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1

Epstein-Barr virus-derived EBNA2 regulates STAT3 activation  

SciTech Connect

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latency protein EBNA2 is a nuclear transcriptional activator that is essential for EBV-induced cellular transformation. Here, we show that EBNA2 interacts with STAT3, a signal transducer for an interleukin-6 family cytokine, and enhances the transcriptional activity of STAT3 by influencing its DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, EBNA2 cooperatively acts on STAT3 activation with LMP1. These data demonstrate that EBNA2 acts as a transcriptional coactivator of STAT3.

Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Togi, Sumihito; Kamitani, Shinya [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo 409-3898 (Japan); Harada, Shizuko [Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Oritani, Kenji [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)], E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

2009-01-16

2

Host cell and EBNA-2 regulation of Epstein-Barr virus latent-cycle promoter activity in B lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

The six latent-cycle nuclear antigens (EBNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), whose genes share 5' leader exons and two promoters (Cp and Wp), are differentially expressed by cells of the B lineage. To examine the possibility that EBNA gene expression is regulated through selective use of Cp and Wp, we monitored the activity of promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene constructs transfected into EBV-positive and EBV-negative B lymphocytes and Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Wp was a much stronger promoter than Cp in EBV genome-negative B-cell lines and was used exclusively in primary B cells. When B cells were infected with transforming EBV, Cp became the stronger promoter. This switch was not observed when B cells were infected with an immortalization-deficient virus, P3HR-1, which lacks the EBNA-2 open reading frame and expresses a mutant leader protein (EBNA-LP). Cp function was transactivated when EBV-negative or P3HR-1-infected B cells were cotransfected with Cp and a 12-kb fragment of DNA (BamHI-WWYH) that spanned the P3HR-1 deletion. This activity was mapped to the EBNA-2 gene within WWYH; constructs expressing EBNA-LP did not induce Cp function, and the deletion of 405 bp from the EBNA-2 open reading frame abolished transactivation. This research demonstrates host cell and EBNA-2 regulation of latent-cycle promoter activity in B lymphocytes, a mechanism with implications for persistence of EBV-infected lymphoid cells in vivo. Images PMID:1309259

Rooney, C M; Brimmell, M; Buschle, M; Allan, G; Farrell, P J; Kolman, J L

1992-01-01

3

Interleukin-21 regulates expression of key Epstein-Barr virus oncoproteins, EBNA2 and LMP1, in infected human B cells  

SciTech Connect

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for the life of the host by accessing the long-lived memory B cell pool. It has been proposed that EBV uses different combinations of viral proteins, known as latency types, to drive infected B cells to make the transition from resting B cells to memory cells. This process is normally antigen-driven. A major unresolved question is what factors coordinate expression of EBV latency proteins. We have recently described novel type III latency EBV{sup +} B cell lines (OCI-BCLs) that were induced to differentiate into late plasmablasts/early plasma cells in culture with interleukin-21 (IL-21), mimicking normal B cell development. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-21-mediated signals also regulate the expression of key EBV latent proteins during this window of development. Here we show that IL-21-reduced gene and protein expression of growth-transforming EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) in OCI-BCLs. By contrast, the expression of CD40-like, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) strongly increased in these cells suggesting an EBNA2-independent mode of regulation. Same results were also observed in Burkitt's lymphoma line Jijoye and B95-8 transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The effect of IL-21 on EBNA2 and LMP1 expression was attenuated by a pharmacological JAK inhibitor indicating involvement of JAK/STAT signalling in this process. Our study also shows that IL-21 induced transcription of ebna1 from the viral Q promoter (Qp)

Konforte, Danijela [Division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: danijela.konforte@utoronto.ca; Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J. [Division of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A8 (Canada)

2008-04-25

4

Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through STAT3 but appear to do so through different modules, perhaps localized to different cell types. PMID:25025494

O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

2014-01-01

5

STAT3 Phosphorylation at Tyrosine 705 and Serine 727 Differentially Regulates Mouse ESC Fates  

PubMed Central

STAT3 can be transcriptionally activated by phosphorylation of its tyrosine 705 or serine 727 residue. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling maintains pluripotency by inducing JAK-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3 Y705 (pY705). However, the function of phosphorylated S727 (pS727) in mESCs remains unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in regulating mESC identities, using a small molecule-based system to post-translationally modulate the quantity of transgenic STAT3 in STAT3?/? mESCs. We demonstrated that pY705 is absolutely required for STAT3-mediated mESC self-renewal, while pS727 is dispensable, serving only to promote proliferation and optimal pluripotency. S727 phosphorylation is regulated directly by fibroblast growth factor/Erk signaling and crucial in the transition of mESCs from pluripotency to neuronal commitment. Loss of S727 phosphorylation resulted in significantly reduced neuronal differentiation potential, which could be recovered by a S727 phosphorylation mimic. Moreover, loss of pS727 sufficed LIF to reprogram epiblast stem cells to naïve pluripotency, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in the control of mESC fate. PMID:24302476

Huang, Guanyi; Yan, Hexin; Ye, Shoudong; Tong, Chang; Ying, Qi-Long

2014-01-01

6

STAT3 in Epithelial Cells Regulates Inflammation and Tumor Progression to Malignant State in Colon1  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; however, the mechanism of tumorigenesis especially tumor progression to malignancy in the inflamed colon is still unclear. Our study shows that epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), persistently activated in inflamed colon, is not required for inflammation-induced epithelial overproliferation and the development of early-stage tumors; however, it is essential for tumor progression to advanced malignancy. We found that one of the mechanisms that epithelial STAT3 regulates in tumor progression might be to modify leukocytic infiltration in the large intestine. Activation of epithelial STAT3 promotes the infiltration of the CD8+ lymphocyte population but inhibits the recruitment of regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes. The loss of Stat3 in epithelial cells promoted the expression of cytokines/chemokines including CCL19, CCL28, and RANTES, which are known to be able to recruit Treg lymphocytes. Linked to these changes was the pathway mediated by sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate kinases, which is activated in colonic epithelial cells in inflamed colon with functional STAT3 but not in epithelial cells deleted of STAT3. Our data suggest that epithelial STAT3 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced tumor progression through regulation of leukocytic recruitment especially the infiltration of Treg cells in the large intestine. PMID:24027425

Nguyen, Andrew V; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Donghai; Nguyen, Stephanie; Loh, Ricky; Pang, Joey; Friedman, Kenneth; Orlofsky, Amos; Augenlicht, Leonard; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Lin, Elaine Y

2013-01-01

7

Interleukin-10 Regulates the Fetal Hyaluronan-Rich Extracellular Matrix via a STAT3 Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background The mid-gestational fetus is capable of regenerative healing. We have recently demonstrated a novel role for the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, as a regulator of hyaluronan (HA) in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The signaling pathway of IL-10 has been studied in monocytes but is unknown in dermal fibroblasts. We hypothesized IL-10 signals through its primary receptor IL-10R1 to activate STAT3 resulting in HA synthesis. Methods Murine mid-gestation (E14.5) fetal fibroblasts (FFb) were evaluated in vitro. Pericellular matrix (PCM) was quantified using a particle exclusion assay. STAT3 levels and cellular localization were evaluated by Western blot/band densitometry and immunocytochemistry/confocal microscopy. HA levels were quantified by ELISA. The effects of IL-10R1 signal blockade by a neutralizing antibory and STAT3 inhibition were evaluated. An ex vivo mid-gestation fetal forearm culture incisional wound model in control and transgenic IL-10?/? mice was used to evaluate the role of STAT3 on the ECM. Results FFb produce a robust hyaluronan-rich PCM which is IL-10R1 and STAT3 dependent. Inhibition of IL-10R1 signaling results in decreased phosphorylated STAT3 levels and inhibition of nuclear localization. Inhibition of STAT3 results in decreased HA production. At day 3, Mid-gestation fetal wounds have efficient re-epithelialization, which is significantly slowed in IL-10?/? wounds at the same gestation and with inhibition of STAT3. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that IL-10 regulates HA synthesis through its primary receptor IL-10R1 and STAT3 activation. This supports a novel-non-immunoregulatory mechanism of IL-10 in its role in fetal regenerative wound healing. PMID:23684616

King, Alice; Balaji, Swathi; Marsh, Emily; Le, Louis D.; Shaaban, Aimen; Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Keswani, Sundeep G.

2013-01-01

8

Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively in epidermal growth factor signalling.  

PubMed Central

EGF (epidermal growth factor) binding to its receptor (EGFR) induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of the receptor at multiple tyrosine residues, which serve as docking sites for recruitment of proteins with SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that activate multiple downstream signalling pathways. The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-binding protein 2) binds to EGFR, which leads to activation of Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. The latent transcription factors, STAT (signal transduction and activator of transcription), can also be activated by EGF in certain cell types. Since Ras-MAPK and STAT pathways are simultaneously stimulated by EGF, and Tyr-1086 and Tyr-1068 of EGFR are reported to be the binding sites for both Grb2 and Stat3, we investigated the possible regulatory role of Grb2 in STAT activation. In the present study, we report that transient expression of Grb2 specifically down-regulates EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, which leads to a repression of Stat3 transcriptional activity. In contrast, depletion of Grb2 by RNA interference substantially increases Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by EGF. The inhibition is neither mediated by a direct interaction between Grb2 and Stat3 nor via activation of tyrosine phosphatases. However, the repression was abolished by a mutation in the SH2 domain, but not the SH3 domains of Grb2, suggesting that inhibition involves binding of the receptor. Indeed, Grb2 inhibits the interaction between Stat3 and EGFR by competitive binding to the EGFR. On the other hand, Grb2 does not interact with the same sites as Stat3 on the interleukin-6 receptor and, therefore, has no effect on interleukin-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in EGF signalling, Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively at the receptor level. PMID:14498832

Zhang, Tong; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xinmin

2003-01-01

9

JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target genes. Furthermore, the expression level of nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity between COLO205 and LoVo cells. Taken together, these results suggest that nuclear JAB1 positively regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cell line COLO205.

Nishimoto, Arata, E-mail: anishimo@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Li, Tao-Sheng [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hamano, Kimikazu [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

2013-08-30

10

Lipocalin 2 is a Regulator Of Macrophage Polarization and NF-?B/STAT3 Pathway Activation.  

PubMed

Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine/cytokine and implicated in obesity and inflammation. Herein, we investigated the role and potential mechanism of Lcn2 in the regulation of macrophage polarization in obesity-associated inflammation. We observed that Lcn2-/- mice displayed an up-regulation of expression of M1 macrophage marker Cd11c but a down-regulation of M2 marker arginase 1 in adipose tissue and liver of mice upon a high-fat diet feeding. Lcn2-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were more sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, leading to a more profound up-regulation of expression of pro-inflammatory markers than wild-type (WT) BMDMs. Accordingly, LPS stimulation elicited an increase in the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), c-Jun, and STAT3 signaling pathways as well as an up-regualtion of expression of NF-?B and STAT3 target genes such as IL-1?, IL-6, iNOS, and MCP-1 in Lcn2-/- BMDMs compared with WT controls. Pre-treatment of recombinant Lcn2 attenuated LPS-stimulated degradation of I?B? and STAT3 phosphorylation as well as LPS-induced gene expression of IL-6 and iNOS in Lcn2-/- BMDMs. Moreover, the NF?B inhibitor markedly blocked LPS-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation in Lcn2-/- BMDMs. These results together with the time course of Lcn2 secretion, NF?B and STAT3 phosphorylation in response to LPS stimulation, suggest that Lcn2 plays a role as an anti-inflammatory regulator in macrophage activation via modulating a feed-forward activation of NF?B-STAT3 loop. PMID:25127375

Guo, Hong; Jin, Daozhong; Chen, Xiaoli

2014-10-01

11

Tyk2 and Stat3 Regulate Brown Adipose Tissue Differentiation and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active form of the transcription factor Stat3 (CAStat3) restores differentiation in Tyk2?/? brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, Tyk2?/? mice expressing CAStat3 transgene in BAT also show improved BAT development, normal levels of insulin and significantly lower body weights. Stat3 binds to PRDM16, a master regulator of BAT differentiation, and enhances the stability of PRDM16 protein. These results define Tyk2 and Stat3 as critical determinants of brown fat-lineage and suggest that altered levels of Tyk2 are associated with obesity in both rodents and humans. PMID:23217260

Derecka, Marta; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Koralov, Sergei B.; Szczepanek, Karol; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Sisler, Jennifer; Zhang, Qifang; Otero, Dennis; Cichy, Joanna; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shimoda, Kazuya; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Pellegrini, Sandra; Harris, Thurl E.; Seale, Patrick; Russell, Aaron P.; McAinch, Andrew J.; O'Brien, Paul E.; Keller, Susanna R.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Kordula, Tomasz; Larner, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

12

Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 regulates VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} VEGF-A enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and increased tube formation. {yields} VEGF-A treated lymphatic endothelial cell showed activation of STAT3. {yields} Dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific growth factor that regulates endothelial functions, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are known to be important during VEGF receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to determine whether STAT3 regulates VEGF-induced lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration and tube formation. VEGF-A (33 ng/ml) enhanced LEC migration by 2-fold and increased tube length by 25% compared with the control, as analyzed using a Boyden chamber and Matrigel assay, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed that VEGF-A induced the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in LECs, and this translocation was blocked by the transfection of LECs with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of STAT3 (Ax-STAT3F). Transfection with Ax-STAT3F also almost completely inhibited VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation. These results indicate that STAT3 is essential for VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation and that STAT3 regulates LEC functions.

Okazaki, Hideki; Tokumaru, Sho; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shiraishi, Ken; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xiuju; Yang, Lijun; Tohyama, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Koji [Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Sayama, Koji, E-mail: sayama@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

2011-09-02

13

Stattic V, a STAT3 inhibitor, affects human spermatozoa through regulation of mitochondrial activity.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that many mediators of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway are present in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Among them, STAT3 is detected mainly in membranes and flagellar cytoskeletal fractions. In order to determine the importance of STAT3-mediated signaling, sperm were incubated with Stattic V, a specific inhibitor. Effects on motility were evaluated by CASA, sperm acrosomal integrity was evaluated by FITC conjugated lectin (PSA or PNA) staining, and protein phosphotyrosine content was assessed by Western blot using a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. INDO1-AM and JC-1 were used to measure sperm intracellular calcium and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively, by flow cytometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated by luminol-based assay. Percentages of motility and motility parameters were significantly affected by Stattic V. This later also significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels, progesterone- and calcium ionophore (A23187)-induced acrosome reaction. On the other hand, a significant decrease in ATP content was measured when sperm were treated with Stattic V, associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and elevated ROS production. These results suggest that STAT3 is involved in sperm functions, at least through regulation of mitochondrial activity. This further emphasizes that STAT3 mediates cellular activities in a manner different than strictly the activation of gene transcription. PMID:22911368

Lachance, Catherine; Goupil, Serge; Leclerc, Pierre

2013-04-01

14

Methylsulfonylmethane Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth by Down-Regulating STAT3 and STAT5b Pathways  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most aggressive form of all cancers, with high incidence and mortality rates. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) inhibits breast cancer growth in mice xenografts. MSM is an organic sulfur-containing natural compound without any toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that MSM substantially decreased the viability of human breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. MSM also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5b, expression of IGF-1R, HIF-1?, VEGF, BrK, and p-IGF-1R and inhibited triple-negative receptor expression in receptor-positive cell lines. Moreover, MSM decreased the DNA-binding activities of STAT5b and STAT3, to the target gene promoters in MDA-MB 231 or co-transfected COS-7 cells. We confirmed that MSM significantly decreased the relative luciferase activities indicating crosstalk between STAT5b/IGF-1R, STAT5b/HSP90?, and STAT3/VEGF. To confirm these findings in vivo, xenografts were established in Balb/c athymic nude mice with MDA-MB 231 cells and MSM was administered for 30 days. Concurring to our in vitro analysis, these xenografts showed decreased expression of STAT3, STAT5b, IGF-1R and VEGF. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis, we confirmed that MSM can effectively regulate multiple targets including STAT3/VEGF and STAT5b/IGF-1R. These are the major molecules involved in tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Thus, we strongly recommend the use of MSM as a trial drug for treating all types of breast cancers including triple-negative cancers. PMID:22485142

Park, Jin Hee; Joung, Youn Hee; Darvin, Pramod; Kim, Sang Yoon; Na, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Tae Sook; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Moon, Eon-Soo; Cho, Byung Wook; Do Park, Kyung; Lee, Hak Kyo; Park, Taekyu; Yang, Young Mok

2012-01-01

15

FTO contributes to hepatic metabolism regulation through regulation of leptin action and STAT3 signalling in liver  

PubMed Central

Background The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, but its function is still largely unknown. A link between leptin receptor-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (LepR-STAT3) signalling pathway and FTO was recently suggested in the hypothalamus. Because of the presence of FTO in liver and the role of LepR-STAT3 in the control of hepatic metabolism, we investigated both in vitro and in vivo the potential interrelationship between FTO and LepR-STAT3 signalling pathway in liver and the impact of FTO overexpression on leptin action and glucose homeostasis in liver of mice. Results We found that FTO protein expression is regulated by both leptin and IL-6, concomitantly to an induction of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, in leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing HuH7 cells. In addition, FTO overexpression in vitro altered both leptin-induced Y705 and S727 STAT3 phosphorylation, leading to dysregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression and mitochondrial density, respectively. In vivo, liver specific FTO overexpression in mice induced a reducetion of Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3 in nuclear fraction, associated with reduced SOCS3 and LepR mRNA levels and with an increased G6P expression. Interestingly, FTO overexpression also induced S727 STAT3 phosphorylation in liver mitochondria, resulting in an increase of mitochondria function and density. Altogether, these data indicate that FTO promotes mitochondrial recruitment of STAT3 to the detriment of its nuclear localization, affecting in turn oxidative metabolism and the expression of leptin-targeted genes. Interestingly, these effects were associated in mice with alterations of leptin action and hyperleptinemia, as well as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Altogether, these data point a novel regulatory loop between FTO and leptin-STAT3 signalling pathways in liver cells, and highlight a new role of FTO in the regulation of hepatic leptin action and glucose metabolism. PMID:24410832

2014-01-01

16

The cdk5 Kinase Regulates the STAT3 Transcription Factor to Prevent DNA Damage upon Topoisomerase I Inhibition*  

PubMed Central

The STAT3 transcription factors are cytoplasmic proteins that induce gene activation in response to growth factor stimulation. Following tyrosine phosphorylation, STAT3 proteins dimerize, translocate to the nucleus, and activate specific target genes involved in cell-cycle progression. Despite its importance in cancer cells, the molecular mechanisms by which this protein is regulated in response to DNA damage remain to be characterized. In this study, we show that STAT3 is activated in response to topoisomerase I inhibition. Following treatment, STAT3 is phosphorylated on its C-terminal serine 727 residue but not on its tyrosine 705 site. We also show that topoisomerase I inhibition induced the up-regulation of the cdk5 kinase, a protein initially described in neuronal stress responses. In co-immunoprecipitations, cdk5 was found to associate with STAT3, and pulldown experiments indicated that it associates with the C-terminal activation domain of STAT3 upon DNA damage. Importantly, the cdk5-STAT3 pathway reduced DNA damage in response to topoisomerase I inhibition through the up-regulation of Eme1, an endonuclease involved in DNA repair. ChIP experiments indicated that STAT3 can be found associated with the Eme1 promoter when phosphorylated only on its serine 727 residue and not on tyrosine 705. We therefore propose that the cdk5-STAT3 oncogenic pathway plays an important role in the expression of DNA repair genes and that these proteins could be used as predictive markers of tumors that will fail to respond to chemotherapy. PMID:20516069

Courapied, Sandy; Sellier, Helene; de Carne Trecesson, Sophie; Vigneron, Arnaud; Bernard, Anne-Charlotte; Gamelin, Erick; Barre, Benjamin; Coqueret, Olivier

2010-01-01

17

Phosphorylated STAT3 and PD-1 regulate IL-17 production and IL-23 receptor expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

We studied the factors that regulate IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production in human tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb)-stimulated CD4(+) T cells from tuberculosis patients secreted less IL-17 than did CD4(+) T cells from healthy tuberculin reactors (PPD(+) ). M. tb-cultured monocytes from tuberculosis patients and PPD(+) donors expressed equal amounts of IL-23p19 mRNA and protein, suggesting that reduced IL-23 production is not responsible for decreased IL-17 production by tuberculosis patients. Freshly isolated and M. tb-stimulated CD4(+) T cells from tuberculosis patients had reduced IL-23 receptor and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression, compared with cells from PPD(+) donors. STAT3 siRNA reduced IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells from PPD(+) donors. Tuberculosis patients had increased numbers of PD-1(+) T cells compared with healthy PPD(+) individuals. Anti-PD-1 antibody enhanced pSTAT3 and IL-23R expression and IL-17 production by M. tb-cultured CD4(+) T cells of tuberculosis patients. Anti-tuberculosis therapy decreased PD-1 expression, increased IL-17 and IFN-? production and pSTAT3 and IL-23R expression. These findings demonstrate that increased PD-1 expression and decreased pSTAT3 expression reduce IL-23 receptor expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells of tuberculosis patients. PMID:24643836

Bandaru, Anuradha; Devalraju, Kamakshi P; Paidipally, Padmaja; Dhiman, Rohan; Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Barnes, Peter F; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi

2014-07-01

18

NEUROG3 is a critical downstream effector for STAT3-regulated differentiation of mammalian stem and progenitor spermatogonia.  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis relies on coordinated differentiation of stem and progenitor spermatogonia, and the transcription factor STAT3 is essential for this process in mammals. Here we studied the THY1+ spermatogonial population in mouse testes, which contains spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) and non-stem cell progenitor spermatogonia, to further define the downstream mechanism regulating differentiation. Transcript abundance for the bHLH transcription factor Neurog3 was found to be significantly reduced upon transient inhibition of STAT3 signaling in these cells and exposure to GDNF, a key growth factor regulating self-renewal of SSCs, suppressed activation of STAT3 and in accordance Neurog3 gene expression. Moreover, STAT3 was found to bind the distal Neurog3 promoter/enhancer region in THY1+ spermatogonia and regulate transcription. Transient inhibition of Neurog3 expression in cultures of proliferating THY1+ spermatogonia increased stem cell content after several self-renewal cycles without effecting overall proliferation of the cells, indicating impaired differentiation of SSCs to produce progenitor spermatogonia. Furthermore, cultured THY1+ spermatogonia with induced deficiency of Neurog3 were found to be incapable of differentiation in vivo following transplantation into testes of recipient mice. Collectively, these results establish a mechanism by which activation of STAT3 regulates the expression of NEUROG3 to subsequently drive differentiation of SSC and progenitor spermatogonia in the mammalian germline. PMID:22378757

Kaucher, Amy V; Oatley, Melissa J; Oatley, Jon M

2012-05-01

19

MICRO-RNA146B PROMOTES ALVEOLAR PROGENITOR CELL MAINTENANCE THROUGH PREFERENTIAL REGULATION OF STAT3B  

E-print Network

In this research, we have demonstrated that miRNA146b-5p (miR146b) is a hormonally regulated miRNA that participates in the maintenance of mammary alveolar progenitors during pregnancy and lactation by preferential regulation of STAT3B. Recently...

Elsarraj, Hanan Sataa

2012-08-31

20

Regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses by Stat3 signaling in tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tumor progression involves processes such as tissue invasion that can activate inflammatory responses, the immune system largely ignores or tolerates disseminated cancers. The mechanisms that block initiation of immune responses during cancer development are poorly understood. We report here that constitutive activation of Stat-3, a common oncogenic signaling pathway, suppresses tumor expression of proinflammatory mediators. Blocking Stat-3 in tumor

Tianhong Wang; Guilian Niu; Marcin Kortylewski; Lyudmila Burdelya; Kenneth Shain; Shumin Zhang; Raka Bhattacharya; Dmitry Gabrilovich; Richard Heller; Domenico Coppola; William Dalton; Richard Jove; Drew Pardoll; Hua Yu

2003-01-01

21

Stat3 signaling regulates embryonic stem cell fate in a dose-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Stat3 is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal mediated by LIF/gp130 receptor signaling. Current understanding of Stat3-mediated ESC self-renewal mechanisms is very limited, and has heretofore been dominated by the view that Stat3 signaling functions in a binary “on/off” manner. Here, in contrast to this binary viewpoint, we demonstrate a contextual, rheostat-like mechanism for Stat3's function in mESCs. Activation and expression levels determine whether Stat3 functions in a self-renewal or a differentiation role in mESCs. We also show that Stat3 induces rapid differentiation of mESCs toward the trophectoderm (TE) lineage when its activation level exceeds certain thresholds. Stat3 induces this differentiation phenotype via induction of Tfap2c and its downstream target Cdx2. Our findings provide a novel concept in the realm of Stat3, self-renewal signaling, and pluripotent stem cell biology. Ultimately, this finding may facilitate the development of conditions for the establishment of authentic non-rodent ESCs. PMID:25238758

Tai, Chih-I; Schulze, Eric N.; Ying, Qi-Long

2014-01-01

22

B Cells Promote Tumor Progression via STAT3 Regulated-Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The role of B cells in cancer and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. Here, we show that tumor-associated B cells with activated STAT3 contribute to tumor development by promoting tumor angiogenesis. B cells with or without Stat3 have opposite effects on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in both B16 melanoma and Lewis Lung Cancer mouse models. Ex vivo angiogenesis assays show that B cell-mediated tumor angiogenesis is mainly dependent on the induction of pro-angiogenic gene expression, which requires Stat3 signaling in B cells. Furthermore, B cells with activated STAT3 are mainly found in or near tumor vasculature and correlate significantly with overall STAT3 activity in human tumors. Moreover, the density of B cells in human tumor tissues correlates significantly with expression levels of several STAT3-downstream pro-angiogenic genes, as well as the degree of tumor angiogenesis. Together, these findings define a novel role of B cells in promoting tumor progression through angiogenesis and identify STAT3 in B cells as potential therapeutic target for anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:23734190

Pal, Sumanta; Jove, Veronica; Deng, Jiehui; Zhang, Wang; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Wakabayashi, Mark; Forman, Stephen; Yu, Hua

2013-01-01

23

Stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that Stat3 regulates lysosomal-mediated programmed cell death (LM-PCD) during mouse mammary gland involution in vivo. However, the mechanism that controls the release of lysosomal cathepsins to initiate cell death in this context has not been elucidated. We show here that Stat3 regulates the formation of large lysosomal vacuoles that contain triglyceride. Furthermore, we demonstrate that milk fat globules (MFGs) are toxic to epithelial cells and that, when applied to purified lysosomes, the MFG hydrolysate oleic acid potently induces lysosomal leakiness. Additionally, uptake of secreted MFGs coated in butyrophilin 1A1 is diminished in Stat3-ablated mammary glands and loss of the phagocytosis bridging molecule MFG-E8 results in reduced leakage of cathepsins in vivo. We propose that Stat3 regulates LM-PCD in mouse mammary gland by switching cellular function from secretion to uptake of MFGs. Thereafter, perturbation of lysosomal vesicle membranes by high levels of free fatty acids results in controlled leakage of cathepsins culminating in cell death. PMID:25283994

Sargeant, Timothy J; Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Resemann, Henrike K; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Skepper, Jeremy; Watson, Christine J

2014-11-01

24

The STAT3 Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is widely expressed and activated by various growth-regulating signals, as well as diverse cytokines, that activate gp130 signaling receptors. Hence, STAT3 is critical for embryonic development and stem cell biology, as well as inflammation, growth regulation, and multiple immune regulatory and homeostatic functions. STAT3 is also found in its activated state in a large number of human cancers and has been correlated with oncogenic activity and tumor maintenance in several systems. The Connections Map highlights activation of STAT3 by interleukin 6 and shows that STAT3 serves as an integration point for components in multiple signaling pathways in addition to those involving JAKs, for example, the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G proteins) of the Gi/o family, and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Science Viewpoint D. S. Aaronson, C. M. Horvath, A road map for those who don't know JAK-STAT. Science 296, 1653-1655 (2002). [Abstract] [Full Text

David S. Aaronson (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV); Curt M. Horvath (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV)

2003-08-26

25

Transcriptional Regulation of the Novel Monoamine Oxidase Renalase: Crucial Roles of Transcription Factors Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89.  

PubMed

Renalase, a novel monoamine oxidase, is emerging as an important regulator of cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of this enzyme remains largely unknown. We undertook a systematic analysis of the renalase gene to identify regulatory promoter elements and transcription factors. Computational analysis coupled with transfection of human renalase promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids (5'-promoter-deletion constructs) into various cell types (HEK-293, IMR32, and HepG2) identified two crucial promoter domains at base pairs -485 to -399 and -252 to -150. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using renalase promoter oligonucleotides with and without potential binding sites for transcription factors Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 displayed formation of specific complexes with HEK-293 nuclear proteins. Consistently, overexpression of Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 augmented renalase promoter activity; additionally, siRNA-mediated downregulation of Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 reduced the level of endogenous renalase transcription as well as the transfected renalase promoter activity. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed in vivo interactions of these transcription factors with renalase promoter. Interestingly, renalase promoter activity was augmented by nicotine and catecholamines; while Sp1 and STAT3 synergistically activated the nicotine-induced effect, Sp1 appeared to enhance epinephrine-evoked renalase transcription. Moreover, renalase transcript levels in mouse models of human essential hypertension were concomitantly associated with endogenous STAT3 and ZBP89 levels, suggesting crucial roles for these transcription factors in regulating renalase gene expression in cardiovascular pathological conditions. PMID:25295465

Sonawane, Parshuram J; Gupta, Vinayak; Sasi, Binu K; Kalyani, Ananthamohan; Natarajan, Bhargavi; Khan, Abrar A; Sahu, Bhavani S; Mahapatra, Nitish R

2014-11-11

26

Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma. PMID:24939294

Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

2014-06-01

27

TCPTP Regulates SFK and STAT3 Signaling and Is Lost in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling, as mediated by members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family (ErbB1 to -4) of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), Src family PTKs (SFKs), and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that signal via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is critical to the development and progression of many human breast cancers. EGFR, SFKs, and STAT3 can serve as substrates for the protein tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP (PTPN2). Here we report that TCPTP protein levels are decreased in a subset of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and that TCPTP protein is absent in a large proportion of “triple-negative” primary human breast cancers. Homozygous TCPTP deficiency in murine mammary fat pads in vivo is associated with elevated SFK and STAT3 signaling, whereas TCPTP deficiency in human breast cancer cell lines enhances SFK and STAT3 signaling. On the other hand, TCPTP reconstitution in human breast cancer cell lines severely impaired cell proliferation and suppressed anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo. These studies establish TCPTP's potential to serve as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. PMID:23166300

Shields, Benjamin J.; Wiede, Florian; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Wee, Kenneth; Hauser, Christine; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Molloy, Timothy J.; O'Toole, Sandra A.; Daly, Roger J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Mitchell, Christina A.; McLean, Catriona A.

2013-01-01

28

Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1? Regulates a SOCS3-STAT3-Adiponectin Signal Transduction Pathway in Adipocytes*  

PubMed Central

Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) regulates pathways in energy metabolism that become dysregulated in obesity. Earlier studies revealed that HIF1? in adipose tissue is markedly elevated in high-fat diet-fed mice that are obese and insulin-resistant. Genetic ablation of HIF1? in adipose tissue decreased insulin resistance and obesity, accompanied by increased serum adiponectin levels. However, the exact mechanism whereby HIF1? regulates adiponectin remains unclear. Here, acriflavine (ACF), an inhibitor of HIF1?, induced the expression of adiponectin and reduced the expression of SOCS3 in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mechanistic studies revealed that HIF1? suppressed the expression of adiponectin through a SOCS3-STAT3 pathway. Socs3 was identified as a novel HIF1? target gene based on chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays. STAT3 directly regulated adiponectin in vitro in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACF was found to prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In vivo, ACF also regulated the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway, and inhibition of HIF1? in adipose tissue was essential for ACF to improve the SOCS3-STAT3-adiponectin pathway to counteract insulin resistance. This study provides evidence for a novel target gene and signal transduction pathway in adipocytes and indicates that inhibitors of HIF1? have potential utility for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23255598

Jiang, Changtao; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Li, Fei; Qu, Aijuan; Gavrilova, Oksana; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

2013-01-01

29

CCR7 Regulates Cell Migration and Invasion through JAK2/STAT3 in Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) frequently involves metastasis at diagnosis. Our previous research has demonstrated that CCR7 plays a key role in regulating SCCHN metastasis, and this process involves several molecules, such as PI3K/cdc42, pyk2, and Src. In this study, the goals are to identify whether JAK2/STAT3 also participates in CCR7's signal network, its relationship with other signal pathways, and its role in SCCHN cell invasion and migration. The results showed that stimulation of CCL19 could induce JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, which can be blocked by Src and pyk2 inhibitors. After activation, STAT3 was able to promote low expression of E-cadherin and had no effect on vimentin. This JAk2/STAT3 pathway not only mediated CCR7-induced cell migration but also mediated invasion speed. The immunohistochemistry results also showed that the phosphorylation of STAT3 was correlated with CCR7 expression in SCCHN, and CCR7 and STAT3 phosphorylation were all associated with lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, JAk2/STAT3 plays a key role in CCR7 regulating SCCHN metastasis.

Liu, Fa-Yu; Safdar, Jawad; Li, Zhen-Ning; Fang, Qi-Gen; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Sun, Chang-Fu

2014-01-01

30

A Complex of Nuclear Factor I-X3 and STAT3 Regulates Astrocyte and Glioma Migration through the Secreted Glycoprotein YKL-40*  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor I-X3 (NFI-X3) is a newly identified splice variant of NFI-X that regulates expression of several astrocyte-specific markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein. Here, we identified a set of genes regulated by NFI-X3 that includes a gene encoding a secreted glycoprotein YKL-40. Although YKL-40 expression is up-regulated in glioblastoma multiforme, its regulation and functions in nontransformed cells of the central nervous system are widely unexplored. We find that expression of YKL-40 is activated during brain development and also differentiation of neural progenitors into astrocytes in vitro. Furthermore, YKL-40 is a migration factor for primary astrocytes, and its expression is controlled by both NFI-X3 and STAT3, which are known regulators of gliogenesis. Knockdown of NFI-X3 and STAT3 significantly reduced YKL-40 expression in astrocytes, whereas overexpression of NFI-X3 dramatically enhanced YKL-40 expression in glioma cells. Activation of STAT3 by oncostatin M induced YKL-40 expression in astrocytes, whereas expression of a dominant-negative STAT3 had a suppressive effect. Mechanistically, NFI-X3 and STAT3 form a complex that binds to weak regulatory elements in the YKL-40 promoter and activates transcription. We propose that NFI-X3 and STAT3 control the migration of differentiating astrocytes as well as migration and invasion of glioma cells via regulating YKL-40 expression. PMID:21953450

Singh, Sandeep K.; Bhardwaj, Reetika; Wilczynska, Katarzyna M.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Kordula, Tomasz

2011-01-01

31

MicroRNA-18a modulates STAT3 activity through negative regulation of PIAS3 during gastric adenocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: MicroRNA (miRNA, miR)-18a is a member of the miR-17–92 cluster, an important locus that is markedly overexpressed in several cancers and associated with cancer development and progression. However, the mechanism of action of the miR-17–92 cluster and its individual miRNAs are largely unknown. Methods and Results: In this study, we investigated the expression of the miR-17–92 cluster by in situ hybridisation (ISH) assay and copy-number analysis in gastric tissue microarray (TMA) specimens. We determined that miR-18a was present at higher levels than the other five miRNAs in the cluster. In addition, we identified Protein Inhibitor of Activated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (PIAS3) as a direct target of miR-18a in gastric cancer. miR-18a level was positively correlated with levels of Survivin, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc, which are downstream transcriptional targets of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3-induced transcription can be negatively regulated by PIAS3; consistent with this, PIAS3 level was negatively correlated with levels of Survivin, Bcl-xL, and c-Myc. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that miR-18a acts as an oncogene and plays a role in gastric adenocarcinogenesis, at least in part by negatively regulating PIAS3 and thereby modulating expression of STAT3 target genes. PMID:23322197

Wu, W; Takanashi, M; Borjigin, N; Ohno, S-i; Fujita, K; Hoshino, S; Osaka, Y; Tsuchida, A; Kuroda, M

2013-01-01

32

Reinforcing suppression using regulators: a new link between STAT3, IL-23, and Tregs in tumor immunosuppression.  

PubMed

STAT3 plays many roles in tumorigenesis. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kortylewski et al. show that in the tumor microenvironment, STAT3 enhances the expression of the protumor cytokine IL-23 in macrophages but inhibits the antitumor cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells. STAT3 also mediates IL-23's effect of activating tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells. PMID:19185840

Stewart, C Andrew; Trinchieri, Giorgio

2009-02-01

33

PPARgamma regulates LIF-induced growth and self-renewal of mouse ES cells through Tyk2-Stat3 pathway.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are genetically normal, pluripotent cells, capable of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a growth factor that can maintain the pluripotency of mouse ES cells in culture. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptor transcription factors that regulate growth and differentiation of many cell types. We have shown earlier that 15-Deoxy-(12,14)-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural ligand for PPARgamma, inhibits LIF-induced proliferation of mouse ES cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that the PPARgamma antagonist Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and 2-Chloro-5-nitro-N-(4-pyridyl)benzamide (T0070907) reverse the inhibition of ES cell proliferation by PPARgamma agonists. Stable transfection of ES cells with a dominant negative PPARgamma1 mutant also reduced the inhibition of proliferation by PPARgamma agonists. While 15d-PGJ2 and ciglitazone-induced growth-arrest in ES cells by blocking LIF signaling, PPARgamma antagonists and dominant negative PPARgamma1 mutant reversed proliferation by restoring LIF-induced Tyk2-Stat3 signaling. These results suggest that PPARgamma regulates LIF-induced growth and self-renewal of mouse ES cells through Tyk2-Stat3 pathway. PMID:19922793

Mo, Caiqing; Chearwae, Wanida; Bright, John J

2010-03-01

34

N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells via STAT3/Snail signaling.  

PubMed

Although NDRG2 has recently been found to be a candidate tumor suppressor, its precise role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that NDRG2 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated the expression of Snail, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a key regulator of EMT, as well as the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an oncogenic transcription factor that is activated in many human malignancies including breast cancer. In addition, we confirmed that the expression of Snail and phospho-STAT3 was recovered when NDRG2 was knocked down by siRNA in MCF7 cells in which NDRG2 is endogenously expressed. Interestingly, MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells showed remarkably decreased Snail expression after treatment with JSI-124 (also known as cucurbitacin I) or Stattic, STAT3 inhibitors, compared to MDA-MB-231-mock cells. Moreover, STAT3 activation by EGF treatment induced higher Snail expression, and NDRG2 overexpression resulted in the inhibition of Snail expression in MDA-MB-231 cells stimulated by EGF in the absence or presence of STAT3 inhibitor. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with STAT3 inhibitor led to a moderate decrease in wound healing and migration capacity, whereas STAT3 inhibitor treatment of MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells resulted in a significant attenuation of migration in both resting and EGF-stimulated cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by NDRG2 suppresses EMT progression of EMT via the down-regulation of Snail expression. PMID:25153349

Kim, Myung-Jin; Lim, Jihyun; Yang, Young; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok

2014-11-01

35

The Synthetic Tryptanthrin Analogue Suppresses STAT3 Signaling and Induces Caspase Dependent Apoptosis via ERK Up Regulation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Tryptanthrin is a natural product which has been reported to have several medicinal properties. In this study, we tried to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of its bromo analogue (TBr), a potent cytotoxic agent in the induction of cancer cell death. It was found that TBr primarily targets STAT3 and ERK signaling during the induction of apoptosis in several human leukemia cell lines. In HL-60 cells, TBr treatment caused early down regulation of p-STAT3 with concomitant up regulation of p-ERK which led to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The mechanism of TBr mediated inhibition of p-STAT3 was found to be due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of tyrosine 705 and serine 727 p-STAT3. As IL-6 is the main driver of the STAT3 pathway, the effect of TBr on cell death was subdued when treated in the combination with IL-6 in HL60 cells. Interestingly, PD98059 significantly reduced the apoptotic effects of TBr, thus showing the direct involvement of p-ERK in TBr mediated cell death. It was further shown that apoptotic protein Bax silencing in HL-60 cells resists TBr mediated ERK dependent apoptosis. In summary, for the first time we report the mechanism of TBr mediated cell death in human leukemia cell lines by targeting STAT3 and ERK pathways. PMID:25383546

Pathania, Anup S.; Kumar, Suresh; Guru, Santosh K.; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Aithagani, Sravan K.; Singh, Parvinder P.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz

2014-01-01

36

STAT3, STAT4, NFATc1, and CTCF regulate PD-1 through multiple novel regulatory regions in murine T cells.  

PubMed

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a crucial negative regulator of CD8 T cell development and function, yet the mechanisms that control its expression are not fully understood. Through a nonbiased DNase I hypersensitivity assay, four novel regulatory regions within the Pdcd1 locus were identified. Two of these elements flanked the locus, bound the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor, and interacted with each other, creating a potential regulatory compartmentalization of the locus. In response to T cell activation signaling, NFATc1 bound to two of the novel regions that function as independent regulatory elements. STAT binding sites were identified in these elements as well. In splenic CD8 T cells, TCR-induced PD-1 expression was augmented by IL-6 and IL-12, inducers of STAT3 and STAT4 activity, respectively. IL-6 or IL-12 on its own did not induce PD-1. Importantly, STAT3/4 and distinct chromatin modifications were associated with the novel regulatory regions following cytokine stimulation. The NFATc1/STAT regulatory regions were found to interact with the promoter region of the Pdcd1 gene, providing a mechanism for their action. Together these data add multiple novel distal regulatory regions and pathways to the control of PD-1 expression and provide a molecular mechanism by which proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 or IL-12, can augment PD-1 expression. PMID:24711622

Austin, James W; Lu, Peiyuan; Majumder, Parimal; Ahmed, Rafi; Boss, Jeremy M

2014-05-15

37

Astrocyte response to motor neuron injury promotes structural synaptic plasticity via STAT3-regulated TSP-1 expression  

PubMed Central

The role of remote astrocyte (AC) reaction to central or peripheral axonal insult is not clearly understood. Here we use a transgenic approach to compare the direct influence of normal with diminished AC reactivity on neuronal integrity and synapse recovery following extracranial facial nerve transection in mice. Our model allows straightforward interpretations of AC–neuron signalling by reducing confounding effects imposed by inflammatory cells. We show direct evidence that perineuronal reactive ACs play a major role in maintaining neuronal circuitry following distant axotomy. We reveal a novel function of astrocytic signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 regulates perineuronal astrocytic process formation and re-expression of a synaptogenic molecule, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), apart from supporting neuronal integrity. We demonstrate that, through this new pathway, TSP-1 is responsible for the remote AC-mediated recovery of excitatory synapses onto axotomized motor neurons in adult mice. These data provide new targets for neuroprotective therapies via optimizing AC-driven plasticity. PMID:25014177

Tyzack, Giulia E.; Sitnikov, Sergey; Barson, Daniel; Adams-Carr, Kerala L.; Lau, Nike K.; Kwok, Jessica C.; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J. M.; Karadottir, Ragnhildur T.; Fawcett, James W.; Lakatos, Andras

2014-01-01

38

RhoC regulates cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by overexpressing IL-6 and phosphorylation of STAT3.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the correlation between RhoC expression and cancer stem cells (CSCs) formation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The inhibition of RhoC function was achieved using shRNA. The expression of stem cell surface markers, ALDH and CD44 were significantly low in two RhoC depleted HNSCC cell carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, a striking reduction in tumorsphere formation was achieved in RhoC knockdown lines. The mRNA expression of RhoC in RhoC knockdown adherent and tumorspheres are dramatically down regulated as compared with the scrambled control. The mRNA expression of stem cell transcription factors; nanog, oct3/4 (Pouf1), and sox2 were significantly depleted in RhoC knockdown clones. Further, the phosphorylation of STAT3(ser727), and STAT3(tyr705) were significantly down regulated in RhoC knockdown clones. The overexpression of STAT3 in RhoC knockdown did not show any change in expression patterns of either-STAT3(tyr705) or stem cell transcription factors, signifying the role of RhoC in STAT3 activation and thus the expression of nanog, oct3/4 and sox2 in HNSCC. The expression of Inter leukin-6 (IL-6) in RhoC knockdown HNSCC cell lines was dramatically low as compared to the scrambled control. Further, we have shown a rescue in STAT3 phosphorylation by IL-6 stimulation in RhoC knockdown lines. This study is the first of its kind to establish the involvement of RhoC in STAT3 phosphorylation and hence in promoting the activation of core cancer stem cells (CSCs) transcription factors. These findings suggest that RhoC may be a novel target for HNSCC therapy. PMID:24533098

Islam, Mozaffarul; Sharma, Smita; Teknos, Theodoros N

2014-01-01

39

Tunicamycin-induced ER stress regulates chemokine CCL5 expression and secretion via STAT3 followed by decreased transmigration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Chemokine C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) is an important marker related to the progression of breast cancer and is upregulated in cancer cells. However, the mechanism of the overexpression of CCL5 in tumours has not yet been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulating CCL5 expression and its relationship with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Meanwhile, the effect of tunicamycin, a classical ER stress inducer, and CCL5 on the transmigration of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was observed and analysed. Compared with the normal breast epithelial tissues, expression levels of CCL5, STAT3 and CHOP, an indicator of ER stress, were significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, ER stress activator tunicamycin increased the expression of CCL5, STAT3 and CHOP in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, tunicamycin-induced CCL5 expression was positively related to upregulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) but negatively related to STAT3 phosphorylation at the Tyr705 site. Furthermore, ER stress inhibited CCL5 secretion and transmigration of MCF-7 cells. This study also showed that extracellular rhCCL5 induced transmigration of MCF-7 cells which was partially blocked by the CCR5 monoclonal antibody, while knockdown of endogenous expression of CCL5 did not affect the transmigration of the cells. In conclusion, ER stress induced endogenous expression of CCL5 via elevating U-STAT3 expression; however, ER stress inhibited CCL5 secretion, which in turn, decreased the transmigration of breast cancer MCF-7 cells. PMID:25231320

Zhang, Yimin; Liao, Shichong; Fan, Wei; Wei, Wen; Wang, Changhua; Sun, Shengrong

2014-12-01

40

LIF negatively regulates tumour-suppressor p53 through Stat3/ID1/MDM2 in colorectal cancers.  

PubMed

Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been recently identified as a p53 target gene, which mediates the role of p53 in maternal implantation under normal physiological conditions. Here we report that LIF is a negative regulator of p53; LIF downregulates p53 protein levels and function in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The downregulation of p53 by LIF is mediated by the activation of Stat3, which transcriptionally induces inhibitor of DNA-binding 1 (ID1). ID1 upregulates MDM2, a key negative regulator of p53, and promotes p53 protein degradation. LIF is overexpressed in a large percentage of CRCs. LIF overexpression promotes cellular resistance towards chemotherapeutic agents in cultured CRC cells and colorectal xenograft tumours in a largely p53-dependent manner. Overexpression of LIF is associated with a poor prognosis in CRC patients. Taken together, LIF is a novel negative regulator of p53, overexpression of LIF is an important mechanism for the attenuation of p53, which promotes chemoresistance in CRCs. PMID:25323535

Yu, Haiyang; Yue, Xuetian; Zhao, Yuhan; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Lihua; Zhang, Cen; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Kevin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Young, Ken H; Liu, Juan; Shen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

2014-01-01

41

Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Sepsis rapidly activates the host inflammatory response and acute phase response. Severe sepsis, complicated by multiple organ failure, is associated with overwhelming inflammation and high mortality. We previously observed that zinc (Zn) deficiency significantly increases mortality in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis due to over-activation of the inflammatory response. In order to identify potential mechanisms that account for Zn-responsive effects, we generated whole exome expression profiles from the lung tissue of septic mice that were maintained on Zn modified diets. Based on systems analysis, we observed that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response and particularly the JAK-STAT3 pathway, resulting in increased serum amyloid A production. In vitro studies of primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells substantiated that Zn-deficiency augments serum amyloid A production through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 and NF-?B pathways. In contrast, Zn inhibited STAT3 activation through the up-regulation of SHP1 activity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 pathway, thereby perpetuating increased inflammation that may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in response to sepsis. PMID:24732911

Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Napolitano, Jessica R.; Burris, Dara L.; Yu, Lianbo; Tridandapani, Susheela; Knoell, Daren L.

2014-01-01

42

The Cytokine IL-6 Reactivates Breast Stromal Fibroblasts through Transcription Factor STAT3-dependent Up-regulation of the RNA-binding Protein AUF1.  

PubMed

The development and spread of mammary carcinomas require synergetic interplay between tumor cells and their microenvironment through paracrine secretions, which are still not well defined. We have shown here that interleukin-6 (IL-6), either recombinant or secreted from highly invasive breast cancer cells, down-regulates the tumor suppressor proteins p16(INK4A), p21(WAF1), and p53 and activates breast stromal fibroblasts in a paracrine manner. The formation of myofibroblasts requires p16(INK4A) down-regulation and the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Indeed, the transcription factor STAT3 positively controls the expression of the three major myofibroblast markers, SDF-1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and TGF-?1, and mediates IL-6-related down-regulation of p16(INK4A), p21(WAF1), and p53 as well as the activation of stromal fibroblasts. Importantly, these effects were mediated through STAT3-dependent up-regulation of the mRNA-binding protein AUF1, whose promoter contains three canonical STAT3 binding sites. AUF1 binds the SDF-1, ?-SMA, TGF-?1, and IL-6 mRNAs and reduces their turnover. Consequently, specific AUF1 down-regulation inhibits IL-6-dependent activation of breast stromal fibroblasts, whereas AUF1 ectopic expression of p37(AUF1) activated these cells and enhanced their paracrine induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells, which shows a non-cell-autonomous oncogenic function of AUF1. Together, these results demonstrate a major role of IL-6 in activating breast stromal fibroblasts through STAT3-dependent AUF1 induction. PMID:25231991

Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

2014-11-01

43

Critical role of the WASF3 gene in JAK2/STAT3 regulation of cancer cell motility  

PubMed Central

WASF3 has been shown to be required for invasion and metastasis in different cancer cell types and knockdown of WASF3 leads to suppression of invasion/metastasis. Aberrant signaling through the interleukin 6/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis in cancer cells has emerged as a major mechanism for cancer progression. In this study, we demonstrate that interleukin 6 induces both WASF3 expression and phosphoactivation in breast and prostate cancer cell lines through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in two different ways. First, we show that STAT3 binds directly to the WASF3 promoter and increases transcription levels, which correlates with increased migration potential. Inactivation of STAT3 with short hairpin RNA, dominant negative constructs or S3I-201 leads to reduced WASF3 levels and reduced migration. Second, we have shown that JAK2, while activating STAT3, also interacts with and activates WASF3. Inhibition of JAK2 with short hairpin RNA or AG490 leads to loss of migration due to reduced WASF3 activation levels and prevention of its membrane localization. Together, these results define a novel signaling network whereby JAK2/STAT3 signaling creates a feed-forward loop to raise activated WASF3 levels that promote cancer cell motility. PMID:23677069

Teng, Yong

2013-01-01

44

CD24(+) liver tumor-initiating cells drive self-renewal and tumor initiation through STAT3-mediated NANOG regulation.  

PubMed

Tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) are a subpopulation of chemoresistant tumor cells that have been shown to cause tumor recurrence upon chemotherapy. Identification of T-ICs and their related pathways are therefore priorities for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. We established chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft tumors in immunocompromised mice in which an enriched T-IC population was capable of tumor initiation and self-renewal. With this model, we found CD24 to be upregulated in residual chemoresistant tumors when compared with bulk tumor upon cisplatin treatment. CD24(+) HCC cells were found to be critical for the maintenance, self-renewal, differentiation, and metastasis of tumors and to significantly impact patients' clinical outcome. With a lentiviral-based knockdown approach, CD24 was found to be a functional liver T-IC marker that drives T-IC genesis through STAT3-mediated NANOG regulation. Our findings point to a CD24 cascade in liver T-ICs that may provide an attractive therapeutic target for HCC patients. PMID:21726833

Lee, Terence Kin Wah; Castilho, Antonia; Cheung, Vincent Chi Ho; Tang, Kwan Ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ng, Irene Oi Lin

2011-07-01

45

STAT3 Genotypic Variation and Cellular STAT3 Activation and Colon Leukocyte Recruitment in Pediatric Crohn Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Genotypic variation in STAT3 increases risk for IBD, and STAT3 dependent inflammatory networks are induced in the colon in these patients. We hypothesized that STAT3 “A” risk allele carriage would be associated with increased cellular STAT3 activation and colon leukocyte recruitment. Methods Colonic expression of genes regulating STAT3 signaling and leukocyte recruitment and function was measured in pediatric CD patients stratified by STAT3 genotype. The frequency of colonic pSTAT3+ and CXCR2+ neutrophils was determined using immunohistochemistry. STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation (pSTAT3) was measured in circulating leukocytes by flow cytometry, and mechanisms regulating STAT3 activation were tested in IBD EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBL). Results Colonic expression of IL-6, the STAT3 target gene SOCS3, the neutrophil chemo-attractants IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL3, and the neutrophil products S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 were increased in patients carrying the STAT3 “A” risk allele. The frequency of neutrophils expressing the cognate receptor for IL-8, CXCR2, was increased in colonic biopsies from patients carrying the risk allele, and the frequency of pSTAT3+ or CXCR2+ neutrophils correlated with histologic severity. The frequency of CD4+ lymphocytes and granulocytes expressing pSTAT3 was increased in patients carrying the STAT3”A” risk allele. EBL's from patients carrying the STAT3”A” risk allele exhibited increased basal and IL-6 stimulated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, increased transcription of STAT3 and SOCS3 after IL-6 stimulation, and increased membrane localization of the IL-6 receptor, GP130, and JAK2. Conclusions The STAT3 “A” risk allele is associated with increased cellular STAT3 activation and up-regulation of pathways which promote recruitment of CXCR2+ neutrophils to the gut. PMID:22197944

Willson, Tara A.; Kuhn, Benjamin R.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Gerad, Shaina; Moon, David; Bonkowski, Erin; Carey, Rebecca; Collins, Margaret; Xu, Huan; Jegga, Anil G.; Guthery, Stephen L.; Denson, Lee A.

2012-01-01

46

The iron chelator Dp44mT inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis via N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2)/gp130/STAT3 pathway  

PubMed Central

Here we showed that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with high metastatic potential had low levels of NDRG2. The iron chelator Dp44mT up-regulated NDRG2, suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited tumor metastasis in HCC having high metastatic potential. Also Dp44mT attenuated the TGF-?1-induced EMT in HCC having low metastatic potential. In agreement, silencing endogenous NDRG2 with shNDRG2 in HCC cells attenuated the effect of Dp44mT. We showed that the NDRG2/gp130/STAT3 pathway can mediate Dp44mT effects. In agreement, we found that a combination of NDRG2 expression and p-STAT3 levels is a strong predictor of prognosis in HCC patients. We suggest that up-regulation of NDRG2 by Dp44mT is a promising therapeutic approach in HCC. PMID:25261367

Liang, Yingjian; Hong, Xuehui; Lu, Zhaoyang; Song, Xuan; Song, Ruipeng; Yang, Haiyan; Sun, Boshi; Bhatta, Nishant; Meng, Xianzhi; Pan, Shangha; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

2014-01-01

47

In Vivo Induction of Apoptosis by Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid, Associated with Down-Regulating STAT3/EGFR Signaling in Sarcoma 180 (S180) Xenografts-Bearing Mice  

PubMed Central

Previous in vitro researches have showed that fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid isolated from sargassum, can inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma, hepatoma, leukemia, colon carcinoma, prostate cancer or urinary bladder cancer cells. But the precise mechanism by which fucoxanthin exerts anticarcinogenic effects is not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed an in vivo study to investigate the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of fucoxanthin on xenografted sarcoma 180 (S180) in mice. Results revealed that fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the growth of sarcoma at the dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. TUNEL analysis showed that the number of positive cells in the fucoxanthin-treated group was higher than that in the control group. Western blotting analysis also revealed the suppressed expression of bcl-2 and enhanced expression of cleaved caspase-3 by fucoxanthin. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blotting analysis showed that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the expressions of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Most importantly, fucoxanthin inhibited the expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. These results indicated that in vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in S180 xenografts-bearing mice. PMID:23118721

Wang, Jun; Chen, Shihui; Xu, Shiqiang; Yu, Xing; Ma, Dongqing; Hu, Xiamin; Cao, Xiaolu

2012-01-01

48

Regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and antitumor immune response in cancer by pharmacological selective inhibition of the Jak2/STAT3 pathway  

PubMed Central

Abnormal dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in cancer is one of the major factors of tumor non-responsiveness. We have previously demonstrated that hyper-activation of the Jak2/STAT3 induced by tumor-derived factors (TDF) is responsible for abnormal DC differentiation. Here, using a novel selective inhibitor of Jak2/STAT3 JSI-124, we investigated the possibility of pharmacological regulation of DC differentiation in cancer. Our experiments in vitro have demonstrated that JSI-124 overcomes the differentiation block induced by TDF and promotes the differentiation of mature DCs and macrophages. JSI-124 significantly reduced the presence of immature myeloid cells in vivo and promoted accumulation of mature DCs. In addition to a direct antitumor effect in several animal models, JSI-124 significantly enhanced the effect of cancer immunotherapy. This indicates that pharmacological inhibition of Jak2/STAT3 pathway can be an important new therapeutic strategy to enhance antitumor activity of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16230418

Nefedova, Yulia; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Rosenbauer, Amsler; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Sebti, Said M.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

2005-01-01

49

STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons  

PubMed Central

STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

2014-01-01

50

STAT3 regulates proliferation and survival of CD8+ T cells: enhances effector responses to HSV-1 infection, and inhibits IL-10+ regulatory CD8+ T cells in autoimmune uveitis.  

PubMed

STAT3 regulates CD4+ T cell survival and differentiation. However, its effects on CD8+ T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that in comparison to WT CD8+ T cells, STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit a preactivated memory-like phenotype, produce more IL-2, proliferate faster, and are more sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD). The enhanced proliferation and sensitivity to AICD correlated with downregulation of class-O forkhead transcription factors (FoxO1, FoxO3A), p21(waf1), p27(KIP1), Bcl-2, OX-40, and upregulation of FasL, Bax, and Bad. We examined whether STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells can mount effective response during herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Compared to WT mice, HSV-1-infected STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3KO) produced less IFN-? and virus-specific KLRG-1+ CD8+ T cells. STAT3KO mice are also resistant to EAU and produced less IL-17-producing Tc17 cells. Resistance of STAT3KO to EAU correlated with marked expansion of IL-10-producing regulatory CD8+ T cells (CD8-Treg) implicated in recovery from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, increases of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation observed during inflammation may inhibit expansion of CD8-Tregs, thereby impeding recovery from uveitis. These results suggest that STAT3 is a potential therapeutic target for upregulating CD8+ T cell-mediated responses to viruses and suggest the successful therapeutic targeting of STAT3 as treatment for uveitis, derived, in part, from promoting CD8-Treg expansion. PMID:24204098

Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M; Lee, Yong-Jun; Frank, Gregory M; Egwuagu, Charles E

2013-01-01

51

MiRNA-20 and MiRNA-106a Regulate Spermatogonial Stem Cell Renewal at the Post-transcriptional Level via Targeting STAT3 and Ccnd1  

PubMed Central

Studies onspermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are of unusual significance because they are the unique stem cells that transmit genetic information to subsequent generations and they can acquire pluripotency to become embryonic stem-like cells that have therapeutic applications in human diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as critical endogenous regulators in mammalian cells. However, the function and mechanisms of individual miRNAs in regulating SSC fate remain unknown. Here we report for the first time that miRNA-20 and miRNA-106a are preferentially expressed in mouse SSCs. Functional assays in vitro and in vivo using miRNA mimics and inhibitors reveal that miRNA-20 and miRNA-106a are essential for renewal of SSCs. We further demonstrate that these two miRNAs promote renewal at the post-transcriptional level via targeting STAT3 and Ccnd1 and that knockdown of STAT3, Fos, and Ccnd1 results in renewal of SSCs. This study thus provides novel insights into molecular mechanisms regulating renewal and differentiation of SSCs and may have important implications for regulating male reproduction. PMID:23836497

He, Zuping; Jiang, Jiji; Kokkinaki, Maria; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Wenxian; Gallicano, Ian; Dobrinski, Ina; Dym, Martin

2013-01-01

52

MafB is a downstream target of the IL-10/STAT3 signaling pathway, involved in the regulation of macrophage de-activation.  

PubMed

In spite of the numerous reports implicating MafB transcription factor in the molecular control of monocyte-macrophage differentiation, the precise genetic program underlying this activity has been, to date, poorly understood. To clarify this issue, we planned a number of experiments that were mainly conducted on human primary macrophages. In this regard, a preliminary gene function study, based on MafB inactivation and over-expression, indicated MMP9 and IL-7R genes as possible targets of the investigated transcription factor. Bioinformatics analysis of their promoter regions disclosed the presence of several putative MARE elements and a combined approach of EMSA and luciferase assay subsequently demonstrated that expression of both genes is indeed activated by MafB through a direct transcription mechanism. Additional investigation, performed with similar procedures to elucidate the biological relevance of our observation, revealed that MafB is a downstream target of the IL-10/STAT3 signaling pathway, normally inducing the macrophage de-activation process. Taken together our data support the existence of a signaling cascade by which stimulation of macrophages with the IL-10 cytokine determines a sequential activation of STAT3 and MafB transcription factors, in turn leading to an up-regulated expression of MMP9 and IL-7R genes. PMID:24472656

Gemelli, Claudia; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Bicciato, Silvio; Mazza, Emilia M C; Boraschi, Diana; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Selmi, Tommaso; Tagliafico, Enrico; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis

2014-05-01

53

Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA. PMID:25147435

Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Jennifer; Byun, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Woo, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

2014-01-01

54

Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

2013-01-01

55

mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3  

SciTech Connect

The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

Busch, Susann [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Renaud, Stephen J. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Schleussner, Ekkehard [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Graham, Charles H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Markert, Udo R., E-mail: markert@med.uni-jena.de [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

2009-06-10

56

Inducible MicroRNA-223 Down-Regulation Promotes TLR-Triggered IL-6 and IL-1? Production in Macrophages by Targeting STAT3  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by either translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs play pivotal roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including TLR-triggered inflammatory response. Here we reported that the expression of microRNA-223 (miR-223) was significantly decreased in murine macrophages during activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or poly (I?C) stimulation. The inducible miR-223 down-regulation resulted in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is directly targeted by miR-223, thus promoting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1?, but not TNF-?. Interestingly, IL-6 was found to be a main factor in inducing the decrease in miR-223 expression after LPS stimulation, which formed a positive feedback loop to regulate IL-6 and IL-1?. Herein, our findings provide a new explanation characterizing the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of IL-6 production after TLR-triggered macrophage activation. PMID:22937006

Song, Yinjing; Lai, Lihua; Han, Quan; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Qingqing

2012-01-01

57

STAT3 expression, activity and functional consequences of STAT3 inhibition in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and Barrett's adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is altered in several epithelial cancers and represents a potential therapeutic target. Here, STAT3 expression, activity and cellular functions were examined in two main histotypes of esophageal carcinomas. In situ, immunohistochemistry for STAT3 and STAT3-Tyr705 phosphorylation (P-STAT3) in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC, n=49) and Barrett's adenocarcinomas (BAC, n=61) revealed similar STAT3 expression in ESCCs and BACs (P=0.109), but preferentially activated P-STAT3 in ESCCs (P=0.013). In vitro, strong STAT3 activation was seen by epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation in OE21 (ESCC) cells, whereas OE33 (BAC) cells showed constitutive weak STAT3 activation. STAT3 knockdown significantly reduced cell proliferation of OE21 (P=0.0148) and OE33 (P=0.0243) cells. Importantly, STAT3 knockdown reduced cell migration of OE33 cells by 2.5-fold in two types of migration assays (P=0.073, P=0.015), but not in OE21 cells (P=0.1079, P=0.386). Investigation of transcriptome analysis of STAT3 knockdown revealed a reduced STAT3 level associated with significant downregulation of cell cycle genes in both OE21 (P<0.0001) and OE33 (P=0.01) cells. In contrast, genes promoting cell migration (CTHRC1) were markedly upregulated in OE21 cells, whereas a gene linked to tight-junction stabilization and restricted cell motility (SHROOM2) was downregulated in OE21 but upregulated in OE33 cells. This study shows frequent, but distinct, patterns of STAT3 expression and activation in ESCCs and BACs. STAT3 knockdown reduces cell proliferation in ESCC and BAC cells, inhibits migration of BAC cells and may support cell migration of ESCC cells. Thereby, novel STAT3-regulated genes involved in ESCC and BAC cell proliferation and cell migration were identified. Thus, STAT3 may be further exploited as a potential novel therapeutic target, however, by careful distinction between the two histotypes of esophageal cancers. PMID:23912451

Timme, S; Ihde, S; Fichter, C D; Waehle, V; Bogatyreva, L; Atanasov, K; Kohler, I; Schöpflin, A; Geddert, H; Faller, G; Klimstra, D; Tang, L; Reinheckel, T; Hauschke, D; Busch, H; Boerries, M; Werner, M; Lassmann, S

2014-06-19

58

Syndecan-1 (CD138) Modulates Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cell Properties via Regulation of LRP-6 and IL-6-Mediated STAT3 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Syndecan-1 (CD138), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a coreceptor for growth factors and chemokines and is a molecular marker associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during development and carcinogenesis. Resistance of Syndecan-1-deficient mice to experimentally-induced tumorigenesis has been linked to altered Wnt-responsive precursor cell pools, suggesting a potential role of Syndecan-1 in breast cancer cell stem function. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still elusive. Here, we decipher the functional impact of Syndecan-1 knockdown using RNA interference on the breast cancer stem cell phenotype of human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and hormone receptor-positive MCF-7 cells in vitro employing an analytical flow cytometric approach. Successful Syndecan-1 siRNA knockdown was confirmed by flow cytometry. Side population measurement by Hoechst dye exclusion and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity revealed that Syndecan-1 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly reduced putative cancer stem cell pools by 60% and 27%, respectively, compared to controls. In MCF-7 cells, Syndecan-1 depletion reduced the side population by 40% and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 by 50%, repectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) phenotype decreased significantly by 6% upon siRNA-mediated Syndecan-1 depletion. Intriguingly, IL-6, its receptor sIL-6R, and the chemokine CCL20, implicated in regulating stemness-associated pathways, were downregulated by >40% in Syndecan-1-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed a dysregulated response to IL-6-induced shifts in E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, activation of STAT-3 and NFkB transcription factors and expression of a coreceptor for Wnt signaling, LRP-6, were reduced by >45% in Syndecan-1-depleted cells compared to controls. At the functional level, Syndecan-1 siRNA reduced the formation of spheres and cysts in MCF-7 cells grown in suspension culture. Our study demonstrates the viability of flow cytometric approaches in analyzing cancer stem cell function. As Syndecan-1 modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via regulation of the Wnt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, it emerges as a promising novel target for therapeutic approaches. PMID:24392029

Vilardo, Laura; Kumar, Sampath Katakam; Kumar, Archana Vijaya; Kelsch, Reinhard; Schneider, Cornelia; Kiesel, Ludwig; Eich, Hans Theodor; Zucchi, Ileana; Reinbold, Rolland; Greve, Burkhard; Götte, Martin

2013-01-01

59

socs7, a target gene of microRNA-145, regulates interferon-? induction through STAT3 nuclear translocation in bladder cancer cells  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that microRNA (miR)-145 is downregulated and induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Also, it is suggested that the ectopic expression of miR-145 induces apoptosis with the induction of TRAIL expression in several cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated a novel mechanism of apoptosis induction by miR-145 in bladder cancer cells. Exogenous miR-145 in T24 and NKB1 cells markedly increased the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-?, 2?–5?-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, which lies upstream of 2?–5? oligoadenylates/RNase L system, and TRAIL, and induced apparent caspase-dependent apoptosis that was suppressed by cotreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor; moreover, these expression levels were reduced by cotreatment with an miR-145 inhibitor. The apoptosis did not depend on Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, because TLR3-silencing failed to inhibit IFN-? induction by miR-145. Then, we focused on the suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 (socs7), whose expression level was upregulated in bladder cancer cells compared with its level in normal human urothelial cells, as a putative target gene involved in IFN-? induction by miR-145. Expectedly, exogenous miR-145 decreased the expression level of SOCS7, and socs7-silencing enhanced IFN-? induction by transfection with a TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The results of a luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-145 targeted socs7. In addition, socs7-silencing significantly decreased the level of p-Akt and suppressed the growth of T24 cells. Furthermore, exogenous miR-145 or socs7-silencing promoted nuclear translocation of STAT3. In conclusion, the machinery of IFN-? induction through the regulation of SOCS7 by miR-145 was closely associated with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, exogenous miR-145 promoted IFN-? induction by targeting socs7, which resulted in the nuclear translocation of STAT3. Additionally, our data indicate that SOCS7 functioned as an oncogene, the finding that revealed a novel mechanism of carcinogenesis in bladder cancer cells. PMID:23392170

Noguchi, S; Yamada, N; Kumazaki, M; Yasui, Y; Iwasaki, J; Naito, S; Akao, Y

2013-01-01

60

Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Disrupts Interleukin-6 Signaling by Sequestering STAT3 in the Nucleus  

PubMed Central

In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection. PMID:23903834

Reitsma, Justin M.; Sato, Hiromi; Nevels, Michael

2013-01-01

61

STAT3: An Anti-Invasive Factor in Colorectal Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in a majority of cancers, and promotes tumorigenesis and even metastasis through transcriptional activation of its target genes. Recently, we discovered that STAT3 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and thus metastasis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC), while it did not affect the overall tumor burden. Furthermore, we found that STAT3 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) suppresses EMT by regulating stability of an EMT inducer, SNAI-1 (Snail-1). Here, STAT3 functions as an adaptor rather than a transcription factor in the post-translational modification of SNAI-1. In this review, we discuss the unexpected and contradictory role of STAT3 in metastasis of CRC and its clinical implications. PMID:24995503

de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Mo, Ji-Hun; Harris, Alexandra R.; Lee, Jongdae; Raz, Eyal

2014-01-01

62

Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24662938

Fang, Bingliang

2014-01-01

63

BART is essential for nuclear retention of STAT3.  

PubMed

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) mediate cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in immune responses, hematopoiesis, neurogenesis and other biological processes. STAT3, for example, is involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition during gastrulation, organogenesis, wound healing and cancer progression. STAT activity is regulated by a variety of mechanisms, including nuclear translocation. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of STAT activity, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. Here, we identified binder of ADP-ribosylation factor-like two (BART) as a novel STAT-binding partner. Importantly, we showed that BART is essential for the transcriptional activity and nuclear retention of STAT3. Furthermore, an effector of BART, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (ARL2) was also involved in nuclear retention of STAT3. These results indicate that BART plays an essential role in the nuclear retention of STAT3 through interaction with ARL2. PMID:18234692

Muromoto, Ryuta; Sekine, Yuichi; Imoto, Seiyu; Ikeda, Osamu; Okayama, Taichiro; Sato, Noriko; Matsuda, Tadashi

2008-03-01

64

A membrane penetrating peptide aptamer inhibits STAT3 function and suppresses the growth of STAT3 addicted tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells are characterized by the aberrant activation of signaling pathways governing proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, migration and immune evasion. These processes are partially regulated by the transcription factor STAT3. This factor is inappropriately activated in diverse tumor types. Since tumor cells can become dependent on its persistent activation, STAT3 is a favorable drug target. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinant STAT3 inhibitor, rS3-PA. This inhibitor is based on a 20 amino acid peptide which specifically interacts with the dimerization domain of STAT3. It is integrated into a thioredoxin scaffold and fused to a protein transduction domain. Protein gel blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that rS3-PA is efficiently taken up by cells via an endocytosis independent mechanism. Intracellularly, it reduces the phosphorylation of STAT3 and enhances its degradation. This leads to the downregulation of STAT3 target gene expression on the mRNA and protein levels. Subsequently, tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration and the induction of angiogenesis are inhibited. In contrast, normal cells remain unaffected. Systemic administration of rS3-PA at doses of 7.5 mg/kg reduced P-STAT3 levels and significantly inhibited tumor growth up to 35% in a glioblastoma xenograft mouse model. PMID:24058750

Borghouts, Corina; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Weiss, Astrid; Mack, Laura; Lucks, Peter; Groner, Bernd

2012-01-01

65

Constitutive activation of Stat3 by the Src and JAK tyrosine kinases participates in growth regulation of human breast carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins has been detected in a wide variety of human primary tumor specimens and tumor cell lines including blood malignancies, head and neck cancer, and breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of Stat3 DNA-binding activity that is constitutively-induced by an unknown mechanism in human breast cancer cell

Roy Garcia; Tammy L Bowman; Guilian Niu; Hua Yu; Sue Minton; Carlos A Muro-Cacho; Charles E Cox; Robert Falcone; Rita Fairclough; Sarah Parsons; Andy Laudano; Aviv Gazit; Alexander Levitzki; Alan Kraker; Richard Jove

2001-01-01

66

Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity  

SciTech Connect

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth.

Rainio, Eeva-Marja [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 20520 Turku (Finland); Ahlfors, Helena [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Carter, Kara L. [Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ruuska, Marja [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Matikainen, Sampsa [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki (Finland); Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Koskinen, Paeivi J. [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: paivi.koskinen@btk.fi

2005-03-15

67

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is required for decidualization, interacting with progesterone receptor (PR) in uterus. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that crosstalk between STAT3 and PR signaling is required for successful implantation. To identify the interaction between STAT3 and PR isoforms, we performed immunoprecipitation following transient cotransfection and found that STAT3 physically interacted with PR-A, which is known to be important for uterine development and function, but not with PR-B. To further investigate the role of Stat3 in uterine function, Stat3 was conditionally ablated only in the PR-positive cells (PR(cre/+) Stat3(f/f); Stat3(d/d)). Our studies revealed that ovarian function and uterine development of Stat3(d/d) mice were normal. However, Stat3(d/d) female mice were infertile due to defective embryo implantation. Unlike Stat3(f/f) mice, Stat3(d/d) mice exhibited an unclosed uterine lumen. Furthermore, uteri of Stat3(d/d) mice were unable to undergo a well-characterized hormonally induced decidual reaction. The expression of stromal PR was decreased during decidualization and preimplantation period in Stat3(d/d) mice, and PR target genes were significantly down-regulated after progesterone induction. Our results suggest that STAT3 and PR crosstalk is required for successful implantation in the mouse uterus. PMID:23531596

Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Oh, Seo Jin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Akira, Shizuo; Ku, Bon Jeong; Lydon, John P; Jeong, Jae-Wook

2013-07-01

68

Electrochemical detection of the Fc-STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3-Fc-STAT3 dimerization and inhibition.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is involved in regulatory functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and is linked to cancer phenotype and tumorigenesis. Towards developing new methodologies for screening STAT3 interactions, the electrochemical method based on the use of redox active protein was proposed. The electrochemical signal, due to the redox (ferrocene)-labeled STAT3 protein immobilized on a gold surface, was modulated due to protein dimerization with the unlabeled STAT3 molecule. The dramatic decrease in current density from 2.7 ?A cm(-2) to 0.5 ?A cm(-2) was observed following the STAT3-ferrocene-STAT3 dimerization. The electrochemical approach was further extended for screening the potential dimerization inhibitors. Previously published potent salicylic acid derivatives were the most promising candidates for inhibition of STAT3 dimerization in this assay. We expect that other SH2-containing proteins may be monitored by the proposed electrochemical method. PMID:24402062

Martic, S; Rains, M K; Haftchenary, S; Shahani, V M; Kraskouskaya, D; Ball, D P; Gunning, P T; Kraatz, H B

2014-03-01

69

Exploring the IL-21-STAT3 axis as therapeutic target for Sézary syndrome.  

PubMed

Sézary syndrome is an aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The malignant cells (Sézary cells) are present in skin, lymph nodes, and blood, and express constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. STAT3 can be activated by IL-21 in vitro and the IL-21 gene itself is a STAT3 target gene, thereby creating an autocrine positive feedback loop that might serve as a therapeutic target. Sézary cells underwent apoptosis when incubated with Stattic, a selective STAT3 inhibitor. STAT3 activation in Sézary cells did not affect expression of the supposed anti-apoptotic STAT3 target genes BCL2, BCL-xL, and SURVIVIN, whereas expression of (proto)oncogenes miR-21, TWIST1, MYC, and PIM1 was significantly increased. CD3/CD28-mediated activation of Sézary cells induced IL-21 expression, accompanied by STAT3 activation and increased proliferation. Blocking IL-21 in CD3/CD28-activated cells had no effects, whereas Stattic abrogated IL-21 expression and cell proliferation. Thus, specific inhibition of STAT3 is highly efficient in the induction of apoptosis of Sézary cells, likely mediated via the regulation of (proto)oncogenes. In contrast, blocking IL-21 alone seems insufficient to affect STAT3 activation, cell proliferation, or apoptosis. These data provide further insights into the pathogenic role of STAT3 in Sézary syndrome and strengthen the notion that STAT3 represents a promising therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:24756111

van der Fits, Leslie; Out-Luiting, Jacoba J; Tensen, Cornelis P; Zoutman, Willem H; Vermeer, Maarten H

2014-10-01

70

STAT3 and metabolism: how many ways to use a single molecule?  

PubMed

The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 has been considered as a potential anticancer target since its first description as an oncogene in 1999, recently leading to STAT3 inhibitors been brought to clinical trial for the treatment of solid tumors. However, the past 14 years of intense basic research have uncovered novel STAT3-mediated pathways that could affect the outcome of the designed therapies while at the same time help designing function-specific inhibitors. Particularly intriguing are the recent findings that suggest profound implications of STAT3 with the regulation of cellular metabolism in both canonical, that is transcriptional, and non-canonical ways. Here, after a short description of the main known features of STAT3 signaling and function, we review the recent literature on the role of STAT3 in regulating cellular metabolism and discuss the potential consequences on the therapeutic approaches currently under clinical experimentation. PMID:24500994

Demaria, Marco; Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

2014-11-01

71

Activating germline mutations in STAT3 cause early-onset multi-organ autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Monogenic causes of autoimmunity provide key insights into the complex regulation of the immune system. We report a new monogenic cause of autoimmunity resulting from de novo germline activating STAT3 mutations in five individuals with a spectrum of early-onset autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes. These findings emphasize the critical role of STAT3 in autoimmune disease and contrast with the germline inactivating STAT3 mutations that result in hyper IgE syndrome. PMID:25038750

Flanagan, Sarah E; Haapaniemi, Emma; Russell, Mark A; Caswell, Richard; Lango Allen, Hana; De Franco, Elisa; McDonald, Timothy J; Rajala, Hanna; Ramelius, Anita; Barton, John; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Kajosaari, Merja; Murphy, Nuala P; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Seppänen, Mikko; Lernmark, Åke; Mustjoki, Satu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kere, Juha; Morgan, Noel G; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T

2014-08-01

72

Modulation of STAT3 Folding and Function by TRiC/CCT Chaperonin  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transduces signals of many peptide hormones from the cell surface to the nucleus and functions as an oncoprotein in many types of cancers, yet little is known about how it achieves its native folded state within the cell. Here we show that Stat3 is a novel substrate of the ring-shaped hetero-oligomeric eukaryotic chaperonin, TRiC/CCT, which contributes to its biosynthesis and activity in vitro and in vivo. TRiC binding to Stat3 was mediated, at least in part, by TRiC subunit CCT3. Stat3 binding to TRiC mapped predominantly to the ?-strand rich, DNA-binding domain of Stat3. Notably, enhancing Stat3 binding to TRiC by engineering an additional TRiC-binding domain from the von Hippel-Lindau protein (vTBD), at the N-terminus of Stat3, further increased its affinity for TRiC as well as its function, as determined by Stat3's ability to bind to its phosphotyrosyl-peptide ligand, an interaction critical for Stat3 activation. Thus, Stat3 levels and function are regulated by TRiC and can be modulated by manipulating its interaction with TRiC. PMID:24756126

Kasembeli, Moses; Lau, Wilson Chun Yu; Roh, Soung-Hun; Eckols, T. Kris; Frydman, Judith; Chiu, Wah; Tweardy, David J.

2014-01-01

73

Activation of Stat3 in Endothelial Cells Following Hypoxia-reoxygenation is Mediated by Rac1 and Protein Kinase C  

PubMed Central

Stat3 is an important transcription factor that regulates both proinflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways in the heart. This study examined the mechanisms of activation of Stat3 in human endothelial cells following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). By expression of constitutively active Rac1 mutant protein, and by RNA silencing of Rac1, we found that Stat3 Y705 and S727 phosphorylation following H/R are dependent on Rac1. Reactive oxygen species produced during H/R, and direct physical association with Rac1 both contribute to Stat3 activation. Stat3 forms a multiprotein complex with Rac1 and PKC in an H/R-dependent manner, which at least in part, appears to regulate Stat3 S727 phosphorylation. Selective inhibition of PKC with calphostin C produces a marked suppression of Stat3 S727 phosphorylation. The association of Stat3 with Rac1 occurs predominantly at the cell membrane, but also inside the nucleus, and occurs through the binding of the coiled-coil domain of Stat3 to the 54 NH2-terminal residues of Rac1. Transfection with a peptide comprising the NH2-terminal 17 amino acid residues of Rac1 inhibits Stat3 S727 phosphorylation after H/R. Thus, Stat3 is activated in endothelial cells by H/R through Rac1-dependent signaling pathways resulting in physical association between Rac1 and Stat3 and the formation of a novel multiprotein complex with PKC. PMID:22791907

Mattagajasingh, Subhendra N.; Yang, Xiao Ping; Irani, Kaikobad; Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Becker, Lewis C.

2012-01-01

74

STAT3 Revs Up the Powerhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) promotes their dimerization and ability to bind target genes in the nucleus. However, evidence shows that one member of the STAT family, STAT3, has an additional property independent of its classical role in the nucleus. STAT3 modifed by serine phosphorylation augmented oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and supported cellular transformation by oncogenic Ras.

Nancy C. Reich (Stony Brook University;Molecular Genetics and Microbiology REV)

2009-09-29

75

Knockdown of Stat3 activity in vivo prevents diabetic glomerulopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that Stat3, a transcription factor that mediates cytokine signaling, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Complete Stat3 gene knockout is embryonic lethal; therefore, we crossed Stat3+\\/? mice with Stat3 mutant mice (SA\\/SA) that lack full Stat3 activity. This strategy generated Stat3SA\\/? mice (25% activity) and Stat3SA\\/+ mice (75% activity), which were made diabetic

Ting-Chi Lu; Zhao-Hui Wang; Xiaobei Feng; Peter Y Chuang; Wei Fang; Yuhong Shen; David E Levy; Huabao Xiong; Nan Chen; John Cijiang He

2009-01-01

76

B Lymphocytes from Patients with a Hypomorphic Mutation in STAT3 Resist Epstein-Barr Virus-Driven Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogenes exert potent B cell proliferative effects. EBV infection gives rise to B cell lines that readily proliferate in culture. This ability of EBV represents a powerful tool to study cell proliferation. In efforts to delineate the contribution of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) toward EBV-driven cell proliferation, we have discovered that B cells from patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) resist such EBV oncogene-driven outgrowth of cells. Patients with AD-HIES have a dominant negative mutation in their STAT3 gene which renders most of the protein nonfunctional. Exposure of healthy subject-derived B cells to EBV resulted in early activation of STAT3, rapidly followed by increased expression of its mRNA and protein. STAT3 upregulation preceded the expression of EBNA2, temporally one of the first viral oncogenes to be expressed. We found that STAT3 was necessary for subsequent survival and for proliferation of EBV-infected cells past the S phase of the cell cycle. Consequently, B cells from AD-HIES patients were prone to dying and accumulated in the S phase, thereby accounting for impaired cell outgrowth. Of importance, we have now identified a cohort of patients with a primary immunodeficiency disorder whose B cells oppose EBV-driven proliferative signals. These findings simultaneously reveal how EBV manipulates host STAT3 even before expression of viral oncogenes to facilitate cell survival and proliferation, processes fundamental to EBV lymphomagenesis. PMID:24173212

Koganti, Siva; de la Paz, Amanda; Freeman, Alexandra F.

2014-01-01

77

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is required for decidualization, interacting with progesterone receptor (PR) in uterus. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that crosstalk between STAT3 and PR signaling is required for successful implantation. To identify the interaction between STAT3 and PR isoforms, we performed immunoprecipitation following transient cotransfection and found that STAT3 physically interacted with PR-A, which is known to be important for uterine development and function, but not with PR-B. To further investigate the role of Stat3 in uterine function, Stat3 was conditionally ablated only in the PR-positive cells (PRcre/+ Stat3f/f; Stat3d/d). Our studies revealed that ovarian function and uterine development of Stat3d/d mice were normal. However, Stat3d/d female mice were infertile due to defective embryo implantation. Unlike Stat3f/f mice, Stat3d/d mice exhibited an unclosed uterine lumen. Furthermore, uteri of Stat3d/d mice were unable to undergo a well-characterized hormonally induced decidual reaction. The expression of stromal PR was decreased during decidualization and preimplantation period in Stat3d/d mice, and PR target genes were significantly down-regulated after progesterone induction. Our results suggest that STAT3 and PR crosstalk is required for successful implantation in the mouse uterus.—Lee, J. H., Kim, T. H., Oh, S. J., Yoo, J.-Y., Akira, S., Ku, B. J., Lydon, J. P., Jeong, J.-W. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a critical role in implantation via progesterone receptor in uterus. PMID:23531596

Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Oh, Seo Jin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Akira, Shizuo; Ku, Bon Jeong; Lydon, John P.; Jeong, Jae-Wook

2013-01-01

78

Erk1/2 activation and modulation of STAT3 signaling in oral cancer.  

PubMed

Constitutive activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway possesses confirmed oncogenic potential in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Crosstalk with other molecular pathways contributes to STAT3 regulation in cancer. The effects of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and particularly extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) on STAT3 signaling in OSCC have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study examined the effects of Erk1/2 modulation on STAT3 signaling and cell growth in OSCC cells. Constitutive expression levels of phosphorylated (tyrosine and serine) and total STAT3, Erk1/2 and cyclin D1 were assessed in OSCC cell lines. Erk1/2 modulation was achieved by pharmacological agents; siRNA silencing against Erk1/2 was also performed. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed. Erk1/2 inhibition with either U0126 treatment or specific siRNA silencing resulted in decreases in p-ser STAT3 and cyclin D1 levels and increases in p-tyr STAT3 in OSCC cells. Moreover, Erk1/2 inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in OSCC cell growth and viability. Erk1/2 induction had the opposite effects. Taken together, these results are supportive of an active crosstalk between the oncogenic Erk1/2 and STAT3 pathways in OSCC, the significance of which requires further investigation. PMID:25174327

Gkouveris, Ioannis; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Karanikou, Maria; Rassidakis, George; Sklavounou, Alexandra

2014-11-01

79

Upregulation of TPX2 by STAT3: Identification of a Novel STAT3 Binding Site  

PubMed Central

TPX2, a protein involved in mitosis, is considered a good marker for actively proliferating tissues, highly expressed in a number of cancer cells. We show the presence of high-affinity binding site for STAT3 in the 5?-flanking region of the Tpx2 gene, which is in vivo bound by activated STAT3. A specific STAT3 peptide inhibitor represses the expression of the Tpx2 gene and inhibits the binding of STAT3 to its consensus sequence in human cell lines where STAT3 is activated. These results indicate that activated STAT3 contributes to the over-expression of Tpx2 through the binding to an enhancer site. PMID:25401333

Altieri, Fabio; Chichiarelli, Silvia; Turano, Carlo; Eufemi, Margherita

2014-01-01

80

Stat3: Friend or Foe in Colitis and Colitis-associated Cancer?  

PubMed

: Chronic inflammation predisposes tissue to cancer development. Individuals afflicted with inflammatory bowel diseases are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer depending on disease severity, duration, and management. The intestinal epithelium exhibits mitochondrial dysfunction during colitis and colitis-associated cancer. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat)-3 is a transcription factor involved in growth-promoting and antiapoptotic signaling pathways. In addition to its activities as a transcription factor, Stat3 resides in the mitochondria of cells where it is required for optimal electron transport chain activity and protects against stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The function of mitochondrial Stat3 is not completely understood; dichotomous roles include protecting against cellular injury but also supporting malignant transformation. This review discusses the roles of Stat3 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell fate during colitis and colorectal cancer with an emphasis on mitochondrial dysfunction and the potential involvement of mitochondrial Stat3 during disease progression. PMID:25185686

Han, Jie; Theiss, Arianne L

2014-12-01

81

Persistently-activated Stat3 maintains constitutive NF-?B activity in tumors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY NF-?B (RelA) is constitutively active in many cancers where it up-regulates anti-apoptotic and other oncogenic genes. While proinflammatory stimulus-induced NF-?B activation involves IKK-dependent nuclear translocation, mechanisms for maintaining constitutive NF-?B activity in tumors have not been elucidated. We show here that maintenance of NF-?B activity in tumors requires Stat3 that is also frequently constitutively activated in cancer. Stat3 prolongs NF-?B nuclear retention through acetyltransferase p300-mediated RelA acetylation, thereby interfering with NF-?B nuclear export. Stat3-mediated maintenance of NF-?B activity occurs both in cancer cells and in tumor-associated hematopoietic cells. Both murine and human cancers display highly acetylated RelA, which is associated with Stat3 activity. This Stat3/NF-?B interaction is thus central to both the transformed and nontransformed elements in tumors. PMID:19345327

Lee, Heehyoung; Herrmann, Andreas; Deng, JieHui; Kujawski, Maciej; Niu, Guilian; Li, Zhiwei; Forman, Steve; Jove, Richard; Pardoll, Drew; Yu, Hua

2009-01-01

82

The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed. PMID:24722453

Bishop, Jennifer L.; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina

2014-01-01

83

STAT3 and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in carcinomas.  

PubMed

Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas. PMID:24843831

Wendt, Michael K; Balanis, Nikolas; Carlin, Cathleen R; Schiemann, William P

2014-01-01

84

STAT3 and epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas. PMID:24843831

Wendt, Michael K; Balanis, Nikolas; Carlin, Cathleen R; Schiemann, William P

2014-01-01

85

Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration  

SciTech Connect

Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Feracci, Helene [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France)] [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France); Raptis, Leda, E-mail: raptisl@queensu.ca [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2010-03-10

86

Emodin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model by blocking activation of STAT3  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Aberrant activation of STAT3 is frequently encountered and promotes proliferation, survival, metastasis and angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we have investigated whether emodin mediates its effect through interference with the STAT3 activation pathway in HCC. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of emodin on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and apoptosis was investigated using various HCC cell lines. Additionally, we also used a predictive tumour technology to analyse the effects of emodin. The in vivo effects of emodin were assessed in an orthotopic mouse model of HCC. KEY RESULTS Emodin suppressed STAT3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCC cells, mediated by the modulation of activation of upstream kinases c-Src, JAK1 and JAK2. Vanadate treatment reversed emodin-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase and emodin induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that correlated with the down-regulation of constitutive STAT3 activation. Interestingly, silencing of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of emodin to inhibit STAT3 activation. Finally, when administered i.p., emodin inhibited the growth of human HCC orthotopic tumours in male athymic nu/nu mice and STAT3 activation in tumour tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Emodin mediated its effects predominantly through inhibition of the STAT3 signalling cascade and thus has a particular potential for the treatment of cancers expressing constitutively activated STAT3. PMID:23848338

Subramaniam, Aruljothi; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Ong, Tina H; Li, Feng; Perumal, Ekambaram; Chen, Luxi; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Kapoor, Shweta; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kumar, Alan Prem; Hui, Kam M; Sethi, Gautam

2013-01-01

87

STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair.  

PubMed

The progressive loss of muscle regenerative capacity with age or disease results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues. Here we show that IL-6-activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition on cell fate and proliferation were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells in pathological conditions, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

2014-10-01

88

Mouse mammary tumors display Stat3 activation dependent on leukemia inhibitory factor signaling  

PubMed Central

Introduction It has been demonstrated that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induces epithelium apoptosis through Stat3 activation during mouse mammary gland involution. In contrast, it has been shown that this transcription factor is commonly activated in breast cancer cells, although what causes this effect remains unknown. Here we have tested the hypothesis that locally produced LIF can be responsible for Stat3 activation in mouse mammary tumors. Methods The studies were performed in different tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary cells. The expression of LIF and LIF receptor was tested by RT-PCR analysis. In tumors, LIF and Stat3 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, whereas Stat3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression and phosphorylation were studied by Western blot analysis. A LIF-specific blocking antibody was used to determine whether this cytokine was responsible for Stat3 phosphorylation induced by conditioned medium. Specific pharmacological inhibitors (PD98059 and Stat3ip) that affect ERK1/2 and Stat3 activation were used to study their involvement in LIF-induced effects. To analyze cell survival, assays with crystal violet were performed. Results High levels of LIF expression and activated Stat3 were found in mammary tumors growing in vivo and in their primary cultures. We found a single mouse mammary tumor cell line, LM3, that showed low levels of activated Stat3. Incidentally, these cells also showed very little expression of LIF receptor. This suggested that autocrine/paracrine LIF would be responsible for Stat3 activation in mouse mammary tumors. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of conditioned medium of mammary tumor primary cultures to induce Stat3 phosphorylation, activity that was prevented by pretreatment with LIF-blocking antibody. Besides, we found that LIF increased tumor cell viability. Interestingly, blocking Stat3 activation enhanced this effect in mammary tumor cells. Conclusion LIF is overexpressed in mouse mammary tumors, where it acts as the main Stat3 activator. Interestingly, the positive LIF effect on tumor cell viability is not dependent on Stat3 activation, which inhibits tumor cell survival as it does in normal mammary epithelium. PMID:17925034

Quaglino, Ana; Schere-Levy, Carolina; Romorini, Leonardo; Meiss, Roberto P; Kordon, Edith C

2007-01-01

89

Monocytes Induce STAT3 Activation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Osteoblast Formation  

PubMed Central

A major therapeutic challenge is how to replace bone once it is lost. Bone loss is a characteristic of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Cells and cytokines of the immune system are known to regulate bone turnover by controlling the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. However, less is known about the regulation of osteoblasts (OB), the bone forming cells. This study aimed to investigate whether immune cells also regulate OB differentiation. Using in vitro cell cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), it was shown that monocytes/macrophages potently induced MSC differentiation into OBs. This was evident by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after 7 days and the formation of mineralised bone nodules at 21 days. This monocyte-induced osteogenic effect was mediated by cell contact with MSCs leading to the production of soluble factor(s) by the monocytes. As a consequence of these interactions we observed a rapid activation of STAT3 in the MSCs. Gene profiling of STAT3 constitutively active (STAT3C) infected MSCs using Illumina whole human genome arrays showed that Runx2 and ALP were up-regulated whilst DKK1 was down-regulated in response to STAT3 signalling. STAT3C also led to the up-regulation of the oncostatin M (OSM) and LIF receptors. In the co-cultures, OSM that was produced by monocytes activated STAT3 in MSCs, and neutralising antibodies to OSM reduced ALP by 50%. These data indicate that OSM, in conjunction with other mediators, can drive MSC differentiation into OB. This study establishes a role for monocyte/macrophages as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation via OSM production and the induction of STAT3 signalling in MSCs. Inducing the local activation of STAT3 in bone cells may be a valuable tool to increase bone formation in osteoporosis and arthritis, and in localised bone remodelling during fracture repair. PMID:22802946

Nicolaidou, Vicky; Wong, Mei Mei; Redpath, Andia N.; Ersek, Adel; Baban, Dilair F.; Williams, Lynn M.; Cope, Andrew P.; Horwood, Nicole J.

2012-01-01

90

BOTH ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE DECREASE MYOCARDIAL STAT3 ACTIVATION AND SOCS3 EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION  

PubMed Central

Background Signal transducer and activator of transduction 3 (STAT3) pathway has been shown to be cardioprotective. We observed decreased STAT3/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in male hearts, which was associated with worse post-ischemic myocardial function compared to females. However, it is unclear whether this down-regulation of myocardial STAT3/SOCS3 is due to testosterone in males. We hypothesized that following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R): 1) endogenous testosterone decreases myocardial STAT3 and SOCS3 in males; 2) administration of exogenous testosterone reduces myocardial STAT3/SOCS3 in female and castrated male hearts. Methods To study this, hearts from I/R injury (Langendorff) were homogenized and assessed for phosphorylated-STAT3 (p-STAT3), total-STAT3 (T-STAT3), SOCS3 and GAPDH by western blot. Groups: age-matched adult males, females, castrated males, males with androgen receptor blocker-flutamide implantation, females and castrated males with chronic (3-week) 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) release pellet implantation or acute (5-minute) testosterone infusion (ATI) prior to ischemia (n=5–9/group). Results Castration or flutamide treatment significantly increased SOCS3 expression in male hearts after I/R. However, only castration increased myocardial STAT3 activation. Notably, DHT replacement or ATI markedly decreased myocardial STAT3/SOCS3 in castrated males and females subjected to I/R. Conclusion These results suggest that endogenous and exogenous testosterone decrease myocardial STAT3 activation and SOCS3 expression following I/R. This represents the initial demonstration of testosterone-downregulated STAT3/SOCS3 signaling in myocardium. PMID:19628067

Wang, Meijing; Wang, Yue; Abarbanell, Aaron; Tan, Jiangjing; Weil, Brent; Herrmann, Jeremy; Meldrum, Daniel R.

2009-01-01

91

MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3?-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

2013-11-29

92

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein localizes to promoters and enhancers with cell transcription factors and EBNA2  

PubMed Central

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are critical for lymphoblastoid cell line outgrowth. LP removes NCOR and RBPJ repressive complexes from promoters, enhancers, and matrix-associated deacetylase bodies, whereas E2 activates transcription from distal enhancers. LP ChIP-seq analyses identified 19,224 LP sites of which ?50% were ±2 kb of a transcriptional start site. LP sites were enriched for B-cell transcription factors (TFs), YY1, SP1, PAX5, BATF, IRF4, ETS1, RAD21, PU.1, CTCF, RBPJ, ZNF143, SMC3, NF?B, TBLR, and EBF. E2 sites were also highly enriched for LP-associated cell TFs and were more highly occupied by RBPJ and EBF. LP sites were highly marked by H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H2Az, H3K9ac, RNAPII, and P300, indicative of activated transcription. LP sites were 29% colocalized with E2 (LP/E2). LP/E2 sites were more similar to LP than to E2 sites in associated cell TFs, RNAPII, P300, and histone H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K27ac, and H2Az occupancy, and were more highly transcribed than LP or E2 sites. Gene affected by CTCF and LP cooccupancy were more highly expressed than genes affected by CTCF alone. LP was at myc enhancers and promoters and of MYC regulated ccnd2, 23 med complex components, and MYC regulated cell survival genes, igf2r and bcl2. These data implicate LP and associated TFs and DNA looping factors CTCF, RAD21, SMC3, and YY1/INO80 chromatin-remodeling complexes in repressor depletion and gene activation necessary for lymphoblastoid cell line growth and survival. PMID:24167291

Portal, Daniel; Zhou, Hufeng; Zhao, Bo; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Lowry, Elizabeth; Wong, Limsoon; Quackenbush, John; Holloway, Dustin; Jiang, Sizun; Lu, Yong; Kieff, Elliott

2013-01-01

93

STAT3 and the Hyper-IgE syndrome  

PubMed Central

During recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies resulting from impaired function of JAK-STAT molecules have been described. One of these is the Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) characterized by elevated IgE levels, eczema, recurrent staphylococcal skin and pulmonary infections and pleiotropic somatic manifestations. In 2007 the genetic basis of HIES was revealed by identification of dominant negative STAT3 mutations in HIES patients. Subsequently impaired function of Tyk2 and DOCK8 have been implicated in milder forms of HIES. Since STAT3 acts as a central transcription factor downstream of multiple cytokine and growth factor receptors and thus regulates antimicrobial responses and cell survival, impaired STAT3 function results in immunodeficiency and in some cases tumorigenesis. However, as the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important biological and immunological insight into JAK-STAT signaling is emerging that may have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with HIES. PMID:24058807

Mogensen, Trine H.

2013-01-01

94

Inhibition of STAT3 signalling contributes to the antimelanoma action of atractylenolide II.  

PubMed

Our previous studies showed that atractylenolide II (AT-II) has antimelanoma effects in B16 melanoma cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of STAT3 signalling in the antimelanoma action of AT-II. Daily administration of AT-II (12.5, 25 mg/kg, i.g.) for 14 days significantly inhibited tumor growth in a B16 xenograft mouse model and inhibited the activation/phosphorylation of STAT3 and Src in the xenografts. In B16 and A375 cells, AT-II (20, 40 ?m) treatment for 48 h dose-dependently reduced protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3, phospho-Src, as well as STAT3-regulated Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Overexpression of a constitutively active variant of STAT3, STAT3C in A375 cells diminished the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of AT-II. These data suggest that inhibition of STAT3 signalling contributes to the antimelanoma action of AT-II. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of action underlying the antimelanoma effects of AT-II and provide further pharmacological basis for developing AT-II as a novel melanoma chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25073716

Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Chou, Gui-Xin; Kwan, Hiu Yee; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Zhao, Li-Han; Yuen, Tsz-Kin; Cao, Hui-Hui; Yu, Hua; Chao, Xiao-Juan; Su, Tao; Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Sun, Xue-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Ling

2014-11-01

95

MEK inhibition affects STAT3 signaling and invasion in human melanoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Elevated activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade is found in the majority of human melanomas and is known to regulate proliferation, survival and invasion. Current targeted therapies focus on decreasing the activity of this pathway; however, we do not fully understand how these therapies impact tumor biology, especially given that melanoma is a heterogeneous disease. Using a three-dimensional (3D), collagen-embedded spheroid melanoma model, we observed that MEK and BRAF inhibitors can increase the invasive potential of ?20% of human melanoma cell lines. The invasive cell lines displayed increased receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity and activation of the Src/FAK/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling axis, also associated with increased cell-to-cell adhesion and cadherin engagement following MEK inhibition. Targeting various RTKs, Src, FAK and STAT3 with small molecule inhibitors in combination with a MEK inhibitor prevented the invasive phenotype, but only STAT3 inhibition caused cell death in the 3D context. We further show that STAT3 signaling is induced in BRAF-inhibitor-resistant cells. Our findings suggest that MEK and BRAF inhibitors can induce STAT3 signaling, causing potential adverse effects such as increased invasion. We also provide the rationale for the combined targeting of the MAPK pathway along with inhibitors of RTKs, SRC or STAT3 to counteract STAT3-mediated resistance phenotypes. PMID:23624919

Vultur, A; Villanueva, J; Krepler, C; Rajan, G; Chen, Q; Xiao, M; Li, L; Gimotty, P A; Wilson, M; Hayden, J; Keeney, F; Nathanson, K L; Herlyn, M

2014-04-01

96

Effects of AG490 and S3I-201 on regulation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in relation to angiogenesis in TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in blocking the signaling pathway and the effects of this on the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) cells in vitro. LNCaP human CaP cell line was stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the presence/absence of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 (AG490), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [(STAT3) S3I-201] inhibitors and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Cytotoxic activity, the activation of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 protein, caspase (CASP) 3 activity at protein level, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGFC, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, STAT3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1), CASP8 and CASP9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined. Morphology and apoptosis were confirmed by DAPI staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. IL-6 rapidly induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a peak expression at 3 h at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. In addition, AG490 (50 ?M) and S3I-201 (300 ?M) inhibited STAT3 activation. Western blotting results revealed that p-STAT3 protein expression decreased significantly with AG490 and S3I-201 treatment in LNCaP cells. AG490 and S3I-201 induced the downregulation of VEGFA, MCL-1 and STAT3 and the upregulation of CASP8 and CASP9 mRNA transcription levels. In addition, the inhibitors increased the level of CASP3 protein. Combinations of AG490- and S3I-201-TRAIL did not result in an increase in this effect. Parallel results were found by DAPI staining and TUNEL assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the possible clinical use of AG490 or S3I-201, together with the reduced use of chemotherapeutic agents with high cytotoxicity, for their ability to exert an apoptotic effect, targeting the JAK/STAT3 pathway. PMID:24520293

GURBUZ, VENHAR; KONAC, ECE; VAROL, NURAY; YILMAZ, AKIN; GUROCAK, SERHAT; MENEVSE, SEVDA; SOZEN, SINAN

2014-01-01

97

?-caryophyllene oxide inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of the SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase.  

PubMed

Constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently observed and closely linked with proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated whether ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated primarily from the essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), can mediate its effect through interference with the STAT3 activation pathway in cancer cells. The effect of CPO on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and phosphatase, STAT3-regulated gene products and apoptosis was investigated using both functional proteomics tumor pathway technology platform and different tumor cell lines. We found that CPO suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM), breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with a significant dose- and time-dependent effects observed in MM cells. The suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases c-Src and JAK1/2. Also, vanadate treatment reversed CPO-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that CPO induced the expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that correlated with the down-regulation of constitutive STAT3 activation. Interestingly, deletion of SHP-1 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of CPO to inhibit STAT3 activation. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by CPO inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and abrogated the invasive potential of tumor cells. Our results suggest for the first time that CPO is a novel blocker of STAT3 signaling cascade and thus has an enormous potential for the treatment of various cancers harboring constitutively activated STAT3. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23765383

Kim, Chulwon; Cho, Somi K; Kapoor, Shweta; Kumar, Ansu; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2014-10-01

98

Viability and stress protection of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells involves overactivation of mitochondrial phosphoSTAT3Ser727  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of functionally defective CD5-positive B lymphocytes. The clinical course of CLL is highly variable, ranging from a long-lasting indolent disease to an unpredictable and rapidly progressing leukemia requiring treatment. It is thus important to identify novel factors that reflect disease progression or contribute to its assessment. Here, we report on a novel STAT3-mediated pathway that characterizes CLL B cells-extended viability and oxidative stress control. We observed that leukemic but not normal B cells from CLL patients exhibit constitutive activation of an atypical form of the STAT3 signaling factor, phosphorylated on serine 727 (Ser727) in the absence of detectable canonical tyrosine 705 (Tyr705)-dependent activation in vivo. The Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 molecule (pSTAT3Ser727) is localized to the mitochondria and associates with complex I of the respiratory chain. This pSer727 modification is further controlled by glutathione-dependent antioxidant pathway(s) that mediate stromal protection of the leukemic B cells and regulate their viability. Importantly, pSTAT3Ser727, but neither Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 nor total STAT3, levels correlate with prolonged in vivo CLL B cells survival. Furthermore, STAT3 activity contributes to the resistance to apoptosis of CLL, but not normal B cells, in vitro. These data reveal that mitochondrial (Mt) pSTAT3Ser727 overactivity is part of the antioxidant defense pathway of CLL B cells that regulates their viability. Mt pSTAT3Ser727 appears to be a newly identified cell-protective signal involved in CLL cells survival. Targeting pSTAT3Ser727 could be a promising new therapeutic approach. PMID:25299776

Capron, C; Jondeau, K; Casetti, L; Jalbert, V; Costa, C; Verhoyen, E; Massé, J M; Coppo, P; Béné, M C; Bourdoncle, P; Cramer-Bordé, E; Dusanter-Fourt, I

2014-01-01

99

Function of Mitochondrial Stat3 in Cellular Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines such as interleukin-6 induce tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat3 that results in activation of Stat3-responsive genes. We provide evidence that Stat3 is present in the mitochondria of cultured cells and primary tissues, including the liver and heart. In Stat3-\\/- cells, the activities of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC) were significantly decreased. We identified

Joanna Wegrzyn; Ramesh Potla; Yong-Joon Chwae; Naresh B. V. Sepuri; Qifang Zhang; Thomas Koeck; Marta Derecka; Karol Szczepanek; Magdalena Szelag; Agnieszka Gornicka; Akira Moh; Shadi Moghaddas; Qun Chen; Santha Bobbili; Joanna Cichy; Jozef Dulak; Darren P. Baker; Alan Wolfman; Dennis Stuehr; Medhat O. Hassan; Xin-Yuan Fu; Narayan Avadhani; Jennifer I. Drake; Paul Fawcett; Edward J. Lesnefsky; Andrew C. Larner

2009-01-01

100

STAT3 serine 727 phosphorylation influences clinical outcome in glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Besides STAT3 tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (pTyr705-STAT3), phosphorylation of STAT3 at serine 727 (pSer727-STAT3) is shown to contribute to tumorigenesis and be closely related with resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma, but there is currently no study regarding its relevance to prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 was detected in tumor specimens from 88 patients with newly diagnosed GBM by immunohistochemistry, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and COX proportional hazards regression model were applied to estimate its influences on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Immunohistochemical assay showed elevated expression of pSer727-STAT3 in GBM compared with normal brain tissue. Univariate analysis indicated significant correlations of high percentage of pSer727-STAT3 positive tumor cells with shorter PFS (P = 0.006) and OS (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, high pSer727-STAT3 expression was demonstrated as an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator for PFS (HR 1.830, P = 0.022) and OS (HR 1.797, P = 0.040). And patients with high expression of both pTyr705-STAT3 and pSer727-STAT3 had a poorer prognosis compared with the remainder (P < 0.005). In conclusion, the high proportion of pSer727-STAT3 positive neoplastic cells in GBM is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor, and increased expression of both pTyr705-STAT3 and pSer727-STAT3 is predictive of poorer clinical outcome, thereby adding to the growing evidence that STAT3 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma. PMID:25031733

Lin, Guo-Shi; Chen, Yu-Peng; Lin, Zhi-Xiong; Wang, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Zong-Qing; Chen, Long

2014-01-01

101

Uterine Deletion of Gp130 or Stat3 Shows Implantation Failure with Increased Estrogenic Responses  

PubMed Central

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a downstream target of estrogen, is essential for implantation in mice. LIF function is thought to be mediated by its binding to LIF receptor (LIFR) and recruitment of coreceptor GP130 (glycoprotein 130), and this receptor complex then activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. However, the importance of LIFR and GP130 acting via STAT3 in implantation remains uncertain, because constitutive inactivation of Lifr, Gp130, or Stat3 shows embryonic lethality in mice. To address this issue, we generated mice with conditional deletion of uterine Gp130 or Stat3 and show that both GP130 and STAT3 are critical for uterine receptivity and implantation. Implantation failure in these deleted mice is associated with higher uterine estrogenic responses prior to the time of implantation. These heightened estrogenic responses are not due to changes in ovarian hormone levels or expression of their nuclear receptors. In the deleted mice, estrogen-responsive gene, Lactoferrin (Ltf), and Mucin 1 protein, were up-regulated in the uterus. In addition, progesterone-responsive genes, Hoxa10 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were markedly down-regulated in STAT3-inactivated uteri. These changes in uteri of deleted mice were reflected by the failure of differentiation of the luminal epithelium, which is essential for blastocyst attachment. PMID:23885093

Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

102

Two Naturally Occurring Terpenes, Dehydrocostuslactone and Costunolide, Decrease Intracellular GSH Content and Inhibit STAT3 Activation  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of the present study is to envisage the molecular mechanism of inhibitory action ofdehydrocostuslactone (DCE) andcostunolide (CS), two naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, towards the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We report that, in human THP-1 cell line, they inhibit IL-6-elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity with EC50 of 10 µM with concomitantdown-regulation ofthe phosphorylation of the tyrosine Janus kinases JAK1, JAK2 and Tyk2. Furthermore, these compounds that contain an ?-?-unsatured carbonyl moiety and function as potent Michael reaction acceptor, induce a rapid drop in intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration by direct interaction with it, thereby triggering S-glutathionylation of STAT3. Dehydrocostunolide (HCS), the reduced form of CS lacking only the ?-?-unsaturated carbonyl group, fails to exert any inhibitory action. Finally, the glutathione ethylene ester (GEE), the cell permeable GSH form, reverts the inhibitory action of DCE and CS on STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. We conclude that these two sesquiterpene lactones are able to induce redox-dependent post-translational modification of cysteine residues of STAT3 protein in order to regulate its function. PMID:21625597

Butturini, Elena; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Carcereri de Prati, Alessandra; Darra, Elena; Rigo, Antonella; Shoji, Kazuo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Suzuki, Hisanori; Mariotto, Sofia

2011-01-01

103

Gambogic Acid Inhibits STAT3 Phosphorylation Through Activation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1: Potential Role in Proliferation and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is associated with proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone derived from the resin of traditional Chinese medicine, Gamboge hanburyi (mangosteen), can regulate the STAT3 pathway, leading to suppression of growth and sensitization of cancer cells. We found that GA induced apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells that correlated with the inhibition of both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation. STAT3 phosphorylation at both tyrosine residue 705 and serine residue 727 was inhibited by GA. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of the protein tyrosine kinases Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1, and JAK2. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the GA-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. We also found that GA induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of GA to inhibit STAT3 activation and to induce apoptosis, suggesting the critical role of SHP-1 in its action. Moreover, GA down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins, and this correlated with suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that GA blocks STAT3 activation, leading to suppression of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. PMID:21490133

Prasad, Sahdeo; Pandey, Manoj K.; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2011-01-01

104

Silencing of the transcription factor STAT3 sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging drugs, but not to TNF?- and NK cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Transcription factor STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) is persistently active in human tumors and may contribute to tumor progression. Inhibition of STAT3 expression/activity could be a good strategy to modulate tumor cell survival and responses to cancer chemotherapeutics or immune cytotoxicity. We silenced STAT3 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells to elucidate its role in cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics, TNF? and natural killer (NK)-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that STAT3 is not essential for basal survival and proliferation of A549 cancer cells. Stable silencing of STAT3 expression sensitized A549 cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in a p53-independent manner. Sensitization to DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics could be due to down-regulation of the Bcl-xL expression in STAT3 depleted cells. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 in cancer cells did not modulate responses to TNF? and NK-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that STAT3 depletion increased the NF?B activity likely providing the compensatory, pro-survival signal. The treatment with TNF?, but not doxorubicin, enhanced this effect. We conclude that STAT3 is not crucial for the control of basal cell proliferation and survival of lung carcinoma cells but modulates susceptibility to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics by regulation of intrinsic pro-survival pathways. - Highlights: ? STAT3 silencing is negligent for basal lung cancer cell viability and proliferation. ? STAT3 depletion sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics. ? STAT3 depletion has no effect on susceptibility to extrinsic apoptosis inducers. ? Increased pro-survival NF?B activity may compensate for STAT3 depletion.

Kulesza, Dorota W. [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland); Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Carré, Thibault; Chouaib, Salem [Unité INSERM U753, Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif Cedex (France); Kaminska, Bozena, E-mail: bozenakk@nencki.gov.pl [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland)

2013-02-15

105

IL-6 Induced STAT3 Signalling Is Associated with the Proliferation of Human Muscle Satellite Cells Following Acute Muscle Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Although the satellite cell (SC) is a key regulator of muscle growth during development and muscle adaptation following exercise, the regulation of human muscle SC function remains largely unexplored. STAT3 signalling mediated via interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently come to the forefront as a potential regulator of SC proliferation. The early response of the SC population in human muscle to muscle-lengthening contractions (MLC) as mediated by STAT3 has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve male subjects (21±2 y; 83±12 kg) performed 300 maximal MLC of the quadriceps femoris at 180°•s?1 over a 55° range of motion with muscle samples (vastus lateralis) and blood samples (antecubital vein) taken prior to exercise (PRE), 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3) and 24 hours (T24) post-exercise. Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of muscle biopsies were purified and analyzed for total and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) by western blot. p-STAT3 was detected in cytoplasmic fractions across the time course peaking at T24 (p<0.01 vs. PRE). Nuclear total and p-STAT3 were not detected at appreciable levels. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of SCs expressing p-STAT3 with ?60% of all SCs positive for p-STAT3 at T24 (p<0.001 vs. PRE). Additionally, cMyc, a STAT3 downstream gene, was significantly up-regulated in SCs at T24 versus PRE (p<0.05). Whole muscle mRNA analysis revealed induction of the STAT3 target genes IL-6, SOCS3, cMyc (peaking at T3, p<0.05), IL-6R? and GP130 (peaking at T24, p<0.05). In addition, Myf5 mRNA was up-regulated at T24 (p<0.05) with no appreciable change in MRF4 mRNA. Conclusions/Significant Findings We demonstrate that IL-6 induction of STAT3 signaling occurred exclusively in the nuclei of SCs in response to MLC. An increase in the number of cMyc+ SCs indicated that human SCs were induced to proliferate under the control of STAT3 signaling. PMID:21408055

Toth, Kyle G.; McKay, Bryon R.; De Lisio, Michael; Little, Jonathon P.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Parise, Gianni

2011-01-01

106

STAT3 in Cancer--Friend or Foe?  

PubMed Central

The roles and significance of STAT3 in cancer biology have been extensively studied for more than a decade. Mounting evidence has shown that constitutive activation of STAT3 is a frequent biochemical aberrancy in cancer cells, and this abnormality directly contributes to tumorigenesis and shapes many malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from more recent experimental and clinicopathologic studies have suggested that STAT3 also can exert tumor suppressor effects under specific conditions. Importantly, some of these studies have demonstrated that STAT3 can function either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background or presence/absence of specific coexisting biochemical defects. Thus, in the context of cancer biology, STAT3 can be a friend or foe. In the first half of this review, we will highlight the “evil” features of STAT3 by summarizing its oncogenic functions and mechanisms. The differences between the canonical and non-canonical pathway will be highlighted. In the second half, we will summarize the evidence supporting that STAT3 can function as a tumor suppressor. To explain how STAT3 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we will discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT3?, one of the two STAT3 splicing isoforms. Taken together, it is clear that the roles of STAT3 in cancer are multi-faceted and far more complicated than one appreciated previously. The new knowledge has provided us with new approaches and strategies when we evaluate STAT3 as a prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. PMID:24995504

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Raymond

2014-01-01

107

Preventing intimal thickening of vein grafts in vein artery bypass using STAT-3 siRNA  

PubMed Central

Background Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in neointimal formation which leads to restenosis of vein graft in venous bypass. STAT-3 is a transcription factor associated with cell proliferation. We hypothesized that silencing of STAT-3 by siRNA will inhibit proliferation of VSMCs and attenuate intimal thickening. Methods Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in vitro by applying tissue piece inoculation methods. VSMCs were transfected with STAT 3 siRNA using lipofectamine 2000. In vitro proliferation of VSMC was quantified by the MTT assay, while in vivo assessment was performed in a venous transplantation model. In vivo delivery of STAT-3 siRNA plasmid or scramble plasmid was performed by admixing with liposomes 2000 and transfected into the vein graft by bioprotein gel applied onto the adventitia. Rat jugular vein-carotid artery bypass was performed. On day 3 and7 after grafting, the vein grafts were extracted, and analyzed morphologically by haematoxylin eosin (H&E), and assessed by immunohistochemistry for expression of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Western-blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro. Cell apoptosis in vein grafts was detected by TUNEL assay. Results MTT assay shows that the proliferation of VSMCs in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group was inhibited. On day 7 after operation, a reduced number of Ki-67 and PCNA positive cells were observed in the neointima of the vein graft in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group as compared to the scramble control. The PCNA index in the control group (31.3 ± 4.7) was higher than that in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group (23.3 ± 2.8) (P < 0.05) on 7d. The neointima in the experimental group(0.45 ± 0.04 ?m) was thinner than that in the control group(0.86 ± 0.05 ?m) (P < 0.05).Compared with the control group, the protein and mRNA levels in the experimental group in vivo and in vitro decreased significantly. Down regulation of STAT-3 with siRNA resulted in a reduced expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. However, apoptotic cells were not obviously found in all grafts on day 3 and 7 post surgery. Conclusions The STAT-3 siRNA can inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs in vivo and in vitro and attenuate neointimal formation. PMID:22216901

2012-01-01

108

Genome-Wide Uncovering of STAT3-Mediated miRNA Expression Profiles in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies resulting in high mortality worldwide. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor which is frequently activated and aberrantly expressed in CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs which play important roles in many cancers. However, little is known about the global miRNA profiles mediated by STAT3 in CRC cells. In the present study, we applied RNA interference to inhibit STAT3 expression and profiled the miRNA expression levels regulated by STAT3 in CRC cell lines with deep sequencing. We found that 26 and 21 known miRNAs were significantly overexpressed and downexpressed, respectively, in the STAT3-knockdown CRC cell line SW480 (SW480/STAT3-siRNA) compared to SW480 transfected with scrambled siRNAs (SW480/siRNA-control). The miRNA expression profiling was then validated by quantitative real-time PCR for selected known miRNAs. We further predicted the putative target genes for the dysregulated miRNAs and carried out functional annotation including GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis for selected miRNA targets. This study directly depicts STAT3-mediated miRNA profiles in CRC cells, which provides a possible way to discover biomarkers for CRC therapy. PMID:25126546

Zhang, Jufeng; Luo, Xia; Li, Huiming; Deng, Ling

2014-01-01

109

Inflamm-aging: STAT3 Signaling Pushes Muscle Stem Cells off Balance.  

PubMed

Two recent studies shed light on mechanisms underlying muscle dysfunction in age and disease. They reveal that JAK-STAT signaling regulates myogenic differentiation, leading to a reduced reservoir of muscle stem cells. Both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 signaling improve stem cell homeostasis and physiology of aged and dystrophic muscles. PMID:25280215

Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mouchiroud, Guy

2014-10-01

110

Deficiency of Erbin induces resistance of cervical cancer cells to anoikis in a STAT3-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cell polarization and integration are essential to their function and loss of epithelial polarity and tissue architecture correlates with the development of aggressive tumors. Erbin is a basolateral membrane-associated protein. The roles of Erbin in establishing cell polarization and regulating cell adhesion have been suggested. Erbin is also a negative regulator in Ras-Raf-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway. However, the potential functions of Erbin in human cancer are basically unknown. In the present study, we show, for the first time, that loss of Erbin endows cervical cancer cells with resistance to anoikis both in vitro and in vivo and promotes the growth and metastasis of human cervical cancer xenografts in nude mice. We found that knockdown of Erbin induced the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activities of signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) in cervical cancer cells. Overexpression of STAT3C or induction of endogenous STAT3 activation by interleukin (IL)-6 evidently inhibited anoikis of cervical cancer cells, whereas WP1066, a potent inhibitor of Janus-activated kinase 2 (Jak2)/STAT3, effectively blocked the effect of Erbin knockdown on cell survival under anchorage-independent conditions, indicating that loss of Erbin confers resistance of cervical cancer cells to anoikis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Interestingly, IL-6 induced STAT3 activation and Erbin expression simultaneously. Overexpression of STAT3C also significantly upregulated the level of Erbin, whereas the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 remarkably blocked not only STAT3 phosphorylation but also IL-6-induced Erbin expression. Knockdown of Erbin augmented the effects of IL-6 on STAT3 activation and anoikis resistance. In addition, by immunohistochemical analysis of Erbin expression, we demonstrate that the expression of Erbin is significantly decreased or even lost in cervical cancer tissues. These data reveal that Erbin is a novel negative regulator of STAT3, and the IL-6/STAT3/Erbin loop has a crucial role in cervical cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:23774064

Hu, Y; Chen, H; Duan, C; Liu, D; Qian, L; Yang, Z; Guo, L; Song, L; Yu, M; Hu, M; Shi, M; Guo, N

2013-01-01

111

Mouse hematopoietic cell-targeted STAT3 deletion: stem/progenitor cell defects, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS overproduction, and a rapid aging-like phenotype  

PubMed Central

Nuclear transcription factor Stat3 is important for proper regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) proliferation, survival, and cytokine signaling responses. A new, noncanonical role for Stat3 in mitochondrial function has been discovered recently. However, there is little information on the role(s) of mitochondrial Stat3 in HSC/HPC function, especially potential effects of Stat3/mitochondrial dysregulation in human diseases. We investigated hematopoietic cell–targeted deletion of the STAT3 gene in HSCs/HPCs with a focus on mitochondrial function. We found that STAT3?/? mice, which have a very shortened lifespan, dysfunctional/dysregulated mitochondrial function and excessive reactive oxygen species production in HSCs/HPCs that coincides with pronounced defects in function. These animals have a blood phenotype with similarities to premature aging and to human diseases of myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasms such as erythroid dysplasia, anemia, excessive myeloproliferation, and lymphomyeloid ratio shifts. We show herein that the lifespan of STAT3?/? animals is lengthened by treatment with a reactive oxygen species scavenger, which lessened the severity of the blood phenotype. These data suggest a need for more detailed studies of role(s) of Stat3 in HSC/HPC mitochondrial function in human diseases and raise the idea that mitochondrial Stat3 could be used as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22665934

Messina-Graham, Steven; Moh, Akira; Cooper, Scott; Hangoc, Giao; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Broxmeyer, Hal E.

2012-01-01

112

TLR-mediated STAT3 and ERK activation controls IL-10 secretion by human B cells.  

PubMed

IL-10-producing B cells have a regulatory effect in various mouse models for immune-mediated disorders via secretion of IL-10, a potent immunoregulatory cytokine. However, currently, the signaling pathways that regulate IL-10 production in B cells are not well understood. Here, we show that TLR signaling, but not BCR activation or CD40 ligation, induces potent production of IL-10 in human B cells. We demonstrate that the activation of STAT3 and ERK is required for TLR-induced IL-10 production by B cells, since inhibition of STAT3 or ERK activation abrogates TLR-induced IL-10 production. We also uncover a novel function of the TLR-MyD88-STAT3 pathway in B cells, namely controlling IL-10 production, in addition to the known role for this pathway in antibody production. Furthermore, IFN-?, a member of the type I IFN family, differentially modulates TLR7/8- and TLR9-activated STAT3 and ERK in B cells, which provides an explanation for our findings that IFN-? enhances TLR7/8-induced, but not TLR9-induced IL-10 production. These results yield insights into the mechanisms by which TLR signaling regulates IL-10 production in B cells and how type I IFN modulates TLR-mediated IL-10 production by B cells, therefore providing potential targets to modulate the function of IL-10-producing B cells. PMID:24737107

Liu, Bi-Sheng; Cao, Yonghao; Huizinga, Tom W; Hafler, David A; Toes, Rene E M

2014-07-01

113

Interleukin 18 activates MAPKs and STAT3 but not NF-?B in hippocampal HT-22 cells.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine previously demonstrated to participate in neuroinflammatory processes. Since the components of the IL-18 receptor complex are expressed in neurons throughout the brain, IL-18 is also believed to directly influence neuronal function. Here we tested this hypothesis on mouse hippocampal neurons by measuring the effects of IL-18 on three pathways previously shown to be regulated by this cytokine in non-neuronal cells: the MAPK pathways, p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs, STAT3 and NF-?B. Experiments were carried out in vitro using the immortalized hippocampal neuronal line HT-22 or in vivo following i.c.v. injection with recombinant mouse IL-18. We showed that IL-18 did not activate NF-?B in HT-22 cells whereas it induced a rapid (within 15min) activation of the MAPK pathways. Moreover, we demonstrated that IL-18 treatment enhanced P-STAT3 (Tyr705)/STAT3 ratio in the nucleus of HT-22 cells after 30-60min of exposure. A similar increase in P-STAT3 (Tyr705)/STAT3 ratio was observed in the whole hippocampus one hour after i.c.v. injection. These data demonstrate that IL-18 can act directly on neuronal cells affecting the STAT3 pathway; therefore, possibly regulating the expression of specific genes within the hippocampus. This effect may help to explain some of the IL-18-induced effects on synaptic plasticity and functionality within the hippocampal system. PMID:24603356

Alboni, Silvia; Montanari, Claudia; Benatti, Cristina; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Rigillo, Giovanna; Blom, Joan M C; Brunello, Nicoletta; Conti, Bruno; Pariante, M Carmine; Tascedda, Fabio

2014-08-01

114

Protective Role of STAT3 in NMDA and Glutamate-Induced Neuronal Death: Negative Regulatory Effect of SOCS3  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the involvement of the IL-6 family of cytokines, activation of the transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3), and the role of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS3) in regulating excitotoxic neuronal death in vitro. Biochemical evidence demonstrates that in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, IL-6 cytokine family members, OSM and IL-6 plus the soluble IL-6R (IL-6/R), prevent NMDA and glutamate-induced neuronal toxicity. As well, OSM and IL-6/R induce tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT3 in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Studies using Pyridine 6 (P6), a pan-JAK inhibitor, demonstrate that the protective effect of OSM and IL-6/R on neuronal death is mediated by the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway. In parallel to STAT3 phosphorylation, OSM and IL-6/R induce SOCS3 expression at the mRNA and protein level. P6 treatment inhibits SOCS3 expression, indicating that STAT3 is required for OSM and IL-6/R-induced SOCS3 expression. Lentiviral delivery of SOCS3, an inhibitor of STAT3 signaling, into primary neurons and SH-SY5Y cells inhibits OSM and IL-6/R-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, and also reverses the protective effect of OSM and IL-6/R on NMDA and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical neurons. In addition, treatment with IL-6 cytokines increases expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL and induces activation of the Akt signaling pathway, which are also negatively regulated by SOCS3 expression. Thus, IL-6/R and OSM-induced SOCS3 expression may be an important factor limiting the neuroprotective effects of activated STAT3 against NMDA and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23226414

Park, Keun W.; Nozell, Susan E.; Benveniste, Etty N.

2012-01-01

115

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 Activates Nuclear Factor (NF)-?B in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor (NF)-?B plays a major role in the pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasms. A broad array of mostly extracellular stimuli has been reported to activate NF-?B, to various degrees, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Because CLL cells harbor high levels of unphosphorylated (U) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 protein and U-STAT3 was reported to activate NF-?B, we sought to determine whether U-STAT3 activates NF-?B in CLL. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) we studied peripheral blood low-density cells from 15 patients with CLL and found that CLL cell nuclear extracts from all the samples bound to an NF-?B DNA probe, suggesting that NF-?B is constitutively activated in CLL. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that STAT3 bound NF-?B p65, and confocal microscopy studies detected U-STAT3/NF-?B complexes in the nuclei of CLL cells, thereby confirming these findings. Furthermore, infection of CLL cells with retroviral STAT3-shRNA attenuated the binding of NF-?B to DNA, as assessed by EMSA, and downregulated mRNA levels of NF-?B-regulated genes, as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, our data suggest that U-STAT3 binds to the NF-?B p50/p65 dimers and that the U-STAT3/NF-?B complexes bind to DNA and activate NF-?B-regulated genes in CLL cells. PMID:21364020

Liu, Zhiming; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Harris, David M.; Li, Ping; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

2014-01-01

116

Pien Tze Huang suppresses IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in human colon carcinoma cells through induction of SOCS3.  

PubMed

IL-6/STAT3 is one of the most critical cellular signal transduction pathways known to malfunction in colorectal cancer (CRC). As a target gene of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) can be quickly induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulation but it then strongly inhibits IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation, functioning as a negative feedback regulator of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Aberrant activation of STAT3 and/or reduced expression of SOCS are strongly correlated with carcinogenesis, which therefore becomes a promising target for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapies. Pien Tze Huang (PZH) is a well-known traditional Chinese formula that was first prescribed by a royal physician 450 years ago in the Ming Dynasty. It has been used in China and Southeast Asia for centuries as a folk remedy for various types of cancer including CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its antitumor activity remains largely unclear. In the present study, we found that PZH could significantly and dose-dependently inhibit IL-6-mediated increase of STAT3 phosphorylation levels and transcriptional activity in the human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells, resulting in the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, PZH treatment profoundly inhibited IL-6-induced upregulation of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2, two key target genes of the STAT3 pathway. Moreover, PZH treatment increased the expression of SOCS3. These results suggest that PZH could effectively inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of human colon carcinoma cells via modulation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and its target genes. PMID:23027374

Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Hong, Fei; Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

2012-12-01

117

Dimethylfumarate suppresses adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through inhibition of STAT3 activity.  

PubMed

The excessive accumulation of adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. The interactions of several transcription factors, such as C/EBP?, PPAR?, C/EBP?, Nrf2, and STAT3, are required for adipogenic differentiation. Dimethylfumarate (DMF), an immune modulator and antioxidant, may function as an inhibitor of STAT3 and an activator of Nrf2. This study examined whether DMF inhibits adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by inhibiting STAT3 or activating Nrf2. DMF suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic genes, including C/EBP?, C/EBP?, PPAR?, SREBP-1c, FAS, and aP2, were significantly lower in DMF-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Suppression of adipogenic differentiation by DMF treatment resulted primarily from inhibition of the early stages of differentiation. DMF inhibits clonal expansion during adipogenic differentiation through induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Additionally, DMF regulates cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21, pRb, and cyclin D. DMF treatment markedly inhibited differentiation medium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activation of a reporter construct composed of four synthetic STAT3-response elements. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 activity using a dominant negative Nrf2 did not abolish the DMF-induced inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In summary, DMF is a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation based on its regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and cell cycle proteins. This negative regulation by DMF is mediated by STAT3 inhibition, but is unlikely to involve Nrf2 activation. PMID:23637829

Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Seo, Hyun-Ae; Go, Younghoon; Oh, Chang Joo; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

2013-01-01

118

Chrysanthemum indicum L. extract induces apoptosis through suppression of constitutive STAT3 activation in human prostate cancer DU145 cells.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemum indicum L. has been shown to possess antiinflammatory and anticancer activities, but its molecular targets/pathways are not yet fully understood in tumor cells. In the present study, the potential effects of C. indicum on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in different tumor cells were examined. The solvent fractions (hexane, CH?Cl?, EtOAc, and BuOH,) were obtained from a crude extract (80% EOH extract) of C. indicum. The methylene chloride fraction of C. indicum (MCI) exhibited strong cytotoxic activity as compared with the other fractions and clearly suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation against both DU145 and U266 cells, but not MDA-MB-231 cells. The suppression of constitutive STAT3 activation by MCI is associated with blocking upstream JAK1 and JAK2, but not Src. MCI downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products; this is correlated with the accumulation of the cell cycle at sub-G1 phase, the induction of caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. Moreover, the major components of the MCI were bioactive compounds such as sudachitin, hesperetin, chrysoeriol, and acacetin. Sudachitin, chrysoeriol, and acacetin also exerted significantly cytotoxicity, clearly suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation, and induced apoptosis, although hesperetin did not show any significant effect in DU145 cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that MCI could induce apoptosis through inhibition of the JAK1/2 and STAT3 signaling pathways. PMID:22438130

Kim, Chulwon; Kim, Moo-Chang; Kim, Sung-Moo; Nam, Dongwoo; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Lee, Eun Ha; Jung, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2013-01-01

119

Inhibition of JAK1/STAT3 signaling mediates compound K-induced apoptosis in human multiple myeloma U266 cells.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, the role of STAT3 pathway in the antitumor activity of an active ginseng saponin metabolite compound K (CK) was investigated in human multiple myeloma U266 cells. CK increased the cytotoxicity, accumulated the sub-G1 DNA population, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and activated caspase-3 in U266 cells. Interestingly, CK inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 and its upstream activators, the Janus activated kinase 1 (JAK1), but not JAK2. Furthermore, CK enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SHP-1, but not PTEN. Additionally, CK down-regulated STAT3 target genes bcl-x(L), bcl-2, survivin, cyclin E and cyclin D1. Conversely, PTP inhibitor pervanadate reversed CK-mediated STAT3 inactivation and cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP. Overall, our findings demonstrate that JAK1/STAT3 signaling mediates CK-induced apoptosis in U266 cells and also suggest the chemopreventive potential of CK for treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:21420464

Park, Sora; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Song, Hyo Sook; Kim, Minseok; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2011-06-01

120

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Degradation by Proteasome Controls a Developmental Switch in Neurotrophin Dependence*  

PubMed Central

Neonatal brains develop through a program that eliminates about half of the neurons. During this period, neurons depend on neurotrophins for their survival. Recently, we reported that, at the conclusion of the naturally occurring death period, neurons become neurotrophin-independent and, further, that this developmental switch is achieved by the emergence of a second survival pathway mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here I show that calcineurin plays a key role in controlling the developmental switch in mouse hippocampal neurons. Calcineurin promotes the degradation of STAT3 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Inhibition of calcineurin acutely increases total levels of STAT3 as well as its activated forms, resulting in decreased levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and its proapoptotic target, Bax. In vivo and in vitro, calcineurin regulates levels of STAT3 and neurotrophin dependence. TMF/ARA 160 (TATA element modulatory factor/androgen receptor co-activator 160), the key mediator of STAT3 ubiquitination, is required for calcineurin-dependent STAT3 degradation. Thus, these results show that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls the critical developmental switch of neurotrophin dependence in the newborn hippocampus. PMID:23733189

Murase, Sachiko

2013-01-01

121

Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Blocks Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation in Breast and Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein (PEBP) family that modulates the action of many kinases involved in cellular growth, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we described an inverse association between RKIP and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which RKIP regulates STAT3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RKIP over expression inhibited c-Src auto-phosphorylation and activation, as well as IL-6-, JAK1 and 2-, and activated Raf-mediated STAT3 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and subsequent activation. In MDA-231 breast cancer cells that stably over express RKIP, IL-6 treatment blocked STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Conversely, in RKIP knockdown MDA-231 cells: STAT3 phosphorylation and activation increased in comparison to parental MDA-231 cells. RKIP over expression resulted in constitutive physical interaction with STAT3 and blocked c-Src and STAT3 association. The treatment of DU145 prostate, but not PC3 prostate or MDA-231 breast, cancer cell lines with ENMD-1198 or MKC-1 dramatically increased expression of RKIP. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PC3 and MDA-231 cells to MTI-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MTI treatment resulted in a decrease in Src-mediated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by RKIP over expression. In stable RKIP over expressing MDA-231 cells, tumor xenograft growth induced by activated STAT3 is inhibited. RKIP synergizes with MTIs to induce apoptosis and inhibit STAT3 activation of breast and prostate cancer cells. RKIP plays a critical role in opposing the effects of pro-oncogenic STAT3 activation. PMID:24658061

Moen, Erika L.; Cross-Knorr, Sam; Brilliant, Kate; Bonavida, Benjamin; LaValle, Theresa; Yeung, Kam C.; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chin, Eugene; Chatterjee, Devasis

2014-01-01

122

Ethanolamine is a novel STAT-3 dependent cardioprotective agent.  

PubMed

Ethanolamine is a biogenic amine found naturally in the body as part of membrane lipids and as a metabolite of the cardioprotective substances, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and anandamide. In the brain, ethanolamine, formed from the breakdown of anandamide protects against ischaemic apoptosis. However, the effects of ethanolamine in the heart are unknown. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is a critical prosurvival factor in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, we investigated whether ethanolamine protects the heart via activation of STAT-3. Isolated hearts from wildtype or cardiomyocyte specific STAT-3 knockout (K/O) mice were pre-treated with ethanolamine (Etn) (0.3 mmol/L) before I/R insult. In vivo rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischaemia/2 h reperfusion in the presence or absence of 5 mg/kg S1P and/or the FAAH inhibitor, URB597. Infarct size was measured at the end of each protocol by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Pre-treatment with ethanolamine decreased infarct size in isolated mouse or rat hearts subjected to I/R but this infarct sparing effect was lost in cardiomyocyte specific STAT-3 deficient mice. Pre-treatment with ethanolamine increased nuclear phosphorylated STAT-3 [control 0.75 ± 0.08 vs. Etn 1.50 ± 0.09 arbitrary units; P < 0.05]. Our findings suggest a novel cardioprotective role for ethanolamine against I/R injury via activation of STAT-3. PMID:20938668

Kelly, Roisin F; Lamont, Kim T; Somers, Sarin; Hacking, Damian; Lacerda, Lydia; Thomas, Paul; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

2010-11-01

123

Chromatin accessibility at a STAT3 target site is altered prior to astrocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

DNA demethylation of astrocyte-specific gene promoters and STAT3 activation in neural precursor cells (NPCs) are essential for astrogliogenesis in the developing brain. To date, it remains unclear whether DNA methylation is the sole epigenetic determinant responsible for suppressing astrocyte-specific genes. Here, we used mouse embryonic stem cells (TKO ESCs) that lacked all 3 DNA methyltransferase genes, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b, and thereby exhibit complete demethylation of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) gene promoter. We found that although the Gfap promoter was demethylated, STAT3 failed to bind to its cognate element to induce Gfap transcription, whereas it induced transcription of a different target gene, Socs3. Moreover, although the Gfap promoter region containing the STAT3-binding site (GSBS) is enriched with transcription-repressive histone modifications, such as methylation of H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and H3K27me3, the reduction of these modifications in TKO ESCs was not sufficient for binding of STAT3 at GSBS. Furthermore, GSBS was digested by micrococcal nuclease in late-gestational NPCs that express GFAP upon LIF stimulation, but not in cells that show no expression of GFAP even in the presence of LIF, indicating that STAT3 can access GSBS in the former cells. We further showed that expression of NF-1A, which is known to potentiate differentiation of mid-gestational NPCs into astrocytes, increased its accessibility. Taken together, our results suggest that chromatin accessibility of GSBS plays a critical role in the regulation of Gfap expression. PMID:23439558

Urayama, Satoshi; Semi, Katsunori; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Hori, Yukina; Namihira, Masakazu; Kohyama, Jun; Takizawa, Takumi; Nakashima, Kinichi

2013-01-01

124

Stat3? mitigates development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor Stat3 is an activator of systemic inflammatory genes. Two isoforms of Stat3 are generated by alternative splicing, Stat3? and Stat3?. The ? isoform lacks the transactivation domain but retains other functions, including dimerization and DNA binding. Stat3?-deficient mice exhibit elevated expression of systemic inflammatory genes and are hyperresponsive to lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that Stat3? functions predominantly as a suppressor of systemic inflammation. To test whether Stat3? deficiency would provoke pathologic effects associated with chronic inflammation, we asked whether selective removal of Stat3? would exacerbate the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. In apoE?/?Stat3??/? mice atherosclerotic plaque formation was significantly enhanced relative to apoE?/?Stat3?+/+ controls. The ability of Stat3? deficiency to promote atherosclerosis was more pronounced in female mice, but could be unmasked in males by feeding a high fat diet. Infiltrating macrophages were not increased in aortas of apoE?/?Stat3??/? mice. In contrast, the proportion of pro-inflammatory TH17 cells was significantly elevated in aortic infiltrates from apoE?/?Stat3??/? mice, relative to paired apoE?/?Stat3?+/+ littermates. These observations indicate that Stat3? can suppress pathologic sequelae associated with chronic inflammation. Our findings further suggest that in Stat3?-deficient mice the unopposed action of Stat3? may enhance atherogenesis in part by promoting differentiation of TH17 cells. PMID:23619910

Lee, Jihyun; Baldwin, William M.; Lee, Chih-Yuan

2013-01-01

125

LRIG1 inhibits STAT3-dependent inflammation to maintain corneal homeostasis.  

PubMed

Corneal integrity and transparency are indispensable for good vision. Cornea homeostasis is entirely dependent upon corneal stem cells, which are required for complex wound-healing processes that restore corneal integrity following epithelial damage. Here, we found that leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is highly expressed in the human holoclone-type corneal epithelial stem cell population and sporadically expressed in the basal cells of ocular-surface epithelium. In murine models, LRIG1 regulated corneal epithelial cell fate during wound repair. Deletion of Lrig1 resulted in impaired stem cell recruitment following injury and promoted a cell-fate switch from transparent epithelium to keratinized skin-like epidermis, which led to corneal blindness. In addition, we determined that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of the STAT3-dependent inflammatory pathway. Inhibition of STAT3 in corneas of Lrig1-/- mice rescued pathological phenotypes and prevented corneal opacity. Additionally, transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active form of STAT3 in the corneal epithelium had abnormal features, including corneal plaques and neovascularization similar to that found in Lrig1-/- mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that LRIG1 also coordinates the function of bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells. Together, our data indicate that LRIG1 orchestrates corneal-tissue transparency and cell fate during repair, and identify LRIG1 as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. PMID:24316976

Nakamura, Takahiro; Hamuro, Junji; Takaishi, Mikiro; Simmons, Szandor; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zaffalon, Andrea; Bentley, Adam J; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nagata-Takaoka, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J; Itami, Satoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Barrandon, Yann; Kinoshita, Shigeru

2014-01-01

126

LRIG1 inhibits STAT3-dependent inflammation to maintain corneal homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Corneal integrity and transparency are indispensable for good vision. Cornea homeostasis is entirely dependent upon corneal stem cells, which are required for complex wound-healing processes that restore corneal integrity following epithelial damage. Here, we found that leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is highly expressed in the human holoclone-type corneal epithelial stem cell population and sporadically expressed in the basal cells of ocular-surface epithelium. In murine models, LRIG1 regulated corneal epithelial cell fate during wound repair. Deletion of Lrig1 resulted in impaired stem cell recruitment following injury and promoted a cell-fate switch from transparent epithelium to keratinized skin-like epidermis, which led to corneal blindness. In addition, we determined that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of the STAT3-dependent inflammatory pathway. Inhibition of STAT3 in corneas of Lrig1–/– mice rescued pathological phenotypes and prevented corneal opacity. Additionally, transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active form of STAT3 in the corneal epithelium had abnormal features, including corneal plaques and neovascularization similar to that found in Lrig1–/– mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that LRIG1 also coordinates the function of bone marrow–derived inflammatory cells. Together, our data indicate that LRIG1 orchestrates corneal-tissue transparency and cell fate during repair, and identify LRIG1 as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. PMID:24316976

Nakamura, Takahiro; Hamuro, Junji; Takaishi, Mikiro; Simmons, Szandor; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zaffalon, Andrea; Bentley, Adam J.; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nagata-Takaoka, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Itami, Satoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Barrandon, Yann; Kinoshita, Shigeru

2013-01-01

127

Misguidance and modulation of axonal regeneration by Stat3 and Rho/ROCK signaling in the transparent optic nerve.  

PubMed

The use of the visual system played a major role in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms controlling axonal regeneration in the injured CNS after trauma. In this model, CNTF was shown to be the most potent known neurotrophic factor for axonal regeneration in the injured optic nerve. To clarify the role of the downstream growth regulator Stat3, we analyzed axonal regeneration and neuronal survival after an optic nerve crush in adult mice. The infection of retinal ganglion cells with adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) containing wild-type (Stat3-wt) or constitutively active (Stat3-ca) Stat3 cDNA promoted axonal regeneration in the injured optic nerve. Axonal growth was analyzed in whole-mounted optic nerves in three dimensions (3D) after tissue clearing. Surprisingly, with AAV2.Stat3-ca stimulation, axons elongating beyond the lesion site displayed very irregular courses, including frequent U-turns, suggesting massive directionality and guidance problems. The pharmacological blockade of ROCK, a key signaling component for myelin-associated growth inhibitors, reduced axonal U-turns and potentiated AAV2.Stat3-ca-induced regeneration. Similar results were obtained after the sustained delivery of CNTF in the axotomized retina. These results show the important role of Stat3 in the activation of the neuronal growth program for regeneration, and they reveal that axonal misguidance is a key limiting factor that can affect long-distance regeneration and target interaction after trauma in the CNS. The correction of axonal misguidance was associated with improved long-distance axon regeneration in the injured adult CNS. PMID:23868067

Pernet, V; Joly, S; Jordi, N; Dalkara, D; Guzik-Kornacka, A; Flannery, J G; Schwab, M E

2013-01-01

128

STAT3 Signaling Is Activated Preferentially in Tumor-Initiating Cells in Claudin-Low Models of Human Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

In breast cancer, a subset of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) or "cancer stem cells" are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance, treatment resistance, and disease recurrence. While current breast cancer stem cell markers (e.g., CD44(high) /CD24(low/neg) , ALDH positive) have allowed enrichment for such cells, they are not universally expressed and may actually identify distinct TIC subpopulations in the same tumor. Thus, additional markers of functional stem cells are needed. The STAT3 pathway is a critical regulator of the function of normal stem cells, and evidence is accumulating for its important role in breast cancer stem cells. However, due to the lack of a method for separating live cells based on their level of STAT3 activity, it remains unknown whether STAT3 functions in the cancer stem cells themselves, or in surrounding niche cells, or in both. To approach this question, we constructed a series of lentiviral fluorescent (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) reporters that enabled flow cytometric enrichment of cells differing in STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity, as well as in vivo/in situ localization of STAT3 responsive cells. Using in vivo claudin-low cell line xenograft models of human breast cancer, we found that STAT3 signaling reporter activity (EGFP(+) ) is associated with a subpopulation of cancer cells enriched for mammosphere-forming efficiency, as well as TIC function in limiting dilution transplantation assays compared to negative or unsorted populations. Our results support STAT3 signaling activity as another functional marker for human breast cancer stem cells thus making it an attractive therapeutic target for stem-cell-directed therapy in some breast cancer subtypes. Stem Cells 2014;32:2571-2582. PMID:24891218

Wei, Wei; Tweardy, David J; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Landua, John; Petrovic, Ivana; Bu, Wen; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T

2014-10-01

129

Role of Stat3 and ErbB2 in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stat3 is activated by cytokine receptors as well as receptor and non- receptor tyrosine kinases. Activation of Stat3 has been demonstrated in breast and other cancers, while a constitutively active form of Stat3, Stat3C, is able to transform cultured cell...

M. Geletu

2010-01-01

130

Binding Modes of Peptidomimetics Designed to Inhibit STAT3  

PubMed Central

STAT3 is a transcription factor that has been found to be constitutively activated in a number of human cancers. Dimerization of STAT3 via its SH2 domain and the subsequent translocation of the dimer to the nucleus leads to transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. Prevention of the dimerization is thus an attractive strategy for inhibiting the activity of STAT3. Phosphotyrosine-based peptidomimetic inhibitors, which mimic pTyr-Xaa-Yaa-Gln motif and have strong to weak binding affinities, have been previously investigated. It is well-known that structures of protein-inhibitor complexes are important for understanding the binding interactions and designing stronger inhibitors. Experimental structures of inhibitors bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3 are, however, unavailable. In this paper we describe a computational study that combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics to model structures of 12 peptidomimetic inhibitors bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3. A detailed analysis of the modeled structures was performed to evaluate the characteristics of the binding interactions. We also estimated the binding affinities of the inhibitors by combining MMPB/GBSA-based energies and entropic cost of binding. The estimated affinities correlate strongly with the experimentally obtained affinities. Modeling results show binding modes that are consistent with limited previous modeling studies on binding interactions involving the SH2 domain and phosphotyrosine(pTyr)-based inhibitors. We also discovered a stable novel binding mode that involves deformation of two loops of the SH2 domain that subsequently bury the C-terminal end of one of the stronger inhibitors. The novel binding mode could prove useful for developing more potent inhibitors aimed at preventing dimerization of cancer target protein STAT3. PMID:23251591

Dhanik, Ankur; McMurray, John S.; Kavraki, Lydia E.

2012-01-01

131

FoxP3 acts as a cotranscription factor with STAT3 in tumor-induced regulatory T cells.  

PubMed

FoxP3, a lineage-specification factor, executes its multiple activities mostly through transcriptional regulation of target genes. We identified an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing FoxP3(+) T regulatory cell population that contributes to IL-10-dependent type 2 cytokine bias in breast-cancer patients. Although genetic ablation of FOXP3 inhibited IL10 transcription, genome-wide analysis ruled out its role as a transcription factor for IL10. In-depth analysis revealed that histone acetyl transterase-1, in association with FoxP3, modified the IL10 promoter epigenetically, making a space for docking STAT3-FoxP3 complexes. A predictive docking module with target-receptor specificity, along with exon-deletion and site-directed mutagenesis studies, showed that STAT3 binds through its N-terminal floppy domain to the exon 2 ? sheet region of FoxP3 to form STAT3-FoxP3 complexes. Such cotranscriptional activity of FoxP3 extended to other STAT3-target genes that lack FoxP3-binding sites. These results suggest a function of FoxP3, where, failing to achieve direct promoter occupancy, FoxP3 promotes transcription in association with the locus-specific transcription factor STAT3. PMID:24315995

Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Panda, Abir K; Manna, Argha; Mohanty, Suchismita; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Saha, Taniya; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Kar, Rajiv K; Das, Tanya; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Sa, Gaurisankar

2013-12-12

132

Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields  

PubMed Central

Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

2014-01-01

133

Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields.  

PubMed

Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

2014-01-01

134

?-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin, a major xanthone identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901 were treated with ?-mangostin. The cell viability was measured with MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Results: Treatment with ?-mangostin (3–10 ?g/mL) inhibited the viability of both BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells in dose- and time-manners. Furthermore, ?-mangostin (7 ?g/mL) time-dependently increased the apoptosis index of the cancer cells, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cancer cells, and significantly increased the release of cytochrome c and AIF into cytoplasm. Moreover, the ?-mangostin treatment markedly suppressed the constitutive Stat3 protein activation, and Stat3-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 protein levels in the cancer cells. Conclusion: The anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro can be partly attributed to blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:24976157

Shan, Tao; Cui, Xi-juan; Li, Wei; Lin, Wan-run; Lu, Hong-wei; Li, Yi-ming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

2014-01-01

135

SC-2001 Overcomes STAT3-mediated Sorafenib Resistance through RFX-1/SHP-1 Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma???  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide. Sorafenib, a small multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. The clinical benefit of sorafenib is offset by the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Understanding of the molecular mechanism of STAT3 overexpression in sorafenib resistance is critical if the clinical benefits of this drug are to be improved. In this study, we explored our hypothesis that loss of RFX-1/SHP-1 and further increase of p-STAT3 as a result of sorafenib treatment induces sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective response effect, thereby, limiting sorafenib sensitivity and efficiency. We found that knockdown of RFX-1 protected HCC cells against sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and SHP-1 activity was required for the process. SC-2001, a molecule with similar structure to obatoclax, synergistically suppressed tumor growth when used in combination with sorafenib in vitro and overcame sorafenib resistance through up-regulating RFX-1 and SHP-1 resulting in tumor suppression and mediation of dephosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, sustained sorafenib treatment in HCC led to increased p-STAT3 which was a key mediator of sorafenib sensitivity. The combination of SC-2001 and sorafenib strongly inhibited tumor growth in both wild-type and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell bearing xenograft models. These results demonstrate that inactivation of RFX/SHP-1 induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through p-STAT3 up-regulation. These effects can be overcome by SC-2001 through RFX-1/SHP-1 dependent p-STAT3 suppression. In conclusion, the use of SC-2001 in combination with sorafenib may constitute a new strategy for HCC therapy. PMID:25047655

Su, Jung-Chen; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Hsu, Cheng-Yi; Tai, Wei-Tien; Li, Yong-Shi; Chen, I-Ting; Liu, Chun-Yu; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Shiau, Chung-Wai

2014-01-01

136

STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 as a novel therapeutic agent for bCCI neuropathic pain rats.  

PubMed

Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is suggested to be critically involved in the development of chronic pain, but the complex regulation of STAT3-dependent pathway and the functional significance of inhibiting this pathway during the development of neuropathic pain remain elusive. To evaluate the contribution of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to neuropathic pain and the potentiality of this pathway as a novel therapeutic target, we examined the effects of the STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 by intrathecal administration in a rat model of bilateral chronic constriction injury (bCCI). The pain behavior tests were performed before the surgery and on postoperative day 3, 7, 14 and 21. L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord were harvested at each time point. Both RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate the activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. To observe the influence of WP1066 on neuropathic pain and its molecular mechanism, WP1066 (10?l, 10mmol/L in DMSO) or the same capacity of DMSO as the control were applied through the intrathecal tube on the day before bCCI surgery, and on the postoperative day 3 and 5. Behavioral tests were performed to observe the therapeutic effect on mechanical, thermal and cold hyperalgesia. L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord was harvested on postoperative day fourteen, followed by RT-PCR and Western blot evaluation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway activation. The mechanical, thermal and cold hyperalgesia of the bCCI rats were significantly decreased when compared with the Sham or the Naïve group at each postoperative time point (P<0.05). JAK2 mRNA and STAT3 mRNA were significantly increased in the bCCI rats, accompanied by SOCS3 mRNA with a similar tendency. Western blot analysis showed that JAK2 and phosphorylated STAT3 increased significantly since 3 days after bCCI. JAK2 peaked on postoperative day 14 while phosphorylated STAT3 peaked on postoperative day 7 and gradually decreased thereafter and SOCS3?s peak level on postoperative day 3. When WP1066 were administered intrathecally, the pain behaviors of the bCCI rats were significantly improved (P<0.05). WP1066 also inhibited the mRNA level of JAK2, STAT3 and SOCS3 in bCCI rats significantly, together with the protein level of JAK2, phosphorylated STAT3 and SOCS3 on postoperative day 14 as well. Our results found that the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn was significantly activated in the bCCI neuropathic pain rats. WP1066, which inhibited the STAT3 pathway specifically, could partially alleviate the pain behavior of the bCCI rats. So it may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy against neuropathic pain. PMID:25084036

Xue, Zhao-Jing; Shen, Le; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Hui, Shang-Yi; Huang, Yu-Guang; Ma, Chao

2014-10-01

137

The synthetic pentasaccharide fondaparinux attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats via STAT-3.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although essential for successful recovery, myocardium reperfusion is associated with reperfusion injury. Two major cell survival signaling cascades are known to be protective against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury: the reperfusion injury salvage kinase, including Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the downstream target GSK-3?, and the survivor activating factor enhancement, which involves STAT-3. Pharmacologic inhibition of factor Xa has been shown to attenuate I/R injury, but the cellular mechanism is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the role of whole blood in fondaparinux (FDX)-induced cardioprotection and the involvement of reperfusion injury salvage kinase and survivor activating factor enhancement pathways. We investigated FDX ability to prevent in vivo I/R injury using a transient coronary ligation rat model and ex vivo using a model of crystalloid-perfused isolated rat heart. In both models, infarct size was assessed after 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial tissues were collected after 15 and 30 min of reperfusion for Western blot analysis. In vivo, FDX decreased infarct size by 29% and induced significant STAT-3 and GSK-3? phosphorylation in comparison to controls. Adding AG490, an inhibitor of JAK/STAT pathway, before I/R, prevented STAT-3 phosphorylation and abolished FDX-induced cardioprotection. On the contrary, FDX did not have an effect on infarct size or hemodynamic parameters in the isolated-heart model. Fondaparinux decreased I/R injury in vivo, but not in a crystalloid-perfused isolated heart. Under our experimental conditions, FDX required whole blood to be protective, and this beneficial effect was mediated through STAT-3 phosphorylation. PMID:24300830

Macchi, Laurent; Moussa, Walid Ben; Guillou, Sophie; Tamareille, Sophie; Lamon, Delphine; Prunier, Delphine; Prunier, Fabrice

2014-02-01

138

Determining the Role of the Epstein-Barr Virus Cp EBNA2Dependent Enhancer during the Establishment of Latency by Using Mutant and Wild-Type Viruses Recovered from Cottontop Marmoset Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 2 (EBNA2) is involved in upregulating the expression of both EBNAs and latency-associated membrane proteins. Transcription of the six EBNA genes, which are expressed in EBV-immortalized primary B cells, arises from one of two promoters, Cp and Wp, located near the left end of the viral genome. Wp is exclusively used to drive EBNA

LINA YOO; SAMUEL H. SPECK

2000-01-01

139

Could STAT3 provide a link between respiration and cell cycle progression?  

PubMed Central

Maintaining the intracellular environment is important for the survival and proliferation of eukaryotic cells. How a cell regulates its redox potential during fluctuations in the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and exposure to extracellular oxidants is unclear. The recent findings that Signal Transducer and A ctivator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates mitochondrial respiration and can be oxidized directly by peroxide to form multimers may have revealed features of a homeostatic mechanism coupling cell cycle progression to the intracellular redox potential. PMID:20962592

2010-01-01

140

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS3) balance controls cytotoxicity and IL-10 expression in decidual-like natural killer cell line NK-92.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES? In previous studies, we have shown that sHLA-G reduces cytotoxicity of decidual NK cells, which was dependent upon reduction in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and perforin. In this study, we aimed to confirm the role of STAT3 for induction of cytotoxicity and to analyze the regulative role of its antagonist suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Furthermore, the influence of both factors on cytokine expression should be analyzed. METHODS? All experiments were performed on NK-92 cells. STAT3 and SOCS3 have been silenced using two different small interfering RNA sequences each. Silencing efficiency and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation have been analyzed by Western blotting. Cytotoxicity to K562 target cells has been assessed by flow cytometry. Expression of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-?, and TNF-? has been measured using cytometric bead arrays for flow cytometry. RESULTS? STAT3 and SOCS3 have been successfully silenced. STAT3 silencing reduced cytotoxicity. SOCS3 silencing induced increase in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. STAT3 silencing reduced IL-10 expression significantly, while SOCS3 silencing induced, also significantly, the opposite effect. The other cytokines were expressed at very low concentration or not constantly affected. CONCLUSION? STAT3 and SOCS3 are involved in regulation of NK cell cytotoxicity and IL-10 expression. PMID:21385272

Braunschweig, Anne; Poehlmann, Tobias G; Busch, Susann; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R

2011-10-01

141

Biologically active leptin-related synthetic peptides activate STAT3 via phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI-3K.  

PubMed

The effects of leptin-related synthetic peptides [d-Leu-4]-OB3 and OB3 on energy balance and glucose homeostasis in ob/ob and db/db mice have been confirmed. The molecular basis of these effects, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the ability of these peptides to activate signal transduction pathways known to be involved in transduction of the leptin signal. In a specific and concentration-dependent manner, [d-Leu-4]-OB3 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, PI-3K, Ser-727 STAT3, and Tyr-705 of STAT3. OB3 also induced activation of STAT3 via phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT3 Ser-727, STAT3 Tyr-705 and PI-3K p85, but to a lesser degree. Using PD98059 and LY294002, specific inhibitors of MEK and PI-3K, respectively, we were able to identify the signal transduction pathways involved in peptide-induced STAT3 activation. [d-Leu-4]-OB3 induced serine phosphorylation of STAT3 primarily through activation of ERK1/2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, however, was induced primarily through activation of PI-3K. Our data suggest that in db/db mice, [d-Leu-4]-OB3 binding to short isoforms of the leptin receptor induces intracellular signaling cascades which do not require OB-Rb activation. These signals may ultimately result in peptide effects on transcriptional and translational events associated with energy balance and glycemic regulation. In summary, we have shown for the first time that, similar to leptin, bioactive leptin-related synthetic peptide analogs activate STAT3 via phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues by multiple signal transduction pathways. PMID:24819473

Lin, Hung-Yun; Yang, Sheng-Huei; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Cheng, Guei-Yun; Davis, Paul J; Grasso, Patricia

2014-07-01

142

STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy.  

PubMed

Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology. PMID:25268165

Spitzner, Melanie; Ebner, Reinhard; Wolff, Hendrik A; Ghadimi, B Michael; Wienands, Jürgen; Grade, Marian

2014-01-01

143

STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia  

PubMed Central

Background Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26)-carcinoma cachexia. Methodology/Principal Findings Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and translated in muscle such that amino acids liberated by increased proteolysis in cachexia are synthesized into acute phase proteins and exported into the blood. PMID:21799891

Kunzevitzky, Noelia; Guttridge, Denis C.; Khuri, Sawsan; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

2011-01-01

144

Bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin obtained from grapefruit juice induces chemosensitization and apoptosis through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway in tumor cells.  

PubMed

Persistent activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been closely related to growth, survival, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of various cancer cells, and thus its inhibition can be considered a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the role of bergamottin (BGM) obtained from grapefruit juice in abrogating the constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This suppression was mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1/2 and c-Src. Pervanadate reversed the BGM induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, BGM induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of BGM to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a critical role for SHP-1 in the action of BGM. BGM also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as COX-2, VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, IAP-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl in MM cells. This correlated with induction of substantial apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and caspase-3 induced PARP cleavage. Also, this agent significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib and thalidomide in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that BGM is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway thus may have a potential in therapy of MM and other cancers. PMID:25130169

Kim, Sung-Moo; Lee, Jong Hyun; Sethi, Gautam; Kim, Chulwon; Baek, Seung Ho; Nam, Dongwoo; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2014-11-01

145

A20 Promotes Liver Regeneration by Decreasing SOCS3 Expression to Enhance IL-6/STAT3 Proliferative Signals  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration is of major clinical importance in the setting of liver injury, resection, and transplantation. A20, a potent anti-inflammatory and NF-?B inhibitory protein, has established pro-proliferative properties in hepatocytes, in part through decreasing expression of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21. Both C-terminal (7-Zinc fingers; 7Zn) and N-terminal (Nter) domains of A20 were required to decrease p21 and inhibit NF-?B. However, both independently increased hepatocyte proliferation, suggesting that additional mechanisms contributed to the pro-proliferative function of A20 in hepatocytes. We ascribed one of A20’s pro-proliferative mechanisms to increased and sustained IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation, as a result of decreased hepatocyte expression of the negative regulator of IL-6 signaling, SOCS3. This novel A20 function segregates with its 7Zn not Nter domain. Conversely, total and partial loss of A20 in hepatocytes increased SOCS3 expression, hampering IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Following liver resection in mice pro-proliferative targets downstream of IL-6/STAT3 signaling were increased by A20 overexpression and decreased by A20 knockdown. In contrast, IL-6/STAT3 pro-inflammatory targets were increased in A20 deficient livers, and decreased or unchanged in A20 overexpressing livers. Upstream of SOCS3, levels of its microRNA regulator miR203 were significantly decreased in A20-deficient livers. Altogether these results demonstrate that A20 enhances IL-6/STAT3 pro-proliferative signals in hepatocytes by down-regulating SOCS3, likely through a miR203-dependent manner. This finding together with A20 reducing the levels of the potent cell cycle brake p21 establishes its pro-proliferative properties in hepatocytes and prompts the pursuit of A20-based therapies to promote liver regeneration and repair. PMID:23238769

da Silva, Cleide G.; Studer, Peter; Skroch, Marco; Mahiou, Jerome; Minussi, Darlan C.; Peterson, Clayton R.; Wilson, Suzhuei W.; Patel, Virendra I.; Ma, Averil; Csizmadia, Eva; Ferran, Christiane

2013-01-01

146

STAT3 deletion during hematopoiesis causes Crohn's disease-like pathogenesis and lethality: A critical role of STAT3 in innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key transcriptional mediator for many cytokines and is essential for normal embryonic development. We have generated a unique strain of mice with tissue-specific disruption of STAT3 in bone marrow cells during hematopoiesis. This specific STAT3 deletion causes death of these mice within 4-6 weeks after birth with Crohn's disease-like pathogenesis

Thomas Welte; Samuel S. M. Zhang; Tian Wang; Zhiyuan Zhang; David G. T. Hesslein; Zhinan Yin; Arihiro Kano; Yoshiki Iwamoto; En Li; Joseph E. Craft; Alfred L. M. Bothwell; Erol Fikrig; Pandelakis A. Koni; Richard A. Flavell; Xin-Yuan Fu

2003-01-01

147

Spontaneous interleukin-5 production in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma lines is mediated by constitutively activated Stat3.  

PubMed

Mycosis fungoides is a low-grade cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) of unknown etiology. In advanced stages of CTCL, a shift in cytokine profile from T(H)1 to T(H)2 is observed, which coincides with eosinophilia, high levels of immunoglobulin E, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. It is, however, unknown why T(H)2 cytokines predominate in advanced CTCL, and the cellular source of these cytokines also remains to be identified. In several leukemias and lymphomas, constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) signaling pathways have been detected. In a previous study, constitutive activation of Stat3 was found in tumor cells isolated from affected skin and blood from CTCL patients. Here, it is shown that CTCL tumor cell lines, but not nonmalignant cell lines, spontaneously produce interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-6, and IL-13. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant-negative Stat3 almost completely blocks IL-5 production and strongly inhibits IL-13 production, whereas IL-6 production is unaffected. Thus, the data show that malignant CTCL cells themselves might contribute to the change in cytokine pattern accompanying progression of CTCL. In conclusion, constitutively activated Stat3 is found to mediate a spontaneous IL-5 production and regulate IL-13 production in CTCL cell lines, pointing toward a new role of Stat3 in malignant transformation. PMID:11807001

Nielsen, Mette; Nissen, Mogens H; Gerwien, Jens; Zocca, Mai-Britt; Rasmussen, Helene M; Nakajima, Koichi; Röpke, Carsten; Geisler, Carsten; Kaltoft, Keld; Ødum, Niels

2002-02-01

148

Intronic microRNA suppresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and endothelial cell proliferation via inhibition of STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Intronic microRNA (miRNAs) suppressed the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene in endothelial cells (ECs). This study was to investigate the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the regulation of eNOS expression and vascular EC proliferation by the intronic 27-nucleotide (nt) miRNA derived from the 27-base pair repeats in intron 4 of eNOS gene. A detectable level of the 27-nt miRNA was present in the control ECs. Overexpression of the 27-nt miRNA dramatically suppressed the expression of eNOS and STAT3 at both transcription and translation levels in ECs in association with significant inhibition of EC proliferation. Mutation of the 27-nt miRNA at the 3'-terminal region resulted in substantial reduction of the inhibitory effect of miRNA on eNOS and STAT3 expression, and EC proliferation. Overexpression of active STAT3 significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of the 27-nt miRNA on eNOS expression and EC proliferation. In summary, we demonstrated that the 27-nt intronic miRNA functioned as a negative regulator for the expression of its host gene eNOS and cell proliferation in ECs. The sequence in 3'-terminal region played a key role in the function of the 27-nt miRNA. The regulatory effect of the intronic miRNA on eNOS gene expression was associated with miRNA polymorphisms, and mediated through inhibition of STAT3 signaling in ECs. PMID:21611796

Yan, Limei; Hao, Hong; Elton, Terry S; Liu, Zhenguo; Ou, Hesheng

2011-11-01

149

Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell–dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10– and IL-21–mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21–induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells. PMID:24218138

Deenick, Elissa K.; Avery, Danielle T.; Chan, Anna; Berglund, Lucinda J.; Ives, Megan L.; Moens, Leen; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D.; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Roesler, Joachim; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; French, Martyn A.; Fulcher, David A.; Cook, Matthew C.; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Klein, Christoph; Holland, Steven M.; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ma, Cindy S.

2013-01-01

150

GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H?S) donor, shows potent anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity through blocking the STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

GYY4137, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, exhibits anticancer activity by a combination of cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis, and inhibits tumor growth, however, the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we discovered that GYY4137-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tumor growth in a subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft model may be due to directly targeting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. We found that GYY4137 suppressed STAT3 activation by reducing p-STAT3 (Y705) levels effectively in HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. Altered expression levels of STAT3-regulated downstream proteins including Bcl-2, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) may contribute to the inhibition of G1/S cell cycle transition and angiogenesis. Increased cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage may induce cell apoptosis in HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. In vivo, GYY4137 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft model by inhibiting STAT3 activation and its target gene expression. These results suggest that GYY4137-mediated suppression of HCC growth may be due to the inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. PMID:24535538

Lu, Sen; Gao, Yun; Huang, Xinli; Wang, Xuehao

2014-04-01

151

Salinomycin induces cell death via inactivation of Stat3 and downregulation of Skp2  

PubMed Central

Salinomycin has been shown to control breast cancer stem cells, although the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects are not clear. Deregulation of cell cycle regulators play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and they have been considered as anticancer targets. In this study, we investigated salinomycin effect on cell cycle progression using OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cell line and multidrug-resistant NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cell lines that are derived from OVCAR-8. Parental OVCAR-8 cells are sensitive to several anticancer drugs, but NCI/ADR-RES and DXR cells are resistant to several anticancer drugs. However, salinomycin caused cell growth inhibition and apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at G1 in all three cell lines. Salinomycin inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity and thus decreased expression of Stat3-target genes, including cyclin D1, Skp2, and survivin. Salinomycin induced degradation of Skp2 and thus accumulated p27Kip1. Knockdown of Skp2 further increased salinomycin-induced G1 arrest, but knockdown of p27Kip1 attenuated salinomycin effect on G1 arrest. Cdh1, an E3 ligase for Skp2, was shifted to nuclear fractions upon salinomycin treatment. Cdh1 knockdown by siRNA reversed salinomycin-induced Skp2 downregulation and p27Kip1 upregulation, indicating that salinomycin activates the APCCdh1–Skp2–p27Kip1 pathway. Concomitantly, si-Cdh1 inhibited salinomycin-induced G1 arrest. Taken together, our data indicate that salinomycin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via downregulation or inactivation of cell cycle-associated oncogenes, such as Stat3, cyclin D1, and Skp2, regardless of multidrug resistance. PMID:23807222

Koo, K H; Kim, H; Bae, Y-K; Kim, K; Park, B-K; Lee, C-H; Kim, Y-N

2013-01-01

152

Calreticulin-STAT3 Signaling Pathway Modulates Mitochondrial Function in a Rat Model of Furazolidone-Induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Calreticulin is a Ca2+-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum which regulates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The effects of the calreticulin-STAT3 signaling pathway on cardiac mitochondria and on the progress of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are still unclear. Methods and Results The DCM model was generated in rats by the daily oral administration of furazolidone. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies demonstrated enlarged LV dimensions and reduced systolic and diastolic functions at thirty weeks after the first furazolidone administration. Morphometric analysis showed significant myocardial degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, and mitochondrial swelling with fractured or dissolved cristae in the model group. Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level of the freshly isolated cardiac mitochondria and the enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in the model group were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Real-time PCR and western-blot revealed the increased expression of calreticulin associated with decreased activity of STAT3 in the model group. When cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to furazolidone, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and MMP, and the increase of apoptosis rate were observed. The mRNA and protein expression of CRT gradually increased with the increase of furazolidone concentration, associated with a gradual decrease of the STAT3 phosphorylation level both in the whole cell and mitochondrial fraction. When calreticulin was knocked down with siRNA in cardiomyocytes, these changes of cardiomyocytes and mitochondria induced by furazolidone were significantly attenuated. Conclusions A rat model of DCM induced by furazolidone is successfully established. The calreticulin-STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in cardiac mitochondrial injury and the progress of furazolidone induced DCM. PMID:23818963

Zhang, Ming; Wei, Jin; Shan, Hu; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Yanhe; Xue, Jiahong; Lin, Lin; Yan, Rui

2013-01-01

153

C5a promotes the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation.  

PubMed

The anaphylatoxin C5a is a chemoattractant that can induce various inflammatory responses in vivo via the C5a receptor (C5aR). There is emerging evidence that C5a is generated in the cancer microenvironment. However, the role of C5a in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the direct influence of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells were studied in vitro, and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)?mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acetylation and its role in regulating the proliferation of NPC cells was subsequently explored. Our results demonstrated that C5a stimulation increased the proliferation of human NPC cells in vitro. STAT3 acetylation was further found to be enhanced in human NPC cells induced by C5a. Moreover, PCAF induction was required for STAT3 acetylation in human NPC cells by exposure to C5a. Functionally, PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation contributed to the proliferation of human NPC cells stimulated by C5a. These results illustrate the novel activity of the C5a-C5aR axis that promotes human NPC cell proliferation through PCAF?mediated STAT3 acetylation. This may provide a potential strategy for treating human NPC through inhibition of C5a or its receptors. PMID:25174320

Cai, Kemin; Wan, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Xiaojun; Bao, Xueli

2014-11-01

154

Identification of a Stat3-dependent transcription regulatory network involved in metastatic progression  

PubMed Central

High levels of activated Stat3 are often found in human breast cancers and can correlate with poor patient outcome. We employed an activated-ErbB2 mouse model of breast cancer to investigate the in vivo role of Stat3 in mammary tumor progression and found that Stat3 does not alter mammary tumor initiation but dramatically affects metastatic progression. Four-fold fewer animals exhibited lung metastases in the absence of Stat3 and a 12-fold reduction in the number of lung lesions was observed in the Stat3-null tumors when compared to tumors from the wild type cohort. The decreased malignancy in Stat3-deficient tumors is attributed to a reduction in both angiogenic and inflammatory responses associated with a Stat3-dependent transcriptional cascade involving C/EBP?. PMID:19690134

Ranger, Jill J.; Levy, David E.; Shahalizadeh, Solmaz; Hallett, Michael; Muller, William J.

2010-01-01

155

STAT3 Oligonucleotide Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis in Preclinical Models of Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has shown to play a critical role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and we have recently completed clinical trials of STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide in patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. However, there is limited understanding of the role of STAT3 in modulating other aspects of tumorigenesis such as angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide on tumor angiogenesis. Experimental Design A STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to inhibit STAT3 in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The biochemical effects of STAT3 inhibition were examined in conjunction with the consequences on proliferation, migration, apoptotic staining, and tubule formation. Additionally, we assessed the effects of STAT3 inhibition on tumor angiogenesis using murine xenograft models. Results STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide decreased proliferation, induces apoptosis, decreased migration, and decreased tubule formation of endothelial cells in vitro. The STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide also inhibited tumor angiogenesis in murine tumor xenografts. Lastly, our data suggest that the antiangiogenic effects of STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide were mediatedthrough the inhibition of both STAT3 and STAT1. Conclusions The STAT3 decoy oligonucleotidewas found to be an effective antiangiogenic agent, which is likely to contribute to the overall antitumor effects of this agent in solid tumors.Taken together with the previously demonstrated antitumor activity of this agent, STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide represents a promising single agent approach to targeting both the tumor and vascular compartments in various malignancies. PMID:24404126

Klein, Jonah D.; Sano, Daisuke; Sen, Malabika; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kim, Seungwon

2014-01-01

156

A?-induced microglial cell activation is inhibited by baicalin through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Baicalin has shown multiple neuroprotective biological activities, including antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions in neurodegeneration diseases. However, whether baicalin can regulate A?-induced microglial activation or inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion has not been confirmed. We demonstrated that baicalin can inhibit beta amyloid peptides (A?42)-induced BV2 microglial cell proliferation, reduce the expression of CD11b, decrease chemotactic ability of BV2 cells and significantly inhibit the secretion of IL-6, TNF-? and NO. Moreover, baicalin pretreatment can effectively inhibit A?-induced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. Baicalin can inhibit A?-induced microglial cell activation by regulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in AD transgenic mice. The modulation of microglial proliferation, activation and secretion by baicalin could be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24219385

Xiong, Jiaxiang; Wang, Changzheng; Chen, Hongyan; Hu, Yazhuo; Tian, Lei; Pan, Jingkun; Geng, Miao

2014-08-01

157

Phosphorylation of EZH2 activates STAT3 signaling via STAT3 methylation and promotes tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem-like cells.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) displays cellular hierarchies harboring a subpopulation of stem-like cells (GSCs). Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), the lysine methyltransferase of Polycomb repressive complex 2, mediates transcriptional repression of prodifferentiation genes in both normal and neoplastic stem cells. An oncogenic role of EZH2 as a transcriptional silencer is well established; however, additional functions of EZH2 are incompletely understood. Here, we show that EZH2 binds to and methylates STAT3, leading to enhanced STAT3 activity by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. The EZH2-STAT3 interaction preferentially occurs in GSCs relative to non-stem bulk tumor cells, and it requires a specific phosphorylation of EZH2. Inhibition of EZH2 reverses the silencing of Polycomb target genes and diminishes STAT3 activity, suggesting therapeutic strategies. PMID:23684459

Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Misuk; Woo, Dong-Hun; Shin, Yongjae; Shin, Jihye; Chang, Nakho; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Hong; Rheey, Jingeun; Nakano, Ichiro; Lee, Cheolju; Joo, Kyeung Min; Rich, Jeremy N; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jeongwu

2013-06-10

158

The role of STAT3 activation in modulating the immune microenvironment of GBM  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) modulates the immune system to engance its malignant potential. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation is a regulatory node in modulating the immune microenvironment in several human tumors, including GBM. To investigate whether STAT3 inhibition might enhance anti-tumor responses, we inhibited STAT3 signaling using small interfering RNA against STAT3. We tested the human GBM cell lines U87, U251, and HS683, which are known to constitutively express high levels of phospho-STAT3. STAT3 inhibition resulted in enhanced expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and supernatants from STAT3-silenced human GBM cell lines increased lipopolysaccharide-induced dendritic cell activation in vitro. We obtained comparable results when STAT3 activity was suppressed with specific small molecule inhibitors. Our results support the hypothesis that activated STAT3 contributes to the immunosuppressive microenvironment in GBM and support previous studies implicating STAT3 as a potential target for immunotherapy. PMID:23096132

See, Alfred P.; Han, James E.; Phallen, Jillian; Binder, Zev; Gallia, Gary; Pan, Fan; Jinasena, Dilini; Jackson, Christopher; Belcaid, Zineb; Jeong, Sung Jin; Gottschalk, Chelsea; Zeng, Jing; Ruzevick, Jacob; Nicholas, Sarah; Kim, Young; Albesiano, Emilia; Pardoll, Drew M.; Lim, Michael

2013-01-01

159

Stat3 protects against Fas-induced liver injury by redox-dependent and -independent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is one of the most important molecules involved in the initiation of liver development and regeneration. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of Stat3, we examined whether Stat3 protects against Fas-mediated liver injury in the mouse. A constitutively activated form of Stat3 (Stat3-C) was adenovirally overexpressed in mouse liver by intravenous injection, and then a nonlethal dose of Fas agonist (Jo2) was injected intraperitoneally into the mouse (0.3 ?g/g body wt). Stat3-C dramatically suppressed both apoptosis and necrosis induced by Jo2. In contrast, liver-specific Stat3-knockout mice failed to survive following Jo2 injection. Stat3-C upregulated expression of FLICE inhibitor protein (FLIP), Bcl-XL, and Bcl-2, and accordingly downregulated activities of FLICE and caspase-3 that were redox-independent. Interestingly, Stat3-C also upregulated the redox-associated protein redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and reduced apoptosis in liver following Jo2 injection by suppressing oxidative stress and redox-sensitive caspase-3 activity. These findings indicate that Stat3 activation protects against Fas-mediated liver injury by inhibiting caspase activities in redox-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:14523036

Haga, Sanae; Terui, Keita; Zhang, Hui Qi; Enosawa, Shin; Ogawa, Wataru; Inoue, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Torayuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Ogino, Tetsuya; Irani, Kaikobad; Ozaki, Michitaka

2003-01-01

160

Early methyl donor deficiency may induce persistent brain defects by reducing Stat3 signaling targeted by miR-124  

PubMed Central

The methyl donors folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 are centrepieces of the one-carbon metabolism that has a key role in transmethylation reactions, and thus in epigenetic and epigenomic regulations. Low dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are frequent, especially in pregnant women and in the elderly, and deficiency constitutes a risk factor for various diseases, including neurological and developmental disorders. In this respect, both vitamins are essential for normal brain development, and have a role in neuroplasticity and in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. The consequences of a methyl donor deficiency (MDD) were studied both in vivo in rats exposed in utero, and in vitro in hippocampal progenitors (H19-7 cell line). Deficiency was associated with growth retardation at embryonic day 20 (E20) and postnatally with long-term brain defects in selective areas. mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor Stat3 were found to be decreased in the brains of deprived fetuses and in differentiating progenitors (62 and 48% for total Stat3 protein, respectively), along with a strong reduction in its phosphorylation at both Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Vitamin shortage also affected upstream kinases of Stat3 signaling pathway (phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Src, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38) as well as downstream target gene products (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), thus promoting apoptosis. Conversely, the expression of the Stat3 regulator miR-124 was upregulated in deficiency conditions (?65%), and its silencing by using siRNA partly restored Stat3 signaling in hippocampal neurons by increasing specifically the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Src kinases. Furthermore, miR-124 siRNA improved the phenotype of deprived cells, with enhanced neurite outgrowth. Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of Stat3 signaling by miR-124 would be a key factor in the deleterious effects of MDD on brain development. PMID:23928694

Kerek, R; Geoffroy, A; Bison, A; Martin, N; Akchiche, N; Pourie, G; Helle, D; Gueant, J-L; Bossenmeyer-Pourie, C; Daval, J-L

2013-01-01

161

LBH589 Inhibits proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via inhibition of gankyrin/stat3/akt pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Gankyrin has shown to be overexpressed in human liver cancers and plays a complex role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Panobinostat (LBH589), a new hydroxamic acid-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor has shown promising anticancer effects recently. Here, we investigated the potential of LBH589 as a form of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Gankyrin plasmid was transfected into HCC cells, and the cells were selected for more than 4 weeks by incubation with G418 for overexpression clones. The therapeutic effects of LBH589 were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasive potential, and epithelial-mesenchy-mal transition (EMT) were examined. Results LBH589 significantly inhibited HCC growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting analysis indicated that LBH589 could decrease the expression of gankyrin and subsequently reduced serine-phosphorylated Akt and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 expression although the total Akt and STAT3 were unaffected. LBH589 inhibited metastasis in vitro via down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, TWIST1, VEGF and up-regulation of E-cadherin. LBH589 also induced apoptosis and G1 phase arrest in HCC cell lines. Ectopic expression of gankyrin attenuated the effects of LBH589, which indicates that gankyrin might play an important role in LBH589 mediated anticancer effects. Lastly, in vivo study indicated that LBH589 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis, without discernable adverse effects comparing to control group, with abrogating gankyrin/STAT3/Akt pathway. Conclusions Our results suggested that LBH589 could inhibit HCC growth and metastasis through down-regulating gankyrin/STAT3/Akt pathway. LBH589 may present itself as a novel therapeutic strategy for HCC. PMID:24093956

2013-01-01

162

MicroRNA-520a-5p displays a therapeutic effect upon chronic myelogenous leukemia cells by targeting STAT3 and enhances the anticarcinogenic role of capsaicin.  

PubMed

Aberrant expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously demonstrated for having essential roles in a wide range of cancer types including leukemia. Antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of capsaicin have been reported in several cancers. We aimed to study miRNAs involved in the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia cell model and the effects of the capsaicin treatment on cell proliferation and miRNA regulation. miR-520a-5p expression was extremely downregulated in capsaicin-treated cells. Repressing the level of miR-520a-5p by transient transfection with specific miRNA inhibitor oligonucleotides resulted in induced inhibition of proliferation in leukemic cells. According to bioinformatics analysis, STAT3 messenger RNA was predicted as a putative miR-520a-5p target; which was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation inhibition was enhanced upon knockdown of STAT3 by RNA interference applications, but when miR-520a-5p inhibitor was additionally transfected onto STAT3 silenced cells, cell viability was dramatically decreased in leukemia cells. Finally, we observed the effects of capsaicin following miR-520a-5p inhibitor transfection upon cell proliferation, apoptosis, and STAT3 expression levels. We determined that, downregulation of miR-520a-5p affected the proliferation inhibition enhanced by capsaicin and reduced STAT3 mRNA and protein expression levels and increased apoptotic cell number. In summary, miR-520a-5p displays a therapeutic effect by targeting STAT3 and impacting the anticancer effects of capsaicin; whereas capsaicin, potentially through the miR-520a-5p/STAT3 interaction, induces apoptosis and inhibits K562 leukemic cell proliferation with need of further investigation. PMID:24870597

Kaymaz, Burçin Tezcanl?; Cetinta?, Vildan Bozok; Aktan, Ca?da?; Kosova, Buket

2014-09-01

163

STAT3-mediated activation of microRNA cluster 17~92 promotes proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which can be further subdivided into two distinct entities (ALK+ and ALK?) based on the presence or absence of ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways triggered by ALK signaling, constitutive activation of STAT3 is strictly required for ALK-mediated transformation and survival. Here we performed genome-wide microRNA profiling and identified 48 microRNA concordantly modulated by the inducible knock-down of ALK and STAT3. To evaluate the functional role of differentially expressed miRNA, we forced their expression in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and monitored their influence after STAT3 depletion. We found that the expression of the microRNA-17~92 cluster partially rescues STAT3 knock-down by sustaining proliferation and survival of ALK+ cells. Experiments in a xenograft mouse model indicated that forced expression of microRNA-17~92 interferes with STAT3 knock-down in vivo. High expression levels of the microRNA-17~92 cluster resulted in down-regulation of BIM and TGF?RII proteins, suggesting that their targeting might mediate resistance to STAT3 knock-down in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. We speculate that the microRNA-17~92 cluster is involved in lymphomagenesis of STAT3+ ALCL and that its inhibition might represent an alternative avenue to interfere with ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas. PMID:23975180

Spaccarotella, Elisa; Pellegrino, Elisa; Ferracin, Manuela; Ferreri, Cristina; Cuccuru, Giuditta; Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Cantarella, Daniela; Taulli, Riccardo; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Medico, Enzo; Negrini, Massimo; Chan, Wing C.; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

2014-01-01

164

Acute Alcohol Intake Induces SOCS1 and SOCS3 and Inhibits Cytokine-Induced STAT1 and STAT3 Signaling in Human Monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Acute alcohol consumption is associated with induction of immuno-inhibitory cytokines and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses to various pathogens. We previously reported that alcohol activates janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling leading to IL-10 induction. The JAK-STAT pathway also activates its own negative regulators, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3. SOCS proteins are inducible inhibitors that negatively regulate STAT3/STAT1 signaling pathways induced by cytokines, IL-6 or IFNs. Here we aimed to explore the effect of acute alcohol on induction of SOCS1/SOCS3 and regulation of STAT3/STAT1 pathways induced by IL-6 or IFNs in human monocytes. Methods Blood samples from normal volunteers were collected before and 24 hours after consumption of 2 ml vodka/kg body weight. For in vitro experiments human monocytes were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH) followed by stimulation with cytokines; proteins were analyzed by Western blot, nuclear protein binding to DNA by EMSA, and RNA by real time PCR. Results: Acute in vivo or in vitro alcohol treatment increased both SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA expression in monocytes. Alcohol treatment resulted in increased STAT3 and STAT1 DNA binding capacity. Activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 has been shown to induce SOCS1/3. We hypothesized that induction of SOCS proteins by alcohol in turn may lead to modulation of cytokine signaling through STAT1 and STAT3. Indeed, we observed significant down-regulation of IL-6-, IFN?- and IFN?-induced STAT1 DNA binding as well as inhibition of IL-6- and IFN?-induced STAT3 when alcohol was added to monocytes 3 hours prior to the cytokine stimulation. Consistent with inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 DNA binding in alcohol-pretreated cells, the levels of IL-6-dependent genes, MCP-1 and ICAM-1, was reduced after IL-6 stimulation. Similar to EtOH alone, combined EtOH+IL-6 simulation resulted in increased expression of both SOCS3 and SOCS1 genes. Conclusion While acute alcohol treatment alone activates STAT1/3 signaling pathways and induces SOCS3 and SOCS1 levels in monocytes, alcohol also leads to down-regulation of IL-6-, IFN?-, and IFN?-induced signaling via STAT1/STAT3 pathways, likely through excessive SOCS activation. PMID:18616672

Norkina, Oxana; Dolganiuc, Angela; Catalano, Donna; Kodys, Karen; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Syed, Amber; Efros, Marian; Szabo, Gyongyi

2014-01-01

165

LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily, activates Stat3 mediated by NIK pathway  

SciTech Connect

Stat3, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family, is a key signal transduction protein activated by numerous cytokines, growth factors, and oncoproteins that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, development, survival, and inflammation. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been found frequently in a wide variety of human tumors and induces cellular transformation and tumor formation. In this study, we demonstrated that LIGHT, a member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily, activates Stat3 in cancer cells. LIGHT induces dose-dependent activation of Stat3 by phosphorylation at both the tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. The activation of Stat3 by LIGHT appears to be mediated by NIK phosphorylation. Expression of a kinase-inactive NIK mutant abolished LIGHT induced Stat3 activation. Overexpression of an active NIK induces Stat3 activation by phosphorylation at the both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. Activation of Stat3 by NIK requires NIK kinase activity as showed by kinase assays. In addition, LIGHT increases the expression of Stat3 target genes including cyclin D1, survivin, and Bcl-xL, and stimulates human LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth in vitro which can be blocked by expression of a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to activating NF-{kappa}B/p52, LIGHT also activates Stat3. Activation of Stat3 together with activating non-canonical NF-{kappa}B/p52 signaling by LIGHT may maximize its effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and inflammation.

Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Chun, Jae Yeon [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Hu, Yan [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Dutt, Smitha [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Lin, Xin [Department of Molecular Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gao, Allen C. [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)]. E-mail: allen.gao@roswellpark.org

2007-07-27

166

Constitutive STAT3 Phosphorylation Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in cytokine- and nutrient-induced insulin resistance. The role of STAT3 in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathogenesis is incompletely defined. We tested the hypothesis that STAT3 signaling contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. Protein abundance and phosphorylation of STAT3 signaling molecules were determined in skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from BMI- and age-matched overweight individuals with normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and T2D patients. The direct role of STAT3 in the development of lipid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance was determined using small interfering (si)RNA. Phosphorylated STAT3, phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein abundance was increased in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 phosphorylation positively correlated with free fatty acid level and measures of insulin sensitivity in NGT but not T2D patients. Palmitate exposure led to a constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, increased protein abundance of SOCS3, and development of insulin resistance in L6 myotubes. These effects were prevented by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing. In summary, STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. STAT3 gene silencing prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance in cultured myotubes. Collectively, our results implicate excessive STAT3 signaling in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2D. PMID:23043161

Mashili, Fredirick; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Krook, Anna; Zierath, Juleen R.

2013-01-01

167

Cytokine Profiling and Stat3 Phosphorylation in Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions between Keloid Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported an increase in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation in keloid fibroblasts, which contributes to collagen production, cell proliferation, and migration. We further investigated the effect of epithelial–mesenchymal interaction on Stat3 in normal and keloid fibroblasts in noncoculture and coculture conditions. pY705 Stat3 was higher in keloid fibroblasts compared to normal fibroblasts in noncoculture.

Cheh P Lim; Toan T Phan; Ivor J Lim; Xinmin Cao

2009-01-01

168

Upregulation of Tissue Factor by Activated Stat3 Contributes to Malignant Pleural Effusion Generation via Enhancing Tumor Metastasis and Vascular Permeability in Lung Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a poor prognostic sign for patients with lung cancer. Tissue factor (TF) is a coagulation factor that participates in angiogenesis and vascular permeability and is abundant in MPE. We previously demonstrated that autocrine IL-6-activated Stat3 contributes to tumor metastasis and upregulation of VEGF, resulting in the generation of MPE in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found IL-6-triggered Stat3 activation also induces TF expression. By using pharmacologic inhibitors, it was shown that JAK2 kinase, but not Src kinase, contributed to autocrine IL-6-induced TF expression. Inhibition of Stat3 activation by dominant negative Stat3 (S3D) in lung adenocarcinoma suppressed TF-induced coagulation, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Consistently, knockdown of TF expression by siRNA resulted in a reduction of anchorage-independent growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of TF expression also decreased the adhesion ability of cancer cells in normal lung tissues. In the nude mouse model, both lung metastasis and MPE generation were decreased when PC14PE6/AS2-siTF cells (TF expression was silenced) were intravenously injected. PC14PE6/AS2-siTF cells also produced less malignant ascites through inhibition of vascular permeability. In summary, we showed that TF expression plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MPE generation via regulating of tumor metastasis and vascular permeability in lung adenocarcinoma bearing activated Stat3. PMID:24086497

Yeh, Hsuan-Heng; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Lu, Kuang-Chu; Lai, Wu-Wei; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Su, Wu-Chou

2013-01-01

169

The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, inhibits gp130/Stat3 pathway and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in multiple myeloma cells  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with current therapy, indicating the need for continued development of novel therapeutic agents. We evaluated the activity of a novel phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, in primary human myeloma cells and cell lines. AR-42 was cytotoxic to MM cells at a mean LC50 of 0.18 ± 0.06 ?mol/l at 48 hr and induced apoptosis with cleavage of caspases 8, 9 and 3, with cell death largely prevented by caspase inhibition. AR-42 downregulated the expression of gp130 and inhibited activation of STAT3, with minimal effects on the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, indicating a predominant effect on the gp130/STAT-3 pathway. AR-42 also inhibited interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation, which could not be overcome by exogenous IL-6. AR-42 also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated targets, including Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Overexpression of Bcl-xL by a lentivirus construct partly protected against cell death induced by AR-42. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21, were also significantly induced by AR-42, which together with a decrease in cyclin D1, resulted in G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, AR-42 has potent cytotoxicity against MM cells mainly through gp130/STAT-3 pathway. The results provide rationale for clinical investigation of AR-42 in MM. PMID:20824695

Zhang, Shuhong; Suvannasankha, Attaya; Crean, Colin D.; White, Valerie L.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Farag, Sherif S.

2014-01-01

170

CRITICAL ROLE OF STAT3 IN IL-6-MEDIATED DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. Here we have evaluated the role of STAT3 in environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) in human neuroblastoma. We determined that STAT3 was not constitutively active in most neuroblastoma cell lines but was rapidly activated upon treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6) alone and in combination with the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with IL-6 protected them from drug-induced apoptosis in a STAT3-dependent manner because the protective effect of IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of a STAT3 inhibitor and upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 was necessary for the upregulation of several survival factors such as survivin (BIRC5) and Bcl-xL (BCL2L1) when cells were exposed to IL-6. Importantly, IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation was enhanced by sIL-6R produced by human monocytes, pointing to an important function of monocytes in promoting IL-6-mediated EMDR. Our data also point to the presence of reciprocal activation of STAT3 between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells including not only monocytes but also Treg cells and non-myeloid stromal cells. Thus, the data identify an IL-6/sIL-6R/STAT3 interactive pathway between neuroblastoma cells and their microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance. PMID:23633489

Ara, Tasnim; Nakata, Rie; Sheard, Michael A.; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Buettner, Ralf; Groshen, Susan G.; Ji, Lingyun; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard; Seeger, Robert C.; DeClerck, Yves A.

2013-01-01

171

Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. Here, we have evaluated the role of STAT3 in environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) in human neuroblastoma. We determined that STAT3 was not constitutively active in most neuroblastoma cell lines but was rapidly activated upon treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 alone and in combination with the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with IL-6 protected them from drug-induced apoptosis in a STAT3-dependent manner because the protective effect of IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of a STAT3 inhibitor and upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 was necessary for the upregulation of several survival factors such as survivin (BIRC5) and Bcl-xL (BCL2L1) when cells were exposed to IL-6. Importantly, IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation was enhanced by sIL-6R produced by human monocytes, pointing to an important function of monocytes in promoting IL-6-mediated EMDR. Our data also point to the presence of reciprocal activation of STAT3 between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells including not only monocytes but also regulatory T cells (Treg) and nonmyeloid stromal cells. Thus, the data identify an IL-6/sIL-6R/STAT3 interactive pathway between neuroblastoma cells and their microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance. PMID:23633489

Ara, Tasnim; Nakata, Rie; Sheard, Michael A; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Buettner, Ralf; Groshen, Susan G; Ji, Lingyun; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard; Seeger, Robert C; DeClerck, Yves A

2013-07-01

172

Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

Huang, Hanhui [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhao, Wenrong [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China)] [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yang, Dan, E-mail: yangdandr@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200040 (China)] [Department of Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

2012-02-03

173

Alkylation of cysteine 468 in Stat3 defines a novel site for therapeutic development  

PubMed Central

Stat3 is a latent transcription factor that promotes cell survival and proliferation and is often constitutively active in multiple cancers. Inhibition of Stat3 signaling pathways suppresses cell survival signals and leads to apoptosis in cancer cells, suggesting direct inhibition of Stat3 function is a viable therapeutic approach. Herein, we identify a small molecule, C48, as a selective Stat3-family member inhibitor. To determine its mechanism of action, we used site-directed mutagenesis and multiple biochemical techniques to show that C48 alkylates Cys468 in Stat3, a residue at the DNA-binding interface. We further demonstrate that C48 blocks accumulation of activated Stat3 in the nucleus in tumor cell lines that over-express active Stat3 leading to impressive inhibition of tumor growth in mouse models. Collectively, these findings suggest Cys468 in Stat3 represents a novel site for therapeutic intervention and demonstrates the promise of alkylation as a potentially effective chemical approach for Stat3-dependent cancers. PMID:21226522

Buettner, Ralf; Corzano, Renzo; Rashid, Rumana; Lin, Jianping; Senthil, Maheswari; Hedvat, Michael; Schroeder, Anne; Mao, Allen; Herrmann, Andreas; Yim, John; Li, Hongzhi; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Yakushijin, Kenichi; Yakushijin, Fumiko; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Moore, Roger; Gugiu, Gabriel; Lee, Terry D.; Yip, Richard; Chen, Yuan; Jove, Richard; Horne, David; Williams, John C.

2011-01-01

174

Alcohol Suppresses the Granulopoietic Response to Pulmonary S. Pneumoniae Infection with Enhancement of STAT3 Signaling1  

PubMed Central

Enhanced granulopoietic activity is crucial for host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Alcohol impairs this response. The underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by infected lung tissue plays a key role in stimulating bone marrow granulopoiesis. This study investigated the effects of alcohol on G-CSF signaling in the regulation of marrow myeloid progenitor cell proliferation in mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Chronic alcohol consumption plus acute alcohol intoxication suppressed the increase in blood granulocyte counts following intrapulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae. This suppression was associated with a significant decrease in bone marrow granulopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. Alcohol treatment significantly enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation in bone marrow cells of animals challenged with S. pneumoniae. In vitro experiments showed that G-CSF-induced activation of STAT3-p27Kip1 pathway in murine myeloid progenitor cell line 32D-G-CSFR cells was markedly enhanced by alcohol exposure. Alcohol dose-dependently inhibited G-CSF-stimulated 32D-G-CSFR cell proliferation. This impairment of myeloid progenitor cell proliferation was not attenuated by inhibition of alcohol metabolism through either the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway or the CYP450 system. These data suggest that alcohol enhances G-CSF-associated STAT3-p27Kip1 signaling, which impairs granulopoietic progenitor cell proliferation by inducing cell cycling arrest and facilitating their terminal differentiation during the granulopoietic response to pulmonary infection. PMID:21357267

Siggins, Robert W.; Melvan, John N.; Welsh, David A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

2012-01-01

175

IL-18 induces profibrotic renal tubular cell injury via STAT3 activation  

PubMed Central

IL-18 is an important mediator of obstruction-induced renal fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) injury. IL-18's proinflammatory properties have been attributed, in part, to NF-?B activation and the stimulation of cytokine gene expression; however, STAT3 has increasingly been shown to mediate renal fibrotic injury. We therefore hypothesized that IL-18 mediates profibrotic TEC injury via STAT3 activation. Male C57BL6 wild-type mice and transgenic mice for human IL-18-binding protein were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction or sham operation. The kidneys were harvested 1 or 2 wk afterward and analyzed for active STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression (Western blotting, immunohistochemistry) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. In a separate arm, renal tubular cells (HK-2) were directly stimulated with IL-18 for 2 days with or without the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 (50 ?M). Cell lysates were then analyzed for p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression, profibrotic cellular changes (collagen and ?-SMA expression), and tubular cell apoptosis. p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression increased significantly in response to obstruction; however, a significant reduction in p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression occurred following 1 wk, but not 2 wk, of obstruction in the presence of IL-18 neutralization. In vitro results similarly demonstrate increased p-STAT3, SOCS3, ?-SMA, and collagen III expression, and increased collagen production and TEC apoptosis in response to IL-18 stimulation, but the response was significantly diminished in the presence of STAT3 inhibition. These results demonstrate that IL-18-induces profibrotic cellular changes and collagen production in TECs via STAT3 activation. PMID:23904224

Matsui, Futoshi; Rhee, Audrey; Hile, Karen L.; Zhang, Hongji

2013-01-01

176

Loss of STAT3 in murine NK cells enhances NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance.  

PubMed

The members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors modulate the development and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance is particularly important in the body's defense against hematological malignancies such as leukemia. STAT3 inhibitors are currently being developed, although their potential effects on NK cells are not clear. We have investigated the function of STAT3 in NK cells with Stat3(?/?)Ncr1-iCreTg mice, whose NK cells lack STAT3. In the absence of STAT3, NK cells develop normally and in normal numbers, but display alterations in the kinetics of interferon-? (IFN-?) production. We report that STAT3 directly binds the IFN-? promoter. In various in vivo models of hematological diseases, loss of STAT3 in NK cells enhances tumor surveillance. The reduced tumor burden is paralleled by increased expression of the activating receptor DNAM-1 and the lytic enzymes perforin and granzyme B. Our findings imply that STAT3 inhibitors will stimulate the cytolytic activity of NK cells against leukemia, thereby providing an additional therapeutic benefit. PMID:25185262

Gotthardt, Dagmar; Putz, Eva M; Straka, Elisabeth; Kudweis, Petra; Biaggio, Mario; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias; Sexl, Veronika

2014-10-01

177

Role of Stat3 and ErbB2 in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activation of Stat3 has been demonstrated in breast and other cancers. However, the exact mechanisms of its activation as well as the role of Stat3 in these tumors, remain to be determined. This study focuses on the identification of the upstream activato...

M. Geletu

2011-01-01

178

JAK2/STAT3 Inhibition Attenuates Noise-Induced Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a stress responsive transcription factor that plays a key role in oxidative stress-mediated tissue injury. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a known source of damage to tissues of the inner ear following loud sound exposure, we examined the role of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling pathway in noise induce hearing loss using the pathway specific inhibitor, JSI-124. Mice were exposed to a moderately damaging level of loud sound revealing the phosphorylation of STAT3 tyrosine 705 residues and nuclear localization in many cell types in the inner ear including the marginal cells of the stria vascularis, type II, III, and IV fibrocytes, spiral ganglion cells, and in the inner hair cells. Treatment of the mice with the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor before noise exposure reduced levels of phosphorylated STAT3 Y705. We performed auditory brain stem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements and found increased recovery of hearing sensitivity at two weeks after noise exposure with JAK2/STAT3 inhibition. Performance of cytocochleograms revealed improved outer hair cell survival in JSI-124 treated mice relative to control. Finally, JAK2/STAT3 inhibition reduced levels of ROS detected in outer hair cells at two hours post noise exposure. Together, these findings demonstrate that inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is protective against noise-induced cochlear tissue damage and loss of hearing sensitivity. PMID:25275304

Wilson, Teresa; Omelchenko, Irina; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Shi, Xiaorui; Nuttall, Alfred L.

2014-01-01

179

Targeted Disruption of the Mouse Stat3 Gene Leads to Early Embryonic Lethality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been shown to mediate biological actions in response to cytokines. Stat3, a member of the STAT family, is activated by a variety of cytokines, including the interleukin 6 family of cytokines, leptin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and epidermal growth factor. To address the biological function of Stat3, we generated mice deficient in

Kiyoshi Takeda; Koichi Noguchi; Wei Shi; Takashi Tanaka; Makoto Matsumoto; Nobuaki Yoshida; Tadamitsu Kishimoto; Shizuo Akira

1997-01-01

180

STAT3, p38 MAPK, and NF-?B Drive Unopposed Monocyte-Dependent Fibroblast MMP-1 Secretion in Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tissue destruction characterizes infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Type I collagen provides the lung's tensile strength, is extremely resistant to degradation, but is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. Fibroblasts potentially secrete quantitatively more MMP-1 than other lung cells. We investigated mechanisms regulating Mtb-induced collagenolytic activity in fibroblasts in vitro and in patients. Lung fibroblasts were stimulated with conditioned media from Mtb-infected monocytes (CoMTb). CoMTb induced sustained increased MMP-1 (74 versus 16 ng/ml) and decreased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (8.6 versus 22.3 ng/ml) protein secretion. CoMTb induced a 2.7-fold increase in MMP-1 promoter activation and a 2.5-fold reduction in TIMP-1 promoter activation at 24 hours (P = 0.01). Consistent with this, TIMP-1 did not co-localize with fibroblasts in patient granulomas. MMP-1 up-regulation and TIMP-1 down-regulation were p38 (but not extracellular signal–regulated kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase) mitogen-activated protein kinase–dependent. STAT3 phosphorylation was detected in fibroblasts in vitro and in tuberculous granulomas.STAT3 inhibition reduced fibroblast MMP-1 secretion by 60% (P = 0.046). Deletion of the MMP-1 promoter NF-?B–binding site abrogated promoter induction in response to CoMTb. TNF-?, IL-1?, or Oncostatin M inhibition in CoMTb decreased MMP-1 secretion by 65, 63, and 25%, respectively. This cytokine cocktail activated the same signaling pathways in fibroblasts and induced MMP-1 secretion similar to that induced by CoMTb. This study demonstrates in a cellular model and in patients with tuberculosis that in addition to p38 and NF-?B, STAT3 has a key role in driving fibroblast-dependent unopposed MMP-1 production that may be key in tissue destruction in patients. PMID:19915152

O'Kane, Cecilia M.; Elkington, Paul T.; Jones, Michael D.; Caviedes, Luz; Tovar, Marco; Gilman, Robert H.; Stamp, Gordon; Friedland, Jon S.

2010-01-01

181

Carbon Monoxide Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 to Modulate STAT3 Activation in Endothelial Cells via S-Glutathionylation  

PubMed Central

IL-6/STAT3 pathway is involved in a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. In our present study, we found that CO releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transactivity in endothelial cells (ECs). CO is a byproduct of heme degradation mediated by heme oxygenase (HO-1). However, CORMs can induce HO-1 expression and then inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation. CO has been found to increase a low level ROS and which may induce protein glutathionylation. We hypothesized that CORMs increases protein glutathionylation and inhibits STAT3 activation. We found that CORMs increase the intracellular GSSG level and induce the glutathionylation of multiple proteins including STAT3. GSSG can inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and increase STAT3 glutathionylation whereas the antioxidant enzyme catalase can suppress the glutathionylation. Furthermore, catalase blocks the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by CORMs treatment. The inhibition of glutathione synthesis by BSO was also found to attenuate STAT3 glutathionylation and its inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. We further found that HO-1 increases STAT3 glutathionylation and that HO-1 siRNA attenuates CORM-induced STAT3 glutathionylation. Hence, the inhibition of STAT3 activation is likely to occur via a CO-mediated increase in the GSSG level, which augments protein glutathionylation, and CO-induced HO-1 expression, which may enhance and maintain its effects in IL-6-treated ECs. PMID:25072782

Yang, Yan-Chang; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Yang, Po-Min; Wung, Being-Sun

2014-01-01

182

Stem cell-specific expression of Dax1 is conferred by STAT3 and Oct3/4 in embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts. An orphan nuclear receptor, Dax1, is specifically expressed in undifferentiated ES cells and plays an important role in their self-renewal. The regulatory mechanism of Dax1 expression in ES cells, however, remains unknown. In this study, we found that STAT3 and Oct3/4, essential transcription factors for ES cell self-renewal, are involved in the regulation of Dax1 expression. Suppression of either STAT3 or Oct3/4 resulted in down-regulation of Dax1. Reporter assay identified putative binding sites for these factors in the promoter/enhancer region of the Dax1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested the in vivo association of STAT3 and Oct3/4 with the putative sites. Furthermore, gel shift assay indicated that these transcription factors directly bind to their putative binding sites. These results suggest that STAT3 and Oct3/4 control the expression of Dax1 to maintain the self-renewal of ES cells.

Sun Chuanhai [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Nakatake, Yuhki [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ura, Hiroki; Akagi, Tadayuki [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Niwa, Hitoshi [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Koide, Hiroshi [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan)], E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Yokota, Takashi [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan)

2008-07-18

183

S100B attenuates microglia activation in gliomas: possible role of STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

Despite significant infiltration into tumors, the effector function of macrophages (MPs) and microglia (MG) appears to be suppressed in gliomas. Although STAT3 pathway is thought to play a role in this process, the exact mechanism by which gliomas induce STAT3 activation in MPs and MG is not known. Because activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) can induce STAT3, and because gliomas express high levels of S100B, a RAGE ligand, we hypothesized that MP/MG STAT3 activity may be modulated through S100B-RAGE interaction. Exposure of N9 MG and bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMM) to GL261 glioma condition medium (GCM) and low (nM) levels of S100B increased RAGE expression, induced STAT3 and suppressed MG function in vitro. Furthermore, neutralization of S100B in GCM, partially reversed IL-1? suppression in BMM, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of GCM to be in part due to S100B. Finally, blockage of S100B-RAGE interaction inhibited STAT3 activation in N9 MG and in glioma MG/MP in vivo. These findings suggest that the RAGE pathway may play an important role in STAT3 induction in glioma-associated MG/MPs, and that this process may be mediated through S100B. PMID:21264954

Zhang, Leying; Liu, Wei; Alizadeh, Darya; Zhao, Dongchang; Farrukh, Omar; Lin, Jeffrey; Badie, Sam A; Badie, Behnam

2011-03-01

184

Critical role of STAT3 in melanoma metastasis through anoikis resistance  

PubMed Central

Anoikis is an anchorage-independent cell death. Resistance to anoikis is one of the key features of metastatic cells. Here, we analyzed the role of STAT3 in anoikis resistance in melanoma cells leading to metastasis. When grown under anchorage-independent conditions, significant proportion of cells resisted anoikis and these resistant cells had higher rate of migration and invasion as compared to the cells grown under anchorage-dependent conditions. The anoikis resistant cells also had significantly higher expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 than the cells that were attached to the basement membrane. STAT3 inhibitors, AG 490 and piplartine (PL) induced anoikis in a concentration-dependent manner in anoikis resistant cells. Over-expression of STAT3 or treatment with IL-6 not only increased anoikis resistance, but also protected the cancer cells from PL-induced anoikis. On the other hand, silencing STAT3 decreased the potential of cancer cells to resist anoikis and to migrate. STAT3 knock-down cells and PL treated cells did not form tumors as well as failed to metastasize in SCID-NSG mice as compared to untreated anchorage-independent cells, which formed big tumors and extensively metastasized. In summary, our results for the first time establish STAT3 as a critical player that renders anoikis resistance to melanoma cells and enhance their metastatic potential. PMID:25216522

Fofaria, Neel M.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

2014-01-01

185

STAT3 silencing inhibits glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Background Diffuse infiltration remains the fulcrum of glioblastoma's incurability, leading inevitably to recurrence. Therefore, uncovering the pathological mechanism is imperative. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) correlates with glioma malignancy and predicts poor clinical outcome, we determined its role in glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth. Methods STAT3 was silenced in Tu-2449 glioma cells via lentiviral gene transfer. Target gene expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Microvilli were visualized by staining with wheat germ agglutinin. Migration and invasion were measured by Scratch and Matrigel chamber assays. Diffuse infiltration was studied in 350-?m-thick organotypic tissue cultures over 14 days using cells tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and live confocal laser scanning microscopy. Survival of tumor-bearing syngeneic, immunocompetent B6C3F1 mice was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier plots. Results STAT3 silencing reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro and stopped single cell infiltration ex vivo, while STAT3-expressing cells disseminated through the neuropil at ?100 µm/day. STAT3 silencing reduced transcription of several tumor progression genes. Mice with intracranial STAT3 knockdown tumors had a significant (P< .0007) survival advantage over controls, yielding 27% long-term survival. STAT3 knockdown reduced podoplanin expression 50-fold and inhibited concurrent microvilli formation. STAT3 knockdown tumors exhibited a weaker podoplanin immunoreactivity compared with controls. Podoplanin staining was diffuse, preferentially at tumor margins, and absent in normal brain. Conclusions Our results show compelling evidence that STAT3 is a key driver of diffuse infiltration and glioma growth and might therefore represent a promising target for an anti-invasive therapy. PMID:23486688

Priester, Maike; Copanaki, Ekaterini; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Hensel, Sandra; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Seifert, Volker; Groner, Bernd; Kogel, Donat; Weissenberger, Jakob

2013-01-01

186

Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Arctigenin is a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Bardanae fructus, Arctium lappa L, Saussureamedusa, Torreya nucifera, and Ipomea cairica. It has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is mainly mediated through its inhibitory effect on nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-?B). But the role of arctigenin in JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways is still unclear. In present study, we investigated the effect of arctigenin on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluated whether suppression of STAT3 activity by arctigenin could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Our results show that arctigenin significantly suppressed both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be achieved through suppression of Src, JAK1, and JAK2, while suppression of STAT3 serine phosphorylation was mediated by inhibition of ERK activation. Pervanadate reversed the arctigenin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, arctigenin can obviously induce the expression of the PTP SHP-2. Furthermore, the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Arctigenin dramatically promoted cisplatin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that arctigenin enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations suggest a novel anticancer function of arctigenin and a potential therapeutic strategy of using arctigenin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. PMID:21608020

Yao, Xiangyang; Zhu, Fenfen; Zhao, Zhihui; Liu, Chang; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

2011-10-01

187

Correlation of RKIP, STAT3 and cyclin D1 expression in pathogenesis of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

RKIP is proposed as a new metastasis suppressor. Our recent study showed that RKIP inhibits malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of RKIP function in gastric cancer is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of RKIP, STAT3 and cyclin D1 expression in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. RKIP, STAT3 and cyclin D1 proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in tissues of gastric ulcer (n = 27), gastric adenomatous polyp (n = 7), intestinal metaplasia (n = 26), dysplasia (n = 40), gastric carcinoma (n = 169) and metastatic lymph node (n = 36). RKIP, STAT3 and cyclin D1 mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR in SGC7901 cells. We found that RKIP protein expression was significantly decreased in advanced gastric cancer and metastatic lymph node tissues while cyclin D1 and STAT3 protein expression was markedly increased in severe dysplasia, gastric cancer and metastatic lymph node tissue (P < 0.01). RKIP expression in gastric cancer was negatively correlated with the invasion, TNM stage and lymphoid node metastasis (P < 0.01), while cyclin D1 and STAT3 expression was positively correlated with histological differentiation and lymphoid node metastasis (P < 0.01). RKIP protein level was negatively correlated with cyclin D1 and STAT3 protein level, while cyclin D1 protein level was positively correlated with STAT3 protein level in gastric cancer samples. Moreover, reconstitution of RKIP in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells led to reduced cyclin D1 and STAT3 mRNA levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that RKIP inhibits gastric cancer metastasis via the downregulation of its downstream target genes STAT3 and cyclin D1. PMID:25337233

Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Chuanwen; Gu, Huan; Yan, Lu; Zhang, Gui-Ying

2014-01-01

188

Role of p38 MAPK and STAT3 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse alveolar macrophages  

PubMed Central

Excessive production of inflammatory mediators is an important feature of inflammatory lung disease. In macrophages, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) are crucial mediators for the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, the role of MAPK and STAT3 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-10 production was investigated in mouse alveolar macrophages. The levels of TNF-? and IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml)-stimulated MH-S cell lines were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with or without p38 inhibitor (SB203580; 5, 10 or 15 ?M) intervention. Phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression was examined by western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry following LPS stimulation for 15 or 30 min. Antibodies against STAT3 were used to verify comparable sample loading. Cells stimulated with LPS showed significantly increased levels of p-STAT3 protein (P<0.05) when compared with the baseline levels. TNF-? and IL-10 protein levels also increased following LPS stimulation (P<0.05). By contrast, treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, decreased the levels of p-STAT3, TNF-? and IL-10 (P<0.05) following LPS stimulation. SB203580 was shown to inhibit LPS-stimulated TNF-? expression (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner, reaching significance at a concentration of 10 ?M. However, the inhibition of IL-10 expression was not concentration-dependent. Therefore, LPS-stimulated overproduction of TNF-? and IL-10 is mediated at least partially by the MAPK pathway. Inhibition of p38 prevented LPS-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating an interaction between the STAT3 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25371731

MENG, AIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOPENG; SHI, YUNA

2014-01-01

189

STAT3 Modulation to Enhance Motor Neuron Differentiation in Human Neural Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damages spinal motor neurons and forms a glial scar, which prevents neural regeneration. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in astrogliogenesis and scar formation, and thus a fine modulation of STAT3 signaling may help to control the excessive gliogenic environment and enhance neural repair. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of STAT3 inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and Niclosamide, enhanced motor neuron differentiation only in FGF2-primed hNSCs, as shown by increased homeobox gene Hb9 mRNA levels as well as HB9+ and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)+ co-labeled cells. The increased motor neuron differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Interestingly, Stattic and Niclosamide did not affect the level of STAT3 phosphorylation; rather, they perturbed the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, we demonstrate that FGF2 is required for motor neuron differentiation from hNSCs and that inhibition of STAT3 further increases motor neuron differentiation at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Our study thus suggests a potential benefit of targeting the STAT3 pathway for neurotrauma or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24945434

Natarajan, Rajalaxmi; Singal, Vinamrata; Benes, Richard; Gao, Junling; Chan, Hoi; Chen, Haijun; Yu, Yongjia; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Ping

2014-01-01

190

STAT3 supports experimental K-RasG12D-induced murine myeloproliferative neoplasms dependent on serine phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are genetically heterogeneous but frequently display activating mutations in Ras GTPases and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Altered STAT3 activity is observed in up to 50% of AML correlating with poor prognosis. Activated STAT proteins, classically associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, support tumor development as transcription factors, but alternative STAT functions independent of tyrosine phosphorylation have been documented, including roles for serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria supporting transformation by oncogenic Ras. We examined requirements for STAT3 in experimental murine K-Ras-dependent hematopoietic neoplasia. We show that STAT3 is phosphorylated on S727 but not Y705 in diseased animals. Moreover, a mouse with a point mutation abrogating STAT3 S727 phosphorylation displayed delayed onset and decreased disease severity with significantly extended survival. Activated K-Ras required STAT3 for cytokine-independent growth of myeloid progenitors in vitro, and mitochondrially restricted STAT3 and STAT3-Y705F, both transcriptionally inert mutants, supported factor-independent growth. STAT3 was dispensable for growth of normal or K-Ras-mutant myeloid progenitors in response to cytokines. However, abrogation of STAT3-S727 phosphorylation impaired factor-independent malignant growth. These data document that serine-phosphorylated mitochondrial STAT3 supports neoplastic hematopoietic cell growth induced by K-Ras. PMID:25150294

Gough, Daniel J; Marié, Isabelle J; Lobry, Camille; Aifantis, Iannis; Levy, David E

2014-10-01

191

Activating transcription factor 4 mediates a multidrug resistance phenotype of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through transactivation of STAT3 expression.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge to the clinical treatment of esophageal cancer. The stress response gene activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, relatively little is known about the expression and function of ATF4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) MDR. In this study, we investigate the potential role and mechanisms of ATF4 in ESCC MDR. We demonstrated that overexpression of ATF4 promotes the MDR phenotype in ESCC cells, while depletion of ATF4 in the MDR ESCC cell line induces drug re-sensitization. We also demonstrated that ATF4 transactivates STAT3 expression by directly binding to the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) promoter, resulting in MDR in ESCC cells. Significantly, inhibition of STAT3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a selective inhibitor (JSI-124) reintroduces therapeutic sensitivity. In addition, increased Bcl-2, survivin, and MRP1 expression levels were observed in ATF4-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, ATF4 may promote MDR in ESCC cells through the up-regulation of STAT3 expression, and thus is an attractive therapeutic target to combat therapeutic resistance in ESCC. PMID:25130172

Zhu, Hongwu; Chen, Xiong; Chen, Bin; Chen, Bei; Fan, Jianyong; Song, Weibing; Xie, Ziying; Jiang, Dan; Li, Qiuqiong; Zhou, Meihua; Sun, Dayong; Zhao, Yagang

2014-11-01

192

hsa-miR-4516 mediated downregulation of STAT3/CDK6/UBE2N plays a role in PUVA induced apoptosis in keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder mediated by cross-talk occurring between epidermal keratinocytes, dermal vascular cells and immunocytes. Literature reveals that Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a protein involved in transmitting extracellular signals to the nucleus, is a possible important link between keratinocytes and immunocytes and is crucial to the development of psoriasis. Although photochemotherapy using UV in combination with 8 methoxypsoralen is one of the most effective therapy for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Herein, we studied the change in miRNA profiles of cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) before and after in vitro PUVA treatment by 8 methoxypsoralen and found significant up regulation of hsa-miR-4516. We for the first time demonstrate that ectopic expression of hsa-miR-4516 directly targets STAT3 protein by binding to its 3'UTR in HaCaT cells as confirmed by Luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analysis. We further show that overexpression of hsa-miR-4516 downregulates STAT3, p-STAT3, CDK6, and UBE2N proteins that are consistently upregulated in psoriasis and induces apoptosis in HaCaT cells. We also observed that anti-miR-4516 treatment was able to partially inhibit PUVA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-4516 is involved in PUVA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results not only indicate the mechanistic involvement of hsa-miR-4516 in PUVA mediated effects by down-regulating STAT3 in HaCaT keratinocytes, but also highlight the potential of hsa-miR-4516 in development of novel therapeutic strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1630-1638, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24610393

Chowdhari, Shruti; Saini, Neeru

2014-11-01

193

Pien Tze Huang inhibits tumor cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via suppressing the STAT3 pathway in a colorectal cancer mouse model.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in cell survival and proliferation. Constitutive activation of STAT3 is strongly correlated with pathogenesis of various types of malignant tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore is a major focus in the development of anti-cancer agents. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula prescribed already in the Ming Dynasty, has been demonstrated to be clinically effective in the treatment of CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-cancer activity remains largely unknown. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of PZH against tumor growth in vivo in the CRC mouse xenograft model, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that administration of PZH reduced tumor volume and tumor weight but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that PZH can inhibit colon cancer growth in vivo without apparent adverse effect. We also observed that PZH treatment inhibited the phosphorylation level of STAT3 in tumor tissues. Consequently, the inhibitory effect of PZH on STAT3 activation resulted in the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, leading to the induction of apoptosis as well as the inhibition of cell proliferation. These results suggest that promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation via suppression of STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which PZH treats colorectal cancer. PMID:22218594

Zhuang, Qunchuan; Hong, Fei; Shen, Aling; Zheng, Liangpu; Zeng, Jianwei; Lin, Wei; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

2012-05-01

194

Curcumin Inhibits STAT3 Signaling in the Colon of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-treated Mice  

PubMed Central

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has a long history of use in medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. One of the major constituents of turmeric is curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is responsible for its characteristic yellow color. In the present study, we have examined the chemoprotective effects of curcuminon dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. For this purpose, we pre-treated male ICR mice with curcumin (0.1 or 0.25 mmol/kg in 0.05% carboxymethyl cellulose) by gavage for a week and then co-treated the animals with curcumin by gavage and 3% DSS in drinking water for another 7 days. Our study revealed that administration of curcumin significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis and STAT3 signaling in mouse colon. The levels of the cell cycle regulators CDK4 and cylinD1 were significantly reduced by curcumin administration. Moreover, the expression of p53, which is an upstream regulator of the CDK4-cylinD1 complex, was inhibited by curcumin treatment. PMID:25337545

Yang, Joon-Yeop; Zhong, Xiancai; Yum, Hye-Won; Lee, Hyung-Jun; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

2013-01-01

195

Stat3 and Gap Junctions in Normal and Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions are channels linking the interiors of neighboring cells. A reduction in gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) correlates with high cell proliferation, while oncogene products such as Src suppress GJIC, through the Ras/Raf/Erk and other effector pathways. High Src activity was found to correlate with high levels of the Src effector, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3) in its tyrosine-705 phosphorylated, i.e., transcriptionally activated form, in the majority of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer lines examined. However, Stat3 inhibition did not restore GJIC in lines with high Src activity. In the contrary, Stat3 inhibition in normal cells or in lines with low Src activity and high GJIC eliminated gap junctional communication. Therefore, despite the fact that Stat3 is growth promoting and in an activated form acts like an oncogene, it is actually required for junctional permeability. PMID:24670366

Guy, Stephanie; Geletu, Mulu; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Raptis, Leda

2014-01-01

196

MTA1 Promotes STAT3 Transcription and Pulmonary Metastasis in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the pro-metastatic chromatin modifier protein MTA1 in human cancer contributes to tumor aggressiveness, but the role of endogenous MTA1 in cancer has not been explored. Here we report the effects of selective genetic depletion of MTA1 in a physiologically relevant spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer pulmonary metastasis. We found that MTA1 acts as a mandatory modifier of breast-to-lung metastasis without effects on primary tumor formation. The underlying mechanism involved MTA1-dependent stimulation of STAT3 transcription through action on the MTA1/ STAT3/ Pol II coactivator complex, and in turn, on the expression and functions of STAT3 target genes including Twist1. Accordingly, we documented a positive correlation between levels of MTA1 and STAT3 in publicly available breast cancer data sets. Together, our findings reveal an essential modifying role of the physiologic level of MTA1 in supporting pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:23580571

Pakala, Suresh B.; Rayala, Suresh K.; Wang, Rui-An; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Mudvari, Prakriti; Reddy, Sirigiri Divijendra Natha; Zheng, Yi; Pires, Ricardo; Casimiro, Sandra; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna; Costa, Luis; Kumar, Rakesh

2013-01-01

197

Aberrant sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and STAT3 activation in papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

The sonic hedgehog (SHH) and STAT3 signaling pathways play important roles during carcinogenesis with possible interaction. To determine the association of the activation of SHH signaling pathway and STAT3 pathway in carcinogenesis of human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we examined the expression of SHH signaling pathway molecules including SHH, Patched (PTCH), Smoothened (SMO) and GLI1 (glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1), as well as p-STAT3 (phosphorylation at Tyr705) by immunohistochemistry in 164 cases of PTC. In PTC, 70.12%, 64.02%, 68.90%, 64.02%, and 56.71% and in the adjacent normal thyroid tissues, 18.29%, 18.90%, 26.83%, 14.63%, and 10.98% of the specimens stained positive for SHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, and p-STAT3, respectively. Significant difference were found for the positive rate of SHH, PTCH, SMO, and GLI1 as well as p-STAT3 expression between PTC and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. There was a high accordance rate between SHH, PTCH, SMO, and GLI1 expression and all of them positively correlated with larger tumor size, the presence of ETE and LNM, and higher TNM stage. P-STAT3 expression positively correlated with the presence of ETE and LNM, and higher TNM stage but not age, gender, tumor size of the PTC patients. Signifi cant positive correlation between p-STAT3 and SHH, PTCH, SMO and GLI expression was found in PTC. These findings suggest that the SHH and STAT3 signaling pathways are frequently activated in PTC, interact with each other and may therefore be indicators for prognosis or potential targets for therapy against PTC. PMID:25126181

Dong, Wenwu; Cui, Junshuai; Tian, Xinshuai; He, Liang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Hao

2014-01-01

198

Stat3-targeted therapies overcome the acquired resistance to vemurafenib in melanomas.  

PubMed

Vemurafenib (PLX4032), a selective inhibitor of Braf, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in patients with Braf(V600E) mutations. Many patients treated with vemurafenib initially display dramatic improvement, with decreases in both risk of death and tumor progression. Acquired resistance, however, rapidly arises in previously sensitive cells. We attempted to overcome this resistance by targeting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-paired box homeotic gene 3 (PAX3)-signaling pathway, which is upregulated, owing to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) secretion or increased kinase activity, with the Braf(V600E) mutation. We found that activation of Stat3 or overexpression of PAX3 induced resistance to vemurafenib in melanoma cells. In addition, PAX3 or Stat3 silencing inhibited the growth of melanoma cells with acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Furthermore, treatment with the Stat3 inhibitor, WP1066, resulted in growth inhibition in both vemurafenib-sensitive and -resistant melanoma cells. Significantly, vemurafenib stimulation induced FGF2 secretion from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which might uncover, at least in part, the mechanisms underlying targeting Stat3-PAX3 signaling to overcome the acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Our results suggest that Stat3-targeted therapy is a new therapeutic strategy to overcome the acquired resistance to vemurafenib in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23344460

Liu, Fang; Cao, Juxiang; Wu, Jinxiang; Sullivan, Kayleigh; Shen, James; Ryu, Byungwoo; Xu, Zhixiang; Wei, Wenyi; Cui, Rutao

2013-08-01

199

Prevention of hypovolemic circulatory collapse by IL-6 activated Stat3.  

PubMed

Half of trauma deaths are attributable to hypovolemic circulatory collapse (HCC). We established a model of HCC in rats involving minor trauma plus severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). HCC in this model was accompanied by a 50% reduction in peak acceleration of aortic blood flow and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HCC and apoptosis increased with increasing duration of hypotension. Apoptosis required resuscitation, which provided an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. Administration of IL-6 completely reversed HCC, prevented cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced mortality 5-fold and activated intracardiac signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Pre-treatment of rats with a selective inhibitor of Stat3, T40214, reduced the IL-6-mediated increase in cardiac Stat3 activity, blocked successful resuscitation by IL-6 and reversed IL-6-mediated protection from cardiac apoptosis. The hearts of mice deficient in the naturally occurring dominant negative isoform of Stat3, Stat3beta, were completely resistant to HS-induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis of hearts focusing on apoptosis related genes revealed that expression of 29% of apoptosis related genes was altered in HS vs. sham rats. IL-6 treatment normalized the expression of these genes, while T40214 pretreatment prevented IL-6-mediated normalization. Thus, cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes are important components of HCC; IL-6 administration prevented HCC by blocking cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes via Stat3 and warrants further study as a resuscitation adjuvant for prevention of HCC and death in trauma patients. PMID:18270592

Alten, Jeffrey A; Moran, Ana; Tsimelzon, Anna I; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J

2008-01-01

200

Prevention of Hypovolemic Circulatory Collapse by IL-6 Activated Stat3  

PubMed Central

Half of trauma deaths are attributable to hypovolemic circulatory collapse (HCC). We established a model of HCC in rats involving minor trauma plus severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). HCC in this model was accompanied by a 50% reduction in peak acceleration of aortic blood flow and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HCC and apoptosis increased with increasing duration of hypotension. Apoptosis required resuscitation, which provided an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. Administration of IL-6 completely reversed HCC, prevented cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced mortality 5-fold and activated intracardiac signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Pre-treatment of rats with a selective inhibitor of Stat3, T40214, reduced the IL-6-mediated increase in cardiac Stat3 activity, blocked successful resuscitation by IL-6 and reversed IL-6-mediated protection from cardiac apoptosis. The hearts of mice deficient in the naturally occurring dominant negative isoform of Stat3, Stat3?, were completely resistant to HS-induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis of hearts focusing on apoptosis related genes revealed that expression of 29% of apoptosis related genes was altered in HS vs. sham rats. IL-6 treatment normalized the expression of these genes, while T40214 pretreatment prevented IL-6-mediated normalization. Thus, cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes are important components of HCC; IL-6 administration prevented HCC by blocking cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes via Stat3 and warrants further study as a resuscitation adjuvant for prevention of HCC and death in trauma patients. PMID:18270592

Tsimelzon, Anna I.; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

2008-01-01

201

Everolimus-induced human keratinocytes toxicity is mediated by STAT3 inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are associated with dermatological adverse events. The chief aim of this study was to examine the relation between the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein and the dermatological adverse events associated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Methods We evaluated the effects of STAT3 activity and related signal transduction activities on everolimus-induced cell growth inhibition in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line via a WST-8 assay, and on signal transduction mechanisms involved in everolimus treatments via a western blot analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated using an imaging cytometric assay. Results The cell growth inhibitory effects of everolimus were enhanced by stattic or STA-21, which are selective inhibitors of STAT3, treatment in HaCaT cells, although such effects were not observed in Caki-1 and HepG2 cells. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 of STAT3 was decreased by treatment with everolimus in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells; in contrast, phosphorylation at serine 727 was not decreased by everolimus, but slightly increased. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment of p38 MAPK inhibitor and transfection with constitutively active form of STAT3 in HaCaT cells resisted the cytostatic activity of everolimus. Conclusions These findings suggest that STAT3 activity may be a biomarker of everolimus-induced dermatological toxicity. PMID:24423131

2013-01-01

202

Analysis of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat 3) Pathway in Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription molecules (Stats) play key roles in cytokine-induced signal transduction. Recently, it was proposed that constitutively activated Stat 3 (Stat 3 phosphorylated) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) by preventing apoptosis and inducing proliferation. The study aim was to investigate Stat 3 activation in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) cases and its effect on downstream targets such as the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, and the cell-cycle protein cyclin D1. Forty-eight cases of MM were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using antibodies against cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, p21, Stat 3, and Stat 3 phosphorylated (P). Their specificity was corroborated by Western blot analysis using eight human MM cell lines as control. The proliferation rate was assessed with the antibody MiB1. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and Stat 3 were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-embedded microdissected tissue. Three different groups determined by the expression of Stat 3P and cyclin D1 (protein and mRNA) were identified: group 1, Stat 3-activated (23 cases, 48%). All cases revealed nuclear expression of Stat 3P. No elevation of Stat 3 mRNA was identified in any of the cases. Three cases in this group showed intermediate to low cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression. Group 2 included 15 (31%) cases with cyclin D1 staining and lack of Stat 3P. All cases showed intermediate to high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Group 3 included 10 (21%) cases with no expression of either cyclin D1 or Stat 3P. High levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were identified in 89% and 100% of all cases, respectively. In contrast to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, the expression of Bcl-2 showed an inverse correlation with proliferation rate (P: 0.0003). No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of proliferation rate or expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. However, cyclin D1+ cases were always well differentiated and were more likely to show a lymphoplasmocytoid differentiation (chi-square = 9.55). Overall, constitutive activation of Stat 3 was found in almost half (48%) of the investigated MM cases. However, this does not seem to have a major impact on the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and proliferation. We showed that cyclin D1 overexpression and Stat 3 activation are, mutually exclusive events in MM (P = 0.0066). The universal expression of Mcl-1, independent of activated Stat 3, suggests that its expression is constitutive and that it might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MM. PMID:12707028

Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Nathrath, Michaela; Schaich, Robert; Hofler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

2003-01-01

203

A sesquiterpene lactone antrocin from Antrodia camphorata negatively modulates JAK2/STAT3 signaling via microRNA let-7c and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and current therapies fail to treat this disease in majority of cases. Antrodia camphorata is a medicinal mushroom being widely used as food dietary supplement for cancer prevention. The sesquiterpene lactone antrocin is the most potent among >100 secondary metabolites isolated from A. camphorata. However, the molecular mechanisms of antrocin-mediated anticancer effects remain unclear. In this study, we found that antrocin inhibited cell proliferation in two non-small-cell lung cancer cells, namely H441 (wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor, IC50 = 0.75 ?M) and H1975 (gefitnib-resistant mutant T790M, IC50 = 0.83 ?M). Antrocin dose dependently suppressed colony formation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by activated caspase-3 and increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Gene profiling studies indicated that antrocin downregulated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that antrocin suppressed both constitutively activated and interleukin 6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and its subsequent nuclear translocation. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through the suppression of JAK2 and interaction between STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Additionally, antrocin increased microRNA let-7c expression and suppressed STAT signaling. The combination of antrocin and JAK2/STAT3 gene silencing significantly increased apoptosis in H441 cells. Such dual interruption of JAK2 and STAT3 pathways also induced downregulation of antiapoptotic protein mcl-1 and increased caspase-3 expression. In vivo intraperitoneal administration of antrocin significantly suppressed the growth of lung cancer tumor xenografts. Our results indicate that antrocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for human lung cancer cells through constitutive inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. PMID:23880305

Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Wen-Chien; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Ye, Min; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wang, Liang-Shun; Tzeng, David T W; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Alexander T H; Yang, Zhen; Tzeng, Yew-Min

2013-12-01

204

Age exaggerates proinflammatory cytokine signaling and truncates STAT3 signaling following ischemic stroke in the rat  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation is associated with glial activation following a variety of brain injuries, including stroke. While activation of perilesional astrocytes and microglia following ischemic brain injury is well documented, the influence of age on these cellular responses after stroke is unclear. This study investigated the influence of advanced age on neuronal degeneration, neuroinflammation, and glial activation in female Sprague-Dawley rats after reversible embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Results indicate that in comparison to young adult rats (3 months), aged rats (18 months) showed enhanced neuronal degeneration, altered microglial response, and a markedly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines following MCAO. In addition, the time-course for activation of STAT3, the signaling mechanism that regulates astrocyte reactivity, was truncated in the aged rats after MCAO. Moreover, the expression of SOCS3, which is associated with termination of astrogliosis, was enhanced as a function of age after MCAO. These findings are suggestive of an enhanced proinflammatory response and a truncated astroglial response as a function of advanced age following MCAO. These data provide further evidence of the prominent role played by age in the molecular and cellular responses to ischemic stroke and suggest that astrocytes may represent targets for future therapies aimed at improving stroke outcome. PMID:20633608

DiNapoli, V.A.; Benkovic, S.A.; Li, X.; Kelly, K.A.; Miller, D.B.; Rosen, C.L.; Huber, J.D.; O'Callaghan, J.P.

2010-01-01

205

Prevention of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock-Mediated Liver Apoptosis by Activation of Stat3?  

PubMed Central

Trauma is a major cause of mortality in the United States. Death among those surviving the initial insult is caused by multiple organ failure (MOF) with the liver among the organs most frequently affected. We previously demonstrated in rodents that trauma complicated by hemorrhagic shock (trauma/HS) results in liver injury that can be prevented by IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation; however, the contribution of the severity of HS to the extent of liver injury, whether or not resuscitation is required and the mechanism for the IL-6 protective effect have not been reported. In the experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the extent of liver apoptosis induced by trauma/HS depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. We established that IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation is capable of completely reversing liver apoptosis and is associated with increased Stat3 activation. Microarray analysis of the livers showed that the main effect of IL-6 was to normalize the trauma/HS-induced apoptosis transcriptome. Pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity within the liver blocked the ability of IL-6 to prevent liver apoptosis and to normalize the trauma/HS- induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. Genetic deletion of a Stat3?, a naturally occurring, dominant-negative isoform of the Stat3, attenuated trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis, confirming a role for Stat3, especially Stat3?, in preventing trauma/HS-mediated liver apoptosis. Thus, trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation reverses HS-induced liver apoptosis, through activation of Stat3?, which normalizes the trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:18997875

Moran, Ana; Akcan Arikan, Ayse; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

2008-01-01

206

Stat3: linking inflammation to epithelial cancer - more than a "gut" feeling?  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is an important environmental factor that promotes tumourigenesis and the progression of established cancerous lesions, and recent studies have started to dissect the mechanisms linking the two pathologies. These inflammatory and infectious conditions trigger immune and stromal cell release of soluble mediators which facilitate survival and proliferation of tumour cells in a paracrine manner. In addition, (epi-)genetic mutations affecting oncogenes, tumour-suppressor genes, chromosomal rearrangements and amplifications trigger the release of inflammatory mediators within the tumour microenvironment to promote neoplastic growth in an autocrine manner. These two pathways converge in tumour cells and result in activation of the latent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) which mediates a transcriptional response favouring survival, proliferation and angiogenesis. The abundance of cytokines that activate Stat3 within the tumour microenvironment, which comprises of members of the interleukin (IL) IL6, IL10 and IL17/23 families, underpins a signaling network that simultaneously promotes the growth of neoplastic epithelium, fuels inflammation and suppresses the host's anti-tumour immune response. Accordingly, aberrant and persistent Stat3 activation is a frequent observation in human cancers of epithelial origin and is often associated with poor outcome. Here we summarize insights gained from mice harbouring mutations in components of the Stat3 signaling cascade and in particular of gp130, the shared receptor for the IL6 family of cytokines. We focus on the various feed-back and feed-forward loops in which Stat3 provides the signaling node in cells of the tumour and its microenvironment thereby functionally linking excessive inflammation to neoplastic growth. Although these observations are particularly pertinent to gastrointestinal tumours, we suggest that the tumour's addiction to persistent Stat3 activation is likely to also impact on other epithelial cell-derived cancers. These insights provide clues to the judicious interference of the gp130/Stat3 signaling cascade in therapeutically targeting cancer. PMID:20478049

2010-01-01

207

Vaccinia Virus Induces Rapid Necrosis in Keratinocytes by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Rationale Humans with a dominant negative mutation in STAT3 are susceptible to severe skin infections, suggesting an essential role for STAT3 signaling in defense against cutaneous pathogens. Methods To focus on innate antiviral defenses in keratinocytes, we used a standard model of cutaneous infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000. In parallel, early events post-infection with the smallpox vaccine ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes of human and mouse origin. Results Mice treated topically with a STAT3 inhibitor (Stattic) developed larger vaccinia lesions with higher virus titers and died more rapidly than untreated controls. Cultured human and murine keratinocytes infected with ACAM-2000 underwent rapid necrosis, but when treated with Stattic or with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase or caspase-1, they survived longer, produced higher titers of virus, and showed reduced activation of type I interferon responses and inflammatory cytokines release. Treatment with inhibitors of RIP1 kinase and STAT3, but not caspase-1, also reduced the inflammatory response of keratinocytes to TLR ligands. Vaccinia growth properties in Vero cells, which are known to be defective in some antiviral responses, were unaffected by inhibition of RIP1K, caspase-1, or STAT3. Conclusions Our findings indicate that keratinocytes suppress the replication and spread of vaccinia virus by undergoing rapid programmed cell death, in a process requiring STAT3. These data offer a new framework for understanding susceptibility to skin infection in patients with STAT3 mutations. Interventions which promote prompt necroptosis/pyroptosis of infected keratinocytes may reduce risks associated with vaccination with live vaccinia virus. PMID:25419841

He, Yong; Fisher, Robert; Chowdhury, Soma; Sultana, Ishrat; Pereira, Claudia P.; Bray, Mike; Reed, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

208

Rapamycin Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Rapamycin (Sirolimus®) is used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs and coronary restenosis. We reported that rapamycin induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury through opening of mitochondrial KATP channels. However, signaling mechanisms in rapamycin-induced cardioprotection are currently unknown. Considering that STAT3 is protective in the heart, we investigated the potential role of this transcription factor in rapamycin-induced protection against (I/R) injury. Adult male ICR mice were treated with rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO) with/without inhibitor of JAK2 (AG-490) or STAT3 (stattic). One hour later, the hearts were subjected to I/R either in Langendorf mode or in situ ligation of left coronary artery. Additionally, primary murine cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated ischemia/reoxygenation (SI-RO) injury in vitro. For in situ targeted knockdown of STAT3, lentiviral vector containing short hairpin RNA was injected into left ventricle 3 weeks prior to initiating I/R injury. Infarct size, cardiac function, cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis were assessed. Rapamycin reduced infarct size, improved cardiac function following I/R, limited cardiomyocytes necrosis as well as apoptosis following SI-RO which were blocked by AG-490 and stattic. In situ knock-down of STAT3 attenuated rapamycin-induced protection against I/R injury. Rapamycin triggered unique cardioprotecive signaling including phosphorylation of ERK, STAT3, eNOS and glycogen synthase kinase-3? in concert with increased prosurvival Bcl-2 to Bax ratio. Our data suggest that JAK2-STAT3 signaling plays an essential role in rapamycin-induced cardioprotection. We propose that rapamycin is a novel and clinically relevant pharmacological strategy to target STAT3 activation for treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:22999860

Das, Anindita; Salloum, Fadi N.; Durrant, David; Ockaili, Ramzi; Kukreja, Rakesh C

2012-01-01

209

Andrographolide causes apoptosis via inactivation of STAT3 and Akt and potentiates antitumor activity of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Gemcitabine is a first-line drug utilised in the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer; however, this drug induces chemo-resistance and toxicity to normal tissue during treatment. Here, we firstly report that andrographolide (ANDRO) alone not only has anti-pancreatic cancer activity, but it also potentiates the anti-tumour activity of gemcitabine. Treatment with ANDRO alone inhibits proliferation of the pancreatic cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Interestingly, ANDRO induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting STAT3 and Akt activation, upregulating the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax, and downregulating the expression of cyclinD1, cyclinE, survivin, X-IAP and Bcl-2. Additionally, ANDRO combined with gemcitabine significantly induce stronger cell cycle arrest and more obvious apoptosis than each single treatment. The mechanistic study demonstrates that this synergistic effect is also dependent on the inhibition of STAT3 and Akt activations which subsequently regulates the pathways involved in the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, both ANDRO alone and the combination treatments exhibit efficacious anti-tumour activity in vivo. Overall, our results provide solid evidence supporting that ANDRO alone or its combination with gemcitabine is a potential chemotherapeutic approach for treating human pancreatic cancer in clinical practice. PMID:23845849

Bao, Guo-Qing; Shen, Bai-Yong; Pan, Chun-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Shi, Min-Min; Peng, Cheng-Hong

2013-09-12

210

Caveolin-1 upregulation mediates suppression of primary breast tumor growth and brain metastases by Stat3 inhibition  

PubMed Central

Stat3 activation has been implicated as an important driver of brain metastasis in breast cancer, but the critical targets of Stat3 in this process are yet to be fully defined. In this study, we identified the lipid raft organizing protein Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) as a critical genetic target of Stat3 in this process. In human breast cancers, we found that activated Stat3 correlated with attenuation of Cav-1 in brain metastases relative to primary tumors. Cav-1 promoter activity and gene expression was increased by overexpressing an activated form of Stat3, but decreased by attenuation of Stat3 activity or expression. We identified putative Stat3-binding elements in the Cav-1 promoter and demonstrated a direct repression of Cav-1 transcription by Stat3. Reciprocally, we demonstrated that strategies to increase or decrease Cav-1 expression were sufficient to attenuate or promote breast cancer cell invasion. Further, increased expression of Cav-1 phenocopied the effects of Stat3 activation in blocking primary tumor growth and abrogating formation of brain metastases. Collectively, our findings provide clinical and mechanistic evidence that Cav-1 is a critical target for suppression by Stat3 in driving invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. PMID:21622714

Chiu, Wen-Tai; Lee, Hsueh-Te; Huang, Feng-Ju; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Yao, Jun; Steeg, Patricia S.; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Lu, Zhimin; Xie, Keping; Huang, Suyun

2014-01-01

211

Feedback activation of STAT3 mediates trastuzumab resistance via upregulation of MUC1 and MUC4 expression  

PubMed Central

Although HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab confers a substantial benefit for patients with HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer, overcoming trastuzumab resistance remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a STAT3-centered positive feedback loop that mediates the resistance of trastuzumab. Mechanistically, chronic exposure of trastuzumab causes the upregulation of fibronection (FN), EGF and IL-6 in parental trastuzumab-sensitive breast and gastric cells and convergently leads to STAT3 hyperactivation. Activated STAT3 enhances the expression of FN, EGF and IL-6, thus constituting a positive feedback loop which amplifies and maintains the STAT3 signal; furthermore, hyperactivated STAT3 signal promotes the expression of MUC1 and MUC4, consequently mediating trastuzumab resistance via maintenance of persistent HER2 activation and masking of trastuzumab binding to HER2 respectively. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 disrupted STAT3-dependent positive feedback loop and recovered the trastuzumab sensitivity partially due to increased apoptosis induction. Combined trastuzumab with STAT3 inhibition synergistically suppressed the growth of the trastuzumab-resistant tumor xenografts in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that feedback activation of STAT3 constitutes a key node mediating trastuzumab resistance. Combinatorial targeting on both HER2 and STAT3 may enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab or other HER2-targeting agents in HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer. PMID:25327561

Li, Wei; Fan, Kexing; Qian, Weizhu; Hou, Sheng; Wang, Hao; Dai, Jianxin; Wei, Huafeng; Guo, Yajun

2014-01-01

212

Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Si [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-07-01

213

SIAH2 antagonizes TYK2-STAT3 signaling in lung carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The Janus tyrosine kinases JAK1-3 and tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) are frequently hyperactivated in tumors. In lung cancers JAK1 and JAK2 induce oncogenic signaling through STAT3. A putative role of TYK2 in these tumors has not been reported. Here, we show a previously not recognized TYK2-STAT3 signaling node in lung cancer cells. We reveal that the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia-2 (SIAH2) accelerates the proteasomal degradation of TYK2. This mechanism consequently suppresses the activation of STAT3. In agreement with these data the analysis of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples from three patient cohorts revealed that compared to lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) show significantly higher levels of SIAH2 and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation levels. Thus, SIAH2 is a novel molecular marker for SCC. We further demonstrate that an activation of the oncologically relevant transcription factor p53 in lung cancer cells induces SIAH2, depletes TYK2, and abrogates the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. This mechanism appears to be different from the inhibition of phosphorylated JAKs through the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. Our study may help to identify molecular mechanisms affecting lung carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24833526

Muller, Sylvia; Chen, Yuan; Ginter, Torsten; Schafer, Claudia; Buchwald, Marc; Schmitz, Lienhard M.; Klitzsch, Jana; Schutz, Alexander; Haitel, Andrea; Schmid, Katharina; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Haan, Claude; Petersen, Iver; Heinzel, Thorsten; Kramer, Oliver H.

2014-01-01

214

STAT3 inhibitor NSC74859 radiosensitizes esophageal cancer via the downregulation of HIF-1?.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy is the main therapy for inoperable and locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, radioresistance in ESCC remains a challenge. The aim of this study is to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibitor NSC74859 on ESCC and explore the underlying mechanisms. ECA109 and TE13 cells were exposed to hypoxia, and treated with NSC74859 or radiation, alone or in combination. Cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) were examined. Nude mice model of ECA109 xenograft was treated with radiation and/or NSC74859. The levels of STAT3, p-STAT3, HIF-1?, and VEGF were detected by Western blot analysis. NSC74859 efficiently radiosensitized ESCC cells and xenografts in nude mice, and inhibited hypoxia-/radiation-induced activation of STAT3 and upregulation of HIF-1? and VEGF expression. NSC74859 confers radiosensitivity in ESCC via the inhibition of STAT3 activation and the downregulation of HIF-1? and VEGF expression. NSC74859 may become a promising radiosensitizer for ESCC radiotherapy. PMID:24981247

Zhang, Chi; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Qu; Guo, Qing; He, Jia; Qin, Qin; Zhu, Hongcheng; Liu, Jia; Zhan, Liangliang; Lu, Jing; Liu, Zheming; Xu, Liping; Ma, Jianxin; Dai, Shengbin; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

2014-10-01

215

The signal transducers STAT5 and STAT3 control expression of Id2 and E2-2 during dendritic cell development  

PubMed Central

Cytokines and transcription factors play key roles in dendritic cell (DC) development, yet information about regulatory interactions between these signals remains limited. Here we show that the cytokines GM-CSF and Flt3L induce the transcriptional mediators Id2 and E2-2 and control DC lineage diversification by STAT–dependent pathways. We found that STAT5 is required for tissue CD103+ DC generation and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) suppression in steady state or response to GM-CSF. STAT5 stimulates GM-CSF–dependent expression of Id2, which controls CD103+ DC production and pDC inhibition. By contrast, pDCs, but not CD103+ DCs, are dependent on STAT3. Consistently, STAT3 stimulates Flt3L-responsive expression of the pDC regulator Tcf4 (E2-2). These data suggest that STATs contribute to DC development by controlling transcription factors involved in lineage differentiation. PMID:23033267

Yang, Cliff Y.; Nallaparaju, Kalyan C.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Goldrath, Ananda W.

2012-01-01

216

STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide  

SciTech Connect

In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roguin, Leonor P., E-mail: rvroguin@qb.ffyb.uba.ar [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2010-02-15

217

Hydrazinocurcumin Encapsuled nanoparticles "re-educate" tumor-associated macrophages and exhibit anti-tumor effects on breast cancer following STAT3 suppression.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential cellular components within tumor microenvironment (TME). TAMs are educated by TME to transform to M2 polarized population, showing a M2-like phenotype, IL-10(high), IL-12(low), TGF-?(high). STAT3 signaling triggers crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs, and is crucial for the regulation of malignant progression. In our study, legumain-targeting liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating HC were employed to suppress STAT3 activity and "re-educate" TAMs, and to investigate the effects of suppression of tumor progression in vivo. The results showed that TAMs treated by HC encapsuled NPs could switch to M1-like phenotype, IL-10(low), IL-12(high), TGF-?(low), and the "re-educated" macrophages (M1-like macrophages) considerably demonstrated opposite effect of M2-like macrophages, especially the induction of 4T1 cells migration and invasion in vitro, and suppression of tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. These data indicated that inhibition of STAT3 activity of TAMs by HC-NPs was able to reverse their phenotype and could regulate their crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs in order to suppress tumor progression. PMID:23825527

Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Wenxia; Cai, Xiaozhong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dang, Weiqi; Tang, Hao; Cao, Hong; Wang, Lin; Chen, Tingmei

2013-01-01

218

Both STAT1 and STAT3 are favourable prognostic determinants in colorectal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Aberrant activities of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling pathways have been implicated in the development and spread of various cancer entities, among them colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1, both downstream effectors of interleukin (IL)-6 and its receptor, are involved in growth and developmental control of CRC cells. Constituents of the signalling network around IL-6 and STAT activation are discussed as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CRC. Methods: By immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray covering >400 CRC biopsies, the expression and activity status of STAT1, STAT3 as well as of IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor ?-chain was determined. The outcome was correlated with clinical information and patients' survival data. Colorectal carcinoma biopsies were also analysed for specific DNA-binding activity of STATs. Results: Statistical analysis showed tendential associations between individual STATs, IL-6/IL-6 receptor-? and clinicopathological parameters. The study revealed a significant correlation of high STAT1 activity with longer patient overall survival. Surprisingly, strong STAT3 expression in surgical specimens was correlated with an increase in median overall survival by about 30 months. Statistical analysis revealed that high expression levels of STAT1 and STAT3 were associated. This finding was backed up by biochemical data that showed simultaneous STAT1 and STAT3 DNA-binding activity in randomly selected CRC biopsies. Conclusion: By multivariate data analysis, we could show that STAT3 expression and activity constitutes an independent favourable prognostic marker for CRC. PMID:23756862

Gordziel, C; Bratsch, J; Moriggl, R; Knosel, T; Friedrich, K

2013-01-01

219

Activation of STAT3 is involved in malignancy mediated by CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play an important role in breast cancer malignancy and metastasis. However, it remains unknown whether STAT3 can be activated by CXCR4 in human breast cancer. The expression levels of CXCR4, STAT3 and p-STAT3 in 208 breast cancer tissues and 26 tumor-adjacent tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry, western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation were used to study activation of STAT3 by CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling in human breast cancer cell lines. The expression levels of CXCR4, STAT3 and p-STAT3 were higher in the breast cancer samples than these levels in the tumor-adjacent samples. The combined expression of CXCR4 and p-STAT3 was correlated with TNM stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis and histological grade of breast cancer. In the breast cancer cells, CXCL12 treatment increased the expression of p-STAT3. The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) antagonist AG490 inhibited the CXCL12-induced increase in the phosphorylation of STAT3. Furthermore, CXCL12 promoted direct binding of JAK2 to CXCR4. Our findings suggest that activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway via CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling plays an important role in breast cancer malignancy and metastasis. Targeting the CXCL12-CXCR4/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25310198

Liu, Xiaojian; Xiao, Qinghuan; Bai, Xuefeng; Yu, Zhaojin; Sun, Mingli; Zhao, Haishan; Mi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Enhua; Yao, Weifan; Jin, Feng; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Jie; Wei, Minjie

2014-12-01

220

Cytokine Response Is Determined by Duration of Receptor and Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation*  

PubMed Central

Paradoxically, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 both activate STAT3, yet generate nearly opposing cellular responses. Here, we show that the temporal pattern of STAT3 activation codes for the specific cytokine response. A computational model of IL-6 and IL-10 signaling predicted that IL-6 stimulation results in transient activation of STAT3, with a rapid decline in phosphorylation and nuclear localization. In contrast, simulated IL-10 signaling resulted in sustained STAT3 activation. The predicted STAT3 patterns produced by each cytokine were confirmed experimentally in human dendritic cells. Time course microarray studies further showed that the dynamic genome-wide transcriptional responses were nearly identical at early time points following stimulation (when STAT3 is active in response to both IL-6 and IL-10) but divergent at later times (when STAT3 is active only in response to IL-10). Truncating STAT3 activation after IL-10 stimulation caused IL-10 to elicit an IL-6–like transcriptional and secretory response. That the duration of IL-10 receptor and STAT3 activation can direct distinct responses reveals a complex cellular information-coding mechanism that may be relevant to improving the prediction of the effects of drug candidates using this mechanism. PMID:23166328

Braun, David A.; Fribourg, Miguel; Sealfon, Stuart C.

2013-01-01

221

Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway  

SciTech Connect

Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

2012-08-01

222

15-Deoxy-delta12,14-PGJ2 inhibits IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation in lymphocytes.  

PubMed

15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-PGJ(2)(15d-PGJ(2)) is a natural ligand that activates the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a member of nuclear receptor family implicated in regulation of lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Recent studies have shown that 15d-PGJ(2) is the potent anti-inflammatory agent functioning via PPARgamma-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Most postulated mechanisms for anti-inflammatory action of PPARgamma agonists are involved in inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling pathway. We examined the possibility that IL-6 signaling via the Jak-Stat pathway is modulated by 15d-PGJ(2) in lymphocytes and also examined whether the inhibition of IL-6 signaling is dependent of PPARgamma. 15d-PGJ(2) blocked IL-6 induced Stat1 and Stat3 activation in primary human lymphocytes, Jurkat cells and immortalized rheumatoid arthritis B cells. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling was induced rapidly within 15 min after treatment of 15d-PGJ(2). Other PPARgamma-agonists, such as troglitazone and ciglitazone, did not inhibit IL-6 signaling, indicating that 15d-PGJ(2) affect the IL-6-induced Jak-Stat signaling pathway via PPARgamma-independent mechanism. Although cycloheximide reversed 15d-PGJ(2)-mediated inhibition of Stat3 activation, actinomycin D had no effect on 15d-PGJ(2)-mediated inhibition of IL-6 signaling, indicating that inhibition of IL-6 signaling occur independent of de novo gene expression. These results show that 15d-PGJ(2) specifically inhibit Jak-Stat signaling pathway in lymphocytes, and suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) may regulate inflammatory reactions through the modulation of different signaling pathway other than NF-kappaB in lymphocytes. PMID:16000871

Kim, Hyo Jin; Rho, Young Hee; Choi, Seong Jai; Lee, Young Ho; Cheon, HyeonJoo; Um, Jun Won; Sohn, Jeongwon; Song, Gwan Gyu; Ji, Jong Dae

2005-06-30

223

Stat3 confers resistance against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced oxidative injury in hepatocytes through upregulation  

E-print Network

Stat3 confers resistance against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced oxidative injury in hepatocytes hepatocytes. Methods: Primary cultured hepatocytes were prepared from SD rats. Adenoviruses and cytokines were added 2 days and 1 h prior to the H/R insult, respectively. Hepatocytes and culture media were harvested

Engelhardt, John F.

224

Investigating Dynamics of the STAT3 and C/EBP? Pathways upon Stimulation by Inflammatory Cytokines  

E-print Network

G2 cells with stably integrated reporter plasmids responsive to STAT3 and C/EBP? into their genome exhibited a high signal-to-noise ratio. Our data showed that the expression of GFP (and hence, the activation of transcription factors) correlated...

Cheng, Peng

2011-08-04

225

Metformin promotes autophagy and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by downregulating Stat3 signaling  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic drug metformin exerts chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects in many types of malignancies. However, the mechanisms responsible for metformin actions appear diverse and may differ in different types of cancer. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms specific for different cancers is important to optimize strategy for metformin treatment in different cancer types. Here, we investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Metformin selectively inhibited cell growth in ESCC tumor cells but not immortalized noncancerous esophageal epithelial cells. In addition to apoptosis, metformin triggered autophagy. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy sensitized ESCC cells to metformin-induced apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and its downstream target Bcl-2 was inactivated by metformin treatment. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Stat3 knockdown enhanced metformin-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and concomitantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability. Similarly, the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene, an inhibitor of both apoptosis and autophagy, was repressed by metformin. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 protected cells from metformin-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. In vivo, metformin downregulated Stat3 activity and Bcl-2 expression, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibited tumor growth. Together, inactivation of Stat3-Bcl-2 pathway contributes to metformin-induced growth inhibition of ESCC by facilitating crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24577086

Feng, Y; Ke, C; Tang, Q; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Lin, W; Ke, J; Huang, J; Yeung, S-CJ; Zhang, H

2014-01-01

226

STAT3 Activation and Infiltration of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Mycosis Fungoides.  

PubMed

Eosinophil granulocytes have been implicated in anticancer immunity but recent data indicate that eosinophils can also promote cancer. Herein, we studied eosinophils in skin lesions from 43 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). The presence of eosinophils correlated with disease stage: 78% of patients with advanced disease displayed eosinophil infiltration, whereas this was only seen in 11% of patients with patches (p<0.01), and in 48% of those with plaque disease. Importantly, 72% of patients with positive staining for phospho-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription (pY-STAT3) in malignant T-cells also stained positively for eosinophils, whereas this was only observed in 28% of pY-STAT3-negative patients (p<0.01). Notably, malignant T-cells expressed eosinophilic activation and trafficking factors: High-mobility group BOX-1 protein (HMGB1) and interleukin 5 (IL5). STAT3 siRNA profoundly inhibited IL5 but not HMGB1 expression. In conclusion, these data suggest that malignant T-cells orchestrate accumulation and activation of eosinophils supporting the notion of STAT3 being a putative target for therapy. PMID:25275020

Fredholm, Simon; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette R; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Petersen, David L; Nielsen, Inger Ø; Kauczok, Claudia-S; Wobser, Marion; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Wasik, Mariusz A; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Geisler, Carsten; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Gniadecki, Robert; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

2014-10-01

227

Association of STAT3 Common Variations with Obesity and Hypertriglyceridemia: Protective and Contributive Effects  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in energy metabolism. Here we explore whether STAT3 common variations influence risks of obesity and other metabolic disorders in a Chinese Han population. Two tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs), rs1053005 and rs957970, were used to capture the common variations of STAT3. Relationships between genotypes and obesity, body mass index, plasma triglyceride and other metabolic diseases related parameters were analyzed for association study in 1742 subjects. Generalized linear model and logistic regression model were used for quantitative data analysis and case-control study, respectively. rs1053005 was significantly associated with body mass index and waist circumference (p = 0.013 and p = 0.02, respectively). rs957970 was significantly associated with plasma level of triglyceride (p = 0.007). GG genotype at rs1053005 had lower risks of both general obesity and central obesity (OR = 0.40, p = 0.034; OR = 0.42, p = 0.007, respectively) compared with AA genotype. CT genotype at rs957970 had a higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.43, p = 0.015) compared with TT genotype. Neither of the two SNPs was associated with othermetabolic diseases related parameters. Our observations indicated that common variations of STAT3 could significantly affect the risk of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population. PMID:25014397

Ma, Zuliang; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Xuejiao; Ou, Zejin; Zou, Fei

2014-01-01

228

Mu Opioid Signaling Protects Against Acute Murine Intestinal Injury in a Manner Involving Stat3 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Opiates have long been used as analgesics to relieve pain associated with various medical conditions. Here, we evaluated the effect and mechanism of mu opioid signaling on the intestinal wound healing response and assessed downstream pathways known to be protective against intestinal injury. Mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days or 4% DSS for 5 days followed by 7 days of water. The mu opioid receptor (MOR)-specific agonist [D-Arg2,Lys4]dermorphin-(1,4)-amide (DALDA) and the antagonist cyprodime were injected s.c. daily for in vivo studies or used for in vitro analysis. We found that MOR activation attenuated DSS-induced histologic and gross intestinal injury and weight loss; diminished Ifng, Tnf, and Il6 mRNA expression; and promoted intestinal healing during recovery. DALDA also enhanced colonocyte proliferation (Ki-67 staining) by 350%. MOR activation increased Stat3 phosphorylation in both DALDA-treated mice and the CMT-93 cell line. Importantly, DALDA-induced colonocyte migration was completely ablated by shStat3 knockdown. Together, this work shows that MOR activation protects against and enhances recovery from DSS-induced intestinal injury. This is associated with an increase in Stat3 activation. Furthermore, Stat3 is required for DALDA-induced colonocyte migration. Consequently, manipulation of MOR signaling may represent a novel means to promote mucosal healing and to maintain intestinal homeostasis after intestinal injury. PMID:21801866

Goldsmith, Jason R.; Uronis, Joshua M.; Jobin, Christian

2011-01-01

229

Activation of miR-21 by STAT3 Induces Proliferation and Suppresses Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Targeting PTEN Gene  

PubMed Central

The present study is to investigate the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the mechanisms of regulation of PTEN by miR-21. Fifty-four tissue samples were collected from 42 patients with NPC and 12 healthy controls. Human NPC cell lines CNE-1, CNE-2, TWO3 and C666-1 were used for cell assays. To investigate the expression of miR-21, RT-PCR was employed. RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of STAT3 mRNA and STAT3 protein. To test the effect of miR-21 on the cell growth and apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro, transfection of CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines and flow cytometry were performed. TUNEL assay was used to detect DNA fragmentation. To validate whether miR-21 directly recognizes the 3?-UTRs of PTEN mRNA, luciferase reporter assay was employed. miR-21 expression was increased in NPC tissues compared with control and the same result was found in NPC cell lines. Notably, increased expression of miR-21 was directly related to advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. STAT3, a transcription factor activated by IL-6, directly activated miR-21 in transformed NPC cell lines. Furthermore, miR-21 markedly inhibited PTEN tumor suppressor, leading to increased AKT activity. Both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-21 enhanced NPC cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. miR-21, activated by STAT3, induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in NPC by targeting PTEN-AKT pathway. PMID:25365510

Ou, Hesheng; Li, Yumei; Kang, Min

2014-01-01

230

Boswellic Acid Blocks STAT3 Signaling, Proliferation, and Survival of Multiple Myeloma via the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1  

PubMed Central

Activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-3 factors has been linked with survival, proliferation, chemoresistance and angiogenesis of tumor cells, including human multiple myeloma (MM). Thus agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential as cancer therapeutics. In our search for such agents, we identified acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA), originally isolated from Boswellia serrata. Our results show that AKBA inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation in human MM cells. AKBA suppressed IL-6-induced STAT3 activation, and the inhibition was reversible. The phosphorylation of both Jak 2 and Src, constituents of the STAT3 pathway, was inhibited by AKBA. Interestingly, treatment of cells with pervanadate suppressed AKBA’s effect to inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT3, thus suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. We found that AKBA induced Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), which may account for its role in dephosphorylation of STAT3. Moreover, deletion of SHP-1 gene by SiRNA abolished the ability of AKBA to inhibit STAT3 activation. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by AKBA led to the suppression of gene products involved in proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), and angiogenesis (VEGF). This affect correlated with the inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the AKBA induced apoptosis. Overall, our results suggest that AKBA is a novel inhibitor of STAT3 activation and has potential in the treatment of cancer. PMID:19147543

Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Nair, Asha S.; Sung, Bokyung; Pandey, Manoj K.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2009-01-01

231

Unveiling the Association of STAT3 and HO-1 in Prostate Cancer: Role beyond Heme Degradation1  

PubMed Central

Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is a key step in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Several mechanisms have been identified in AR activation, among them signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Disruption of STAT3 activity has been associated to cancer progression. Recent studies suggest that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) may play a key role in PCa that may be independent of its catalytic function. We sought to explore whether HO-1 operates on AR transcriptional activity through the STAT3 axis. Our results display that HO-1 induction in PCa cells represses AR activation by decreasing the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter activity and mRNA levels. Strikingly, this is the first report to show by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that HO-1 associates to gene promoters, revealing a novel function for HO-1 in the nucleus. Furthermore, HO-1 and STAT3 directly interact as determined by co-immunoprecipitation studies. Forced expression of HO-1 increases STAT3 cytoplasmic retention. When PCa cells were transfected with a constitutively active STAT3 mutant, PSA and STAT3 downstream target genes were abrogated under hemin treatment. Additionally, a significant decrease in pSTAT3 protein levels was detected in the nuclear fraction of these cells. Confocal microscopy images exhibit a decreased rate of AR/STAT3 nuclear co-localization under hemin treatment. In vivo studies confirmed that STAT3 nuclear delimitation was significantly decreased in PC3 tumors overexpressing HO-1 grown as xenografts in nude mice. These results provide a novel function for HO-1 down-modulating AR transcriptional activity in PCa, interfering with STAT3 signaling, evidencing its role beyond heme degradation. PMID:23226098

Elguero, Belen; Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Toscani, Martin A; De Luca, Paola; Zalazar, Florencia; Coluccio-Leskow, Federico; Meiss, Roberto; Navone, Nora; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba

2012-01-01

232

Photodynamic therapy activated signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor and STAT3  

PubMed Central

Patients with serosal (pleural or peritoneal) spread of malignancy have few definitive treatment options and consequently have a very poor prognosis. We have previously shown that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be an effective treatment for these patients, but that the therapeutic index is relatively narrow. Here, we test the hypothesis that EGFR and STAT3 activation increase survival following PDT, and that inhibiting these pathways leads to increased PDT-mediated direct cellular cytotoxicity by examining BPD-PDT in OvCa and NSCLC cells. We found that BPD-mediated PDT stimulated EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and that EGFR inhibition by erlotinib resulted in reduction of PDT-mediated EGFR activation and nuclear translocation. Nuclear translocation and PDT-mediated activation of EGFR were also observed in response to BPD-mediated PDT in multiple cell lines, including OvCa, NSCLC and head and neck cancer cells, and was observed to occur in response to porfimer sodium-mediated PDT. In addition, we found that PDT stimulates nuclear translocation of STAT3 and STAT3/EGFR association and that inhibiting STAT3 signaling prior to PDT leads to increased PDT cytotoxicity. Finally, we found that inhibition of EGFR signaling leads to increased PDT cytotoxicity through a mechanism that involves increased apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDT stimulates the nuclear accumulation of both EGFR and STAT3 and that targeting these survival pathways is a potentially promising strategy that could be adapted for clinical trials of PDT for patients with serosal spread of malignancy. PMID:22986230

Edmonds, Christine; Hagan, Sarah; Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M.; Busch, Theresa M.; Cengel, Keith A.

2012-01-01

233

STAT3 Is Activated by JAK2 Independent of Key Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Constitutive activation of STAT3 is a common feature in many solid tumors including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). While activation of STAT3 is commonly achieved by somatic mutations to JAK2 in hematologic malignancies, similar mutations are not often found in solid tumors. Previous work has instead suggested that STAT3 activation in solid tumors is more commonly induced by hyperactive growth factor receptors or autocrine cytokine signaling. The interplay between STAT3 activation and other well-characterized oncogenic “driver” mutations in NSCLC has not been fully characterized, though constitutive STAT3 activation has been proposed to play an important role in resistance to various small-molecule therapies that target these oncogenes. In this study we demonstrate that STAT3 is constitutively activated in human NSCLC samples and in a variety of NSCLC lines independent of activating KRAS or tyrosine kinase mutations. We further show that genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of the gp130/JAK2 signaling pathway disrupts activation of STAT3. Interestingly, treatment of NSCLC cells with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib has no effect on cell proliferation and viability in two-dimensional culture, but inhibits growth in soft agar and xenograft assays. These data demonstrate that JAK2/STAT3 signaling operates independent of known driver mutations in NSCLC and plays critical roles in tumor cell behavior that may not be effectively inhibited by drugs that selectively target these driver mutations. PMID:22319590

Looyenga, Brendan D.; Hutchings, Danielle; Cherni, Irene; Kingsley, Chris

2012-01-01

234

Activation of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium in an effort to determine the role of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 in 25 human middle ear cholesteatoma samples and 15 normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium specimens. We also analyzed the relation of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression levels to the degree of bone destruction in cholesteatoma. We found that the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 were significantly higher in cholesteatoma epithelium than in normal EAC epithelium (p<0.05). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p<0.05). However, no significant relationships were observed between the degree of bone destruction and the levels of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p>0.05). To conclude, our results support the concept that IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is active and may play an important role in the mechanisms of epithelial hyper-proliferation responsible for cholesteatoma. PMID:24551293

Liu, Wei; Xie, Shumin; Chen, Xing; Rao, Xingwang; Ren, Hongmiao; Hu, Bing; Yin, Tuanfang; Xiang, Yuyan; Ren, Jihao

2014-01-01

235

Aberrant expression and constitutive activation of STAT3 in cervical carcinogenesis: implications in high-risk human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent observations indicate potential role of transcription factor STAT3 in cervical cancer development but its role specifically with respect to HPV infection is not known. Present study has been designed to investigate expression and activation of STAT3 in cervical precancer and cancer in relation to HPV infection during cervical carcinogenesis. Established cervical cancer cell lines and prospectively-collected cervical precancer

Shirish Shukla; Gauri Shishodia; Sutapa Mahata; Suresh Hedau; Arvind Pandey; Suresh Bhambhani; Swaraj Batra; Seemi F Basir; Bhudev C Das; Alok C Bharti

2010-01-01

236

Prevention of trauma/hemorrhagic shock-induced lung apoptosis by IL-6-mediated activation of Stat3.  

PubMed

Acute lung injury (ALI) occurs in up to 37% of patients following trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) and, in other settings, is due to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis. To determine if AEC apoptosis is a key contributor to ALI following T/HS and whether or not signal transducer and activator of translation (Stat)3 activation can prevent it, rats were pretreated with a Stat3 inhibitor or placebo and subjected to T/HS or sham protocol and resuscitated without or with interleukin (IL)-6. T/HS induced apoptosis in up to 15% of lung cells, 82% of which were AEC. Apoptosis increased with increasing duration of shock and required resuscitation. IL-6 treatment stimulated lung Stat3 activation and prevented AEC apoptosis. Pretreatment of rats with a Stat3 inhibitor blocked the antiapoptotic effect of IL-6. Mice deficient in Stat3 beta, a naturally occurring dominant negative isoform of Stat3, were resistant to T/HS-induced lung apoptosis. T/HS altered the expression of 87% of apoptosis-related genes. IL-6 treatment normalized expression of 75% of the genes altered by T/HS; Stat3 inhibition prevented normalization of 65% of the gene whose expression was normalized by IL-6. Thus, T/HS-induced AEC apoptosis, which depended on the duration of hypotension, required resuscitation and was prevented by IL-6-mediated activation of Stat3, which acted to normalize the apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:20443866

Moran, Ana; Tsimelzon, Anna I; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J

2009-02-01

237

Selective inhibition of the function of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 with a phosphorylation site-specific intrabody  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a multifunctional protein that participates in signaling pathways initiated by various growth factors and cytokines. It exists in multiple forms including those phosphorylated on Tyr705 (pYSTAT3) or Ser727 (pSSTAT3) as well as the unphosphorylated protein (USTAT3). In addition to the canonical transcriptional regulatory role of pYSTAT3, both USTAT3 and pSSTAT3 function as transcriptional regulators by binding to distinct promoter sites and play signaling roles in the cytosol or mitochondria. The roles of each STAT3 species in different biological processes have not been readily amenable to investigation, however. We have now prepared an intrabody that binds specifically and with high affinity to the tyrosine-phosphorylated site of pYSTAT3. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the intrabody in HepG2 cells as well as mouse liver blocked both the accumulation of pYSTAT3 in the nucleus and the production of acute phase response proteins induced by interleukin-6. Intrabody expression did not affect the overall accumulation of pSSTAT3 induced by interleukin-6 or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the PMA-induced expression of the c-Fos gene, or the PMA-induced accumulation of pSSTAT3 specifically in mitochondria. In addition, it had no effect on interleukin-6–induced expression of the gene for IFN regulatory factor 1, a downstream target of STAT1. Our results suggest that the engineered intrabody is able to block specifically the downstream effects of pYSTAT3 without influencing those of pSSTAT3, demonstrating the potential of intrabodies as tools to dissect the cellular functions of specific modified forms of proteins that exist as multiple species. PMID:24733900

Koo, Mi Young; Park, Jiyoung; Lim, Jung Mi; Joo, Sei Yoon; Shin, Seung-Pil; Shim, Hyun Bo; Chung, Junho; Kang, Dongmin; Woo, Hyun Ae; Rhee, Sue Goo

2014-01-01

238

Keratinocyte-specific stat3 heterozygosity impairs development of skin tumors in human papillomavirus 8 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the genus ? are thought to play a role in human skin cancers, but this has been difficult to establish using epidemiologic approaches. To gain insight into the transforming activities of ?-HPV, transgenic mouse models have been generated that develop skin tumors. Recent evidence suggests a central role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a transcriptional node for cancer cell-autonomous initiation of a tumor-promoting gene signature associated with cell proliferation, cell survival, and angiogenesis. Moreover, high levels of phospho-Stat3 have been detected in tumors arising in HPV8-CER transgenic mice. In this study, we investigate the in vivo role of Stat3 in HPV8-induced skin carcinogenesis by combining our established experimental model of HPV8-induced skin cancer with epidermis-restricted Stat3 ablation. Stat3 heterozygous epidermis was less prone to tumorigenesis than wild-type epidermis. Three of the 23 (13%) Stat3(+/-):HPV8 animals developed tumors within 12 weeks of life, whereas 54.3% of Stat3(+/+):HPV8 mice already exhibited tumors in the same observation period (median age for tumor appearance, 10 weeks). The few tumors that arose in the Stat3(+/-):HPV8 mice were benign and never progressed to a more malignant phenotype. Collectively, these results offer direct evidence of a critical role for Stat3 in HPV8-driven epithelial carcinogenesis. Our findings imply that targeting Stat3 activity in keratinocytes may be a viable strategy to prevent and treat HPV-induced skin cancer. PMID:20876801

De Andrea, Marco; Rittà, Massimo; Landini, Manuela M; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele; Kern, Florian; Ehrenreiter, Karin; Baccarini, Manuela; Marcuzzi, Gian Paolo; Smola, Sigrun; Pfister, Herbert; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

2010-10-15

239

STAT3, p38 MAPK, and NF-kappaB drive unopposed monocyte-dependent fibroblast MMP-1 secretion in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tissue destruction characterizes infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Type I collagen provides the lung's tensile strength, is extremely resistant to degradation, but is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. Fibroblasts potentially secrete quantitatively more MMP-1 than other lung cells. We investigated mechanisms regulating Mtb-induced collagenolytic activity in fibroblasts in vitro and in patients. Lung fibroblasts were stimulated with conditioned media from Mtb-infected monocytes (CoMTb). CoMTb induced sustained increased MMP-1 (74 versus 16 ng/ml) and decreased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (8.6 versus 22.3 ng/ml) protein secretion. CoMTb induced a 2.7-fold increase in MMP-1 promoter activation and a 2.5-fold reduction in TIMP-1 promoter activation at 24 hours (P = 0.01). Consistent with this, TIMP-1 did not co-localize with fibroblasts in patient granulomas. MMP-1 up-regulation and TIMP-1 down-regulation were p38 (but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase) mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent. STAT3 phosphorylation was detected in fibroblasts in vitro and in tuberculous granulomas. STAT3 inhibition reduced fibroblast MMP-1 secretion by 60% (P = 0.046). Deletion of the MMP-1 promoter NF-?B-binding site abrogated promoter induction in response to CoMTb. TNF-?, IL-1?, or Oncostatin M inhibition in CoMTb decreased MMP-1 secretion by 65, 63, and 25%, respectively. This cytokine cocktail activated the same signaling pathways in fibroblasts and induced MMP-1 secretion similar to that induced by CoMTb. This study demonstrates in a cellular model and in patients with tuberculosis that in addition to p38 and NF-?B, STAT3 has a key role in driving fibroblast-dependent unopposed MMP-1 production that may be key in tissue destruction in patients. PMID:19915152

O'Kane, Cecilia M; Elkington, Paul T; Jones, Michael D; Caviedes, Luz; Tovar, Marco; Gilman, Robert H; Stamp, Gordon; Friedland, Jon S

2010-10-01

240

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) protects retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells from oxidative stress through a STAT3-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential receptors of the innate immune system and are first responders for protection against bacterial and viral pathogens. Recently, several TLRs have also been implicated in regulating cell death and survival in non-pathogen injuries such as stroke and oxidative stress. Investigating the role of TLRs during central nervous system damage is an important focus of research that may reveal new mechanisms underlying the cellular response to injury and survival. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells form an epithelial layer underneath the neural retina that maintains the function of photoreceptors and are the primary cell type affected in the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Predicted loss of function polymorphisms in the TLR3 gene are associated with protection from AMD but the role of TLR3 in regulating RPE survival during AMD-like injury, such as high oxidative stress, is not known. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of TLR3 signaling on RPE viability during oxidative stress. We demonstrated that TLR3 activation in the presence of oxidative stress injury significantly increased RPE cell viability, in contrast to TLR3 reducing cell viability in the absence of cellular injury. Furthermore, we show signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling as an essential mediator of TLR3-regulated protection of RPE cells. STAT3 signaling was increased by TLR3 activation and knockdown of STAT3 transcripts using siRNA abolished the protective effect of TLR3 during oxidative stress. Together, these results demonstrate a novel pro-survival role for TLR3 signaling within the RPE during injury. These findings support the concept that dysregulation of TLR3 activity may contribute to the development of AMD, suggesting that precise regulation of the TLR3 pathway during AMD-associated injury could be of therapeutic interest. PMID:23267850

Patel, Amit K.; Hackam, Abigail S.

2013-01-01

241

Overexpression of miR -155 Promotes Proliferation and Invasion of Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Targeting SOCS1 and STAT3  

PubMed Central

MicroRNA155 plays an important role in many solid malignancies. Expression and function of miR-155 in laryngeal carcinoma have not been fully understood. This study aims to investigate the expression and function of miR-155 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), the relationship between miR-155 and its downstream target suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)-STAT3 pathway, and the related clinicopathological factors. Sixty-three samples of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and twenty-one samples of control mucosa obtained from total laryngectomy cases were analyzed using Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Hep-2 cells were cultured and transfected with miR-155 mimic and ASO. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays were used to determine the role of miR-155 in regulation of LSCC growth, migration, and invasion, respectively. The expression levels of miR-155 in LSCC were significantly higher than those in the control mucosa tissues. Downregulation of SOCS1 expression and elevated expression of STAT3 were also observed in LSCC. The relevance of the three factors were statistically significant. Moreover, knockdown of miR-155 elevated SOCS1expression level, suppressed STAT3 expression, and inhibited hep-2 cells growth, migration and invasion. Whereas overexpression of miR-155 inhibited SOCS1expression, elevated STAT3 expression, and promoted hep-2 cells growth, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the miR-155 levels in T3 T4 stages, and poor/moderate cell differentiation were significantly higher than those in T2 stage and higher degree of cell differentiation. The STAT3 protein in poor/moderate cell differentiation was significantly higher than those in higher degree of cell differentiation. We firstly demonstrated the aberrant expression and function of miR-155 and itsdownstream targets in LSCC. The current findings suggest that miR-155 play promotingrole during the development of LSCC, and miR-155 may be a useful marker for the prognosis and assessment of therapeutic effects. PMID:23437123

Zhao, Xu-dong; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Hong-jun; Ji, Wen-yue

2013-01-01

242

SOCS3 promotor hypermethylation and STAT3-NF-?B interaction downregulate SOCS3 expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) is an intracellular negative regulator of cytokine signaling pathway. We recently found significant reduction in SOCS3 expression in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) of atherosclerotic swine and also in vitro cultured cells. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of SOCS3 downregulation by IGF-1 and TNF-? in human CASMCs(hCASMCs). We propose that hypermethylation of CpG islands in the SOCS3 promoter is responsible for decrease in SOCS3 expression involving STAT3 and NFkB-p65 interaction. Western blot and qPCR data revealed significant upregulation of SOCS3 (6- to 10-fold) in hCASMC when treated individually with TNF-? (100 ng/ml) or IGF-1 (100 ng/ml). However, a significant decrease (5-fold) was observed by the combined treatment with TNF-? and IGF-1 compared with individual stimulation. IGF-1 phosphorylated STAT3 and TNF-?-activated NF-?B in hCASMCs. In the nuclear extract of hCASMCs stimulated with both TNF-? and IGF-1, there was an interaction between NF-?B-p65 and pSTAT3, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Knockdown of STAT3 by small interfering RNA abolished SOCS3 expression in response to IGF-1. Methylation-specific PCR confirmed hypermethylation of SOCS3 promoter in hCASMCs stimulated with both TNF-? and IGF-1, and this was positively associated with elevated levels of DNA methyltransferase-I (9- to 10-fold). Knockdown of DNMT1 increased SOCS3 expression in IGF-1+TNF-?-stimulated cells. Downregulation of SOCS3 in the presence of both TNF-? and IGF-1 in hCASMCs is due to SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation involving STAT3-NFkBp65 interaction. Because TNF-? and IGF-1 are released due to mechanical injury during coronary intervention, hypermethylation of SOCS3 gene could be an underlying mechanism of intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. PMID:23335796

Dhar, Kajari; Rakesh, Kriti; Pankajakshan, Divya

2013-01-01

243

Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Interleukin-10 against Hypertrophic Scarring by Activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Scar-Forming Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background The hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. Objective To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10. Methods Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB). Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins. Results HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs. Conclusion IL-10 apparently inhibits fibrosis by activating AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of the IL-10 receptor, and by facilitating crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signal transduction pathways. PMID:24878845

Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fang, Xiaobing; Hu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Zheng, Zhao; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai; Zhu, Xiongxiang

2014-01-01

244

Constitutive Activation of Stat3 Signaling Confers Resistance to Apoptosis in Human U266 Myeloma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express

Robyn Catlett-Falcone; Terry H Landowski; Marc M Oshiro; James Turkson; Alexander Levitzki; Rocco Savino; Gennaro Ciliberto; Lynn Moscinski; Jose Luis Fernández-Luna; Gabriel Nuñez; William S Dalton; Richard Jove

1999-01-01

245

Amyloid-? Induces Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Activating JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies indicate that patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and experimental studies suggest that AD exacerbates T2DM, but the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether amyloid-? (A?), a key player in AD pathogenesis, contributes to the development of insulin resistance, as well as the underlying mechanism. We find that plasma A?40/42 levels are increased in patients with hyperglycemia. APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic AD model mice with increased plasma A?40/42 levels show impaired glucose and insulin tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, A? impairs insulin signaling in mouse liver and cultured hepatocytes. A? can upregulate suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, a well-known insulin signaling inhibitor. Knockdown of SOCS-1 alleviates A?-induced impairment of insulin signaling. Moreover, JAK2/STAT3 is activated by A?, and inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling attenuates A?-induced upregulation of SOCS-1 and insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Our results demonstrate that A? induces hepatic insulin resistance by activating JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 signaling pathway and have implications toward resolving insulin resistance and T2DM. PMID:22522613

Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ben; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jingxia; Hu, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Zhai, Qiwei

2012-01-01

246

Involvement of a Stat3 binding site in inflammation-induced enteric apelin expression  

PubMed Central

Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor; both are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Experimental colitis in rodents and inflammatory bowel disease in humans are associated with increased intestinal apelin production. Our aim was to use LPS and proinflammatory cytokine-treated (IL-6 and IFN-?) rodents or enteric cells to identify signaling mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced enteric apelin expression. LPS, IL-6, or IFN-? treatment of rodents increased enteric apelin expression. Pharmacological blockade of Jak/Stat signaling or IL-6 antibody administration inhibited elevations in enteric apelin expression. Transient transfection experiments showed that LPS, IL-6, or IFN-? increased apelin expression by stimulation of apelin promoter activity, and blockade of Jak/Stat signaling abolished elevations in apelin promoter activity. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that IL-6 induced binding of phospho-Stat3 to a putative Stat3 site in the apelin promoter; mutation of this site abrogated the LPS-induced elevation in apelin promoter activity. Together, our findings indicate that binding of phospho-Stat3 to the apelin promoter is the final step underlying proinflammatory cytokine-induced enteric apelin expression during intestinal inflammation. PMID:18818315

Han, Song; Wang, Guiyun; Qi, Xiang; Englander, Ella W.; Greeley, George H.

2008-01-01

247

Epigenetic Reactivation of RANK in Glioblastoma Cells by Curcumin: Involvement of STAT3 Inhibition  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation plays an essential role in carcinogenesis. Promoter hypermethylation can result in transcriptional silencing of specific genes, such as tumor suppressors. Thus far, few reports have investigated the effect of curcumin, an active component of the perennial herb Curcuma longa, on DNA methylation. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin on receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) gene expression in human glioblastoma cells. Incubation of cells with therapeutic concentrations of curcumin resulted in a significant elevation of RANK expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in two glioblastoma cell lines. We further confirmed that this elevation was associated with promoter demethylation through methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. Additionally, we demonstrated that knockdown of STAT3, an oncogenic transcription factor, is sufficient to induce RANK promoter demethylation along with RANK reactivation. These results demonstrated that curcumin induced RANK gene reactivation through epigenetic modification in human glioblastoma cells, and that STAT3 is involved in RANK promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic silencing, thus allowing for further applications of curcumin epigenetic therapy in glioma and therapeutic implications of STAT3 in human glioblastoma. PMID:23621850

Wu, Bingshan; Yao, Xueqin; Nie, Xiaohu

2013-01-01

248

Early responses of the STAT3 pathway to platinum drugs are associated with cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Cisplatin resistance remains one of the major obstacles when treating epithelial ovarian cancer. Because oxaliplatin and nedaplatin are effective against cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer in clinical trials and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with cisplatin resistance, we investigated whether overcoming cisplatin resistance by oxaliplatin and nedaplatin was associated with the STAT3 pathway in ovarian cancer. Alamar blue, clonogenic, and wound healing assays, and Western blot analysis were used to compare the effects of platinum drugs in SKOV-3 cells. At an equitoxic dose, oxaliplatin and nedaplatin exhibited similar inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability and greater inhibition on cell motility than cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Early in the time course of drug administration, cisplatin increased the expression of pSTAT3 (Tyr705), STAT3?, VEGF, survivin, and Bcl-XL, while oxaliplatin and nedaplatin exhibited the opposite effects, and upregulated pSTAT3 (Ser727) and STAT3?. The STAT3 pathway responded early to platinum drugs associated with cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer and provided a rationale for new therapeutic strategies to reverse cisplatin resistance. PMID:23969971

Sheng, W J; Jiang, H; Wu, D L; Zheng, J H

2013-08-01

249

Early responses of the STAT3 pathway to platinum drugs are associated with cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin resistance remains one of the major obstacles when treating epithelial ovarian cancer. Because oxaliplatin and nedaplatin are effective against cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer in clinical trials and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with cisplatin resistance, we investigated whether overcoming cisplatin resistance by oxaliplatin and nedaplatin was associated with the STAT3 pathway in ovarian cancer. Alamar blue, clonogenic, and wound healing assays, and Western blot analysis were used to compare the effects of platinum drugs in SKOV-3 cells. At an equitoxic dose, oxaliplatin and nedaplatin exhibited similar inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability and greater inhibition on cell motility than cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Early in the time course of drug administration, cisplatin increased the expression of pSTAT3 (Tyr705), STAT3?, VEGF, survivin, and Bcl-XL, while oxaliplatin and nedaplatin exhibited the opposite effects, and upregulated pSTAT3 (Ser727) and STAT3?. The STAT3 pathway responded early to platinum drugs associated with cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer and provided a rationale for new therapeutic strategies to reverse cisplatin resistance. PMID:23969971

Sheng, W.J.; Jiang, H.; Wu, D.L.; Zheng, J.H.

2013-01-01

250

Brevilin A, a Novel Natural Product, Inhibits Janus Kinase Activity and Blocks STAT3 Signaling in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Signal abnormalities in human cells usually cause unexpected consequences for individual health. We focus on these kinds of events involved in JAK-STAT signal pathways, especially the ones triggered by aberrant activated STAT3, an oncoprotein which participates in essential processes of cell survival, growth and proliferation in many types of tumors, as well as immune diseases. By establishing a STAT3 signal based high-throughput drug screening system in human lung cancer A549 cells, we have screened a library from natural products which contained purified compounds from medicinal herbs. One compound, named Brevilin A, exhibited both strong STAT3 signal inhibition and STAT3 signal dependent cell growth inhibition. Further investigations revealed that Brevilin A not only inhibits STAT3 signaling but also STAT1 signaling for cytokines induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 as well as the expression of their target genes. In addition, we found Brevilin A could attenuate the JAKs activity by blocking the JAKs tyrosine kinase domain JH1. The levels of cytokine induced phosphorylation of STATs and other substrates were dramatically reduced by treatment of Brevilin A. The roles of Brevilin A targeting on JAKs activity indicate that Brevilin A may not only be used as a STAT3 inhibitor but also a compound blocking other JAK-STAT hyperactivation. Thus, these findings provided a strong impetus for the development of selective JAK-STAT inhibitors and therapeutic drugs in order to improve survival of patients with hyperactivated JAKs and STATs. PMID:23704931

Nan, Jing; Zhang, Xinxin; Qin, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuxin; Hou, Jianwen; Wang, Qin; Yang, Jinbo

2013-01-01

251

Inhibition of the JAK-STAT3 pathway by andrographolide enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin.  

PubMed

Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluate whether suppression of STAT3 activity by Andro could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. First, we demonstrated that Andro is able to significantly suppress both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through suppression of Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1/2 and interaction between STAT3 and gp130. For understanding the biological significance of the inhibitory effect of Andro on STAT3, we next investigated the effect of Andro on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. In our study the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Both the short-term MTT assay and the long-term colony formation assay showed that Andro dramatically promoted doxorubicin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that Andro enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations thus reveal a novel anticancer function of Andro and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy of using Andro in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of cancer. PMID:20026083

Zhou, Jing; Ong, Choon-Nam; Hur, Gang-Min; Shen, Han-Ming

2010-05-01

252

Inhibition of STAT3 signaling targets both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Despite of tremendous research efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with disease progression remain partially elusive. In this study we show that the STAT3 small molecule inhibitor Stattic caused S-phase accumulation at low-dose levels and led to massive apoptosis at a relatively high-dose level in prostate cancer cells. STAT3 knockdown led to the disruption of the microvascular niche which tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and non-tumor initiating cells (non-TICs)depend on. Primary human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cell line contained high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhigh) subpopulations with stem cell-like characteristics, which expressed higher levels of the active phosphorylated form of STAT3 (pSTAT3) than that of non-ALDHhigh subpopulations. Stattic could singnificantly decreas the population of ALDHhigh prostate cancer cells even at low-dose levels. IL-6 can convert non-ALDHhigh cells to ALDHhigh cells in prostate cancer cell line as well as from cells derived from human prostate tumors, the conversion mediated by IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor or upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 knockdown significantly impaired the ability of prostate cancer cells to initiate development of prostate adenocarcinoma. Moreover, blockade of STAT3 signaling was significantly effective in eradicating the tumor-initiating and bulk tumor cancer cell populations in both prostate cancer cell-line xenograft model and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models. This data suggests that targeting both tumor initiating and differentiated cell populations by STAT3 inhibition is predicted to have greater efficacy for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25261365

Ma, Liang; Chen, Lijuan; Xiao, Min; Huang, Liang; Cao, Yang; Bai, Jian; Ma, Ding; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hong, Zhenya

2014-01-01

253

Inhibition of STAT3 signaling targets both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Despite of tremendous research efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with disease progression remain partially elusive. In this study we show that the STAT3 small molecule inhibitor Stattic caused S-phase accumulation at low-dose levels and led to massive apoptosis at a relatively high-dose level in prostate cancer cells. STAT3 knockdown led to the disruption of the microvascular niche which tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and non-tumor initiating cells (non-TICs)depend on. Primary human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cell line contained high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhigh) subpopulations with stem cell-like characteristics, which expressed higher levels of the active phosphorylated form of STAT3 (pSTAT3) than that of non-ALDHhigh subpopulations. Stattic could singnificantly decreas the population of ALDHhigh prostate cancer cells even at low-dose levels. IL-6 can convert non-ALDHhigh cells to ALDHhigh cells in prostate cancer cell line as well as from cells derived from human prostate tumors, the conversion mediated by IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor or upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 knockdown significantly impaired the ability of prostate cancer cells to initiate development of prostate adenocarcinoma. Moreover, blockade of STAT3 signaling was significantly effective in eradicating the tumor-initiating and bulk tumor cancer cell populations in both prostate cancer cell-line xenograft model and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models. This data suggests that targeting both tumor initiating and differentiated cell populations by STAT3 inhibition is predicted to have greater efficacy for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25261365

Han, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Ma, Liang; Chen, Lijuan; Xiao, Min; Huang, Liang; Cao, Yang; Bai, Jian; Ma, Ding; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hong, Zhenya

2014-09-30

254

Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, has also been documented. Methods In this study, we have examined the effects of berberine on tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and their relationship to STAT3 signaling using both in vivo and in vitro models. Results Berberine effectively inhibited the tumorigenicity and growth of an EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in athymic nude mice. Inhibition of tumorigenic growth of NPC cells in vivo was correlated with effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells inside the tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. In vitro, berberine inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by berberine induced growth inhibition and apoptotic response in NPC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts were found to secret IL-6 and the conditioned medium harvested from the fibroblasts also induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by conditioned medium of tumor-associated fibroblasts could be blocked by berberine or antibodies against IL-6 and IL-6R. Conclusions Our observation that berberine effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 induced by tumor-associated fibroblasts suggests a role of berberine in modulating the effects of tumor stroma on the growth of NPC cells. The effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells by berberine supports its potential use in the treatment of NPC. PMID:24380387

2013-01-01

255

STAT3 activation in Th17 and Th22 cells controls IL-22-mediated epithelial host defense during infectious colitis.  

PubMed

The Citrobacter rodentium model mimics the pathogenesis of infectious colitis and requires sequential contributions from different immune cell populations, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4(+) lymphocytes. In this study, we addressed the role of STAT3 activation in CD4(+) cells during host defense in mice against C. rodentium. In mice with defective STAT3 in CD4(+) cells (Stat3(?CD4)), the course of infection was unchanged during the innate lymphoid cell-dependent early phase, but significantly altered during the lymphocyte-dependent later phase. Stat3(?CD4) mice exhibited intestinal epithelial barrier defects, including downregulation of antimicrobial peptides, increased systemic distribution of bacteria, and prolonged reduction in the overall burden of C. rodentium infection. Immunomonitoring of lamina propria cells revealed loss of virtually all IL-22-producing CD4(+) lymphocytes, suggesting that STAT3 activation was required for IL-22 production not only in Th17 cells, but also in Th22 cells. Notably, the defective host defense against C. rodentium in Stat3(?CD4) mice could be fully restored by specific overexpression of IL-22 through a minicircle vector-based technology. Moreover, expression of a constitutive active STAT3 in CD4(+) cells shaped strong intestinal epithelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo through IL-22, and it promoted protection from enteropathogenic bacteria. Thus, our work indicates a critical role of STAT3 activation in Th17 and Th22 cells for control of the IL-22-mediated host defense, and strategies expanding STAT3-activated CD4(+) lymphocytes may be considered as future therapeutic options for improving intestinal barrier function in infectious colitis. PMID:25187663

Backert, Ingo; Koralov, Sergei B; Wirtz, Stefan; Kitowski, Vera; Billmeier, Ulrike; Martini, Eva; Hofmann, Katharina; Hildner, Kai; Wittkopf, Nadine; Brecht, Katrin; Waldner, Maximilian; Rajewsky, Klaus; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph; Neufert, Clemens

2014-10-01

256

STAT3 or USF2 Contributes to HIF Target Gene Specificity  

PubMed Central

The HIF1- and HIF2-mediated transcriptional responses play critical roles in solid tumor progression. Despite significant similarities, including their binding to promoters of both HIF1 and HIF2 target genes, HIF1 and HIF2 proteins activate unique subsets of target genes under hypoxia. The mechanism for HIF target gene specificity has remained unclear. Using siRNA or inhibitor, we previously reported that STAT3 or USF2 is specifically required for activation of endogenous HIF1 or HIF2 target genes. In this study, using reporter gene assays and chromatin immuno-precipitation, we find that STAT3 or USF2 exhibits specific binding to the promoters of HIF1 or HIF2 target genes respectively even when over-expressed. Functionally, HIF1? interacts with STAT3 to activate HIF1 target gene promoters in a HIF1? HLH/PAS and N-TAD dependent manner while HIF2? interacts with USF2 to activate HIF2 target gene promoters in a HIF2? N-TAD dependent manner. Physically, HIF1? HLH and PAS domains are required for its interaction with STAT3 while both N- and C-TADs of HIF2? are involved in physical interaction with USF2. Importantly, addition of functional USF2 binding sites into a HIF1 target gene promoter increases the basal activity of the promoter as well as its response to HIF2+USF2 activation while replacing HIF binding site with HBS from a HIF2 target gene does not change the specificity of the reporter gene. Importantly, RNA Pol II on HIF1 or HIF2 target genes is primarily associated with HIF1? or HIF2? in a STAT3 or USF2 dependent manner. Thus, we demonstrate here for the first time that HIF target gene specificity is achieved by HIF transcription partners that are required for HIF target gene activation, exhibit specific binding to the promoters of HIF1 or HIF2 target genes and selectively interact with HIF1? or HIF2? protein. PMID:23991099

Pawlus, Matthew R.; Wang, Liyi; Murakami, Aya; Dai, Guanhai; Hu, Cheng-Jun

2013-01-01

257

n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) Maintains Stem Cell Pluripotency by Activating Jak2/Stat3 Pathway and Increases the Efficiency of iPS Cells Generation  

PubMed Central

In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent–leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency. PMID:22970157

Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

2012-01-01

258

C/EBP? expression in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas is required for cell proliferation and is induced by the STAT3 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation, resulting in the expression of a fusion protein formed of nucleophosmin (NPM) and ALK. Recently, we reported the abnormal expression of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBP?) in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and demonstrated its dependence on NPM-ALK activity. Design and Methods In this study, the role of C/EBP? in proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas was investigated, as well as the mechanism of its expression and activity. Highly effective short hairpin RNA sequences and/or pharmacological inhibitors were used to abrogate the expression or activity of C/EBP?, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), AKT, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Results Interference with C/EBP? expression resulted in a dramatic decrease in cell proliferation in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, with a mild induction of apoptosis after 6 days. Down-regulation of STAT3 resulted in a marked decrease in C/EBP? mRNA and protein levels with impairment in cell proliferation and viability, underscoring the important role of these two proteins in ALK-mediated oncogenesis. Additionally, we demonstrated that reduction of ERK1/2 activity led to C/EBP? Thr235 dephosphorylation and moderate growth retardation. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway did not have any influence on C/EBP? expression or C/EBP? phosphorylation. Conclusions These findings reveal the convergence of STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways activated by NPM-ALK in mediating the regulation of C/EBP? expression, a transcription factor central to NPM-ALK transformation. PMID:20015877

Anastasov, Natasa; Bonzheim, Irina; Rudelius, Martina; Klier, Margit; Dau, Therese; Angermeier, Daniela; Duyster, Justus; Pittaluga, Stefania; Fend, Falko; Raffeld, Mark; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

2010-01-01

259

Regulation and function of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a member of the STAT family, is a key regulator of many physiological and pathological processes. Significant progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional control, posttranslational modification, cellular localization and functional regulation of STAT3. STAT3 can translocate into the nucleus and bind to specific promoter sequences, thereby exerting transcriptional regulation. Recent studies have shown that STAT3 can also translocate into mitochondria, participating in aerobic respiration and apoptosis. In addition, STAT3 plays an important role in inflammation and tumorigenesis by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Conditional knockout mouse models make it possible to study the physiological function of STAT3 in specific tissues and organs. This review summarizes the latest advances in the understanding of the expression, regulation and function of STAT3 in physiological and tumorigenic processes. PMID:24921012

Qi, Qian-Rong; Yang, Zeng-Ming

2014-05-26

260

Trophoblast invasion: the role of intracellular cytokine signalling via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3).  

PubMed

Trophoblast cells display a very unique capability: they physiologically invade into the surrounding tissue. This capability is widely associated with tumours, and, indeed, the invasive behaviour of both is rather similar. The imposing difference is that trophoblast cell invasion is temporally and locally controlled in contrast to unlimited tumour invasion. It initiates immediately after embryo implantation into the endometrium. Parallel to tumours, trophoblasts secrete proteases, such as matrix metalloproteinases, which dissolve the extracellular matrix and the surrounding tissue. Thereby, these proteases prepare and allow true invasion of trophoblasts. The invasive capacities of trophoblasts are positively and negatively regulated by numerous cytokines including leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin-6, hepatocyte growth factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and others. They interact via specific receptors with the trophoblast cells, in which they activate intracellular signalling cascades. These will then induce expression of invasion relevant genes. One of these signalling pathways is the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway. Especially phosphorylated STAT3 enhances invasiveness of tumours and trophoblast cells, where it is mainly activated by LIF. One of its most efficient physiological antagonists is suppressor of cytokine signalling 3. The balance of these two intracellular molecules seems to be a key regulator of tumour and trophoblast invasion. PMID:18424427

Fitzgerald, Justine S; Poehlmann, Tobias G; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R

2008-01-01

261

Translational profiling of cardiomyocytes identifies an early Jak1/Stat3 injury response required for zebrafish heart regeneration  

PubMed Central

Certain lower vertebrates like zebrafish activate proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes after cardiac injury to regenerate lost heart muscle. Here, we used translating ribosome affinity purification to profile translating RNAs in zebrafish cardiomyocytes during heart regeneration. We identified dynamic induction of several Jak1/Stat3 pathway members following trauma, events accompanied by cytokine production. Transgenic Stat3 inhibition in cardiomyocytes restricted injury-induced proliferation and regeneration, but did not reduce cardiogenesis during animal growth. The secreted protein Rln3a was induced in a Stat3-dependent manner by injury, and exogenous Rln3 delivery during Stat3 inhibition stimulated cardiomyocyte proliferation. Our results identify an injury-specific cardiomyocyte program essential for heart regeneration. PMID:23901114

Fang, Yi; Gupta, Vikas; Karra, Ravi; Holdway, Jennifer E.; Kikuchi, Kazu; Poss, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

262

High-fat diet induces site-specific unresponsiveness to LPS-stimulated STAT3 activation in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Hypophagia induced by inflammation is associated with Janus kinase (JAK)-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling pathway, and leptin-mediated hypophagia is also mediated by JAK2-STAT3 pathway. We have previously reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not reduce food intake in leptin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD) rats but maintained body weight loss. We investigated whether changes in p-STAT3 expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem could account for the desensitization of hypophagia in HFD animals after a low LPS dose (100 ?g/kg). Wistar rats fed standard diet (3.95 kcal/g) or HFD (6.3 kcal/g) for 8 wk were assigned into control diet-saline, control diet-LPS, HFD-saline, and HFD-LPS groups. LPS reduced feeding in the control diet but not HFD. This group showed no p-STAT3 expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), but sustained, though lower than control, p-STAT3 in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and raphe pallidus (RPa). LPS decreased body weight in HFD rats and increased Fos expression in the NTS. LPS increased body temperature, oxygen consumption, and energy expenditure in both control diet and HFD rats, and this response was more pronounced in HFD-LPS group. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and increased energy expenditure seem to contribute to body weight loss in HFD-LPS. This response might be related with increased brain stem activation. In conclusion, LPS activates STAT3-mediated pathway in the hypothalamus and brain stem, leading to hypophagia, however, LPS effects on food intake, but not body weight loss, are abolished by leptin resistance induced by HFD. The preserved STAT3 phosphorylation in the brain stem suggests that unresponsiveness to LPS on STAT3 activation under HFD might be selective to the hypothalamus. PMID:24226027

Borges, Beatriz de Carvalho; Rorato, Rodrigo; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Marangon, Paula; da Silva, Glauber S F; de Paula, Francisco José; Branco, Luiz G S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara

2014-01-01

263

Stat3 is tyrosine-phosphorylated through the interleukin-6\\/glycoprotein 130\\/Janus kinase pathway in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in approximately 50% of primary breast carcinomas. A number of different mechanisms responsible for Stat3 activation, including abnormal activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, Src, and Janus kinases (Jaks), have been implicated in breast cancer. METHODS: We examined six breast cancer-derived cell lines expressing high or low levels of

Marjan Berishaj; Sizhi Paul Gao; Simi Ahmed; Kenneth Leslie; Hikmat Al-Ahmadie; William L Gerald; William Bornmann; Jacqueline F Bromberg

2007-01-01

264

Therapeutic Targeting of STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) Pathway Inhibits Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice with targeted deletion of STAT3 in CD4+ T-cells do not develop experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in part, because they cannot generate pathogenic Th17 cells. In this study, we have used ORLL-NIH001, a small synthetic compound that inhibits transcriptional activity of STAT3, to ameliorate EAU, an animal model of human posterior uveitis. We show that

Cheng-Rong Yu; Yun Sang Lee; Rashid M. Mahdi; Narayanan Surendran; Charles E. Egwuagu

2012-01-01

265

Frequent mutation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases provides a mechanism for STAT3 hyperactivation in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

The underpinnings of STAT3 hyperphosphorylation resulting in enhanced signaling and cancer progression are incompletely understood. Loss-of-function mutations of enzymes that dephosphorylate STAT3, such as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are encoded by the PTPR gene family, represent a plausible mechanism of STAT3 hyperactivation. We analyzed whole exome sequencing (n = 374) and reverse-phase protein array data (n = 212) from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). PTPR mutations are most common and are associated with significantly increased phospho-STAT3 expression in HNSCC tumors. Expression of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) mutant proteins induces STAT3 phosphorylation and cell survival, consistent with a “driver” phenotype. Computational modeling reveals functional consequences of PTPRT mutations on phospho-tyrosine–substrate interactions. A high mutation rate (30%) of PTPRs was found in HNSCC and 14 other solid tumors, suggesting that PTPR alterations, in particular PTPRT mutations, may define a subset of patients where STAT3 pathway inhibitors hold particular promise as effective therapeutic agents. PMID:24395800

Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Peyser, Noah D.; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Hritz, Jozef; Zeng, Yan; Lu, Yiling; Li, Hua; Wang, Lin; Gilbert, Breean R.; General, Ignacio J.; Bahar, Ivet; Ju, Zhenlin; Wang, Zhenghe; Pendleton, Kelsey P.; Xiao, Xiao; Du, Yu; Vries, John K.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Garraway, Levi A.; Mills, Gordon B.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

2014-01-01

266

CTLA4 aptamer delivers STAT3 siRNA to tumor-associated and malignant T cells  

PubMed Central

Intracellular therapeutic targets that define tumor immunosuppression in both tumor cells and T cells remain intractable. Here, we have shown that administration of a covalently linked siRNA to an aptamer (apt) that selectively binds cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA4apt) allows gene silencing in exhausted CD8+ T cells and Tregs in tumors as well as CTLA4-expressing malignant T cells. CTLA4 expression was upregulated in CD8+ T cells in the tumor milieu; therefore, CTLA4apt fused to a STAT3-targeting siRNA (CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA) resulted in internalization into tumor-associated CD8+ T cells and silencing of STAT3, which activated tumor antigen–specific T cells in murine models. Both local and systemic administration of CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA dramatically reduced tumor-associated Tregs. Furthermore, CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in various mouse tumor models. Importantly, CTLA4 expression is observed in T cells of patients with blood malignancies, and CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human T cell lymphomas promoted tumor cell apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition. These data demonstrate that a CTLA4apt-based siRNA delivery strategy allows gene silencing in both tumor-associated T cells and tumor cells and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24892807

Herrmann, Andreas; Priceman, Saul J.; Kujawski, Maciej; Xin, Hong; Cherryholmes, Gregory A.; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Chunyan; Lahtz, Christoph; Kowolik, Claudia; Forman, Steve J.; Kortylewski, Marcin; Yu, Hua

2014-01-01

267

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and NGF-Dependent Neurite Outgrowth of Adult Sensory Neurons Converge on STAT3 Phosphorylation Downstream of Neuropoietic Cytokine Receptor gp130.  

PubMed

After nerve injury, adult sensory neurons can regenerate peripheral axons and reconnect with their target tissue. Initiation of outgrowth, as well as elongation of neurites over long distances, depends on the signaling of receptors for neurotrophic growth factors. Here, we investigated the importance of gp130, the signaling subunit of neuropoietic cytokine receptors in peripheral nerve regeneration. After sciatic nerve crush, functional recovery in vivo was retarded in SNS-gp130(-/-) mice, which specifically lack gp130 in sensory neurons. Correspondingly, a significantly reduced number of free nerve endings was detected in glabrous skin from SNS-gp130(-/-) compared with control mice after nerve crush. Neurite outgrowth and STAT3 activation in vitro were severely reduced in cultures in gp130-deficient cultured neurons. Surprisingly, in neurons obtained from SNS-gp130(-/-) mice the increase in neurite length was reduced not only in response to neuropoietic cytokine ligands of gp130 but also to nerve growth factor (NGF), which does not bind to gp130-containing receptors. Neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic factors was partially rescued in gp130-deficient neurons by leptin, which activates STAT3 downstream of leptic receptor and independent of gp130. The neurite outgrowth response of gp130-deficient neurons to NGF was fully restored in the presence of leptin. Based on these findings, gp130 signaling via STAT3 activation is suggested not only to be an important regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro and in vivo, but as determining factor for the growth promoting action of NGF in adult sensory neurons. PMID:25253866

Quarta, Serena; Baeumer, Bastian E; Scherbakov, Nadja; Andratsch, Manfred; Rose-John, Stefan; Dechant, Georg; Bandtlow, Christine E; Kress, Michaela

2014-09-24

268

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and NGF-Dependent Neurite Outgrowth of Adult Sensory Neurons Converge on STAT3 Phosphorylation Downstream of Neuropoietic Cytokine Receptor gp130  

PubMed Central

After nerve injury, adult sensory neurons can regenerate peripheral axons and reconnect with their target tissue. Initiation of outgrowth, as well as elongation of neurites over long distances, depends on the signaling of receptors for neurotrophic growth factors. Here, we investigated the importance of gp130, the signaling subunit of neuropoietic cytokine receptors in peripheral nerve regeneration. After sciatic nerve crush, functional recovery in vivo was retarded in SNS-gp130?/? mice, which specifically lack gp130 in sensory neurons. Correspondingly, a significantly reduced number of free nerve endings was detected in glabrous skin from SNS-gp130?/? compared with control mice after nerve crush. Neurite outgrowth and STAT3 activation in vitro were severely reduced in cultures in gp130-deficient cultured neurons. Surprisingly, in neurons obtained from SNS-gp130?/? mice the increase in neurite length was reduced not only in response to neuropoietic cytokine ligands of gp130 but also to nerve growth factor (NGF), which does not bind to gp130-containing receptors. Neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic factors was partially rescued in gp130-deficient neurons by leptin, which activates STAT3 downstream of leptic receptor and independent of gp130. The neurite outgrowth response of gp130-deficient neurons to NGF was fully restored in the presence of leptin. Based on these findings, gp130 signaling via STAT3 activation is suggested not only to be an important regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro and in vivo, but as determining factor for the growth promoting action of NGF in adult sensory neurons. PMID:25253866

Quarta, Serena; Baeumer, Bastian E.; Scherbakov, Nadja; Andratsch, Manfred; Rose-John, Stefan; Dechant, Georg; Bandtlow, Christine E.

2014-01-01

269

Glial scar borders are formed by newly proliferated, elongated astrocytes that interact to corral inflammatory and fibrotic cells via STAT3-dependent mechanisms after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Astroglial scars surround damaged tissue after trauma, stroke, infection, or autoimmune inflammation in the CNS. They are essential for wound repair, but also interfere with axonal regrowth. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, regulation, and functions of astroglial scar formation is fundamental to developing safe interventions for many CNS disorders. We used wild-type and transgenic mice to quantify and dissect these parameters. Adjacent to crush spinal cord injury (SCI), reactive astrocytes exhibited heterogeneous phenotypes as regards proliferation, morphology, and chemistry, which all varied with distance from lesions. Mature scar borders at 14 d after SCI consisted primarily of newly proliferated astroglia with elongated cell processes that surrounded large and small clusters of inflammatory, fibrotic, and other cells. During scar formation from 5 to 14 d after SCI, cell processes deriving from different astroglia associated into overlapping bundles that quantifiably reoriented and organized into dense mesh-like arrangements. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astroglia quantifiably disrupted the organization of elongated astroglia into scar borders, and caused a failure of astroglia to surround inflammatory cells, resulting in increased spread of these cells and neuronal loss. In cocultures, wild-type astroglia spontaneously corralled inflammatory or fibromeningeal cells into segregated clusters, whereas STAT3-deficient astroglia failed to do so. These findings demonstrate heterogeneity of reactive astroglia and show that scar borders are formed by newly proliferated, elongated astroglia, which organize via STAT3-dependent mechanisms to corral inflammatory and fibrotic cells into discrete areas separated from adjacent tissue that contains viable neurons. PMID:23904622

Wanner, Ina B; Anderson, Mark A; Song, Bingbing; Levine, Jaclynn; Fernandez, Ana; Gray-Thompson, Zachary; Ao, Yan; Sofroniew, Michael V

2013-07-31

270

Glial Scar Borders Are Formed by Newly Proliferated, Elongated Astrocytes That Interact to Corral Inflammatory and Fibrotic Cells via STAT3-Dependent Mechanisms after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Astroglial scars surround damaged tissue after trauma, stroke, infection, or autoimmune inflammation in the CNS. They are essential for wound repair, but also interfere with axonal regrowth. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, regulation, and functions of astroglial scar formation is fundamental to developing safe interventions for many CNS disorders. We used wild-type and transgenic mice to quantify and dissect these parameters. Adjacent to crush spinal cord injury (SCI), reactive astrocytes exhibited heterogeneous phenotypes as regards proliferation, morphology, and chemistry, which all varied with distance from lesions. Mature scar borders at 14 d after SCI consisted primarily of newly proliferated astroglia with elongated cell processes that surrounded large and small clusters of inflammatory, fibrotic, and other cells. During scar formation from 5 to 14 d after SCI, cell processes deriving from different astroglia associated into overlapping bundles that quantifiably reoriented and organized into dense mesh-like arrangements. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astroglia quantifiably disrupted the organization of elongated astroglia into scar borders, and caused a failure of astroglia to surround inflammatory cells, resulting in increased spread of these cells and neuronal loss. In cocultures, wild-type astroglia spontaneously corralled inflammatory or fibromeningeal cells into segregated clusters, whereas STAT3-deficient astroglia failed to do so. These findings demonstrate heterogeneity of reactive astroglia and show that scar borders are formed by newly proliferated, elongated astroglia, which organize via STAT3-dependent mechanisms to corral inflammatory and fibrotic cells into discrete areas separated from adjacent tissue that contains viable neurons. PMID:23904622

Anderson, Mark A.; Song, Bingbing; Levine, Jaclynn; Fernandez, Ana; Gray-Thompson, Zachary; Ao, Yan

2013-01-01

271

The Inhibition of N-Glycosylation of Glycoprotein 130 Molecule Abolishes STAT3 Activation by IL-6 Family Cytokines in Cultured Cardiac Myocytes  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokines play important roles in cardioprotection against pathological stresses. IL-6 cytokines bind to their specific receptors and activate glycoprotein 130 (gp130), a common receptor, followed by further activation of STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 through janus kinases (JAKs); however the importance of glycosylation of gp130 remains to be elucidated in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we examined the biological significance of gp130 glycosylation using tunicamycin (Tm), an inhibitor of enzyme involved in N-linked glycosylation. In cardiomyocytes, the treatment with Tm completely replaced the glycosylated form of gp130 with its unglycosylated one. Tm treatment inhibited leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-mediated activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2. Similarly, IL-11 failed to activate STAT3 and ERK1/2 in the presence of Tm. Interestingly, Tm inhibited the activation of JAKs 1 and 2, without influencing the expression of suppressor of cytokine signalings (SOCSs) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which are endogenous inhibitors of JAKs. To exclude the possibility that Tm blocks LIF and IL-11 signals by inhibiting the glycosylation of their specific receptors, we investigated whether the stimulation with IL-6 plus soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) could transduce their signals in Tm-treated cardiomyocytes and found that this stimulation was unable to activate the downstream signals. Collectively, these findings indicate that glycosylation of gp130 is essential for signal transduction of IL-6 family cytokines in cardiomyocytes. PMID:25340554

Mohri, Tomomi; Murasawa, Shiho; Takewaki, Kana; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Makiko; Fujio, Yasushi

2014-01-01

272

Chronic Exposure to Nicotine Enhances Insulin Sensitivity through ?7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-STAT3 Pathway  

PubMed Central

This study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on insulin sensitivity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks reduced 43% body weight gain and 65% blood insulin level, but had no effect on blood glucose level. Both insulin tolerance test and glucose tolerance test demonstrated that nicotine treatment enhanced insulin sensitivity. Pretreatment of rats with hexamethonium (20 mg/kg/day) to antagonize peripheral nicotinic receptors except for ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7-nAChR) had no effect on the insulin sensitizing effect of nicotine. However, the insulin sensitizing effect but not the bodyweight reducing effect of nicotine was abrogated in ?7-nAChR knockout mice. Further, chronic treatment with PNU-282987 (0.53 mg/kg/day), a selective ?7-nAChR agonist, significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity without apparently modifying bodyweight not only in normal mice but also in AMP-activated kinase-?2 knockout mice, an animal model of insulin resistance with no sign of inflammation. Moreover, PNU-282987 treatment enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver in normal mice. PNU-282987 treatment also increased glucose uptake by 25% in C2C12 myotubes and this effect was total abrogated by STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201. All together, these findings demonstrated that nicotine enhanced insulin sensitivity in animals with or without insulin resistance, at least in part via stimulating ?7-nAChR-STAT3 pathway independent of inflammation. Our results contribute not only to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also to the identifying of new therapeutic targets against insulin resistance. PMID:23251458

Wang, Pei; Song, Jie; Le, Ying-Ying; Viollet, Benoit; Miao, Chao-Yu

2012-01-01

273

Inhibition of the Interleukin-11-STAT3 Axis Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Migration and Invasion in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Although interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been reported to be elevated in hypoxic tumors and has been associated with a poor prognosis in various cancers, little is known about its precise role in promoting metastasis in hypoxic tumors. In the present study, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IL-11 on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells migration and invasion in relation to metastasis under hypoxic conditions has been defined. Inhibition of IL-11 expression or function using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a neutralizing antibody attenuated hypoxic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and invasion through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related gene expression. In addition, hypoxia-induced IL-11 increased STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 knockdown suppressed hypoxic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion due to reduced MMP levels and reprogrammed EMT-related gene expression. These results suggest that one of the hypoxic metastasis pathways and the regulation of this pathway could be a potential target for novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:25352758

2014-01-01

274

N(6)-Substituted adenosine analogues, a novel class of JAK2 inhibitors, potently block STAT3 signaling in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in oncogenesis and malignancy, which makes it a promising anticancer target. We report four N(6)-substituted adenosine analogues (AAs) as potential JAK2/STAT3 inhibitors identified through a STAT3-based high-throughput drug screening system. These AAs exhibited selective anti-cancer activity on human cancer cells and xenograft tumors with constitutively activated STAT3. They rapidly and potently suppressed constitutive and IL-6/IFN-?-induced JAK2/STAT3 signal activation. In addition, we finally proved that the STAT3 signal blockage by three of these AAs was dependent on specific JAK2 inhibition. These AAs may represent new targeted therapeutic agents for JAK2/STAT3 hyper-activated human cancers. PMID:25107644

Liu, Peng; Zhao, Liwei; Xu, Ximing; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Wenchao; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Jing; Pan, Yanlong; Du, Yuping; Yang, Jinbo; Wang, Qin

2014-11-01

275

HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-?-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

2014-01-01

276

HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-?-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

2014-01-01

277

Hes1 Desynchronizes Differentiation of Pluripotent Cells by Modulating STAT3 Activity  

PubMed Central

Robust development of the early embryo may benefit from mechanisms that ensure that not all pluripotent cells differentiate at exactly the same time: such mechanisms would build flexibility into the process of lineage allocation. This idea is supported by the observation that pluripotent stem cells differentiate at different rates in vitro. We use a clonal commitment assay to confirm that pluripotent cells commit to differentiate asynchronously even under uniform differentiation conditions. Stochastic variability in expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 has previously been reported to influence neural versus mesodermal differentiation through modulation of Notch activity. Here we report that Hes1 also has an earlier role to delay exit from the pluripotent state into all lineages. The early function of Hes1 to delay differentiation can be explained by an ability of Hes1 to amplify STAT3 responsiveness in a cell-autonomous manner. Variability in Hes1 expression therefore helps to explain why STAT3 responsiveness varies between individual ES cells, and this in turn helps to explain why pluripotent cells commit to differentiate asynchronously. Stem Cells 2013;31:1511–1522 PMID:23649667

Zhou, Xinzhi; Smith, Andrew JH; Waterhouse, Anna; Blin, Guillaume; Malaguti, Mattias; Lin, Chia-Yi; Osorno, Rodrigo; Chambers, Ian; Lowell, Sally

2013-01-01

278

Therapeutic effect of 7, 3'-dimethoxy hesperetin on adjuvant arthritis in rats through inhibiting JAK2-STAT3 signal pathway.  

PubMed

In our previous study, we have demonstrated that 7, 3'-dimethoxy hesperetin (DMHP), an active derivative of hesperidin, showed pro-apoptotic effect on synoviocytes in vitro. The present study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of DMHP on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rat and its possible mechanisms. Freund's complete adjuvant was used to induce AA in rats. DMHP were administered intragastrically once a day from days 12 to 21 after AA induction. Secondary paw swelling, arthritis index, and pathological assessments were observed. IL-6 production in serum and IL-6 mRNA expression in synovium was detected by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR respectively. The expression of mRNA (JAK2, STAT3) and protein (JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3, p-STAT3) in synovium were determined. We found that DMHP significantly inhibited hind paw swelling and arthritis index, and ameliorated pathological changes of ankle joint in AA rats. DMHP suppressed the level of IL-6 in serum and the expression of IL-6 mRNA in synovium of AA rats in a dose-dependent manner. DMHP apparently decreased mRNA expression of JAK2 and STAT3 as well as protein expression of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in the synovium of the AA rats. Correlation analysis indicated that p-JAK2 or p-STAT3 protein expression was highly correlated with joint damage severity. In conclusion, DMHP has a powerful therapeutic effect on AA in rats and its mechanisms might be partly related to inhibiting excessive activation of JAK2-STAT3 pathway. PMID:22800927

Li, Rong; Cai, Li; Ren, Dan-yang; Xie, Xue-feng; Hu, Cheng-mu; Li, Jun

2012-10-01

279

Interferon-gamma-induced dephosphorylation of STAT3 and apoptosis are dependent on the mTOR pathway  

SciTech Connect

Interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) exhibits diverse biological activities, including control of cell growth and tumor suppression. Here, we report that the treatment of M12 cells, a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, with IFN-{gamma}, resulted in marked inhibition of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These effects were not seen with either IFN-{alpha} or IFN-{beta}. M12 cells, like many other human cancer cells, contain constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The basal levels of both Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are also markedly elevated in M12 cells. Strikingly, IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition of M12 cells were associated with persistent suppression of the constitutive tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pY-STAT3). The IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3, however, was inhibited when the mTOR pathway was specifically blocked by rapamycin. Inhibition of PI-3K with low-dose LY294002, or MAPK with PD98059 also suppressed the mTOR/p70 S6k pathway, and correlated with the blockage of IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Simultaneously, treatment with LY294002, PD98059, or rapamycin abolished IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis in M12 cells. The inhibition of the mTOR pathway, however, did not affect IFN-{gamma}-induced activation of STAT1 pathway, and suppression of STAT1 expression by siRNA had no effect on IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that an intact mTOR pathway is critical for IFN-{gamma}-induced suppression of pY-STAT3 and apoptosis. Our study thus provides novel insights into the contributions of signaling pathways other than the classical JAK/STAT1 pathway in the anti-proliferative, proapoptotic actions of IFN-{gamma}.

Fang Peng [Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098 (United States)]. E-mail: fangp@ohsu.edu; Hwa, Vivian [Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Rosenfeld, Ron G. [Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098 (United States); Lucile Packard Foundation for Children's Health, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2006-05-01

280

A potent oncolytic adenovirus selectively blocks the STAT3 signaling pathway and potentiates cisplatin antitumor activity in ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Cisplatin-centered chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for human ovarian cancer. However, chemoresistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment. Evidence has indicated that signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is a determinant of chemoresistance; it was related to tumor recurrence in a large number of solid malignancies. Unfortunately, none of the compounds currently developed to block STAT3 signaling has been considered a serious clinical candidate because of toxicity or limited bioavailability. In this study, we clarified the significance of STAT3 activation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer and assessed the suitability of a novel oncolytic adenovirus (M4) designed to specifically deplete STAT3 and reverse cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. We showed that aberrant expression and constitutive activation of STAT3 was instrumental in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines and in ovarian cancer tissue samples. The M4 adenovirus could specifically deplete constitutive and inducible STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in ovarian cancer cells. This significantly inhibited cell survival and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In contrast, normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human ovarian surface epithelial cells appeared to be unaffected by M4 treatment. Furthermore, a combined cisplatin plus M4 therapy substantially eliminated populations enriched in tumor-initiating cells. In mice, systemic intraperitoneal administration of M4 significantly potentiated the antitumor effect of cisplatin. These results suggest that M4 has great potential as a therapy against cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer. Thus, it warrants further clinical investigation. PMID:21875334

Han, Zhiqiang; Hong, Zhenya; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Caihong; Hao, Zhou; Ji, Teng; Hu, Wencheng; Yan, Yuting; Feng, Jing; Liao, Shujie; Wu, Peng; Wang, Daowen; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding

2012-01-01

281

Radiation-induced senescence in securin-deficient cancer cells promotes cell invasion involving the IL-6/STAT3 and PDGF-BB/PDGFR pathways  

PubMed Central

Securin overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in various tumours. We have previously shown that securin depletion promotes radiation-induced senescence and enhances radiosensitivity in human cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the paracrine effects remain unknown. In this study, we showed that radiation induced senescence in securin-deficient human breast cancer cells involving the ATM/Chk2 and p38 pathways. Conditioned medium (CM) from senescent cells promoted the invasion and migration of non-irradiated cancer and endothelial cells. Cytokine assay analysis showed the up-regulation of various senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs). The IL-6/STAT3 signalling loop and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) pathway were important for CM-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, CM promoted angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane though the induction of IL-6/STAT3- and PDGF-BB/PDGFR-dependent endothelial cell invasion. Taken together, our results provide the molecular mechanisms for radiation-induced senescence in securin-deficient human breast cancer cells and for the SASP responses. PMID:23591770

Yu, Yi-Chu; Yang, Pei-Ming; Chuah, Qiu-Yu; Huang, Yao-Huei; Peng, Chih-Wen; Lee, Yi-Jang; Chiu, Shu-Jun

2013-01-01

282

Activation of the FGFR-STAT3 pathway in breast cancer cells induces a hyaluronan-rich microenvironment that licenses tumor formation.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) contributes to breast cancer growth, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Because of the complex nature of the FGF/FGFR axis, and the numerous effects of FGFR activation on tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment, the specific mechanisms through which aberrant FGFR activity contributes to breast cancer are not completely understood. We show here that FGFR activation induces accumulation of hyaluronan within the extracellular matrix and that blocking hyaluronan synthesis decreases proliferation, migration, and therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, FGFR-mediated hyaluronan accumulation requires activation of the STAT3 pathway, which regulates expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and subsequent hyaluronan synthesis. Using a novel in vivo model of FGFR-dependent tumor growth, we demonstrate that STAT3 inhibition decreases both FGFR-driven tumor growth and hyaluronan levels within the tumor. Finally, our results suggest that combinatorial therapies inhibiting both FGFR activity and hyaluronan synthesis is more effective than targeting either pathway alone and may be a relevant therapeutic approach for breast cancers associated with high levels of FGFR activity. In conclusion, these studies indicate a novel targetable mechanism through which FGFR activation in breast cancer cells induces a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:24197137

Bohrer, Laura R; Chuntova, Pavlina; Bade, Lindsey K; Beadnell, Thomas C; Leon, Ronald P; Brady, Nicholas J; Ryu, Yungil; Goldberg, Jodi E; Schmechel, Stephen C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; McCarthy, James B; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

2014-01-01

283

Cucurbitacin B inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the JAK2/STAT3 and MAPK pathways in SH?SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Cucurbitacin B (CuB) is a tetracyclic triterpene that is contained in extracts from cucurbitaceous plants and has been demonstrated to have anticancer and anti?in?ammatory activities. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CuB exhibits anticancer effects on SH?SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and to analyze the underlying molecular mechanism. The results demonstrated that CuB not only induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, but also induced apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V staining, downregulation of phospho?Janus kinase 2 (p?JAK2), phospho?signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p?STAT3), phospho?extracellular signal?regulated kinases and the activation of c?Jun N?terminal kinase and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). CuB also altered the expression of gene products that mediated cell proliferation (Cyclin B1 and cyclin?dependent kinase 1), cell survival (B?cell lymphoma 2, Bcl2?associated X protein) and increased the expression of p53 and p21. These results provide the evidence that JAK2/STAT3 and MAPKs have crucial roles in CuB?induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in SH?SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:24789581

Zheng, Qian; Liu, Yunyi; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Fengyun; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

2014-07-01

284

Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 Axis Promotes Tumor Growth in Murine Models of Melanoma  

PubMed Central

In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, IL-17 deficiency results in reduced melanoma tumor size, diminished numbers of proliferating cells and blood vessels, and decreased percentage of CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs in tumor tissues. IL-17 promotes IL-6 induction and Stat3 activation. Treatment of Stat3 inhibitor WP1066 in B16-F10 tumor cells inoculated wild-type mice inhibits tumor growth. Additional administration of recombinant IL-6 into B16-F10 tumor-bearing IL-17?/? mice results in markedly increased tumor size and p-Stat3 expression, whereas additional recombinant IL-17 administration into B16-F10 tumor-bearing wild-type mice treated with anti-IL-6 mAb does not significantly alter the tumor growth and p-Stat3 expression. In our further study, blockade of Hmgb1-RAGE pathway inhibits melanoma tumor growth and reduces production of IL-23 and IL-17. All these data suggest that Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis plays a pivotal role in tumor development in murine models of melanoma, and blocking any portion of this axis will attenuate melanoma tumor growth. PMID:24453427

Tang, Qiu; Li, Jian; Li, Pan; Zou, Zhenwei; Xiao, Yin

2013-01-01

285

Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis promotes tumor growth in murine models of melanoma.  

PubMed

In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, IL-17 deficiency results in reduced melanoma tumor size, diminished numbers of proliferating cells and blood vessels, and decreased percentage of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) MDSCs in tumor tissues. IL-17 promotes IL-6 induction and Stat3 activation. Treatment of Stat3 inhibitor WP1066 in B16-F10 tumor cells inoculated wild-type mice inhibits tumor growth. Additional administration of recombinant IL-6 into B16-F10 tumor-bearing IL-17(-/-) mice results in markedly increased tumor size and p-Stat3 expression, whereas additional recombinant IL-17 administration into B16-F10 tumor-bearing wild-type mice treated with anti-IL-6 mAb does not significantly alter the tumor growth and p-Stat3 expression. In our further study, blockade of Hmgb1-RAGE pathway inhibits melanoma tumor growth and reduces production of IL-23 and IL-17. All these data suggest that Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis plays a pivotal role in tumor development in murine models of melanoma, and blocking any portion of this axis will attenuate melanoma tumor growth. PMID:24453427

Tang, Qiu; Li, Jian; Zhu, Hongfei; Li, Pan; Zou, Zhenwei; Xiao, Yin

2013-01-01

286

Tumor-Induced STAT3 Signaling in Myeloid Cells Impairs Dendritic Cell Generation by Decreasing PKC?II Abundance  

PubMed Central

A major mechanism by which cancers escape control by the immune system is by blocking the differentiation of myeloid cells into dendritic cells (DCs), immunostimulatory cells that activate anti-tumor T cells. Tumor-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in myeloid progenitor cells is thought to cause this block in their differentiation. In addition, a signaling pathway through protein kinase C ?II (PKC?II) is essential for the differentiation of myeloid cells into DCs. Here, we found in humans and mice that breast cancer cells substantially decreased the abundance of PKC?II in myeloid progenitor cells through a mechanism involving the enhanced activation of STAT3 signaling by soluble, tumor-derived factors (TDFs). STAT3 bound to previously undescribed negative regulatory elements within the promoter of PRKCB, which encodes PKC?II. We also found a previously undescribed counter-regulatory mechanism through which the activity of PKC?II inhibited tumor-dependent STAT3 signaling by decreasing the abundance of cell-surface receptors, such as cytokine and growth factor receptors, that are activated by TDFs. Together, these data suggest that a previously unrecognized crosstalk mechanism between the STAT3 and PKC?II signaling pathways provides the molecular basis for the tumor-induced blockade in the differentiation of myeloid cells, and suggest that enhancing PKC?II activity may be a therapeutic strategy to alleviate cancer-mediated suppression of the immune system. PMID:24550541

Farren, Matthew R.; Carlson, Louise M.; Netherby, Colleen S.; Lindner, Inna; Li, Pui-Kai; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Abrams, Scott I.; Lee, Kelvin P.

2014-01-01

287

Oncostatin M Mediates STAT3-Dependent Intestinal Epithelial Restitution via Increased Cell Proliferation, Decreased Apoptosis and Upregulation of SERPIN Family Members  

PubMed Central

Objective Oncostatin M (OSM) is produced by activated T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells and signals through two distinct receptor complexes consisting of gp130 and LIFR (I) or OSMR-? and gp130 (II), respectively. Aim of this study was to analyze the role of OSM in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and intestinal inflammation. Methods OSM expression and OSM receptor distribution was analyzed by PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments, signal transduction by immunoblotting. Gene expression studies were performed by microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Apoptosis was measured by caspases-3/7 activity. IEC migration and proliferation was studied in wounding and water soluble tetrazolium assays. Results The IEC lines Caco-2, DLD-1, SW480, HCT116 and HT-29 express mRNA for the OSM receptor subunits gp130 and OSMR-?, while only HCT116, HT-29 and DLD-1 cells express LIFR mRNA. OSM binding to its receptor complex activates STAT1, STAT3, ERK-1/2, SAPK/JNK-1/2, and Akt. Microarray analysis revealed 79 genes that were significantly up-regulated (adj.-p?0.05) by OSM in IEC. Most up-regulated genes belong to the functional categories “immunity and defense” (p?=?2.1×10?7), “apoptosis” (p?=?3.7×10?4) and “JAK/STAT cascade” (p?=?3.4×10?6). Members of the SERPIN gene family were among the most strongly up-regulated genes. OSM significantly increased STAT3- and MEK1-dependent IEC cell proliferation (p<0.05) and wound healing (p?=?3.9×10?5). OSM protein expression was increased in colonic biopsies of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Conclusions OSM promotes STAT3-dependent intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and wound healing in vitro. Considering the increased OSM expression in colonic biopsy specimens of patients with active IBD, OSM upregulation may modulate a barrier-protective host response in intestinal inflammation. Further in vivo studies are warranted to elucidate the exact role of OSM in intestinal inflammation and the potential of OSM as a drug target in IBD. PMID:24710357

Beigel, Florian; Friedrich, Matthias; Probst, Corina; Sotlar, Karl; Goke, Burkhard; Diegelmann, Julia; Brand, Stephan

2014-01-01

288

Polymeric micelles for the solubilization and delivery of STAT3 inhibitor cucurbitacins in solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) and newly developed poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(?-benzyl carboxylate ?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PBCL) micelles were evaluated for the solubilization and delivery of cucurbitacin I and B, poorly water soluble inhibitors of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Encapsulation of cucurbitacins in PEO-b-PCL and PEO-b-PBCL by co-solvent evaporation technique resulted in polymeric micelles <90 nm in diameter. The aqueous solubility of both derivatives increased from less than 0.05 mg/mL in the absence of the copolymer to around 0.30–0.44 and 0.65–0.68 mg/mL in the presence of 5000–5000 and 5000–24,000 PEO-b-PCL micelles, respectively. Maximum cucurbitacin solubilization was achieved with PEO-b-PBCL micelles for both derivatives. PEO-b-PCL micelles having longer PCL block were found to be more efficient in sustaining the rate of release for cucurbitacins. The anti-cancer and STAT3 inhibitory activity of polymeric micellar cucurbitacins were comparable with free drugs in B16.F10 melanoma cell line in vitro. Intratumoral injection of 1 mg/kg/day cucurbitacin I resulted in the regression of established B16.F10 mouse melanoma tumors in vivo. In comparison to free cucurbitacin I, PEO-b-PBCL micellar cucurbitacin I was found to provide comparable anti-cancer effects against B16.F10 tumors and limit drug levels in animal serum while maintaining high drug levels in tumor following intratumoral administration. The results indicate the potential of polymeric micelles as suitable vehicles for the delivery of cucurbitacin- I and B. PMID:17681440

Molavi, Ommoleila; Ma, Zengshuan; Mahmud, Abdullah; Alshamsan, Aws; Samuel, John; Lai, Raymond; Kwon, Glen S.; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

2009-01-01

289

A novel U-STAT3-dependent mechanism mediates the deleterious effects of chronic nicotine exposure on renal injury  

PubMed Central

Previous data from our group have demonstrated (Arany I, Grifoni S, Clark JS, Csongradi, Maric C, Juncos LA. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301: F125–F133, 2011) that chronic nicotine (NIC) exposure exacerbates acute renal ischemic injury (AKI) in mice that could increase the risk for development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been shown that proximal tubules of the kidney can acquire characteristics that may compromise structural recovery and favor development of inflammation and fibrosis following injury. Chronic NIC exposure can amplify this epithelial process although the mechanism is not identified. Recently, the unphosphorylated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (U-STAT3) has emerged as a noncanonical mediator of inflammation and fibrosis that may be responsible for the effects of chronic NIC. We found that levels of transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGF-?1), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), fibronectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and expression of U-STAT3 were increased in the ischemic kidneys of NIC-exposed mice. Chronic NIC exposure also increased TGF-?1-dependent F-actin reorganization, vimentin, fibronectin, and ?-SMA expression as well as promoter activity of ?-SMA and MCP-1 without significant loss of epithelial characteristics (E-cadherin) in cultured renal proximal tubule cells. Importantly, transduction of cells with a U-STAT3 mimetic (Y705F-STAT3) augmented stress fiber formation and also amplified NIC+TGF-?1-induced expression of ?-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, as well as promoter activity of ?-SMA and MCP-1. Our results reveal a novel, chronic NIC-exposure-related and U-STAT3-dependent mechanism as mediator of a sustained transcription of genes that are linked to remodeling and inflammation in the kidney during injury. This process may facilitate progression of AKI to CKD. The obtained data may lead to devising therapeutic methods to specifically enhance the protective and/or inhibit adverse effects of STAT3 in the kidney. PMID:22169004

Reed, Dustin K.; Grifoni, Samira C.; Chandrashekar, Kiran; Booz, George W.; Juncos, Luis A.

2012-01-01

290

Quercetin Potentiates the Antitumor Activity of Rituximab in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma by Inhibiting STAT3 Pathway.  

PubMed

STAT3 pathway plays an important role in the growth of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells. Here we investigated the antitumor activity of Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, in combination with rituximab in DLBCL cell lines in vitro. We found that Quercetin synergistically enhanced rituximab-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in DLBCL cell lines. Moreover, we found Quercetin exerted inhibitory activity against STAT3 pathway and downregulated the expression of survival genes. These results suggest that combining the Quercetin with rituximab may present an attractive and potentially effective way for the treatment of DLBCL. PMID:24902540

Li, Xin; Wang, Xinhua; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Aimin; Sun, Zhenchang; Yu, Qi

2014-11-01

291

Role of the IL-6-JAK1-STAT3-Oct-4 pathway in the conversion of non-stem cancer cells into cancer stem-like cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that a small subset of cancer cells is capable of tumor initiation. The existence of tumor initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has several implications in terms of future cancer treatment and therapies. However, recently, several researchers proposed that differentiated cancer cells (non-CSCs) can convert to stem-like cells to maintain equilibrium. These results imply that removing CSCs may prompt non-CSCs in the tumor to convert into stem cells to maintain the equilibrium. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been found to play an important role in the inducible formation of CSCs and their dynamic equilibrium with non-stem cells. In this study, we used CSC-like human breast cancer cells and their alternate subset non-CSCs to investigate how IL-6 regulates the conversion of non-CSCs to CSCs. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 CSC-like cells formed mammospheres well, whereas most of non-stem cells died by anoikis and only part of the remaining non-stem cells produced viable mammospheres. Similar results were observed in xenograft tumor formation. Data from cytokine array assay show that IL-6 was secreted from non-CSCs when cells were cultured in ultra-low attachment plates. IL-6 regulates CSC-associated OCT-4 gene expression through the IL-6-JAK1-STAT3 signal transduction pathway in non-CSCs. Inhibiting this pathway by treatment with anti-IL-6 antibody (1 ?g/ml) or niclosamide (0.5-2 ?M)/LLL12 (5-10 ?M) effectively prevented OCT-4 gene expression. These results suggest that the IL-6-JAK1-STAT3 signal transduction pathway plays an important role in the conversion of non-CSCs into CSCs through regulation of OCT-4 gene expression. PMID:23333246

Kim, Seog-Young; Kang, Jin Wook; Song, Xinxin; Kim, Bo Kyoung; Yoo, Young Dong; Kwon, Yong Tae; Lee, Yong J

2013-04-01

292

STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower IC50 in colon cancer stem-like cells. In summary, our results indicate that STAT3 is a novel therapeutic target in colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibition of STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a potential treatment for colorectal cancer.

Lin, Li, E-mail: lin.796@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States) [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)] [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Olson, Veronica [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)] [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Bekaii-Saab, Tanios [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)] [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Jiayuh, E-mail: lin.674@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)] [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)

2011-12-16

293

Absence of STAT1 in donor-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells results in increased STAT3 and attenuates murine GVHD.  

PubMed

Selective targeting of non-T cells, including antigen-presenting cells (APCs), is a potential strategy to prevent graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) but to maintain graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. Because type I and II interferons signal through signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1), and contribute to activation of APCs after allogeneic bone marrow transplant (alloBMT), we examined whether the absence of STAT1 in donor APCs could prevent GVHD while preserving immune competence. Transplantation of STAT1(-/-) bone marrow (BM) prevented GVHD induced by STAT1(+/+) T cells, leading to expansion of B220(+) cells and regulatory T cells. STAT1(-/-) BM also preserved GVT activity and enhanced overall survival of tumor-challenged mice in the setting of GVHD. Furthermore, recipients of allogeneic STAT1(-/-) BM demonstrated increased CD9(-)Siglec H(hi) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and depletion of pDCs after STAT1(-/-) BM transplantation prevented GVHD resistance. STAT1(-/-) pDCs were found to produce decreased free radicals, IFN?, and interleukin (IL)-12, and increased IL-10. Additionally, STAT1(-/-) pDCs that were isolated after alloBMT showed increased gene expression of S100A8 and S100A9, and transplantation of S100A9(-/-) BM reduced GVHD-free survival. Finally, elevated STAT3 was found in STAT1(-/-) pDCs isolated after alloBMT. We conclude that interfering with interferon signaling in APCs such as pDCs provides a novel approach to regulate the GVHD/GVT axis. PMID:25079358

Capitini, Christian M; Nasholm, Nicole M; Chien, Christopher D; Larabee, Shannon M; Qin, Haiying; Song, Young K; Klover, Peter J; Hennighausen, Lothar; Khan, Javed; Fry, Terry J

2014-09-18

294

Growth Inhibition and Regression of Lung Tumors by Silibinin: Modulation of Angiogenesis by Macrophage-associated Cytokines, and NF-?B and STAT3  

PubMed Central

The latency period for lung tumor progression offers a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Herein, we studied the effect of oral silibinin (742 mg/kg body wt, 5 days/wk for 10 wks) on the growth and progression of established lung adenocarcinomas in A/J mice. Silibinin strongly decreased both tumor number and tumor size, an antitumor effect that correlates with reduced antiangiogenic activity. Silibinin reduced microvessel size (50%, p<0.01) with no change in the number of tumor microvessels and reduced (by 30%, p<0.05) formation of nestin-positive new microvessels in tumors. Analysis of several proteins involved in new blood vessel formation showed that silibinin decreased tumor expression of IL-13 (47%) and TNF-? (47%), and increased TIMP-1 (2-fold) and TIMP-2 (7-fold) expression, without significant changes in VEGF levels. HIF-1? expression and nuclear localization were also decreased by silibinin treatment. Cytokines secreted by tumor cells and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) regulate angiogenesis by activating NF-?B and STAT. Silibinin decreased phosphorylation of p65NF-?B (ser276) (38%, p<0.01) and STAT3 (ser727) (16%, p<0.01) in tumor cells and decreased the lung macrophage population. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and Ang-receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie-2) expression were increased by silibinin. Therapeutic efficacy of silibinin in lung tumor growth inhibition and regression by antiangiogenic mechanisms appears to be mediated by decreased TAMs and cytokines, inhibition of HIF-1?, NF-?B and STAT3 activation, and up-regulation of the angiogenic inhibitors, Ang-2- and Tie-2. PMID:19139021

Tyagi, Alpna; Singh, Rana P.; Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Raina, Komal; Rodente, Elizabeth F.; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D.; Radcliffe, Richard A.; Malkinson, Alvin M.; Agarwal, Rajesh

2008-01-01

295

Interruption of Macrophage-Derived IL-27(p28) Production by IL-10 during Sepsis Requires STAT3 but Not SOCS3.  

PubMed

Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infection-associated inflammation promotes the development and progression of adverse outcomes in sepsis. The effects of heterodimeric IL-27 (p28/EBI3) have been implicated in the natural course of sepsis, whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression and release of IL-27 in sepsis are poorly understood. We studied the events regulating the p28 subunit of IL-27 in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture. Neutralizing Abs to IL-27(p28) improved survival rates, restricted cytokine release, and reduced bacterial burden in C57BL/6 mice during sepsis. Genetic disruption of IL-27 signaling enhanced the respiratory burst of macrophages. Experiments using splenectomized mice or treatment with clodronate liposomes suggested that macrophages in the spleen may be a significant source of IL-27(p28) during sepsis. In cultures of TLR4-activated macrophages, the frequency of F4/80(+)CD11b(+)IL-27(p28)(+) cells was reduced by the addition of IL-10. IL-10 antagonized both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent release of IL-27(p28). Genetic deletion of STAT3 in Tie2-Cre/STAT3flox macrophages completely interrupted the inhibition of IL-27(p28) by IL-10 after TLR4 activation. In contrast, IL-10 remained fully active to suppress IL-27(p28) with deletion of SOCS3 in Tie2-Cre/SOCS3flox macrophages. Blockade of IL-10R by Ab or genetic deficiency of IL-10 resulted in 3-5-fold higher concentrations of IL-27(p28) in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis. Our studies identify IL-10 as a critical suppressing factor for IL-27(p28) production during infection-associated inflammation. These findings may be helpful for a beneficial manipulation of adverse IL-27(p28) release during sepsis. PMID:25348624

Bosmann, Markus; Russkamp, Norman F; Strobl, Birgit; Roewe, Julian; Balouzian, Liza; Pache, Florence; Radsak, Markus P; van Rooijen, Nico; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Núñez, Gabriel; Müller, Mathias; Murray, Peter J; Ward, Peter A

2014-12-01

296

Zerumbone suppresses EGF-induced CD44 expression through the inhibition of STAT3 in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Expression of the CD44 gene is upregulated in breast cancer cells and is correlated with patient survival. Aberrant CD44 expression promotes tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the role of zerumbone (ZER) on regulatory mechanisms of CD44 expression in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that CD44 expression was significantly increased by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in SKBR3 breast cancer cells. In contrast, EGF-induced CD44 expression was decreased by a MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126, or STAT3 inhibitor, STAT3 VI, respectively. Notably, ZER downregulated the basal level of CD44 expression in CD44+ breast cancer cells. In addition, the induction of CD44 expression by EGFR ligands, EGF or TGF-?, was markedly decreased by ZER treatment. Finally, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ZER on EGF-induced CD44 expression. Our results showed that EGF-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 was completely suppressed by ZER. Collectively, ZER suppressed EGF-induced CD44 expression through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. Therefore, we suggested that ZER may act as a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25269647

Kim, Sangmin; Kil, Won Ho; Lee, Jeongmin; Oh, Soo-Jin; Han, Jeonghun; Jeon, Myeongjin; Jung, Taewoo; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jun Ho; Yi, Ha Woo; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

2014-12-01

297

Genome-wide discovery of functional transcription factor binding sites by comparative genomics: the case of Stat3.  

PubMed

The identification of direct targets of transcription factors is a key problem in the study of gene regulatory networks. However, the use of high throughput experimental methods, such as ChIP-chip and ChIP-sequencing, is limited by their high cost and strong dependence on cellular type and context. We developed a computational method for the genome-wide identification of functional transcription factor binding sites based on positional weight matrices, comparative genomics, and gene expression profiling. The method was applied to Stat3, a transcription factor playing crucial roles in inflammation, immunity and oncogenesis, and able to induce distinct subsets of target genes in different cell types or conditions. A newly generated positional weight matrix enabled us to assign affinity scores of high specificity, as measured by EMSA competition assays. Phylogenetic conservation with 7 vertebrate species was used to select the binding sites most likely to be functional. Validation was carried out on predicted sites within genes identified as differentially expressed in the presence or absence of Stat3 by microarray analysis. Twelve of the fourteen sites tested were bound by Stat3 in vivo, as assessed by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, allowing us to identify 9 Stat3 transcriptional targets. Given its high validation rate, and the availability of large transcription factor-dependent gene expression datasets obtained under diverse experimental conditions, our approach appears to be a valid alternative to high-throughput experimental assays for the discovery of novel direct targets of transcription factors. PMID:19282476

Vallania, Francesco; Schiavone, Davide; Dewilde, Sarah; Pupo, Emanuela; Garbay, Serge; Calogero, Raffaele; Pontoglio, Marco; Provero, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

2009-03-31

298

STAT3 activation of miR-21 and miR-181b-1, via PTEN and CYLD, are part of the epigenetic switch linking inflammation to cancer  

PubMed Central

A transient inflammatory signal can initiate an epigenetic switch from non-transformed to cancer cells via a positive feedback loop involving NF-?B, Lin28, let-7, and IL6. We identify differentially regulated microRNAs important for this switch, and putative transcription factor binding sites in their promoters. STAT3, a transcription factor activated by IL6, directly activates miR-21 and miR-181b-1. Remarkably, transient expression of either microRNA induces the epigenetic switch. MiR-21 and miR-181b-1 respectively inhibit PTEN and CYLD tumor suppressors, leading to increased NF-?B activity required to maintain the transformed state. These STAT3-mediated regulatory circuits are required for the transformed state in diverse cell lines and tumor growth in xenografts, and their transcriptional signatures are observed in colon adenocarcinomas. Thus, STAT3 is not only a downstream target of IL6, but with miR-21, miR-181b-1, PTEN, and CYLD, is part of the positive feedback loop that underlies the epigenetic switch that links inflammation to cancer. PMID:20797623

Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Jaeger, Savina A.; Hirsch, Heather A.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Struhl, Kevin

2010-01-01

299

Role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 in up-regulation of GFAP after epilepsy.  

PubMed

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is regarded as a marker of reactive astrogliosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, STAT3 regulates GFAP expression after brain injuries. However, whether STAT3 controls astrogliosis in epilepsy is not clear. In this study, we measured p-STAT3 and GFAP expression during the epileptic process using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Both p-STAT3 and GFAP expression were highly expressed in the rat hippocampus during different phases of the epileptic process. The augmentation of GFAP expression was inhibited by AG490, a janus kinase 2 (JAK2, an upstream gene of STAT3) inhibitor. The coexpression of p-STAT3 and GFAP was detected in the epileptic rat hippocampus and temporal neocortex of patients. These findings indicate that epilepsy involves the activation of STAT3 that up-regulates the expression of GFAP, which may play an important role in epileptogenesis. PMID:21833841

Xu, Zucai; Xue, Tao; Zhang, Zuxia; Wang, Xuefeng; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Jun; Lei, Xianze; Li, Yuqin; Xie, Yunlan; Wang, Liang; Fang, Min; Chen, Yangmei

2011-12-01

300

Systemic Administration of a Cyclic Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Decoy Oligonucleotide Inhibits Tumor Growth without Inducing Toxicological Effects  

PubMed Central

Hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked to tumorigenesis in most malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Intravenous delivery of a chemically modified cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide with improved serum and thermal stability demonstrated antitumor efficacy in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression such as cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL in a mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy of the cyclic STAT3 decoy after multiple intravenous doses in Foxn1 nu mice in anticipation of clinical translation. The two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of cyclic STAT3 decoy demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor volume compared with the control groups (mutant cyclic STAT3 decoy or saline) in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression. There was no dose-dependent effect of cyclic STAT3 decoy on tumor volume or STAT3 target gene expression. There were no significant changes in body weights between the groups during the dosing period, after the dosing interval or on the day of euthanasia. No hematology or clinical chemistry parameters suggested toxicity of the cyclic STAT3 decoy compared with saline control. No gross or histological pathological abnormalities were noted at necropsy in any of the animals. These findings suggest a lack of toxicity of intravenous administration of a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. In addition, comparable antitumor effects indicate a lack of dose response at the two dose levels investigated. PMID:24395569

Sen, Malabika; Paul, Kathleen; Freilino, Maria L; Li, Hua; Li, Changyou; Johnson, Daniel E; Wang, Lin; Eiseman, Julie; Grandis, Jennifer R

2014-01-01

301

Stat3 Defines Three Populations of M?ller Glia and Is Required for Initiating Maximal M?ller Glia Proliferation in the Regenerating Zebrafish Retina  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the role of Stat3, Ascl1a, and Lin28a in Müller glia reentry into the cell cycle following damage to the zebrafish retina. Immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the temporal and spatial expression of Stat3 and Ascl1a proteins following rod and cone photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Stat3 expression was observed in all Müller glia, while Ascl1a expression was restricted to only the mitotic Müller glia. Knockdown of Stat3 protein expression did not affect photoreceptor apoptosis, but significantly reduced, without abolishing, the number of proliferating Ascl1a-positive Müller glia. Knockdown of Ascl1a protein also did not change the extent of photoreceptor apoptosis, but did yield significantly fewer Müller glia that reentered the cell cycle relative to the stat3 morphant and significantly decreased the number and intensity of Stat3 expressing Müller glia. Finally, introduction of lin28a morpholinos resulted in decreased Müller glia expression of Stat3 and Ascl1a, significantly reducing the number of proliferating Müller glia. Thus, there are three populations of Müller glia in the light-damaged zebrafish retina: 1) Stat3-expressing Ascl1a-nonexpressing nonproliferating (quiescent) Müller glia, 2) Stat3-dependent Ascl1a-dependent proliferating Müller glia, 3) Stat3-independent Ascl1a-dependent proliferating Müller glia. While Ascl1a and Lin28a are required for Müller glia proliferation, Stat3 is necessary for the maximal number of Müller glia to proliferate during regeneration of the damaged zebrafish retina. PMID:22886421

Nelson, Craig M.; Gorsuch, Ryne A.; Bailey, Travis J.; Ackerman, Kristin M.; Kassen, Sean C.; Hyde, David R.

2012-01-01

302

Novel sorafenib analogues induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constitutively activated in various cancers including breast cancer and has emerged as a novel potential anti-cancer target. STAT3 has been demonstrated to be a target of sorafenib, and a protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) has been demonstrated to downregulate p-STAT3 via its phosphatase activity. Here, we tested the efficacy of two sorafenib analogues, SC-1 and SC-43, in breast cancer cells and examined the drug mechanism. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Cell viability was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and western blot. Signal transduction pathways in cells were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of sorafenib, SC-1 and SC-43 was tested in xenografted nude mice. Results SC-1 and SC-43 induced more potent apoptosis than sorafenib, in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 and its downstream proteins cyclin D1 and survivin in a dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cell lines (HCC-1937, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, SK-BR3, MCF-7). Overexpression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected the cells from apoptosis induced by sorafenib, SC-1 and SC-43. Moreover, SC-1 and SC-43 upregulated SHP-1 activity to a greater extent than sorafenib as measured by in vitro phosphatase assays. Knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA reduced apoptosis induced by SC-1 and SC-43. Importantly, SC-1 and SC-43 showed more efficacious antitumor activity and p-STAT3 downregulation than sorafenib in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. Conclusions Novel sorafenib analogues SC-1 and SC-43 induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation and demonstrate greater potency than sorafenib in human breast cancer cells. PMID:23938089

2013-01-01

303

5,7,3'-Triacetyl hesperetin suppresses adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats through modulating JAK2/STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

This work was designed to identify the effect of 5,7,3'-triacetyl hesperetin (TAHP) on rat adjuvant arthritis (AA) and further clarify the possible role of TAHP on modulating Janus kinase signal transducers and activators (JAK/STAT in this process. Freund's complete adjuvant was used to induce AA in rats. TAHP (33, 66, 132 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically. Secondary paw swelling, polyarthritis index, index of immune organs and histopathological assessment were used to evaluate the effects of TAHP on AA in rats. IL-6 in serum and in synovial tissues was examined with ELISA and RT-PCR. In addition, JAK2/STAT3 pathway-related key molecules mRNA expression in synovial tissues of AA rats were detected by RT-PCR and western blot respectively. It was found that TAHP (66, 132 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit secondary paw swelling, restore the index of immune organs and reduce polyarthritis index. Results of histopathological assessment showed that TAHP clearly ameliorated the pathological changes in AA rats. TAHP could downregulate the level of IL-6 in serum and in synovial tissues of AA rats. Besides, treatment with TAHP could decrease mRNA expressions of STAT3 and JAK2, as well as the ratio of p-JAK2/JAK2 protein and p-STAT3/STAT3 protein from synovial tissues. Thus, the paper demonstrated that TAHP had a therapeutic effect on AA in rats and the mechanisms were partly associated with modulating proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 production in serum and in synovial tissues and inhibiting excessive activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway which might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AA. PMID:23711144

Ren, Dan Yang; Xu, Tao; Li, Rong; Huang, Cheng; Huang, Yan; Li, Ren Qiu; Li, Hui Ying; Li, Jun

2013-01-01

304

HO-3867, a curcumin analog, sensitizes cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma, leading to therapeutic synergy through STAT3 inhibition.  

PubMed

Cisplatin resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Drug combinations with synergistic or complementary functions are a promising strategy to overcome this issue. We studied the anticancer efficacy of a novel compound, HO-3867, used in combination with cisplatin against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer. A2780R cells, a cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line, were exposed to 1, 5, or 10 uM of HO-3867 alone or in combination with cisplatin (10 ug/ml) for 24 hours. Cell viability (MTT), proliferation (BrdU), cell-cycle analysis (FACS), and protein expression (western blot) were used for in vitro studies. STAT3 overexpression was performed using transfected STAT3 cDNA. In vivo studies used cisplatin-resistant xenograft tumors grown in nude mice and treated with 100-ppm HO-3867 and weekly injections of 4-mg/kg cisplatin. HO-3867/cisplatin combination treatment significantly inhibited cisplatin-resistant cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with increased expression of p53 and p21, and decreased expression of cdk5 and cyclin D1. Apoptosis was induced by activation of Bax, cytochrome c release, and stimulated cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. Overexpression of STAT3 decreased the HO-3867-induced apoptosis. The combination treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cisplatin-resistant xenograft tumors with significant downregulation of pSTAT3, and without apparent toxicity to healthy tissues. The combination treatment exhibited synergistic anticancer efficacy, which appears largely due to HO-3867-induced downregulation of pSTAT3. The results, combined with the previously-reported safety features of HO-3867, suggest the potential use of this compound as a safe and effective adjuvant for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:21885917

Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Ahmed, Shabnam; Dayton, Alex; Kuppusamy, M Lakshmi; Rivera, Brian K; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2011-11-01

305

Changes in cell ultrastructure and inhibition of JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway in CBRH-7919 cells with astaxanthin.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophylls carotenoid, possesses significant anticancer effects. However, to date, the molecular mechanism of anticancer remains unclear. In the present research, we studied the anticancer mechanism of AST, including the changes in cell ultrastructure, such as the mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgi complex, and cytoskeleton, the inhibition of Janus kinase 1(JAK1)/transduction and the activators of the transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway using rat hepatocellular carcinoma CBRH-7919 cells. Cell apoptosis was evaluated and the expressions of JAK1, STAT3, non-metastasis23-1 (nm23-1), and apoptotic gene like B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (bcl-xl), proto-oncogene proteins c myc (c-myc) and bcl-2- associated X (bax) were also examined. The results showed that AST could induce cancer cell apoptosis. Under transmission electron microscope, the ultrastructure of treated cells were not clearly distinguishable, the membranes of the mitochondrion, RER, Golgi complex were broken or loosened, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was degranulated. Cytoskeleton depolymerization of the microtubule system led to the collapse of extended vimentin intermediate filament bundles into short agglomerations with disordered distributions. AST inhibited the expression of STAT3, its upstream activator JAK1, and the STAT3 target antiapoptotic genes bcl-2, bcl-xl, and c-myc. Conversely, AST enhanced the expressions of nm23-1 and bax. Overall, our findings demonstrate that AST could induce the apoptosis of CBRH-7919 cells, which are involved in cell ultrastructure and the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:22889354

Song, Xiaodong; Wang, Meirong; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Jinjin; Wang, Xiuwen; Liu, Wenbo; Gu, Xinbin; Lv, Changjun

2012-11-01

306

Arctigenin Promotes Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells via the iNOS/NO/STAT3/Survivin Signalling.  

PubMed

Arctigenin is a biologically active lignan extracted from the seeds of Arctium lappa and shows anticancer activity against a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of arctigenin on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and survival and associated molecular mechanisms. Human ovarian cancer OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells were treated with arctigenin, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to examine signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The involvement of STAT3/survivin/iNOS/NO signalling in arctigenin action was checked. Arctigenin treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Arctigenin-treated cells showed a 4-6 times increase in the percentage of apoptosis, compared with control cells. Pre-treatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, counteracted the induction of apoptosis by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin and iNOS expression. Arctigenin-induced apoptosis was impaired by pre-transfection with survivin-expressing plasmid or addition of chemical nitric oxide (NO) donors. Additionally, exogenous NO prevented the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin expression by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment inhibits the proliferation and induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling is causally linked to the anticancer activity of arctigenin. Therefore, arctigenin may be applicable to anticancer therapy for ovarian cancer. PMID:24842412

Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Meng, Yuan-Guang; You, Yan-Qin; Fu, Xiao-Yu; Song, Lei

2014-12-01

307

Carnosol induces apoptosis through generation of ROS and inactivation of STAT3 signaling in human colon cancer HCT116 cells.  

PubMed

Carnosol, an active constituent of rosemary, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of carnosol remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that carnosol significantly reduced the viability of human colon cancer (HCT116) cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with carnosol induced apoptosis, which was associated with activation of caspase-9 and -3 and the cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Incubation with carnosol elevated the expression of Bax and inhibited the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Carnosol induced expression of p53 and inhibited that of murine-double minute-2 (Mdm2). Moreover, carnosol generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine abrogated carnosol-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. The constitutive phosphorylation, the DNA binding and reporter gene activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) was diminished by treatment with carnosol. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of STAT3 inactivation, we found that carnosol attenuated the phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase-2 (Jak2) and Src kinase. Pharmacological inhibition of Jak2 and Src inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, carnosol attenuated the expression of STAT3 target gene products, such as survivin, cyclin-D1, -D2, and -D3. Taken together, our study provides the first report that carnosol induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells via generation of ROS, induction of p53, activation of caspases and inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:24481553

Park, Ki-Woong; Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In-Gyeong; Kim, Do-Hee; Yu, Mi-Hee; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo

2014-04-01

308

Defining a tissue stem cell-driven Runx1/Stat3 signalling axis in epithelial cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancers and tissue stem cells (SCs) share similar molecular pathways for their self-renewal and differentiation. The race is on to identify unique pathways to specifically target the cancer, while sparing normal SCs. Here, we uncover the transcription factor Runx1/AML1, a known haematopoietic and leukaemia factor, albeit dispensable for normal adult SC homeostasis, as being important for some mouse and human epithelial cancers. We implicate Runx1 as a SC-intrinsic gene in mouse hair follicle and oral epithelia by genetic lineage tracing in adulthood. Runx1-expressing SCs, but not other cells that ectopically upregulate Runx1 by injury and inflammation, are at the skin tumour origin. Runx1 loss impairs tumour initiation and maintenance and the growth of oral, skin, and ovarian epithelial human cancer cells. Runx1 stimulates Stat3 signalling via direct transcriptional repression of SOCS3 and SOCS4 and this is essential for cancer cell growth. Thus, Runx1 is a broader epithelial SC and cancer factor than previously recognized, and qualifies as an attractive potential target for both prevention and therapy of several epithelial cancers. PMID:23034403

Scheitz, Cornelia Johanna Franziska; Lee, Tae Seung; McDermitt, David James; Tumbar, Tudorita

2012-01-01

309

Targeting Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription-3 (Stat3) As a Novel Strategy In Sensitizing Breast Cancer To Egfr-Targeted Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have performed proposed studies to test the hypothesis that deregulated EGFR and STAT3 pathways synergistically contribute to the malignant biology of breast cancer and that combined uses of anti-EGFR and anti-STAT3 treatments result in significantly i...

H. Lo

2008-01-01

310

High-throughput sequencing identifies STAT3 as the DNA-associated factor for p53-NF-?B-complex-dependent gene expression in human heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide maps of DNA regulatory elements and their interaction with transcription factors may form a framework for understanding regulatory circuits and gene expression control in human disease, but how these networks, comprising transcription factors and DNA-binding proteins, form complexes, interact with DNA and modulate gene expression remains largely unknown. Methods Using microRNA-21 (mir-21), which is an example of genes that are regulated in heart failure, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to determine the occupancy of transcription factors at this genetic locus. Tissue ChIP was further performed using human hearts and genome-wide occupancies of these transcription factors were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Results We show that the transcription factor p53 piggy-backs onto NF-?B/RELA and utilizes the ?B-motif at a cis-regulatory region to control mir-21 expression. p53 behaves as a co-factor in this complex because despite a mutation in its DNA binding domain, mutant p53 was still capable of binding RELA and the cis-element, and inducing mir-21 expression. In dilated human hearts where mir-21 upregulation was previously demonstrated, the p53-RELA complex was also associated with this cis-element. Using high-throughput sequencing, we analyzed genome-wide binding sites for the p53-RELA complex in diseased and control human hearts and found a significant overrepresentation of the STAT3 motif. We further determined that STAT3 was necessary for the p53-RELA complex to associate with this cis-element and for mir-21 expression. Conclusions Our results uncover a mechanism by which transcription factors cooperate in a multi-molecular complex at a cis-regulatory element to control gene expression. PMID:20546595

2010-01-01

311

miR-20b suppresses Th17 differentiation and the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by targeting ROR?t and STAT3.  

PubMed

The differentiation and function of IL-17-producing Th17 cells are tightly regulated by specific transcription factors and cytokines, which are the key participants in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although specific miRNAs have been shown to be involved in the development of MS and EAE, the potential role of miRNAs in the context of Th17-driven autoimmunity is just beginning to be clarified. miR-20b has been reported as a downregulated miRNA in blood cells of MS patients. In this report, it was further studied in greater detail because we found it was significantly downregulated during EAE, and, in the in vitro differentiation model, Th17 cells had lower expression of miR-20b than did Th1, Th2, or inducible T regulatory cells. Ectopic expression of miR-20b repressed Th17 differentiation in vitro. Using lentiviral vectors for miR-20b overexpression in vivo, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-20b led to decreased Th17 cells and reduced severity of EAE. Furthermore, we also identified both RAR-related orphan receptor ?t and STAT3 as potential targets of miR-20b. Finally, we confirmed that the mild disease severity and low number of Th17 cells in LV-miR-20b-infected mice were largely reversed by coinfection of these mice with lentivirus-expressing RAR-related orphan receptor ?t or STAT3 3'-untranslated regions. Taken together, our results contribute to the importance of miRNAs in Th17 differentiation and pathogenesis of MS and EAE. PMID:24842756

Zhu, Endong; Wang, Xi; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Qian; Hao, Jianlei; Chen, Siming; Zhao, Qiang; Zhao, Liqing; Wu, Zhenzhou; Yin, Zhinan

2014-06-15

312

IFN-? Mediates Enhancement of HIV Replication in Astrocytes by Inducing an Antagonist of the ?-Catenin Pathway (DKK1) in a STAT 3-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Typically, IFN-? is an antiviral cytokine that inhibits the replication of many viruses, including HIV. However, in the CNS, IFN-? induces HIV-productive replication in astrocytes. Although astrocytes in vitro are refractory to HIV replication, recent in vivo evidence demonstrated that astrocytes are infected by HIV, and their degree of infection is correlated with proximity to activated macrophages/microglia. The ability of IFN-? to induce HIV replication in astrocytes suggests that the environmental milieu is critical in regulating the permissiveness of astrocytes to HIV infection. We evaluated the mechanism by which IFN-? relieves restricted HIV replication in astrocytes. We demonstrate that although astrocytes have robust endogenous ?-catenin signaling, a pathway that is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, IFN-? diminished ?-catenin signaling in astrocytes by 40%, as evaluated by both active ?-catenin protein expression and ?-catenin-mediated T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer reporter (TOPflash) activity. Further, IFN-?–mediated inhibition of ?-catenin signaling was dependent on its ability to induce an antagonist of the ?-catenin signaling pathway, Dickkopf-related protein 1, in a STAT 3-dependent manner. Inhibition of STAT3 and Dickkopf-related protein 1 abrogated the ability of IFN-? to enhance HIV replication in astrocytes. These data demonstrated that IFN-? induces HIV replication in astrocytes by antagonizing the ?-catenin pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report to point to an intricate cross-talk between IFN-? signaling and ?-catenin signaling that may have biologic and virologic effects on HIV outcome in the CNS, as well as on broader processes where the two pathways interface. PMID:21562161

Li, Wei; Henderson, Lisa J.; Major, Eugene O.; Al-Harthi, Lena

2011-01-01

313

Mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and diagnostic guidelines for the Hyper-IgE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in STAT3 and severe reductions of Th17 cells. Objective To determine whether there is a correlation between the genotype and phenotype of HIES patients and to establish diagnostic criteria to distinguish between STAT3 mutated and STAT3 wild-type patients. Methods We collected clinical data, determined Th17 cell numbers, and sequenced STAT3 100 patients with a strong clinical suspicion of HIES and serum IgE >1000 IU/mL. explored diagnostic criteria by using a machine-learning approach to identify which features best predict a STAT3 mutation. Results In 64 patients we identified 31 different STAT3 mutations, 18 of which are novel. These included mutations at splice sites and outside the previously implicated DNA-binding and SH2 domains. A combination of five clinical features predicted STAT3 mutations with 85% accuracy. Th17 cells were profoundly reduced in patients harboring STAT3 mutations, while 10 out of 13 patients without mutations had low (<1%) Th17 cells but were distinct markedly reduced IFN-? producing CD4+ T cells. Conclusions We propose the following diagnostic guidelines for STAT3-deficient HIES: Possible: IgE >1000 IU/mL plus a weighted score of clinical features >30 based on recurrent pneumonia, newborn rash, pathologic bone fractures, characteristic face, and high palate. Probable: Above plus lack of Th17 cells or a family history for definitive HIES. Definitive: Above plus a dominant-negative heterozygous mutation in STAT3. PMID:20159255

Woellner, Cristina; Gertz, E. Michael; Schaffer, Alejandro A.; Lagos, Macarena; Perro, Mario; Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Pietrogrande, Maria C.; Cossu, Fausto; Franco, Jose L.; Matamoros, Nuria; Pietrucha, Barbara; Heropolitanska-Pliszka, Edyta; Yeganeh, Mehdi; Moin, Mostafa; Espanol, Teresa; Ehl, Stephan; Gennery, Andrew R.; Abinun, Mario; Breborowicz, Anna; Niehues, Tim; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Junker, Anne; Turvey, Stuart E.; Plebani, Alessandro; Sanchez, Berta; Garty, Ben-Zion; Pignata, Claudio; Cancrini, Caterina; Litzman, Jiri; Sanal, Ozden; Baumann, Ulrich; Bacchetta, Rosa; Hsu, Amy P.; Davis, Joie N.; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Davies, E. Graham; Eren, Efrem; Arkwright, Peter D.; Moilanen, Jukka S.; Viemann, Dorothee; Khan, Sujoy; Marodi, Laszlo; Cant, Andrew J.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Holland, Steven M.; Grimbacher, Bodo

2010-01-01

314

Associations between STAT3 rs744166 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have investigated the associations between the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). However, the results remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis determined the risk of STAT3 rs744166 polymorphism-conferred UC and CD susceptibility. Materials and Methods Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were searched for all eligible studies that evaluated the association between STAT3 rs744166 polymorphisms with UC and CD risk up to August 21, 2014. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Results Twelve studies containing 10298 patients with CD, 4244 patients with UC and 11191 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the STAT3 rs744166 polymorphism was associated with CD and UC susceptibility (CD: GA+AA vs. GG, OR?=?1.20, 95%CI, 1.11–1.30, I2?=?0%, Punadjusted<0.00001, PBonferroni<0.00005, PFDR<0.00001; UC: GA+AA vs. GG, OR?=?1.21, 95%CI, 1.08–1.36, I2?=?1%, Punadjusted?=?0.001, PBonferroni?=?0.005, PFDR?=?0.00125). In subgroup analyses by ethnicity, the significant association was found only among Caucasians. However, when grouped by age of onset, positive associations were found both among adults and children. In addition, when stratified by study design and genotyping methods, the risk of CD was significantly associated with the STAT3 rs744166 polymorphism in hospital-based and population-based groups and in SNP Array and SNPlex groups. For UC, significant associations were also found in population-based, PCR-RFLP and SNPlex groups. Moreover, these findings were sufficiently robust to withstand the Bonferroni correction and false discovery rate (FDR). Conclusion This meta-analysis indicates that carriers of the STAT3 rs744166 ‘A’ allele have a significantly greater risk of CD and UC, especially among Caucasians. PMID:25286337

Peng, Xiulan; Song, Jia; Wang, Jun; Dong, Weiguo

2014-01-01

315

EGFR phosphorylates tumor-derived EGFRvIII driving STAT3/5 and progression in glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY EGFRvIII, a frequently occurring mutation in primary glioblastoma, results in a protein product that cannot bind ligand, but signals constitutively. Deducing how EGFRvIII causes transformation has been difficult because of autocrine and paracrine loops triggered by EGFRvIII alone or in heterodimers with wild-type EGFR. Here, we document co-expression of EGFR and EGFRvIII in primary human glioblastoma that drives transformation and tumorigenesis in a cell-intrinsic manner. We demonstrate enhancement of downstream STAT signaling triggered by EGFR-catalyzed phosphorylation of EGFRvIII, implicating EGFRvIII as a substrate for EGFR. Subsequent phosphorylation of STAT3 requires nuclear entry of EGFRvIII and formation of an EGFRvIII-STAT3 nuclear complex. Our findings clarify specific oncogenic signaling relationships between EGFR and EGFRvIII in glioblastoma. PMID:24135280

Fan, Qi-Wen; Cheng, Christine; Gustafson, W. Clay; Charron, Elizabeth; Zipper, Petra; Wong, Robyn A.; Chen, Justin; Lau, Jasmine; Knobbe-Thomsen, Christiane; Weller, Michael; Jura, Natalia; Reifenberger, Guido; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, William A.

2013-01-01

316

Dietary iron enhances colonic inflammation and IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting colonic tumor development in mice.  

PubMed

Chronic intestinal inflammation and high dietary iron are associated with colorectal cancer development. The role of Stat3 activation in iron-induced colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis was investigated in a mouse model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Mice, fed either an iron-supplemented or control diet, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intestinal inflammation and tumor development were assessed by endoscopy and histology, gene expression by real-time PCR, Stat3 phosphorylation by immunoblot, cytokines by ELISA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Colonic inflammation was more severe in mice fed an iron-supplemen