence and absence of IL-6. The preformed heterodimers in unstimulated cells are detectable by colocalization of STAT3-CFP with STAT3-YF-YFP fused to a nuclear localization signal. STAT3/STAT3-YF heterodimers are not able to bind to DNA in stimulated cells, but the presence of the mutant reduces DNA-binding of WT-STAT3 homodimers. STAT3-YF-?N-YFP lacking the N-terminal domain forms no dimers and only marginally affects the activity of WT-STAT3. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that dominant-negative STAT3-YF affects the activation of WT-STAT3 at multiple levels. Unexpectedly, the N-terminal domain of STAT3-YF plays an important role for the dominant-negative effect. We show that (i) STAT3-YF competes with WT-STAT3 in binding to activated gp130-receptors, (ii) the formation of WT-STAT3/STAT3-YF heterodimers in IL-6-stimulated cells results in inactive, semiphosphorylated dimers which do not bind to DNA and thus fail to induce target gene expression, (iii) the N-terminal domain-mediated formation of preformed STAT3/STAT3-YF heterodimers in unstimulated cells which affects the IL-6-induced homodimerization of WT-STAT3 contributes to the dominant-negative effect of STAT3-YF. These findings will contribute to our understanding of naturally occuring dominant-negative STAT3 mutants that cause the hyper-IgE syndrome.

2013-01-01

319

Therapeutic targeting of STAT3 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 3) pathway inhibits experimental autoimmune uveitis.  

PubMed

Mice with targeted deletion of STAT3 in CD4(+) T-cells do not develop experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in part, because they cannot generate pathogenic Th17 cells. In this study, we have used ORLL-NIH001, a small synthetic compound that inhibits transcriptional activity of STAT3, to ameliorate EAU, an animal model of human posterior uveitis. We show that by attenuating inflammatory properties of uveitogenic lymphocytes, ORLL-NIH001 inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the retina during EAU and prevented the massive destruction of the neuroretina caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by the autoreactive lymphocytes. Decrease in disease severity observed in ORLL-NIH001-treated mice, correlated with the down-regulation of ?4?1 and ?4?7 integrin activation and marked reduction of CCR6 and CXCR3 expression, providing a mechanism by which ORLL-NIH001 mitigated EAU. Furthermore, we show that ORLL-NIH001 inhibited the expansion of human Th17 cells, underscoring its potential as a drug for the treatment of human uveitis. Two synthetic molecules that target the Th17 lineage transcription factors, ROR?t and ROR?, have recently been suggested as potential drugs for inhibiting Th17 development and treating CNS inflammatory diseases. However, inhibiting STAT3 pathways completely blocks Th17 development, as well as, prevents trafficking of inflammatory cells into CNS tissues, making STAT3 a more attractive therapeutic target. Thus, use of ORLL-NIH001 to target the STAT3 transcription factor, thereby antagonizing Th17 expansion and expression of proteins that mediate T cell chemotaxis, provides an attractive new therapeutic approach for treatment of posterior uveitis and other CNS autoimmune diseases mediated by Th17 cells. PMID:22238646

Yu, Cheng-Rong; Lee, Yun Sang; Mahdi, Rashid M; Surendran, Narayanan; Egwuagu, Charles E

2012-01-01