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Sample records for ebna2 regulates stat3

  1. Host cell and EBNA-2 regulation of Epstein-Barr virus latent-cycle promoter activity in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, C M; Brimmell, M; Buschle, M; Allan, G; Farrell, P J; Kolman, J L

    1992-01-01

    The six latent-cycle nuclear antigens (EBNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), whose genes share 5' leader exons and two promoters (Cp and Wp), are differentially expressed by cells of the B lineage. To examine the possibility that EBNA gene expression is regulated through selective use of Cp and Wp, we monitored the activity of promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene constructs transfected into EBV-positive and EBV-negative B lymphocytes and Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Wp was a much stronger promoter than Cp in EBV genome-negative B-cell lines and was used exclusively in primary B cells. When B cells were infected with transforming EBV, Cp became the stronger promoter. This switch was not observed when B cells were infected with an immortalization-deficient virus, P3HR-1, which lacks the EBNA-2 open reading frame and expresses a mutant leader protein (EBNA-LP). Cp function was transactivated when EBV-negative or P3HR-1-infected B cells were cotransfected with Cp and a 12-kb fragment of DNA (BamHI-WWYH) that spanned the P3HR-1 deletion. This activity was mapped to the EBNA-2 gene within WWYH; constructs expressing EBNA-LP did not induce Cp function, and the deletion of 405 bp from the EBNA-2 open reading frame abolished transactivation. This research demonstrates host cell and EBNA-2 regulation of latent-cycle promoter activity in B lymphocytes, a mechanism with implications for persistence of EBV-infected lymphoid cells in vivo. Images PMID:1309259

  2. STAT3 regulation of glioblastoma pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Núria; Puram, Sidharth V; Bonni, Azad

    2009-06-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite efforts to find effective treatments, these tumors remain incurable. The failure of malignant gliomas to respond to conventional cancer therapies may reflect the unique biology of these tumors, underscoring the need for new approaches in their investigation. Recently, progress has been made in characterization of the molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma using a developmental neurobiological perspective, by exploring the role of signaling pathways that control the differentiation of neural stem cells along the glial lineage. The transcription factor STAT3, which has an established function in neural stem cell and astrocyte development, has been found to play dual tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles in glial malignancy depending on the mutational profile of the tumor. These findings establish a novel developmental paradigm in the study of glioblastoma pathogenesis and provide the rationale for patient-tailored therapy in the treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:19601808

  3. STAT3 regulated ARF expression suppresses prostate cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pencik, Jan; Schlederer, Michaela; Gruber, Wolfgang; Unger, Christine; Walker, Steven M; Chalaris, Athena; Marié, Isabelle J; Hassler, Melanie R; Javaheri, Tahereh; Aksoy, Osman; Blayney, Jaine K; Prutsch, Nicole; Skucha, Anna; Herac, Merima; Krämer, Oliver H; Mazal, Peter; Grebien, Florian; Egger, Gerda; Poli, Valeria; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Eferl, Robert; Esterbauer, Harald; Kennedy, Richard; Fend, Falko; Scharpf, Marcus; Braun, Martin; Perner, Sven; Levy, David E; Malcolm, Tim; Turner, Suzanne D; Haitel, Andrea; Susani, Martin; Moazzami, Ali; Rose-John, Stefan; Aberger, Fritz; Merkel, Olaf; Moriggl, Richard; Culig, Zoran; Dolznig, Helmut; Kenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer in men. Hyperactive STAT3 is thought to be oncogenic in PCa. However, targeting of the IL-6/STAT3 axis in PCa patients has failed to provide therapeutic benefit. Here we show that genetic inactivation of Stat3 or IL-6 signalling in a Pten-deficient PCa mouse model accelerates cancer progression leading to metastasis. Mechanistically, we identify p19(ARF) as a direct Stat3 target. Loss of Stat3 signalling disrupts the ARF-Mdm2-p53 tumour suppressor axis bypassing senescence. Strikingly, we also identify STAT3 and CDKN2A mutations in primary human PCa. STAT3 and CDKN2A deletions co-occurred with high frequency in PCa metastases. In accordance, loss of STAT3 and p14(ARF) expression in patient tumours correlates with increased risk of disease recurrence and metastatic PCa. Thus, STAT3 and ARF may be prognostic markers to stratify high from low risk PCa patients. Our findings challenge the current discussion on therapeutic benefit or risk of IL-6/STAT3 inhibition. PMID:26198641

  4. STAT3 regulated ARF expression suppresses prostate cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pencik, Jan; Schlederer, Michaela; Gruber, Wolfgang; Unger, Christine; Walker, Steven M.; Chalaris, Athena; Marié, Isabelle J.; Hassler, Melanie R.; Javaheri, Tahereh; Aksoy, Osman; Blayney, Jaine K.; Prutsch, Nicole; Skucha, Anna; Herac, Merima; Krämer, Oliver H.; Mazal, Peter; Grebien, Florian; Egger, Gerda; Poli, Valeria; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Eferl, Robert; Esterbauer, Harald; Kennedy, Richard; Fend, Falko; Scharpf, Marcus; Braun, Martin; Perner, Sven; Levy, David E.; Malcolm, Tim; Turner, Suzanne D.; Haitel, Andrea; Susani, Martin; Moazzami, Ali; Rose-John, Stefan; Aberger, Fritz; Merkel, Olaf; Moriggl, Richard; Culig, Zoran; Dolznig, Helmut; Kenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer in men. Hyperactive STAT3 is thought to be oncogenic in PCa. However, targeting of the IL-6/STAT3 axis in PCa patients has failed to provide therapeutic benefit. Here we show that genetic inactivation of Stat3 or IL-6 signalling in a Pten-deficient PCa mouse model accelerates cancer progression leading to metastasis. Mechanistically, we identify p19ARF as a direct Stat3 target. Loss of Stat3 signalling disrupts the ARF–Mdm2–p53 tumour suppressor axis bypassing senescence. Strikingly, we also identify STAT3 and CDKN2A mutations in primary human PCa. STAT3 and CDKN2A deletions co-occurred with high frequency in PCa metastases. In accordance, loss of STAT3 and p14ARF expression in patient tumours correlates with increased risk of disease recurrence and metastatic PCa. Thus, STAT3 and ARF may be prognostic markers to stratify high from low risk PCa patients. Our findings challenge the current discussion on therapeutic benefit or risk of IL-6/STAT3 inhibition. PMID:26198641

  5. Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Zou, Yuhua; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2013-10-01

    Cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the regrowth of damaged axons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that KLF4 physically interacts with STAT3 upon cytokine-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) on STAT3. This interaction suppresses STAT3-dependent gene expression by blocking its DNA-binding activity. The deletion of KLF4 in vivo induces axon regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT3 signalling. This regeneration can be greatly enhanced by exogenous cytokine treatment, or removal of an endogenous JAK-STAT3 pathway inhibitor called suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3). These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS.

  6. AURKA regulates JAK2-STAT3 activity in human gastric and esophageal cancers.

    PubMed

    Katsha, Ahmed; Arras, Janet; Soutto, Mohammed; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

    2014-12-01

    Aurora kinase A is a frequently amplified and overexpressed gene in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (UGCs). Using in vitro cell models of UGCs, we investigated whether AURKA can regulate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). Our data indicate that overexpression of AURKA in FLO-1 and AGS cells increase STAT3 phosphorylation at the Tyr705 site, whereas AURKA genetic depletion by siRNA results in decreased phosphorylation levels of STAT3 in FLO-1 and MKN45 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AURKA overexpression enhanced STAT3 nuclear translocation while AURKA genetic knockdown reduced the nuclear translocation of STAT3 in AGS and FLO-1 cells, respectively. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that AURKA expression induces transcriptional activity of STAT3. Pharmacological inhibition of AURKA by MLN8237 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation along with down-regulation of STAT3 pro-survival targets, BCL2 and MCL1. Moreover, by using clonogenic cells survival assay, we showed that MLN8237 single dose treatment reduced the ability of FLO-1 and AGS cells to form colonies. Additional experiments utilizing cell models of overexpression and knockdown of AURKA indicated that STAT3 upstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is mediating the effect of AURKA on STAT3. The inhibition of JAK2 using JAK2-specific inhibitor AZD1480 or siRNA knockdown, in presence of AURKA overexpression, abrogated the AURKA-mediated STAT3 activation. These results confirm that the AURKA-JAK2 axis is the main mechanism by which AURKA regulates STAT3 activity. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, that AURKA promotes STAT3 activity through regulating the expression and phosphorylation levels of JAK2. This highlights the importance of targeting AURKA as a therapeutic approach to treat gastric and esophageal cancers. PMID:24953013

  7. Self-regulation of Stat3 activity coordinates cell-cycle progression and neural crest specification

    PubMed Central

    Nichane, Massimo; Ren, Xi; Bellefroid, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    A complex set of extracellular signals is required for neural crest (NC) specification. However, how these signals function to coordinate cell-cycle progression and differentiation remains poorly understood. Here, we report in Xenopus a role for the transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (Stat3) in this process downstream of FGF signalling. Depletion of Stat3 inhibits NC gene expression and cell proliferation, whereas overexpression expands the NC domain and promotes cell proliferation. Stat3 is phosphorylated and activated in ectodermal cells by FGFs through binding with FGFR4. Stat3 activation is also modulated by Hairy2 and Id3 proteins that, respectively, facilitate and disrupt Stat3-FGFR4 complex formation. Furthermore, distinct levels of Stat3 activity control Hairy2 and Id3 transcription, leading to Stat3 self-regulation. Finally, high Stat3 activity maintains cells in an undifferentiated state, whereas low activity promotes cell proliferation and NC differentiation. Together, our data suggest that Stat3, downstream of FGFs and under the positive and negative feedback regulation of Hairy2 and Id3, plays an essential role in the coordination of cell-cycle progression and differentiation during NC specification. PMID:19851287

  8. Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through STAT3 but appear to do so through different modules, perhaps localized to different cell types. PMID:25025494

  9. Regulation of STAT3 by histone deacetylase-3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: implications for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M; Han, JJ; Stenson, M; Wellik, L; Witzig, TE

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with an activated B-cell (ABC) gene-expression profile has been shown to have a poorer prognosis compared with tumors with a germinal center B-cell type. ABC cell lines have constitutive activation of STAT3; however, the mechanisms regulating STAT3 signaling in lymphoma are unknown. In studies of class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression, we found overexpression of HDAC3 in phospho STAT3-positive DLBCL and the HDAC3 was found to be complexed with STAT3. Inhibition of HDAC activity by panobinostat (LBH589) increased p300-mediated STAT3Lys685 acetylation with increased nuclear export of STAT3 to the cytoplasm. HDAC inhibition abolished STAT3Tyr705 phosphorylation with minimal effect on STAT3Ser727 and JAK2 tyrosine activity. pSTAT3Tyr705-positive DLBCLs were more sensitive to HDAC inhibition with LBH589 compared with pSTAT3Tyr705-negative DLBCLs. This cytotoxicity was associated with downregulation of the direct STAT3 target Mcl-1. HDAC3 knockdown upregulated STAT3Lys685 acetylation but prevented STAT3Tyr705 phosphorylation and inhibited survival of pSTAT3-positive DLBCL cells. These studies provide the rationale for targeting STAT3-positive DLBCL tumors with HDAC inhibitors. PMID:22116549

  10. Multiple regulation pathways and pivotal biological functions of STAT3 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is both a transcription activator and an oncogene that is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions. However, abundant evidence indicates that STAT3 is persistently activated in several cancers, with a crucial position in tumor onset and progression. In addition to its traditional role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, STAT3 also promotes cancer through altering gene expression via epigenetic modification, inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in cancer cells, regulating the tumor microenvironment, and promoting cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal and differentiation. STAT3 is regulated not only by the canonical cytokines and growth factors, but also by the G-protein-coupled receptors, cadherin engagement, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and microRNA (miRNA). Despite the presence of diverse regulators and pivotal biological functions in cancer, no effective therapeutic inventions are available for inhibiting STAT3 and acquiring potent antitumor effects in the clinic. An improved understanding of the complex roles of STAT3 in cancer is required to achieve optimal therapeutic effects. PMID:26631279

  11. Multiple regulation pathways and pivotal biological functions of STAT3 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is both a transcription activator and an oncogene that is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions. However, abundant evidence indicates that STAT3 is persistently activated in several cancers, with a crucial position in tumor onset and progression. In addition to its traditional role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, STAT3 also promotes cancer through altering gene expression via epigenetic modification, inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in cancer cells, regulating the tumor microenvironment, and promoting cancer stem cells (CSCs) self-renewal and differentiation. STAT3 is regulated not only by the canonical cytokines and growth factors, but also by the G-protein-coupled receptors, cadherin engagement, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and microRNA (miRNA). Despite the presence of diverse regulators and pivotal biological functions in cancer, no effective therapeutic inventions are available for inhibiting STAT3 and acquiring potent antitumor effects in the clinic. An improved understanding of the complex roles of STAT3 in cancer is required to achieve optimal therapeutic effects. PMID:26631279

  12. JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Arata; Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target genes. Furthermore, the expression level of nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity between COLO205 and LoVo cells. Taken together, these results suggest that nuclear JAB1 positively regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cell line COLO205.

  13. STAT3 down regulates LC3 to inhibit autophagy and pancreatic cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Muñoz, Amanda R.; Chan, Daniel; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P.

    2014-01-01

    The dismal 5-year survival (<5%) for pancreatic cancer (PanCA) underscores the need for developing effective therapeutic options. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that Nexrutine® (Nx), a bark extract from Phellodendron amurense exhibits excellent anticancer activity in human pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of inflammatory signaling via STAT3/NF?B/Cox-2. Given the apparent high oxidative stress and autophagic activity in pancreatic tumors, we investigated the potential of Nx to modulate autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their crosstalk. Our results show that Nx inhibits autophagy and decreases ROS generation. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy led to decreased ROS generation and proliferation with no significant effect on apoptosis. Further, using combination index analysis we also found that combination of late-stage autophagy inhibitor with Nx exhibited a moderate synergistic to additive effect. Additionally, genetic or pharmacological inactivation of STAT3 reduced LC3-II levels and expression indicating a possible role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of autophagy. Since both inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling activate STAT3, our data implicates that STAT3 plays a vital role in the regulation of autophagy through its contributions to the positive feedback loop between ROS and autophagy. Overall, our findings reveal an important role for STAT3/LC3/ROS in Nx-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer effects. PMID:24796733

  14. STAT3 down regulates LC3 to inhibit autophagy and pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingjing; Muñoz, Amanda R; Chan, Daniel; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P

    2014-05-15

    The dismal 5-year survival (<5%) for pancreatic cancer (PanCA) underscores the need for developing effective therapeutic options. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that Nexrutine® (Nx), a bark extract from Phellodendron amurense exhibits excellent anticancer activity in human pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of inflammatory signaling via STAT3/NF?B/Cox-2. Given the apparent high oxidative stress and autophagic activity in pancreatic tumors, we investigated the potential of Nx to modulate autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their crosstalk. Our results show that Nx inhibits autophagy and decreases ROS generation. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy led to decreased ROS generation and proliferation with no significant effect on apoptosis. Further, using combination index analysis we also found that combination of late-stage autophagy inhibitor with Nx exhibited a moderate synergistic to additive effect. Additionally, genetic or pharmacological inactivation of STAT3 reduced LC3-II levels and expression indicating a possible role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of autophagy. Since both inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling activate STAT3, our data implicates that STAT3 plays a vital role in the regulation of autophagy through its contributions to the positive feedback loop between ROS and autophagy. Overall, our findings reveal an important role for STAT3/LC3/ROS in Nx-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer effects. PMID:24796733

  15. EGF regulates claudin-2 and -4 expression through Src and STAT3 in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Vicky; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Verdejo-Torres, Odette; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Gariglio, Patricio; Contreras, Rubén G

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a key regulator of epithelial paracellular permeability, a property that depends on tight junctions (TJ) and can be evaluated through the measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). EGF increases the TER of MDCK monolayers by inducing ERK1/2-dependent downregulation of claudin-2 (CLDN-2) and upregulation of claudin-4 (CLDN-4). Because either increments or decrements in TER often involve Src activation and epithelial cell differentiation occasionally depends on STAT3, here we investigated whether EGF might control CLDN-2 downregulation and CLDN-4 upregulation through those proteins. We found that EGF induces Src activation necessary for the reduction of CLDN-2 at the TJ, the degradation of this CLDN, the reduction of the cellular levels of its mRNA and the resulting increase of TER. EGF-induced changes on CLDN-2 protein and mRNA also depend on STAT3 activity. This growth factor increases the levels of STAT3 phosphorylated at Y705 in the nucleus, a process that depends on Src activation. Interestingly, Src and STAT3 activation do not exclusively mediate the EGF-induced downregulation of CLDN-2, but they are also implicated in the EGF-induced CLDN-4 transcription, translation, and exocytic fusion into TJ. Our results indicate that EGF controls the levels of CLDN-2 and -4 proteins and mRNAs through Src and STAT3 activity. PMID:24909426

  16. STAT3 regulates steady-state expression of synaptopodin in cultured mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Abkhezr, Mousa; Dryer, Stuart E

    2015-02-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and circulating factors in many cell types. Synaptopodin (Synpo) is a cytoskeleton regulatory protein expressed in podocyte foot processes that regulates the dynamics of actin filaments and the stability of small GTPases. Here we show that inhibition of STAT3 signaling using the small-molecule inhibitor benzo[b]thiophene,6-nitro-,1,1-dioxide (Stattic), or by STAT3 knockdown by small interfering RNA, caused a decrease in Synpo mRNA and protein in an immortalized mouse podocyte cell line. This loss of Synpo, which occurred in 30-80 minutes, was also seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. The loss of Synpo protein after Stattic or cycloheximide treatment did not occur when podocytes were simultaneously exposed to 1-[N-[(l-3-trans-carboxyoxirane-2-carbonyl)-l-leucyl]amino]-4-guanidinobutane (E-64), an inhibitor of thiol proteases such as cathepsin L. Treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and evoked a parallel increase in Synpo levels in podocytes. The stimulatory effect of IL-6 on Synpo was completely inhibited by pretreatment with Stattic. By contrast, 30-60-minute exposure to angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibited STAT3 signaling and concurrently reduced Synpo protein levels. The Ang II-evoked loss of Synpo was prevented by E-64 but not by inhibition of calcineurin or blockade of transient receptor potential cation channels. Inhibition of STAT3 by Stattic caused marked changes in the distribution of podocyte actin filaments, and caused a nearly complete suppression of the migration of these cells in wound assays, consistent with the loss of Synpo. Stattic treatment also caused loss of RhoA protein. PMID:25425624

  17. 14-3-3? interacts with stat3 and regulates its constitutive activation in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Chen, Fangjin; Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3?, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3? interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3? interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3? interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3?/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3? protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3? is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3? binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3? serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

  18. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC. PMID:26486080

  19. Bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-Tian; Tang, Jia-Yin; Du, Wan; Zhao, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Sheng-Li; Chen, Hao-Yan; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, and it is downregulated in human gastric cancer and levels correlate with tumor progression and time of survival. However, the mechanism of its dysregulation in gastric cancer is little known. Here we investigate its regulatory mechanism and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 in gastric carcinogenesis. TMEFF2 expression was decreased after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in vivo and in vitro. STAT3 directly binds to the promoter of TMEFF2 and regulates H. pylori-induced TMEFF2 downregulation in normal gastric GES-1 cells and gastric cancer AGS cells. Conversely, TMEFF2 may suppress the phosphorylation of STAT3 and TMEFF2-induced downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation may depend on SHP-1. A highly inverse correlation between the expression of TMEFF2 and pSTAT3 was also revealed in gastric tissues. We now show the deregulation mechanism of TMEFF2 in gastric carcinogenesis and identify TMEFF2 as a new target gene of STAT3. The phosphorylation of STAT3 may be negatively regulated by TMEFF2, and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:24996057

  20. STAT3 regulated ATR via microRNA-383 to control DNA damage to affect apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Zheng, Li; He, Hong-Peng; Zheng, De-Liang; Wei, Zhao-Qiang; Wang, Nan; Dong, Jian; Ma, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mounting evidence shows that exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to function as an anti-apoptotic factor, especially in numerous malignancies, but the relationship between STAT3 activation and DNA damage response in skin cancer is still not fully understood. We now report that STAT3 inhibited DNA damage induced by UV and STAT3 mediated upregulation of GADD45? and MDC-1 and the phosphorylation of H2AX in UV induced DNA damage. Notably, STAT3 can increase the expression of ATR in A431 cells. Luciferase assay shows that STAT3 activates the transcription of ATR promoter. More importantly, microRNA-383 suppressed ATR expression by targeting 3' (untranslated regions)UTR of ATR in A431 cells, and STAT3 down-regulates the transcription of miR-383 promoter. Thus, these results reveal the new insight that ATR is down-regulated by STAT3-regulated microRNA-383 in A431 cells. Moreover, overexpression of STAT3 enhanced expression of antiapoptosis genes BCL-1 and MCL-1, and depletion of STAT3 sensitized A431 cells to apoptotic cell death following UV. Collectively, these studies suggest that STAT3 may be a potential target for both the prevention and treatment of human skin cancer. PMID:26261078

  1. Methylsulfonylmethane suppresses breast cancer growth by down-regulating STAT3 and STAT5b pathways.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun Joung; Hong, Dae Young; Park, Jin Hee; Joung, Youn Hee; Darvin, Pramod; Kim, Sang Yoon; Na, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Tae Sook; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Moon, Eon-Soo; Cho, Byung Wook; Do Park, Kyung; Lee, Hak Kyo; Park, Taekyu; Yang, Young Mok

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most aggressive form of all cancers, with high incidence and mortality rates. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) inhibits breast cancer growth in mice xenografts. MSM is an organic sulfur-containing natural compound without any toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that MSM substantially decreased the viability of human breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. MSM also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5b, expression of IGF-1R, HIF-1?, VEGF, BrK, and p-IGF-1R and inhibited triple-negative receptor expression in receptor-positive cell lines. Moreover, MSM decreased the DNA-binding activities of STAT5b and STAT3, to the target gene promoters in MDA-MB 231 or co-transfected COS-7 cells. We confirmed that MSM significantly decreased the relative luciferase activities indicating crosstalk between STAT5b/IGF-1R, STAT5b/HSP90?, and STAT3/VEGF. To confirm these findings in vivo, xenografts were established in Balb/c athymic nude mice with MDA-MB 231 cells and MSM was administered for 30 days. Concurring to our in vitro analysis, these xenografts showed decreased expression of STAT3, STAT5b, IGF-1R and VEGF. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis, we confirmed that MSM can effectively regulate multiple targets including STAT3/VEGF and STAT5b/IGF-1R. These are the major molecules involved in tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Thus, we strongly recommend the use of MSM as a trial drug for treating all types of breast cancers including triple-negative cancers. PMID:22485142

  2. Involvement of hypothalamic PI3K–STAT3 signalling in regulating appetite suppression mediated by amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Yu, Ching-Han; Lin, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Yan-Han; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Appetite suppression induced by amphetamine has been attributed to its inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and activation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. This study examined whether STAT3 was involved in these actions of amphetamine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were given amphetamine daily for 4 days. Changes in the expression of NPY, POMC, melanocortin MC3 receptors, PI3K and STAT3 in the hypothalamus were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Antisense oligonucleotides to STAT3 were also used. KEY RESULTS Expression of NPY decreased with a maximum effect day 2 of amphetamine treatment. Expression of POMC, MC3 receptors, PI3K and STAT3 increased with a maximum response on day 2. Moreover, phosphorylation of STAT3 and its DNA binding activity increased and was expressed in a similar pattern. Infusion (i.c.v.) of STAT3 antisense at 60 min before amphetamine treatment, partly blocked amphetamine-induced anorexia and modulated expression of NPY, POMC, MC3 receptors and PI3K, indicating the involvement of STAT3 in amphetamine-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Hypothalamic PI3K–STAT3 signalling participated in the regulation of NPY- and POMC-mediated appetite suppression. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of anorectic drugs. PMID:24597972

  3. Erythropoietin regulates POMC expression via STAT3 and potentiates leptin response.

    PubMed

    Dey, Soumyadeep; Li, Xiaoxia; Teng, Ruifeng; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Chen, ZhiYong; Rogers, Heather; Noguchi, Constance Tom

    2016-02-01

    The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is essential for metabolic homeostasis and responds to leptin by producing several neuropeptides including proopiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously reported that high-dose erythropoietin (Epo) treatment in mice while increasing hematocrit reduced body weight, fat mass, and food intake and increased energy expenditure. Moreover, we showed that mice with Epo receptor (EpoR) restricted to erythroid cells (?EpoRE) became obese and exhibited decreased energy expenditure. Epo/EpoR signaling was found to promote hypothalamus POMC expression independently from leptin. Herein we used WT and ?EpoRE mice and hypothalamus-derived neural culture system to study the signaling pathways activated by Epo in POMC neurons. We show that Epo stimulation activated STAT3 signaling and upregulated POMC expression in WT neural cultures. ?EpoRE mice hypothalamus showed reduced POMC levels and lower STAT3 phosphorylation, with and without leptin treatment, compared to in vivo and ex vivo WT controls. Collectively, these data show that Epo regulates hypothalamus POMC expression via STAT3 activation, and provide a previously unrecognized link between Epo and leptin response. PMID:26563310

  4. Stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization

    E-print Network

    Sargeant, Timothy J.; Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan; Resemann, Henrike K.; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Skepper, Jeremy; Watson, Christine J.

    2014-10-05

    We have previously demonstrated that Stat3 regulates lysosomal mediated-programmed cell death (LM-PCD) during mouse mammary gland involution in vivo. However, the mechanism that controls the release of lysosomal cathepsins to initiate cell death...

  5. 14-3-3? Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinguang; Han, Yongfu; Jiao, Huifeng; Jie, Yaqiong

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic expression of 14-3-3? has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3? in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3? is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3? is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3? knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3? introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3? knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3? and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3? in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3? may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC. PMID:25556369

  6. The STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling axis: an emerging regulator of endogenous regeneration and cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Poser, Steven W.; Park, Deric M.; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, by definition, are able to both self-renew (give rise to more cells of their own kind) and demonstrate multipotential (the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types). To accommodate this unique dual ability, stem cells interpret signal transduction pathways in specialized ways. Notable examples include canonical and non-canonical branches of the Notch signaling pathway, with each controlling different downstream targets (e.g., Hes1 vs. Hes3) and promoting either differentiation or self-renewal. Similarly, stem cells utilize STAT3 signaling uniquely. Most mature cells studied thus far rely on tyrosine phosphorylation (STAT3-Tyr) to promote survival and growth; in contrast, STAT3-Tyr induces the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs use an alternative phosphorylation site, STAT3-Ser, to regulate survival and growth, a site that is largely redundant for this function in most other cell types. STAT3-Ser regulates Hes3, and together they form a convergence point for several signals, including Notch, Tie2, and insulin receptor activation. Disregulation and manipulation of the STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling pathway is important in both tumorigenesis and regenerative medicine, and worthy of extensive study. PMID:24101906

  7. Small molecule 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate suppresses breast tumor metastasis by regulating the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Li; Chen, Guoliang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhenxi; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated breast cancer metastasis and represents a potential target for developing new anti-tumor metastasis drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the natural agent 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), derived from the rhizomes and seeds of Languas galanga, could suppress breast cancer metastasis by targeting STAT3 signaling pathway. ACA was examined for its effects on breast cancer migration/invasion and metastasis using Transwell assays in vitro and breast cancer skeletal metastasis mouse model in vivo (n = 10 mice per group). The inhibitory effect of ACA on cellular STAT3 signaling pathway was investigated by series of biochemistry analysis. The chavicol preferentially suppressed cancer cell migration and invasion, and this activity was superior to its cytotoxic effects. ACA suppressed both constitutive and interleukin-6-inducible STAT3 activation and diminished the accumulation of STAT3 in the nucleus and its DNA-binding activity. More importantly, ACA treatment led to significant up-regulation of Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), and the ACA-induced depression of cancer cell migration and STAT3 signaling could be apparently reversed by blockade of SHP-1. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, gene products of STAT3 that regulate cell invasion, were specifically suppressed by ACA. In tumor metastasis model, ACA potently inhibited the human breast cancer cell-induced osteolysis, and had little apparent in vivo toxicity at the test concentrations. ACA is a novel drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor metastasis through interference with the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway. PMID:25301089

  8. The phosphatase DUSP2 controls the activity of the transcription activator STAT3 and regulates TH17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Liu, Liang; Ji, Xin; Gao, Yanan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Yu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xuyang; Li, Yan; Li, Yunqiao; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Yu; McNutt, Michael A; Yin, Yuxin

    2015-12-01

    Deregulation of the TH17 subset of helper T cells is closely linked with immunological disorders and inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which TH17 cells are regulated remains elusive. Here we found that the phosphatase DUSP2 (PAC1) negatively regulated the development of TH17 cells. DUSP2 was directly associated with the signal transducer and transcription activator STAT3 and attenuated its activity through dephosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705 and Ser727. DUSP2-deficient mice exhibited severe susceptibility to experimental colitis, with enhanced differentiation of TH17 cells and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In clinical patients with ulcerative colitis, DUSP2 was downregulated by DNA methylation and was not induced during T cell activation. Our data demonstrate that DUSP2 is a true STAT3 phosphatase that modulates the development of TH17 cells in the autoimmune response and inflammation. PMID:26479789

  9. STAT3 is a critical cell-intrinsic regulator of human unconventional T cell numbers and function

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert P.; Ives, Megan L.; Rao, Geetha; Lau, Anthony; Payne, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D.; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Smart, Joanne M.; French, Martyn A.; Fulcher, David A.; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Gray, Paul; Stepensky, Polina; Warnatz, Klaus; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Holland, Steven M.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Uzel, Gulbu; Ma, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional T cells such as ?? T cells, natural killer T cells (NKT cells) and mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are a major component of the immune system; however, the cytokine signaling pathways that control their development and function in humans are unknown. Primary immunodeficiencies caused by single gene mutations provide a unique opportunity to investigate the role of specific molecules in regulating human lymphocyte development and function. We found that individuals with loss-of-function mutations in STAT3 had reduced numbers of peripheral blood MAIT and NKT but not ?? T cells. Analysis of STAT3 mosaic individuals revealed that this effect was cell intrinsic. Surprisingly, the residual STAT3-deficient MAIT cells expressed normal levels of the transcription factor ROR?t. Despite this, they displayed a deficiency in secretion of IL-17A and IL-17F, but were able to secrete normal levels of cytokines such as IFN? and TNF. The deficiency in MAIT and NKT cells in STAT3-deficient patients was mirrored by loss-of-function mutations in IL12RB1 and IL21R, respectively. Thus, these results reveal for the first time the essential role of STAT3 signaling downstream of IL-23R and IL-21R in controlling human MAIT and NKT cell numbers. PMID:25941256

  10. STAT3 is a critical cell-intrinsic regulator of human unconventional T cell numbers and function.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert P; Ives, Megan L; Rao, Geetha; Lau, Anthony; Payne, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Smart, Joanne M; French, Martyn A; Fulcher, David A; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Gray, Paul; Stepensky, Polina; Warnatz, Klaus; Freeman, Alexandra F; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Holland, Steven M; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Uzel, Gulbu; Ma, Cindy S; Tangye, Stuart G; Deenick, Elissa K

    2015-06-01

    Unconventional T cells such as ?? T cells, natural killer T cells (NKT cells) and mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are a major component of the immune system; however, the cytokine signaling pathways that control their development and function in humans are unknown. Primary immunodeficiencies caused by single gene mutations provide a unique opportunity to investigate the role of specific molecules in regulating human lymphocyte development and function. We found that individuals with loss-of-function mutations in STAT3 had reduced numbers of peripheral blood MAIT and NKT but not ?? T cells. Analysis of STAT3 mosaic individuals revealed that this effect was cell intrinsic. Surprisingly, the residual STAT3-deficient MAIT cells expressed normal levels of the transcription factor ROR?t. Despite this, they displayed a deficiency in secretion of IL-17A and IL-17F, but were able to secrete normal levels of cytokines such as IFN? and TNF. The deficiency in MAIT and NKT cells in STAT3-deficient patients was mirrored by loss-of-function mutations in IL12RB1 and IL21R, respectively. Thus, these results reveal for the first time the essential role of STAT3 signaling downstream of IL-23R and IL-21R in controlling human MAIT and NKT cell numbers. PMID:25941256

  11. Stat3 controls cell death during mammary gland involution by regulating uptake of milk fat globules and lysosomal membrane permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Resemann, Henrike K.; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Skepper, Jeremy; Watson, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Stat3 regulates lysosomal mediated-programmed cell death (LM-PCD) during mouse mammary gland involution in vivo. However, the mechanism that controls the release of lysosomal cathepsins to initiate cell death in this context has not been elucidated. We show here that Stat3 regulates the formation of large lysosomal vacuoles that contain triglyceride. Furthermore, we demonstrate that milk fat globules (MFGs) are toxic to epithelial cells and that, when applied to purified lysosomes, the MFG hydrolysate oleic acid potently induces lysosomal leakiness. Additionally, uptake of secreted MFGs coated in butyrophilin 1A1 is diminished in Stat3 ablated mammary glands while loss of the phagocytosis bridging molecule MFG-E8 results in reduced leakage of cathepsins in vivo. We propose that Stat3 regulates LM-PCD in mouse mammary gland by switching cellular function from secretion to uptake of MFGs. Thereafter, perturbation of lysosomal vesicle membranes by high levels of free fatty acids results in controlled leakage of cathepsins culminating in cell death. PMID:25283994

  12. STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in decitabine induced biological phenotype regulation of acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhichao; Lu, Xuzhang; Jiang, Lijia; Sun, Xiao; Zhou, Haijun; Jia, Zhuxia; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ma, Lingdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the role of signal transduction and transcriptional activator STAT3 and relevant signaling pathway in the DAC regulated biological phenotype of AML cells. Methods: The effect of DAC at different concentrations on the proliferation of HL-60 cells was determined. After DAC treatment for 48 h, the killing capability of NK cells against HL-60 cells and the protein expressions of STAT3, JAK1, JAK2, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 were evaluated. Results: DAC markedly inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells. After the treatment of 48 hr with 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol/L DAC, the HL-60 viability was reduced by 25±13%, 39±8% and 50±7% (P<0.01), respectively, and the early apoptosis rate was increased to 24.77±7.5%, 27.1±4.48% and 30.53±3.93%, respectively (control: 3.11±0.12%, P<0.01). DAC up-regulated the expression of MICA/B, ULBP-1 and ULBP-3 in HL-60 cells, and increased the killing activity of NK cells to HL-60 cells. DAC significantly induced the apoptosis of HL-60 cells and up-regulated the expression of NKG2D ligands in a dose dependent manner. Western blot assay showed the protein expression of STAT3, JAK, JAK2, phosphorylated STAT3, phosphorylated JAK1 and phosphorylated JAK2 decreased, while that of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 increased in HL-60 cells after DAC treatment. Conclusion: In HL-60 cells, DAC can markedly inhibit their proliferation and up-regulate the expression of NKG2D ligands, and DAC also increase the cytotoxicity of NK cells to HL-60 cells, which may be related to the STAT3 related signaling pathway.

  13. Cutting edge: A transcriptional repressor and corepressor induced by the STAT3-regulated anti-inflammatory signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Smith, Amber M; Williams, Lynn; Neale, Geoffrey; Panopoulos, Athanasia D; Panopolous, Athanasia; Watowich, Stephanie S; Häcker, Hans; Foxwell, Brian M J; Murray, Peter J

    2007-12-01

    IL-10 regulates anti-inflammatory signaling via the activation of STAT3, which in turn controls the induction of a gene expression program whose products execute inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediator production. In this study we show that IL-10 induces the expression of an ETS family transcriptional repressor, ETV3, and a helicase family corepressor, Strawberry notch homologue 2 (SBNO2), in mouse and human macrophages. IL-10-mediated induction of ETV3 and SBNO2 expression was dependent upon both STAT3 and a stimulus through the TLR pathway. We also observed that ETV3 expression was strongly induced by the STAT3 pathway regulated by IL-10 but not by STAT3 signaling activated by IL-6, which cannot activate the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway. ETV3 and SBNO2 repressed NF-kappaB- but not IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-activated transcriptional reporters. Collectively our data suggest that ETV3 and SBNO2 are components of the pathways that contribute to the downstream anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10. PMID:18025162

  14. esBAF Facilitates Pluripotency by Conditioning the Genome for LIF/STAT3Signalingand by Regulating Polycomb Function

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lena; Miller, Erik L.; Ronan, Jehnna L.; Ho, Wenqi; Jothi, Raja; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2011-01-01

    Signaling by the cytokine LIF and its downstream transcription factor, STAT3, prevents differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by opposing MAP kinase signaling. This contrasts with most cell types where STAT3signaling induces differentiation. We find that STAT3binding across the pluripotent genome is dependent upon Brg, the ATPase subunit of a specialized chromatin remodeling complex (esBAF) found in ESCs. Brg is required to establish chromatin accessibility at STAT3 binding targets, in essence preparing these sites to respond to LIF signaling. Moreover, Brg deletion leads to rapid Polycomb (PcG) binding and H3K27me3-mediated silencing of many Brg-activated targets genome-wide, including the target genes of the LIF signaling pathway. Hence, one crucial role of Brg in ESCs involves its ability to potentiate LIF signaling by opposing PcG. Contrary to expectations, Brg also facilitates PcG function at classical PcG target including all four Hox loci, reinforcing their repression in ESCs. These findings reveal that esBAF does not simply antagonize PcG, but rather, the two chromatin regulators act both antagonistically and synergistically with the common goal of supporting pluripotency. PMID:21785422

  15. The EBNA-2 N-Terminal Transactivation Domain Folds into a Dimeric Structure Required for Target Gene Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Janosch; Zou, Peijian; Nössner, Elfriede; Ling, Paul D.; Sattler, Michael; Kempkes, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ?-herpesvirus that may cause infectious mononucleosis in young adults. In addition, epidemiological and molecular evidence links EBV to the pathogenesis of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. EBV has the unique ability to transform resting B cells into permanently proliferating, latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) is a key regulator of viral and cellular gene expression for this transformation process. The N-terminal region of EBNA-2 comprising residues 1-58 appears to mediate multiple molecular functions including self-association and transactivation. However, it remains to be determined if the N-terminus of EBNA-2 directly provides these functions or if these activities merely depend on the dimerization involving the N-terminal domain. To address this issue, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the EBNA-2 N-terminal dimerization (END) domain by heteronuclear NMR-spectroscopy. The END domain monomer comprises a small fold of four ?-strands and an ?-helix which form a parallel dimer by interaction of two ?-strands from each protomer. A structure-guided mutational analysis showed that hydrophobic residues in the dimer interface are required for self-association in vitro. Importantly, these interface mutants also displayed severely impaired self-association and transactivation in vivo. Moreover, mutations of solvent-exposed residues or deletion of the ?-helix do not impair dimerization but strongly affect the functional activity, suggesting that the EBNA-2 dimer presents a surface that mediates functionally important intra- and/or intermolecular interactions. Our study shows that the END domain is a novel dimerization fold that is essential for functional activity. Since this specific fold is a unique feature of EBNA-2 it might provide a novel target for anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:26024477

  16. PCBP2 regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity via HIF-1? and STAT3 pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Nana; Tang, Zhuqi; Wang, Cuifang; Xu, Guangfei; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhang, Wanlu; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin; Zhu, Xiaohui; Cui, Shiwei

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) are fundamental to the pathogenesis of hepatic insulin resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance remain not completely understood. Transcriptional dysregulation, post-transcriptional modifications and protein degradation contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Poly(C) binding proteins (PCBPs) are RNA-binding proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional control pathways. However, there are little studies about the roles of PCBPs in insulin resistance. PCBP2 is the member of the RNA-binding proteins and is thought to participate in regulating hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1?) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway which are involved in regulating insulin signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the influence of PCBP2 on hepatic insulin resistance. We showed that the protein and mRNA levels of PCBP2 were down-regulated under insulin-resistant conditions. In addition, we showed that over-expression of PCBP2 ameliorates palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance, which was indicated by elevated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). We also found that over-expression of PCBP2 inhibits HIF1? and STAT3 pathway. Furthermore, glucose uptake was found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt. The expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), two key gluconeogenic enzymes, were down-regulated following Over-expression of PCBP2. Accordingly, PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation was suppressed in over-expression of PCBP2 HepG2 cells. In addition, we found that over-expression of PCBP2 inhibits HIF1? and STAT3 pathway. Our results demonstrate that PCBP2 was involved in hepatic insulin sensitivity might via HIF-1? and STAT3 pathway in HepG2 cells. PMID:26002461

  17. The Synthetic Tryptanthrin Analogue Suppresses STAT3 Signaling and Induces Caspase Dependent Apoptosis via ERK Up Regulation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Anup S.; Kumar, Suresh; Guru, Santosh K.; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Aithagani, Sravan K.; Singh, Parvinder P.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz

    2014-01-01

    Tryptanthrin is a natural product which has been reported to have several medicinal properties. In this study, we tried to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of its bromo analogue (TBr), a potent cytotoxic agent in the induction of cancer cell death. It was found that TBr primarily targets STAT3 and ERK signaling during the induction of apoptosis in several human leukemia cell lines. In HL-60 cells, TBr treatment caused early down regulation of p-STAT3 with concomitant up regulation of p-ERK which led to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The mechanism of TBr mediated inhibition of p-STAT3 was found to be due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of tyrosine 705 and serine 727 p-STAT3. As IL-6 is the main driver of the STAT3 pathway, the effect of TBr on cell death was subdued when treated in the combination with IL-6 in HL60 cells. Interestingly, PD98059 significantly reduced the apoptotic effects of TBr, thus showing the direct involvement of p-ERK in TBr mediated cell death. It was further shown that apoptotic protein Bax silencing in HL-60 cells resists TBr mediated ERK dependent apoptosis. In summary, for the first time we report the mechanism of TBr mediated cell death in human leukemia cell lines by targeting STAT3 and ERK pathways. PMID:25383546

  18. Astrocyte response to motor neuron injury promotes structural synaptic plasticity via STAT3-regulated TSP-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Tyzack, Giulia E.; Sitnikov, Sergey; Barson, Daniel; Adams-Carr, Kerala L.; Lau, Nike K.; Kwok, Jessica C.; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J. M.; Karadottir, Ragnhildur T.; Fawcett, James W.; Lakatos, András

    2014-01-01

    The role of remote astrocyte (AC) reaction to central or peripheral axonal insult is not clearly understood. Here we use a transgenic approach to compare the direct influence of normal with diminished AC reactivity on neuronal integrity and synapse recovery following extracranial facial nerve transection in mice. Our model allows straightforward interpretations of AC–neuron signalling by reducing confounding effects imposed by inflammatory cells. We show direct evidence that perineuronal reactive ACs play a major role in maintaining neuronal circuitry following distant axotomy. We reveal a novel function of astrocytic signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 regulates perineuronal astrocytic process formation and re-expression of a synaptogenic molecule, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), apart from supporting neuronal integrity. We demonstrate that, through this new pathway, TSP-1 is responsible for the remote AC-mediated recovery of excitatory synapses onto axotomized motor neurons in adult mice. These data provide new targets for neuroprotective therapies via optimizing AC-driven plasticity. PMID:25014177

  19. RhoC Regulates Cancer Stem Cells in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Overexpressing IL-6 and Phosphorylation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mozaffarul; Sharma, Smita; Teknos, Theodoros N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between RhoC expression and cancer stem cells (CSCs) formation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The inhibition of RhoC function was achieved using shRNA. The expression of stem cell surface markers, ALDH and CD44 were significantly low in two RhoC depleted HNSCC cell carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, a striking reduction in tumorsphere formation was achieved in RhoC knockdown lines. The mRNA expression of RhoC in RhoC knockdown adherent and tumorspheres are dramatically down regulated as compared with the scrambled control. The mRNA expression of stem cell transcription factors; nanog, oct3/4 (Pouf1), and sox2 were significantly depleted in RhoC knockdown clones. Further, the phosphorylation of STAT3ser727, and STAT3tyr705 were significantly down regulated in RhoC knockdown clones. The overexpression of STAT3 in RhoC knockdown did not show any change in expression patterns of either-STAT3tyr705 or stem cell transcription factors, signifying the role of RhoC in STAT3 activation and thus the expression of nanog, oct3/4 and sox2 in HNSCC. The expression of Inter leukin-6 (IL-6) in RhoC knockdown HNSCC cell lines was dramatically low as compared to the scrambled control. Further, we have shown a rescue in STAT3 phosphorylation by IL-6 stimulation in RhoC knockdown lines. This study is the first of its kind to establish the involvement of RhoC in STAT3 phosphorylation and hence in promoting the activation of core cancer stem cells (CSCs) transcription factors. These findings suggest that RhoC may be a novel target for HNSCC therapy. PMID:24533098

  20. An essential role for the Stat3 in regulating IgG immune complex-induced pulmonary inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing evidence suggests that transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 may play an important regulatory role during inflammation. However, the function of Stat3 in acute lung injury (ALI) is largely unknown. In the current study, by using an adenoviral vector e...

  1. MICRO-RNA146B PROMOTES ALVEOLAR PROGENITOR CELL MAINTENANCE THROUGH PREFERENTIAL REGULATION OF STAT3B

    E-print Network

    Elsarraj, Hanan Sataa

    2012-08-31

    In order to determine if the putative miR146b binding sites within the 3’ UTR of STAT3 gene, bind to miR146b, luciferase constructs where the 3’UTR of STAT3? was inserted downstream of the firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by SV40 promoter been...

  2. Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Napolitano, Jessica R.; Burris, Dara L.; Yu, Lianbo; Tridandapani, Susheela; Knoell, Daren L.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis rapidly activates the host inflammatory response and acute phase response. Severe sepsis, complicated by multiple organ failure, is associated with overwhelming inflammation and high mortality. We previously observed that zinc (Zn) deficiency significantly increases mortality in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis due to over-activation of the inflammatory response. In order to identify potential mechanisms that account for Zn-responsive effects, we generated whole exome expression profiles from the lung tissue of septic mice that were maintained on Zn modified diets. Based on systems analysis, we observed that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response and particularly the JAK-STAT3 pathway, resulting in increased serum amyloid A production. In vitro studies of primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells substantiated that Zn-deficiency augments serum amyloid A production through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 and NF-?B pathways. In contrast, Zn inhibited STAT3 activation through the up-regulation of SHP1 activity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 pathway, thereby perpetuating increased inflammation that may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in response to sepsis. PMID:24732911

  3. Metformin Ameliorates Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Suppression of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway and Regulation of the between Th17/Treg Balance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Shin, Dong-Yun; Cho, Mi-La

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metformin is used to treat type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine whether metformin reduces inflammation, by regulating p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression and T-helper 17 (Th17) cell proliferation, in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods IBD mice were administered metformin for 16 days and their tissues were analyzed. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 in the spleen and lymph nodes were detected using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Gene expression was determined using quantitative PCR assays, and protein expression levels were measured using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Human HT-29 cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assays. Results Metformin reduced disease activity index scores and inhibited weight loss. Metformin also decreased the colonic histological score and inflammatory mediators and increased colon lengths increased. Treatment with metformin inhibited the expression of interleukin (IL)-17, p-STAT3, and p-mTOR. In contrast, metformin treatment increased expression levels of p-AMPK and Foxp3. In addition, expression of inflammatory cytokines decreased in a dose-dependent manner in inflamed human HT-29 cells cultured with metformin at various concentrations. Conclusions Metformin attenuates IBD severity and reduces inflammation through the inhibition of p-STAT3 and IL-17 expression. Our results have increased our understanding of this chronic inflammatory disease, and support the strategy of using p-STAT3 inhibitors to treat IBD. PMID:26360050

  4. BIS targeting induces cellular senescence through the regulation of 14-3-3 zeta/STAT3/SKP2/p27 in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J-J; Lee, J-S; Cui, M N; Yun, H H; Kim, H Y; Lee, S H; Lee, J-H

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is an important mechanism for preventing tumor progression. The elevated expression of Bcl-2-interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), an anti-apoptotic and anti-stress protein, often correlates with poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma; however, the role of BIS in the regulation of senescence has not been well defined. Here, we describe for the first time that the depletion of BIS induces G1 arrest and cellular senescence through the accumulation of p27 that is independent of p53, p21 or p16. The increase in p27 expression in BIS-depleted cells was attributable to an impairment of the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, which was caused by a decrease in S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) at the transcriptional level. As an underlying molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that the loss of activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was specifically linked to the suppression of SKP2 expression. Despite a reduction in phospho-STAT3 levels, total STAT3 levels were unexpectedly increased by BIS depletion, specifically in the insoluble fraction. Our results show that 14-3-3? expression is decreased by BIS knockdown and that 14-3-3? depletion per se significantly induced senescence phenotypes. In addition, the ectopic expression of 14-3-3? blocked senescence caused by BIS depletion, which was paralleled with a decrease in insoluble STAT3 in A172 glioblastoma cells. These findings indicate that the impairment of the protein quality control conferred by BIS and/or 14-3-3? is critical for BIS depletion-induced senescence. Moreover, BIS knockdown also induced senescence along with an accumulation of total STAT3 and p27 in several different cell types as well as embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bis-knock out mice with/without variations in 14-3-3? levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that a downregulation of BIS expression could serve as a potential strategy for restricting tumor progression via an induction of senescence through the regulation of STAT3/SKP2/p27 pathway. PMID:25412315

  5. Novel Etoposide Analogue Modulates Expression of Angiogenesis Associated microRNAs and Regulates Cell Proliferation by Targeting STAT3 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Chatla; Ramaiah, M. Janaki; Lavanya, A.; Yerramsetty, Suresh; Kavi Kishor, P. B; Basha, Shaik Anver; Kamal, Ahmed; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika-Pal

    2015-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment play role in angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. Etoposide, a known topoisomerase II inhibitor induces DNA damage resulting in cell cycle arrest. We developed a novel Etoposide analogue, Quinazolino-4?-amidopodophyllotoxin (C-10) that show better efficacy in regulating cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We evaluated its role on expression of microRNAs-15, 16, 17 and 221 and its targets Bcl-2, STAT3 and VEGF that dictate cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Docking studies clearly demonstrated the binding of Etoposide and C-10 to STAT3. We conclude that combination of Etoposide or C-10 with miR-15, 16, 17 and 221 as a new approach to induce apoptosis and control angiogenesis in breast cancer. PMID:26551008

  6. Novel Etoposide Analogue Modulates Expression of Angiogenesis Associated microRNAs and Regulates Cell Proliferation by Targeting STAT3 in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Chatla; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Lavanya, A; Yerramsetty, Suresh; Kavi Kishor, P B; Basha, Shaik Anver; Kamal, Ahmed; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika-Pal

    2015-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment play role in angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. Etoposide, a known topoisomerase II inhibitor induces DNA damage resulting in cell cycle arrest. We developed a novel Etoposide analogue, Quinazolino-4?-amidopodophyllotoxin (C-10) that show better efficacy in regulating cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We evaluated its role on expression of microRNAs-15, 16, 17 and 221 and its targets Bcl-2, STAT3 and VEGF that dictate cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Docking studies clearly demonstrated the binding of Etoposide and C-10 to STAT3. We conclude that combination of Etoposide or C-10 with miR-15, 16, 17 and 221 as a new approach to induce apoptosis and control angiogenesis in breast cancer. PMID:26551008

  7. STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression is crucial for persistent STAT3 activation in tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heehyoung; Deng, Jiehui; Kujawski, Maciej; Yang, Chunmei; Liu, Yong; Herrmann, Andreas; Kortylewski, Marcin; Horne, David; Somlo, George; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2010-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression. PMID:21102457

  8. Granulin, a novel STAT3-interacting protein, enhances STAT3 transcriptional function and correlates with poorer prognosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jennifer E.; Kreimer, Simion; Walker, Sarah R.; Emori, Megan M.; Krystal, Hannah; Richardson, Andrea; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Frank, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the neoplastic phenotype of a cell is largely driven by aberrant gene expression patterns, increasing attention has been focused on transcription factors that regulate critical mediators of tumorigenesis such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). As proteins that interact with STAT3 may be key in addressing how STAT3 contributes to cancer pathogenesis, we took a proteomics approach to identify novel STAT3-interacting proteins. We performed mass spectrometry-based profiling of STAT3-containing complexes from breast cancer cells that have constitutively active STAT3 and are dependent on STAT3 function for survival. We identified granulin (GRN) as a novel STAT3-interacting protein that was necessary for both constitutive and maximal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)induced STAT3 transcriptional activity. GRN enhanced STAT3 DNA binding and also increased the time-integrated amount of LIF-induced STAT3 activation in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, silencing GRN neutralized STAT3-mediated tumorigenic phenotypes including viability, clonogenesis, and migratory capacity. In primary breast cancer samples, GRN mRNA levels were positively correlated with STAT3 gene expression signatures and with reduced patient survival. These studies identify GRN as a functionally important STAT3-interacting protein that may serve as an important prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:26000098

  9. Stat1 Regulates Lupus-like Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Severity via Interactions with Stat3.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wen-Hai; Gamero, Ana M; Zhen, Yuxuan; Lobue, Monica J; Priest, Stephen O; Albandar, Hazem J; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex multisystem autoimmune disease, characterized by a spectrum of autoantibodies that target multiple cellular components. Glomerulonephritis is a major cause of morbidity in patients with SLE. Little is known about the pathogenesis of SLE renal damage and compromised renal function. Activation of both Stat1 and Stat3 has been reported in lupus and lupus nephritis. The reciprocal activation of these two transcription factors may have a major impact on renal inflammation. To study the role of Stat1 in a lupus model, we induced lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in Stat1-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by i.p. injection of class II-disparate bm12 splenocytes. WT recipients of these alloreactive cells developed anti-dsDNA autoantibodies starting at week 2 as expected, with a decline after week 4. In contrast, Stat1-KO hosts exhibited a prolonged and significant increase of anti-dsDNA autoantibody responses compared with WT mice (week 4 to week 8). Increased autoantibody titers were accompanied by increased proteinuria and mortality in the cGVHD host mice lacking Stat1. Further analysis revealed expression and activation of Stat3 in the glomeruli of Stat1-KO host mice but not WT mice with cGVHD. Glomerular Stat3 activity in the Stat1-KO mice was associated with increased IL-6 and IFN-? secretion and macrophage infiltration. Interactions between Stat1 and Stat3 thus appear to be crucial in determining the severity of lupus-like disease in the cGVHD model. PMID:26392462

  10. In Vivo Induction of Apoptosis by Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid, Associated with Down-Regulating STAT3/EGFR Signaling in Sarcoma 180 (S180) Xenografts-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Shihui; Xu, Shiqiang; Yu, Xing; Ma, Dongqing; Hu, Xiamin; Cao, Xiaolu

    2012-01-01

    Previous in vitro researches have showed that fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid isolated from sargassum, can inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma, hepatoma, leukemia, colon carcinoma, prostate cancer or urinary bladder cancer cells. But the precise mechanism by which fucoxanthin exerts anticarcinogenic effects is not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed an in vivo study to investigate the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of fucoxanthin on xenografted sarcoma 180 (S180) in mice. Results revealed that fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the growth of sarcoma at the dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. TUNEL analysis showed that the number of positive cells in the fucoxanthin-treated group was higher than that in the control group. Western blotting analysis also revealed the suppressed expression of bcl-2 and enhanced expression of cleaved caspase-3 by fucoxanthin. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blotting analysis showed that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the expressions of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Most importantly, fucoxanthin inhibited the expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. These results indicated that in vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in S180 xenografts-bearing mice. PMID:23118721

  11. STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 promotes angiogenesis and is involved in neoplastic processes of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Huiqiao; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Xu, Wenchao; Lu, Lu; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Quanyong; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-01-01

    Although microRNA (miRNA) enclosed in exosomes can mediate intercellular communication, the roles of exosomal miRNA and angiogenesis in lung cancer remain unclear. We investigated functions of STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 derived from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in the angiogenesis of CSE-induced carcinogenesis. miR-21 levels in serum were higher in smokers than those in non-smokers. The medium from transformed HBE cells promoted miR-21 levels in normal HBE cells and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Transformed cells transferred miR-21 into normal HBE cells via exosomes. Knockdown of STAT3 reduced miR-21 levels in exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells, which blocked the angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HBE cells and thereby promoted angiogenesis in HUVEC cells. Inhibition of exosomal miR-21, however, decreased VEGF levels in recipient cells, which blocked exosome-induced angiogenesis. Thus, miR-21 in exosomes leads to STAT3 activation, which increases VEGF levels in recipient cells, a process involved in angiogenesis and malignant transformation of HBE cells. These results, demonstrating the function of exosomal miR-21 from transformed HBE cells, provide a new perspective for intervention strategies to prevent carcinogenesis of lung cancer. PMID:26525579

  12. A STAT3-mediated metabolic switch is involved in tumour transformation and STAT3 addiction

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Marco; Giorgi, Carlotta; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Esposito, Giovanna; D'Angeli, Luca; Bartoli, Antonietta; Gough, Daniel J.; Turkson, James; Levy, David E.; Watson, Christine J.; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Provero, Paolo; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    The pro-oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 is constitutively activated in a wide variety of tumours that often become addicted to its activity, but no unifying view of a core function determining this widespread STAT3-dependence has yet emerged. We show here that constitutively active STAT3 acts as a master regulator of cell metabolism, inducing aerobic glycolysis and down-regulating mitochondrial activity both in primary fibroblasts and in STAT3-dependent tumour cell lines. As a result, cells are protected from apoptosis and senescence while becoming highly sensitive to glucose deprivation. We show that enhanced glycolysis is dependent on HIF-1? up-regulation, while reduced mitochondrial activity is HIF-1?-independent and likely caused by STAT3-mediated down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins. The induction of aerobic glycolysis is an important component of STAT3 pro-oncogenic activities, since inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in the tumour cell lines down-regulates glycolysis prior to leading to growth arrest and cell death, both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that this novel, central metabolic role is at the core of the addiction for STAT3 shown by so many biologically different tumours. PMID:21084727

  13. Stat3 Mediates Expression of Autotaxin in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azare, Janeen; Doane, Ashley; Leslie, Kenneth; Chang, Qing; Berishaj, Marjan; Nnoli, Jennifer; Mark, Kevin; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Gerald, William; Hassimi, Maryam; Viale, Agnes; Stracke, Mary; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    We determined that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is tyrosine phosphorylated in 37% of primary breast tumors and 63% of paired metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Examination of the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated (pStat3) in primary tumors revealed heterogenous expression within the tumor with the highest levels found in cells on the edge of tumors with relatively lower levels in the central portion of tumors. In order to determine Stat3 target genes that may be involved in migration and metastasis, we identified those genes that were differentially expressed in primary breast cancer samples as a function of pStat3 levels. In addition to known Stat3 transcriptional targets (Twist, Snail, Tenascin-C and IL-8), we identified ENPP2 as a novel Stat3 regulated gene, which encodes autotaxin (ATX), a secreted lysophospholipase which mediates mammary tumorigenesis and cancer cell migration. A positive correlation between nuclear pStat3 and ATX was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of primary breast cancer samples and matched axillary lymph nodes and in several breast cancer derived cell lines. Inhibition of pStat3 or reducing Stat3 expression led to a decrease in ATX levels and cell migration. An association between Stat3 and the ATX promoter, which contains a number of putative Stat3 binding sites, was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These observations suggest that activated Stat3 may regulate the migration of breast cancer cells through the regulation of ATX. PMID:22140473

  14. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    PubMed Central

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  15. Paeoniflorin inhibits human gastric carcinoma cell proliferation through up-regulation of microRNA-124 and suppression of PI3K/Akt and STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yong-Bin; Xiao, Gao-Chun; Tong, Shi-Lun; Ding, Yu; Wang, Qiu-Shuang; Li, Sheng-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Nan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the potential anti-tumor activity of paeoniflorin in the human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC-803. METHODS: Cell viability and cytotoxic effects in MGC-803 cells were analyzed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis of MGC-803 cells was measured using flow cytometry, DAPI staining assay and caspase-3 activity assay. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of microRNA-124 (miR-124) in response to paeoniflorin. The expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) were also measured by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in normal, miR-124 and anti-miR-124 over-expressing MGC-803 cells, treated with paeoniflorin. RESULTS: Paeoniflorin was found to inhibit MGC-803 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Paeoniflorin treatment was associated with the induction of apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in MGC-803 cells. Paeoniflorin treatment significantly increased miR-124 levels and inhibited the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt and p-STAT3 in MGC-803 cells. Interestingly, the over-expression of miR-124 inhibits PI3K/Akt and phospho-STAT3 expressions in MGC-803 cells. PI3K agonist (IGF-1, 1 ?g/10 ?L) or over-expression of STAT3 reversed the effect of paeoniflorin on the proliferation of MGC-803 cells. Over-expression of anti-miR-124 in MGC-803 cells reversed paeoniflorin-induced up-regulation. CONCLUSION: In summary, the in vitro data suggest that paeoniflorin is a potential novel therapeutic agent against gastric carcinoma, which inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis through the up-regulation of miR-124 and suppression of PI3K/Akt and STAT3 signaling. PMID:26109806

  16. The Complex Role of STAT3 in Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kuchipudi, Suresh V.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) regulates diverse biological functions including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, STAT3 plays a key role in regulating host immune and inflammatory responses and in the pathogenesis of many cancers. Several studies reported differential regulation of STAT3 in a range of viral infections. Interestingly, STAT3 appears to direct seemingly contradictory responses and both pro- and antiviral roles of STAT3 have been described. This review summarized the currently known functions of STAT3 in the regulation of viral replication and pathogenesis of viral infections. Some of the key unanswered questions and the gap in our current understanding of the role of STAT3 in viral pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:26199948

  17. Quercetin Down-regulates IL-6/STAT-3 Signals to Induce Mitochondrial-mediated Apoptosis in a Nonsmall- cell Lung-cancer Cell Line, A549

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. Methods: In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results: Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/ Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax) ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3) signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-?B expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells. PMID:25830055

  18. Zap70 functions to maintain stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells by negatively regulating Jak1/Stat3/c-Myc signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Ok; Ahn, Hee-Jin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Ah; Fornace, Albert J.; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Zeta-chain associated protein kinase-70 (Zap70), a Syk family tyrosine kinase, has been reported to be present exclusively in normal T cells, Natural Killer (NK) cells, and B cells, serving as a pivotal regulator of antigen-mediated receptor signaling and development. In this study, we report that Zap70 is expressed in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and may critically regulate self-renewal and pluripotency in mESCs. We found that Zap70 knocked-down mESCs (Zap70KD) show sustained self-renewal and defective differentiation. In addition, we present evidence that the sustained self-renewal in Zap70KD is associated with enhanced Jak/Stat3 signaling and c-Myc induction. These altered signaling appears to result from up-regulated LIFR and down-regulated SHP-1 phosphatase activity. Based on these results, we propose that, in undifferentiated mESCs, Zap70 plays important roles in modulating the balance between self-renewal capacity and pluripotent differentiation ability as a key regulator of the Jak/Stat3/c-Myc signaling pathway. PMID:20641039

  19. The stat3/socs3a pathway is a key regulator of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Wilson, Alexander F; Burgess, Shawn M

    2012-08-01

    All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors (i.e., hair cells) (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals possess only a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals experience permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique digital gene expression, which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological inhibition of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without overproducing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Dierssen et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing. PMID:22855815

  20. STAT3: A Target to Enhance Antitumor Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heehyoung; Pal, Sumanta Kumar; Reckamp, Karen; Figlin, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) has emerged as a critical regulator for tumor-associated inflammation. Activation of Stat3 negatively regulates the Th1-type immune response and promotes expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T-cell functions in the tumor microenvironment. Mounting evidence suggests that Stat3 and related pathways may serve as a target for changing the tumor immunologic microenvironment to benefit cancer immunotherapies. Many recent studies support the use of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors, through inhibition of Stat3, in decreasing immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Other potential therapeutic avenues include the use of targeted delivery of Stat3 siRNA into immune cells. Here, we describe the role of Stat3 in regulating the immunologic properties of tumors as a background for Stat3-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:20517723

  1. miR-21 regulates tumor progression through the miR-21-PDCD4-Stat3 pathway in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lie-Hao; Ge, Ming-Hua; Hou, Xiu-Xiu; Cao, Jun; Hu, Si-Si; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Han, Jing; Wu, Yi-Chen; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xin; Hong, Lian-Lian; Li, Pei; Ling, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    miR-21, which is a putative tumor onco-miR and frequently overexpressed microRNA in various tumors, has been linked to tumor progression through targeting of tumor-suppressor genes. In this study, we sought to determine whether miR-21 has any role on tumor progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and the possible mechanisms. We found that the level of miR-21 expression was significantly higher in SACC than that in normal salivary tissues, and it is also higher in tumors with metastasis than that without metastasis. Using an anti-miR-21 inhibitor in an in vitro model, downregulation of miR-21 significantly decreased the capacity of invasion and migration of SACC cells, whereas a pre-miR-21 increased the capacity of invasion and migration of SACC cells. To explore the potential mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate invasion and migration, we identified one direct miR-21 target gene, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which has been implicated in invasion and metastasis. The suppression of miR-21 in metastatic SACC-LM cells significantly increased the report activity of PDCD4 promoter and the expression of PDCD4 protein. This subsequently resulted in downregulation of the p-STAT3 protein. The level of miR-21 expression positively related to the expression of PDCD4 protein and negatively related to the expression of p-STAT3 protein in SACC specimens, respectively, indicating the potential role of the STAT3-miR-21-PDCD4 pathway in these tumors. Dysregulation of miR-21 has an important role in tumor growth and invasion by targeting PDCD4. Therefore, suppression of miR-21 may provide a potential approach for the treatment of advanced SACC patients. PMID:26367487

  2. PI3K/Akt and Stat3 signaling regulated by PTEN control of the cancer stem cell population, proliferation and senescence in a glioblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seok-Ho; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Cha, Young; Jeon, Iksoo; Song, Jihwan; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2013-03-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults. A number of genes have been implicated in glioblastoma including mutation and deletion of PTEN. PTEN is a regulator of PI3K-mediated Akt signaling pathways and has been recognized as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma. To achieve potent therapeutic inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway in glioblastoma, it is essential to understand the interplay between the regulators of its activation. Here, ectopic expression of PTEN in the U-87MG human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line is shown to result in the depletion of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and to cause growth retardation and senescence. These effects are likely to be associated with PTEN-mediated cooperative perturbation of Akt and Stat3 signals. Using an in vivo rat model of glioblastoma, we showed that PTEN-overexpressing U-87MG cells failed to induce tumor formation, while untreated U-87MG cells did so. Furthermore, cells expressing the phosphorylated form of Stat3 were completely absent from the brain of rats implanted with PTEN-overexpressing U-87MG cells. Based on these results, PTEN appears to function as a crucial inhibitor of GSCs and as an inducer of senescence, suggesting that functional enhancement of the PTEN pathway will be useful to provide a therapeutic strategy for targeting glioblastoma. PMID:23314408

  3. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates STAT3 activity and its expression dictates the responsiveness to SR141716 treatment in human glioma patients' cells

    PubMed Central

    Ciaglia, Elena; Torelli, Giovanni; Pisanti, Simona; Picardi, Paola; D'Alessandro, Alba; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Fiore, Donatella; Zottola, Antonio Christian Pagano; Proto, Maria Chiara; Catapano, Giuseppe; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Herein we show that a majority of human brain tumor samples and cell lines over-expressed cannabinoid receptor CB1 as compared to normal human astrocytes (NHA), while uniformly expressed low levels of CB2. This finding prompted us to investigate the therapeutic exploitation of CB1 inactivation by SR141716 treatment, with regard to its direct and indirect cell-mediated effects against gliomas. Functional studies, using U251MG glioma cells and primary tumor cell lines derived from glioma patients expressing different levels of CB1, highlighted SR141716 efficacy in inducing apoptosis via G1 phase stasis and block of TGF-?1 secretion through a mechanism that involves STAT3 inhibition. According to the multivariate role of STAT3 in the immune escape too, interestingly SR141716 lead also to the functional and selective expression of MICA/B on the surface of responsive malignant glioma cells, but not on NHA. This makes SR141716 treated-glioma cells potent targets for allogeneic NK cell-mediated recognition through a NKG2D restricted mechanism, thus priming them for NK cell antitumor reactivity. These results indicate that CB1 and STAT3 participate in a new oncogenic network in the complex biology of glioma and their expression levels in patients dictate the efficacy of the CB1 antagonist SR141716 in multimodal glioma destruction. SIGNIFICANCE CB1 is implicated in the regulation of cellular processes linked to survival, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in several physio-pathological conditions. We shed light on previously unrecognized molecular mechanism of CB1-mediated modulation of human glioma progression and provide the first and original demonstration of CB1-STAT3 axis as a new target and predictor biomarkers of the benefit from specific therapies. Indeed CB1 antagonism capable of tumoral cell division' control while making the glioma immunovisible and engaging the immune system to fight it may represent a hopeful alternative to other established chemotherapeutics. Because different aspects of glioma biology have been separately targeted with very limited success, we speculate that CB1 inhibitors which enclose in the same molecule cytotoxic potential and high activity to boost competent immune surveillance mechanisms, at a degree that seems to be correlated to the levels of CB1 immunoreactivity, might have profound implications for exploring new therapeutic anti-glioma actions. PMID:26008966

  4. Counteracting Effects of Cellular Notch and Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA2: Implications for Stromal Effects on Virus-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Martin; Raithatha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of diverse environmental cues have been linked to B lymphocyte differentiation and activation. One such cue, Notch-2, may be particularly relevant to the biology of infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which colonizes the B cell compartment. Activated Notch and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) both function as transcriptional activators by virtue of their interactions with the transcription factor RBP-J?. Although EBNA2 and activated Notch appear to have partially overlapping functions, we now report that activated Notch counteracts a crucial EBNA2 function both in newly infected primary B cells and in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). EBNA2 is directly responsible for the initiation of transcription of the majority of EBV proteins associated with type III latency, leading to the outgrowth of LCLs. One of the key proteins driving this outgrowth is latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which is regulated by an EBNA2-responsive element within its ED-L1 promoter. Activation of Notch-2 via Delta-like ligand 1 inhibits EBNA2-mediated initiation of LMP1 transcription. Furthermore, ligated Notch-2 also efficiently turns off LMP1 expression from the ED-L1 promoter in LCLs already expressing LMP1. Modulation of EBV gene expression by Notch was not confined to EBNA2-dependent events. Activated Notch-2 also inhibited EBV entry into the lytic cycle in a B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma line by upregulating the cellular transcription factor Zeb2, which represses the transcription of BZLF1. These results support the concept that in vivo, cumulative signals from the microenvironment downregulate EBV gene expression in B cells to the latency 0 gene expression profile observed in B cells entering the peripheral blood. IMPORTANCE Experimental infection of resting B cells by Epstein-Barr virus leads to the growth transformation program of virus gene expression and the outgrowth of lymphoblastoid cell lines. Previous studies at the single-cell level revealed complex cellular and viral signaling networks regulating transcription of the viral genome. This study demonstrates that viral gene expression can also be radically altered by molecules expressed on stromal cells in the microenvironment of lymphoid tissue, specifically, Delta-like ligand 1 on stromal cells ligating Notch-2 on infected B cells. Activation of Notch interferes with the transactivation function of EBNA2, downregulates the expression of LMP1 and LMP2a, and inhibits the activation of lytic virus replication in a B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma line by preventing expression of BZLF1. The significance of these observations is that they indicate new mechanisms whereby the microenvironment in normal lymphoid tissue may facilitate the repression of viral gene expression, enabling establishment of true latency in memory B cells. PMID:25122803

  5. Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Jennifer; Byun, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Woo, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA. PMID:25147435

  6. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

  7. Selective STAT3-? or -? expression reveals spliceform-specific phosphorylation kinetics, nuclear retention and distinct gene expression outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ivan H. W.; Ng, Dominic C. H.; Jans, David A.; Bogoyevitch, Marie A.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is critical for its nuclear import and transcriptional activity. Although a shorter STAT3? spliceform was initially described as a negative regulator of STAT3?, gene knockout studies have revealed that both forms play critical roles. We have expressed STAT3? and STAT3? at comparable levels to facilitate a direct comparison of their functional effects, and have shown their different cytokine-stimulated kinetics of phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Notably, the sustained nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of STAT3? following cytokine exposure contrasted with a transient nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of STAT3?. Importantly, co-expression of the spliceforms revealed that STAT3? enhanced and prolonged the phosphorylation and nuclear retention of STAT3?, but a STAT3? R609L mutant, with a disrupted SH2 (Src homology 2) domain, was not tyrosine phosphorylated following cytokine stimulation and could not cross-regulate STAT3?. The physiological importance of prolonged phosphorylation and nuclear retention was indicated by transcriptome profiling of STAT3?/? cells expressing either STAT3? or STAT3?, revealing the complexity of genes that are up- and down-regulated by the STAT3 spliceforms, including a distinct set of STAT3?-specific genes regulated under basal conditions and after cytokine stimulation. These results highlight STAT3? as a significant transcriptional regulator in its own right, with additional actions to cross-regulate STAT3? phosphorylation and nuclear retention after cytokine stimulation. PMID:22799634

  8. mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Susann; Renaud, Stephen J.; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Graham, Charles H.; Markert, Udo R.

    2009-06-10

    The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

  9. Twist Is Transcriptionally Induced by Activation of STAT3 and Mediates STAT3 Oncogenic Function*S?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, George Z.; Zhang, WeiZhou; Sun, Mei; Wang, Qi; Coppola, Domenico; Mansour, Mena; Xu, LiMei; Costanzo, Carliann; Cheng, Jin Q.; Wang, Lu-Hai

    2008-01-01

    To explore the basis of metastasis, we compared the human breast cancer lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB453, which have low invasive ability, with their sublines MCF7-I4 and MDA-MB453-I4 with high invasive ability for gene expression and signaling pathways. We previously showed that the I4 lines had dramatically elevated levels of Twist compared with their parental lines. In this study, we observed significantly increased STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, but not the STAT3 protein levels, in the I4 lines. Activation of STAT3 by interleukin-6 or expression of activated Src induced Twist expression at protein and mRNA levels. Inhibiting STAT3 by a small molecule inhibitor, JSI-124, STAT3 small hairpin RNAs, or dominant negative STAT3 resulted in significant reduction of Twist protein and mRNA expression. STAT3 directly bound to the second proximal STAT3-binding site on the human Twist promoter and activated its transcriptional activity. Inhibition of STAT3 reduced migration, invasion, and colony formation of the I4 cells. Ectopic expression of Twist significantly rescued those phenotypes. Ten normal and 46 tumor specimens of breast tissues were examined for activation of STAT3 and expression of Twist. There was a strong correlation between Tyr705 p-STAT3 and Twist level in the late stage tumor tissues. Our results indicate that activated STAT3 transcriptionally induces Twist, which plays an important role in promoting migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Together with our previous observation that Twist transcriptionally induces AKT2 to mediate Twist-promoted oncogenic functions, we conclude that STAT3, Twist, and AKT2 form a functional signaling axis to regulate pivotal oncogenic properties of cancer cells. PMID:18353781

  10. Downregulation of ERR? inhibits angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through regulating VEGF production and PI3K/Akt/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu-Di; Chen, Li; Zhang, Meng; Qi, Hui-Jie; Chen, Lu; Chen, Hai-Fei; Zhong, Ming-Kang; Shi, Xiao-Jin; Li, Qun-Yi

    2015-12-15

    The human estrogen related receptor ? (ERR?) is a pivotal regulator involved in energy homeostasis and mitochondrial biogenesis. It has been demonstrated that activation of ERR? in various breast cancer cells results in a significant increase of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein secretion. However, little is known about the relationship between ERR? and angiogenesis. Thus, the present study is aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of ERR? suppression on the angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Here we show that ERR? suppression powerfully inhibits proliferation, migration and capillary-like structures formation of HUVECs. Importantly, we demonstrate that these inhibitory effects are associated with the significantly reduced expression and production of VEGF. Results from further experiments using western blot and luciferase reporter assay exhibit that ERR? suppression inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) expression, and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) which up-regulated VEGF expression. In summary, we show that ERR? suppression inhibits angiogenesis in HUVECs and deserves further studies for application of rationale therapeutic target for patient with diseases related with aberrant angiogenesis. PMID:26586335

  11. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Ling, Min; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu; Bian, Qian; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  12. Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N. Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6-JAK2-STAT3 that in concert with NF-{kappa}B regulated protection against TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

  13. STAT3 Activation in Glioblastoma: Biochemical and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer E; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Jackson, Christopher M; Lim, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a potent regulator of gliomagenesis through its induction of angiogenesis, host immunosuppression, and tumor invasion. Gain of function mutations result in constitutive activation of STAT3 in glioma cells, making STAT3 an attractive target for inhibition in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, some studies show that STAT3 also participates in terminal differentiation and apoptosis of various cell lines and in glioma with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient genetic backgrounds. In light of these findings, the utility of STAT3 as a prognostic indicator and as a target of drug therapies will be contingent on a more nuanced understanding of its pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24518612

  14. STAT3 Activation in Glioblastoma: Biochemical and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jennifer E.; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Jackson, Christopher M.; Lim, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a potent regulator of gliomagenesis through its induction of angiogenesis, host immunosuppression, and tumor invasion. Gain of function mutations result in constitutive activation of STAT3 in glioma cells, making STAT3 an attractive target for inhibition in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, some studies show that STAT3 also participates in terminal differentiation and apoptosis of various cell lines and in glioma with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient genetic backgrounds. In light of these findings, the utility of STAT3 as a prognostic indicator and as a target of drug therapies will be contingent on a more nuanced understanding of its pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24518612

  15. Genetic Interactions of STAT3 and Anticancer Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bingliang

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. This review focuses on functional regulation of STAT3 activity; possible interactions of the STAT3, RAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and reduction-oxidation pathways; and molecular mechanisms that modulate therapeutic efficacies of STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24662938

  16. STAT3 the oncogene – still eluding therapy?

    E-print Network

    Wake, Matthew S.; Watson, Christine J.

    2015-04-22

    (26). Further evidence that STAT3 is an oncogene was provided by expressing a mutated STAT3 construct (STAT3C), that constitutively forms dimers, in normal mouse fibroblasts which, when transplanted into nude mice, formed tumours (27). This STAT3C...

  17. Eriocalyxin B Inhibits STAT3 Signaling by Covalently Targeting STAT3 and Blocking Phosphorylation and Activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaokui; He, Li; Cao, Peng; Yu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Activated STAT3 plays an important role in oncogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and resisting apoptosis. STAT3 therefore is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We have screened a traditional Chinese herb medicine compound library and found Eriocalyxin B (EB), a diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx, as a specific inhibitor of STAT3. EB selectively inhibited constitutive as well as IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and induced apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells. EB did not affect the upstream protein tyrosine kinases or the phosphatase (PTPase) of STAT3, but rather interacted directly with STAT3. The effects of EB could be abolished by DTT or GSH, suggesting a thiol-mediated covalent linkage between EB and STAT3. Site mutagenesis of cysteine in and near the SH2 domain of STAT3 identified Cys712 to be the critical amino acid for the EB-induced inactivation of STAT3. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses demonstrated that an ?, ?-unsaturated carbonyl of EB covalently interacted with the Cys712 of STAT3. Computational modeling analyses also supported a direct interaction between EB and the Cys712 of STAT3. These data strongly suggest that EB directly targets STAT3 through a covalent linkage to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of STAT3 and induces apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells. PMID:26010889

  18. Eriocalyxin B Inhibits STAT3 Signaling by Covalently Targeting STAT3 and Blocking Phosphorylation and Activation of STAT3.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaokui; He, Li; Cao, Peng; Yu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Activated STAT3 plays an important role in oncogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and resisting apoptosis. STAT3 therefore is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We have screened a traditional Chinese herb medicine compound library and found Eriocalyxin B (EB), a diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx, as a specific inhibitor of STAT3. EB selectively inhibited constitutive as well as IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and induced apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells. EB did not affect the upstream protein tyrosine kinases or the phosphatase (PTPase) of STAT3, but rather interacted directly with STAT3. The effects of EB could be abolished by DTT or GSH, suggesting a thiol-mediated covalent linkage between EB and STAT3. Site mutagenesis of cysteine in and near the SH2 domain of STAT3 identified Cys712 to be the critical amino acid for the EB-induced inactivation of STAT3. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses demonstrated that an ?, ?-unsaturated carbonyl of EB covalently interacted with the Cys712 of STAT3. Computational modeling analyses also supported a direct interaction between EB and the Cys712 of STAT3. These data strongly suggest that EB directly targets STAT3 through a covalent linkage to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of STAT3 and induces apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells. PMID:26010889

  19. ERp57 modulates STAT3 activity in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells and serves as a prognostic marker for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Min Ho; Min, Joong Won; Jeon, Hong Bae; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Oh, Jeong Su; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Hwang, Sang-Gu; An, Sungkwan; Han, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Although targeting radioresistant tumor cells is essential for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy, the signals activated in resistant tumors are still unclear. This study shows that ERp57 contributes to radioresistance of laryngeal cancer by activating STAT3. Increased ERp57 was associated with the radioresistant phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells. Interestingly, increased interaction between ERp57 and STAT3 was observed in radioresistant cells, compared to the control cells. This physical complex is required for the activation of STAT3 in the radioresistant cells. Among STAT3-regulatory genes, Mcl-1 was predominantly regulated by ERp57. Inhibition of STAT3 activity with a chemical inhibitor or siRNA-mediated depletion of Mcl-1 sensitized radioresistant cells to irradiation, suggesting that the ERp57-STAT3-Mcl-1 axis regulates radioresistance of laryngeal cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between ERp57 and phosphorylated STAT3 or Mcl-1 and in vivo interactions between ERp57 and STAT3 in human laryngeal cancer. Importantly, we also found that increased ERp57-STAT3 complex was associated with poor prognosis in human laryngeal cancer, indicating the prognostic role of ERp57-STAT3 regulation. Overall, our data suggest that ERp57-STAT3 regulation functions in radioresistance of laryngeal cancer, and targeting the ERp57-STAT3 pathway might be important for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy in human laryngeal cancer. PMID:25605256

  20. Activating germline mutations in STAT3 cause early-onset multi-organ autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Richard; Allen, Hana Lango; De Franco, Elisa; McDonald, Timothy J.; Rajala, Hanna; Ramelius, Anita; Barton, John; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Kajosaari, Merja; Murphy, Nuala P.; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Seppänen, Mikko; Lernmark, Åke; Mustjoki, Satu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kere, Juha; Morgan, Noel G.; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic causes of autoimmunity give key insights to the complex regulation of the immune system. We report a new monogenic cause of autoimmunity resulting from de novo germline activating STAT3 mutations in 5 individuals with a spectrum of early-onset autoimmune disease including type 1 diabetes. These findings emphasise the critical role of STAT3 in autoimmune disease and contrast with the germline inactivating STAT3 mutations that result in Hyper IgE syndrome. PMID:25038750

  1. Transcription Factor STAT3 as a Novel Molecular Target for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ailian; Yang, Zhengduo; Shen, Yicheng; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 has a critical role in the development of multiple cancer types. Because it is constitutively activated during disease progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, STAT3 has promise as a drug target for cancer therapeutics. Recently, STAT3 was found to have an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells in vitro and in mouse tumor models, suggesting STAT3 is integrally involved in tumor initiation, progression and maintenance. STAT3 has been traditionally considered as nontargetable or undruggable, and the lag in developing effective STAT3 inhibitors contributes to the current lack of FDA-approved STAT3 inhibitors. Recent advances in cancer biology and drug discovery efforts have shed light on targeting STAT3 globally and/or specifically for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the potential importance of STAT3 as a novel target for cancer prevention and of STAT3 inhibitors as effective chemopreventive agents. PMID:24743778

  2. Mitochondrial Localized Stat3 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth via Phosphorylation of Serine 727*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qifang; Raje, Vidisha; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Yacoub, Adly; Szczepanek, Karol; Meier, Jeremy; Derecka, Marta; Chen, Qun; Hu, Ying; Sisler, Jennifer; Hamed, Hossein; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Valerie, Kristoffer; Dent, Paul; Larner, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key mediator in the development of many cancers. For 20 years, it has been assumed that Stat3 mediates its biological activities as a nuclear localized transcription factor activated by many cytokines. However, recent studies from this laboratory and others indicate that Stat3 has an independent function in the mitochondria (mitoStat3) where it controls the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and mediates Ras-induced transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. The actions of mitoStat3 in controlling respiration and Ras transformation are mediated by the phosphorylation state of serine 727. To address the role of mitoStat3 in the pathogenesis of cells that are transformed, we used 4T1 breast cancer cells, which form tumors that metastasize in immunocompetent mice. Substitution of Ser-727 for an alanine or aspartate in Stat3 that has a mitochondrial localization sequence, MLS-Stat3, has profound effects on tumor growth, complex I activity of the ETC, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727A) display slower tumor growth, decreased complex I activity of the ETC, and increased ROS accumulation under hypoxia compared with cells expressing MLS-Stat3. In contrast, cells expressing MLS-Stat3(S727D) show enhanced tumor growth and complex I activity and decreased production of ROS. These results highlight the importance of serine 727 of mitoStat3 in breast cancer and suggest a novel role for mitoStat3 in regulation of ROS concentrations through its action on the ETC. PMID:24019511

  3. STAT3 and sphingosine-1-phosphate in inflammation-associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Andrew V; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Elaine Y

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidences have demonstrated that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a critical link between inflammation and cancer. Multiple studies have indicated that persistent activation of STAT3 in epithelial/tumor cells in inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor signaling. In inflammatory response whereby interleukin (IL)-6 production is abundant, STAT3-mediated pathways were found to promote the activation of sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2) leading to the production of S1P. Reciprocally, S1P encourages the activation of STAT3 through a positive autocrine-loop signaling. The crosstalk between IL-6, STAT3 and sphingolipid regulated pathways may play an essential role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in inflamed intestines. Therapeutics targeting both STAT3 and sphingolipid are therefore likely to contribute novel and more effective therapeutic strategies against inflammation-associated CRC. PMID:25132744

  4. Rituximab inactivates signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity in B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma through inhibition of the interleukin 10 autocrine/paracrine loop and results in down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization to cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Alas, S; Bonavida, B

    2001-07-01

    Development of the chimeric mouse antihuman CD20 antibody, Rituximab, presented a notable advance in the treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Its use allowed the specific targeting of tumor B cells without the systemic toxicity of traditional therapies. The mechanisms by which Rituximab induces its antitumor activity are not fully understood. We have shown previously that Rituximab down-regulates Bcl-2 expression in some B-NHL cell lymphoma lines through an interleukin 10 (IL-10)-dependent autocrine loop, an effect that renders the resistant cells susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs. The objective of this study was to delineate the signaling pathway by which Bcl-2 is controlled by Rituximab and IL-10. We hypothesized that the down-regulation of IL-10 by Rituximab decreases activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein, which in turn, is responsible for decreased levels of Bcl-2. We demonstrate by phosphoprotein immunoblotting and gel shift analyses that endogenous IL-10 induces activation of STAT3 in the 2F7 cell line. Furthermore, we show that Rituximab and anti-IL-10 antibody treatment decreases the ability of STAT3 to bind to its DNA binding site. The decrease in STAT3 activation by these treatments correlates with a decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, piceatannol, an inhibitor of STAT3 activation, down-regulates the expression of Bcl-2. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Bcl-2 expression is under the regulation of the STAT3 signaling pathway, which is regulated by endogenously secreted IL-10. Hence, Rituximab-induced down-regulation of IL-10 expression is responsible for the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and sensitization of NHL cells by therapeutic drugs. Furthermore, these findings support the notion that circulating IL-10 in vivo may control the resistance of NHL to drug-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:11431352

  5. STAT3 interacts directly with Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Earl; Kramer, Adam H; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2012-03-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) functionally modulates signal transduction. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates interleukin-6 family cytokine signaling. Aberrant activation and mutation of STAT3 is associated with oncogenesis and immune disorders, respectively. Hsp90 and STAT3 have previously been shown to colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate in common complexes. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy revealed a direct, high affinity specific interaction between recombinant Hsp90? and STAT3? in the presence and absence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in molar excess. Furthermore, comparative analysis using a phosphomimetic mutation at tyrosine 705 showed that the direct interaction appeared to favor neither unactivated nor activated STAT3. Destabilizing mutation of STAT3 at arginine residues 414/417 to alanine in the DNA-binding domain, previously shown to disrupt nuclear translocation in vivo, reduced interaction with a STAT3 DNA binding site oligonucleotide and Hsp90? in vitro, indicating that STAT3 requires a functional DNA-binding domain for full direct interaction with Hsp90. Site-directed mutagenesis of a mammalian STAT3-EGFP-N1 fusion construct at RR414/417 and subsequent transfection into human MCF7 epithelial breast cancer cells showed no impaired nuclear translocation when observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. However, costaining for Hsp90?/? isoforms and colocalization analysis revealed a defined decrease in pixel-on-pixel colocalization compared with the wild-type confirming the requirement of the DNA-binding domain for high-affinity interaction. PMID:22271514

  6. Nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibits the activity of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Xiaoai; Yang, Juntao; Wu, Guangzhou; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yanzhi; Jin, Chaozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoming; He, Fuchu; Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032

    2009-09-18

    STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a key transcription factor of the JAK-STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of STAT3 is under tight regulation, and yet the different signaling pathways and the mechanisms that regulate its activity remain to be elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a nuclear protein I{kappa}B-{zeta} that interacts in a novel way with STAT3. This physical interaction was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction regions were mapped to the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 and the C-terminal of I{kappa}B-{zeta}. Overexpression of I{kappa}B-{zeta} inhibited the transcriptional activity of STAT3. It also suppressed cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in SRC-simulated cells, which is partially mediated by down-regulation of expression of a known STAT3 target gene, MCL1. Our results suggest that I{kappa}B-{zeta} is a negative regulator of STAT3, and demonstrate a novel mechanism in which a component of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway inhibits the activation of STAT3.

  7. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Alexander; Röser, Katrin; Klitzsch, Jana; Lieder, Franziska; Aberger, Fritz; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mueller, Kristina M.; Pupyshev, Alexander; Moriggl, Richard; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549) were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6). In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs. PMID:25926075

  8. Differential STAT3 signaling in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zgheib, Carlos; Zouein, Fouad A.; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the transcription factor STAT3 is linked to a protective and reparative response in the heart. Thus, increasing duration or intensity of STAT3 activation ought to minimize damage and improve heart function under conditions of stress. Two recent studies using genetic mouse models, however, report findings that appear to refute this proposition. Unfortunately, studies often approach the question of the role of STAT3 in the heart from the perspective that all STAT3 signaling is equivalent, particularly when it comes to signaling by IL-6 type cytokines, which share the gp130 signaling protein. Moreover, STAT3 activation is typically equated with phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue. Yet, STAT3 transcriptional behavior is subject to modulation by serine phosphorylation, acetylation, and redox status of the cell. Unphosphorylated STAT3 is implicated in gene induction as well. Thus, how STAT3 is activated and also what other signaling events are occurring at the same time is likely to impact on the outcome ultimately linked to STAT3. Notably STAT3 may serve as a scaffold protein allowing it to interact with other singling pathways. In this context, canonical gp130 cytokine signaling may function to integrate STAT3 signaling with a protective PI3K/AKT signaling network via mutual involvement of JAK tyrosine kinases. Differences in the extent of integration may occur between those cytokines that signal through gp130 homodimers and those through heterodimers of gp130 with a receptor ? chain. Signal integration may have importance not only for deciding the particular gene profile linked to STAT3, but for the newly described mitochondrial stabilization role of STAT3 as well. In addition, disruption of integrated gp130-related STAT3 signaling may occur under conditions of oxidative stress, which negatively impacts on JAK catalytic activity. For these reasons, understanding the importance of STAT3 signaling to heart function requires a greater appreciation of the plasticity of this transcription factor in the context in which it is investigated. PMID:23904970

  9. Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in de novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Chi Young; Chen, Jiayu; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Tzankov, Alexandar; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Li, Ling; Visco, Carlo; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W. L.; Han van Krieken, J.; Huh, Jooryung; Zhao, Xiaoying; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J. M.; Bertoni, Francesco; Farnen, John P.; Møller, Michael B.; Piris, Miguel A.; Winter, Jane N.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) on prognosis are limited. Experimental Design We evaluated expression of pSTAT3 in de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and gene set enrichment analysis. Results are analyzed in correlation with cell-of-origin, critical lymphoma biomarkers and genetic translocations. Results pSTAT3 expression was observed in 16% of DLBCL and was associated with advanced stage, multiple extranodal sites of involvement, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, MYC expression and MYC/BCL2 expression. Expression of pSTAT3 predicted inferior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in de novo DLBCL patients. When DLBCL cases were stratified according to cell-of-origin or MYC expression, pSTAT3 expression did not predict inferior outcome, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic predictability of pSTAT3 expression was due to its association with the ABC subtype, MYC expression and adverse clinical features. Gene expression profiling demonstrated up-regulation of genes, which can potentiate function of STAT3. Gene set enrichment analysis showed the JAK-STAT pathway to be enriched in pSTAT3+ DLBCL. Conclusions The results of this study provide a rationale for the ongoing successful clinical trials targeting the JAK-STAT pathway in DLBCL. PMID:25124685

  10. Assessing the Role of STAT3 in DC Differentiation and Autologous DC Immunotherapy in Mouse Models of GBM

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF? were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors. PMID:24806510

  11. yuDetecting the percent of peripheral blood mononuclear cells displaying p-STAT-3 in malignant glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, William; Wang, Yongtao; Qiao, Wei; Reina-Ortiz, Chantal; Abou-Ghazal, Mohamed K; Crutcher, Lamonne M; Wei, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Sawaya, Raymond; Rao, Ganesh; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sujit S; Fuller, Gregory N; Heimberger, Amy B

    2009-01-01

    Background The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells, propagates tumorigenesis, and is a key regulator of immune suppression in cancer patients. The presence of phosphorylated STAT-3 (p-STAT-3) in the tumor can induce p-STAT-3 in tumor-associated immune cells that can return to the circulatory system. We hypothesized that the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) displaying p-STAT-3 would be increased in glioma patients, which would correlate with the extent of tumor-expressed p-STAT-3, and that higher p-STAT-3 levels in peripheral blood would correlate with a higher fraction of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Methods We measured the percentage of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 in 19 healthy donors and 45 patients with primary brain tumors. The level of p-STAT-3 in tumor tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. The degree of immune suppression was determined based on the fraction of Tregs in the CD4 compartment. Results Healthy donors had 4.8 ± 3.6% of PBMCs that expressed p-STAT-3, while the mean proportion of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 in patients with GBM was 11.8 ± 13.5% (P = 0.03). We did not observe a correlation by Spearman correlation between the degree of p-STAT-3 levels in the tumor and the percent of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3. Furthermore, the percent of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 in glioma patients was not directly correlated with the fraction of Tregs in the CD4 compartment. Conclusion We conclude that the percent of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 may be increased in malignant glioma patients. PMID:19900287

  12. Antagonism of the Stat3Stat3 Protein Dimer with Salicylic Acid Based Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Steven; Page, Brent D. G.; Zhang, Xialoei; Yue, Peibin; Li, Zhi Hua; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Singh, Jagdeep; Zhao, Wei; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Trudel, Suzanne; Turkson, James; Gunning, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 new inhibitors of the oncogenic Stat3 protein were identified through a structure–activity relationship (SAR) study based on the previously identified inhibitor S3I-201 (IC50 = 86 µm, Ki > 300 µm). A key structural feature of these inhibitors is a salicylic acid moiety, which, by acting as a phosphotyrosine mimetic, is believed to facilitate binding to the Stat3 SH2 domain. Several of the analogues exhibit higher potency than the lead compound in inhibiting Stat3 DNA binding activity, with an in vitro IC50 range of 18.7–51.9 µm, and disruption of Stat3–pTyr peptide interactions with Ki values in the 15.5–41 µm range. One agent in particular exhibited potent inhibition of Stat3 phosphorylation in both breast and multiple myeloma tumor cells, suppressed the expression of Stat3 target genes, and induced antitumor effects in tumor cells harboring activated Stat3 protein. PMID:21618433

  13. Pivotal Importance of STAT3 in Protecting the Heart from Acute and Chronic Stress: New Advancement and Unresolved Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zouein, Fouad A.; Altara, Raffaele; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 is poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via non-canonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the non-canonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here, we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues. PMID:26664907

  14. The R(h)oads to Stat3: Stat3 activation by the Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Leda; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Turkson, James

    2011-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) is a member of the STAT family of cytoplasmic transcription factors. Overactivation of Stat3 is detected with high frequency in human cancer and is considered a molecular abnormality that supports the tumor phenotype. Despite concerted investigative efforts, the molecular mechanisms leading to the aberrant Stat3 activation and Stat3-mediated transformation and tumorigenesis are still not clearly defined. Recent evidence reveals a crosstalk close relationship between Stat3 signaling and members of the Rho family of small GTPases, including Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA. Specifically, Rac1, acting in a complex with the MgcRacGAP (male germ cell RacGAP), promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 by the IL6-receptor family/Jak kinase complex, as well as its translocation to the nucleus. Studies have further revealed that the mutational activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 results in Stat3 activation, which occurs in part through the upregulation of IL6 family cytokines that in turn stimulates Stat3 through the Jak kinases. Interestingly, evidence also shows that the engagement of cadherins, cell to cell adhesion molecules, specifically induces a striking increase in Rac1 and Cdc42 protein levels and activity, which in turn results in Stat3 activation. In this review we integrate recent findings clarifying the role of the Rho family GTPases in Stat3 activation in the context of malignant progression. PMID:21619876

  15. Stat3-Efemp2a modulates the fibrillar matrix for cohesive movement of prechordal plate progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Yin, Chaoran; Qiao, Liangjun; Jing, Lulu; Li, Hongda; Xiao, Chun; Luo, Ning; Lei, Song; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Jin; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

    2014-11-01

    Recently, emerging evidence has shown that Stat3 controls tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat3 controls the cell movement remain largely unknown. Embryonic gastrula progenitors display coordinated and orientated migration, called collective cell migration. Collective cell migration is the simultaneous movement of multiple cells and is universally involved in physiological and pathological programs. Stat3 activity is required for the migration of gastrula progenitors, but it does not affect cell specification, thus suggesting that gastrula movements are an excellent model to provide insight into Stat3 control of cell migration in vivo. In this study, we reveal a novel mechanism by which Stat3 modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly to control the coherence of collective migration of prechordal plate progenitors during zebrafish embryonic gastrulation. We show that Stat3 regulates the expression of Efemp2a in the prechordal plate progenitors that migrate anteriorly during gastrulation. Alteration of Stat3-Efemp2a signaling activity disrupted the configuration of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) matrices, resulting in defective coherence of prechordal plate progenitor movements in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrate that Efemp2a acts as a downstream effector of Stat3 to promote ECM configuration for coherent collective cell migrations in vivo. PMID:25371367

  16. Cryptotanshinone inhibits human glioma cell proliferation by suppressing STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Li, Cuixian; Li, Dong; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chun; Shao, Weiwei; Peng, Jin; You, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2013-09-01

    Malignant gliomas (MGs) are among the most aggressive types of cancers in the human brain. Frequent tumor recurrence caused by a lack of effective therapeutic approaches results in a poor prognosis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an oncogenic protein, is constitutively activated in MGs and predicts a poor clinical outcome. STAT3 therefore is considered to be a promising target for the treatment of MGs. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), the main bioactive compound from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been reported to have various pharmacological effects. However, little is known about its function in MG cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CTS on the proliferation of human glioma cell lines (T98G and U87). Our results revealed that CTS significantly suppresses glioma cell proliferation. The phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, but not Ser727, was inhibited by CTS, and STAT3 nuclear translocation was attenuated. Overexpression of constitutively active mutant STAT3C reversed the inhibitory effect of CTS, while knockdown STAT3 showed a similar inhibitory effect as CTS treatment. Following the downregulation of STAT3-regulated proteins cyclinD1 and survivin, cell cycle progression significantly arrested in G1/G0 phase. These results indicate that CTS may be a potential antiproliferation agent for the treatment of MGs and that its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. PMID:23740516

  17. Functional regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shirish; Mahata, Sutapa; Shishodia, Gauri; Pandey, Arvind; Tyagi, Abhishek; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Basir, Seemi F; Das, Bhudev C; Bharti, Alok C

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor constitutively active and aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer. However, the functional role of STAT3 in regulation of HPV's viral oncogene expression and downstream events associated with cervical carcinogenesis is not known. Our present study performed on HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa and CaSki) and primary tumor tissues revealed a strong positive correlation of constitutively active STAT3 with expression of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and a negative association with levels of p53 and pRB. Pharmacologic targeting of STAT3 expression in cervical cancer cell lines either by STAT3-specific siRNA or blocking its tyrosine phosphorylation by AG490 or curcumin led to dose-dependent accumulation of p53 and pRb in cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, the suppression of STAT3 expression or activation was associated with the gradual loss of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression and was accompanied by loss of cell viability. The viability loss was specifically high in HPV16-positive cells as compared to HPV negative C33a cells. These findings substantiate the regulatory role of STAT3 in HPV16-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. Leads obtained from the present study provide a strong rationale for developing novel STAT3-based approaches for therapeutic interventions against HPV infection to control cervical cancer. PMID:23874455

  18. Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu; Feracci, Helene; Raptis, Leda

    2010-03-10

    Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

  19. CYLD Enhances Severe Listeriosis by Impairing IL-6/STAT3-Dependent Fibrin Production

    PubMed Central

    Nishanth, Gopala; Deckert, Martina; Wex, Katharina; Massoumi, Ramin; Schweitzer, Katrin; Naumann, Michael; Schlüter, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) may cause severe infection in humans and livestock. Control of acute listeriosis is primarily dependent on innate immune responses, which are strongly regulated by NF-?B, and tissue protective factors including fibrin. However, molecular pathways connecting NF-?B and fibrin production are poorly described. Here, we investigated whether the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, which is an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent immune responses, regulated these protective host responses in murine listeriosis. Upon high dose systemic infection, all C57BL/6 Cyld?/? mice survived, whereas 100% of wildtype mice succumbed due to severe liver pathology with impaired pathogen control and hemorrhage within 6 days. Upon in vitro infection with Lm, CYLD reduced NF-?B-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, and control of bacteria in macrophages. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that CYLD impaired STAT3-dependent fibrin production in cultivated hepatocytes. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CYLD interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and strongly reduced K63-ubiquitination of STAT3 in IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, CYLD diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 activity by reducing nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3. In vivo, CYLD also reduced hepatic STAT3 K63-ubiquitination and activation, NF-?B activation, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA production as well as fibrin production in murine listeriosis. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 by anti-IL-6 antibody, STAT3 by siRNA, and fibrin by warfarin treatment, respectively, demonstrated that IL-6-induced, STAT3-mediated fibrin production significantly contributed to protection in Cyld?/? mice. In addition, in vivo Cyld siRNA treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation, fibrin production, pathogen control and survival of Lm-infected WT mice illustrating that therapeutic inhibition of CYLD augments the protective NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and fibrin production. PMID:23825949

  20. The Incidence, Correlation with Tumor Infiltrating Inflammation, and Prognosis of p-STAT3 Expression in Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Ghazal, Mohamed; Yang, David S.; Qiao, Wei; Reina-Ortiz, Chantal; Wei, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Fuller, Gregory N.; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Priebe, Waldemar; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently overexpressed in most cancers, propagates tumorigenesis and is a key regulator of immune suppression in cancer patients. We sought to determine the incidence of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression in malignant gliomas of different pathologic types, whether p-STAT3 expression is a negative prognostic factor, and whether p-STAT3 expression influences the inflammatory response within gliomas. Methods Using immunohistochemical analysis, we measured the incidence of p-STAT3 expression in 129 patients with gliomas of various pathologic types in a glioma tissue microarray. We categorized our results according to the total number of p-STAT3–expressing cells within the gliomas and correlated this number with the number of infiltrating T cells and T regulatory cells (Tregs). We then evaluated the association between p-STAT3 expression and median survival time using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results We did not detect p-STAT3 expression in normal brain tissues or low-grade astrocytomas. We observed significant differences in the incidence of p-STAT3 expression between the different grades of astrocytomas and different pathologic glioma types. p-STAT3 expression was associated with the population of tumor-infiltrating immune cells but not with that of Tregs. On univariate analysis, we found that p-STAT3 expression within anaplastic astrocytomas was a negative prognostic factor. Conclusions p-STAT3 expression is common within gliomas of both the astrocytic and oligodendroglial lineages and portends poor survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas. p-STAT3 expression differs significantly between gliomas of different pathologic types and grades and correlated with the degree of immune infiltration. PMID:19088040

  1. STAT3 revs up the powerhouse.

    PubMed

    Reich, Nancy C

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) promotes their dimerization and ability to bind target genes in the nucleus. However, evidence shows that one member of the STAT family, STAT3, has an additional property independent of its classical role in the nucleus. STAT3 modifed by serine phosphorylation augmented oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and supported cellular transformation by oncogenic Ras. PMID:19797267

  2. STAT3 and epithelial–mesenchymal transitions in carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Michael K; Balanis, Nikolas; Carlin, Cathleen R; Schiemann, William P

    2014-01-01

    Cellular programs coupled to cycles of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play critical roles during embryogenesis, as well as during tissue development, remodeling, and repair. Research over the last decade has established the importance of an ever-expanding list of master EMT transcription factors, whose activity is regulated by STAT3 and function to stimulate the rapid transition of cells between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Importantly, inappropriate reactivation of embryonic EMT programs in carcinoma cells underlies their metastasis to distant organ sites, as well as their acquisition of stem cell-like and chemoresistant phenotypes operant in eliciting disease recurrence. Thus, targeted inactivation of master EMT transcription factors may offer new inroads to alleviate metastatic disease. Here we review the molecular, cellular, and microenvironmental factors that contribute to the pathophysiological activities of STAT3 during its regulation of EMT programs in human carcinomas. PMID:24843831

  3. Effects of JAK2-STAT3 signaling after cerebral insults

    PubMed Central

    Raible, Daniel J; Frey, Lauren C; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R

    2014-01-01

    The JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway has been shown to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell survival, cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and angiogenesis in development and after cerebral insults. Until recently, little has been known about the effects of this pathway activation after cerebral insults and if blocking this pathway leads to better recovery. This review exams the role of this pathway after 3 cerebral insults (traumatic brain injury, stroke, and status epilepticus). PMID:25105066

  4. Honokiol Inhibits Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Signaling via PU.1-Induced SHP1 Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Laixi; Yu, Zhijie; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Kang; Hong, Guangliang; Lu, Zhongqiu; Gao, Shenmeng

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive and inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling facilitates the carcinogenesis in most human cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Negative regulators, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP1, inhibit the activated STAT3 signaling. In this study, we investigated the effect of honokiol (HNK), a constituent of Magnolia officinalis, on the STAT3 signaling. STAT3 signaling and SHP1 expression were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting in leukemic cell lines and primary AML blasts treated with HNK. HNK decreased the phosphorylated STAT3 but not the total STAT3 through increasing the expression of SHP1. In addition, HNK inhibited transcription activity of STAT3, reduced nuclear translocation of STAT3, and decreased the expression of STAT3 target genes. Knockdown of SHP1 by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or treatment with vanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, abolished HNK-induced STAT3 inhibition, suggesting that SHP1 plays an important role in the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by HNK. Further, HNK increased the expression of transcript factor PU.1, which had been reported to activate the expression of SHP1 via binding SHP1 promoter region. Knockdown of PU.1 reversed HNK-induced upregulation of SHP1 and inactivation of STAT3 signaling. Finally, HNK increased the expression of PU.1 and SHP1 in hematopoietic progenitors isolated from patients with AML. In conclusion, our data have shown a regulatory mechanism underlying the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by HNK. Therefore, as a relative non-toxic compound, HNK may offer a therapeutic advantage in the clinical treatment for AML. PMID:26466521

  5. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yanxin; Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 ; Yue, Xupeng; Cui, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jufeng; Wang, KeWei; Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036; Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3?-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  6. Strategy of STAT3? cell-specific expression in macrophages exhibits antitumor effects on mouse breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dang, W; Tang, H; Cao, H; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Tian, W; Pang, X; Li, K; Chen, T

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies underscore the importance of crosstalk between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor cells in cancer progression and metastasis. In our study, AdCD68STAT3?, a recombinant adenovirus containing a STAT3? gene driven by CD68 macrophage-specific promoter, was used to suppress STAT3 and the downstream signaling pathways in TAMs. The results showed that STAT3? gene under the control of CD68 macrophage-specific promoter was only expressed in macrophages, which significantly inhibited the motility and invasion of breast cancer cells when co-cultured with 4T1 cells. Moreover, cell-specific STAT3? expression in TAMs extended survival of tumor-bearing mice and suppressed breast tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, by regulating the crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs. Therefore, our study provided a novel strategy for the antitumor effects of STAT3?. PMID:26181625

  7. Inhibition of STAT3 signalling contributes to the antimelanoma action of atractylenolide II.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Chou, Gui-Xin; Kwan, Hiu Yee; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Zhao, Li-Han; Yuen, Tsz-Kin; Cao, Hui-Hui; Yu, Hua; Chao, Xiao-Juan; Su, Tao; Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Sun, Xue-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-11-01

    Our previous studies showed that atractylenolide II (AT-II) has antimelanoma effects in B16 melanoma cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of STAT3 signalling in the antimelanoma action of AT-II. Daily administration of AT-II (12.5, 25 mg/kg, i.g.) for 14 days significantly inhibited tumor growth in a B16 xenograft mouse model and inhibited the activation/phosphorylation of STAT3 and Src in the xenografts. In B16 and A375 cells, AT-II (20, 40 ?m) treatment for 48 h dose-dependently reduced protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3, phospho-Src, as well as STAT3-regulated Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Overexpression of a constitutively active variant of STAT3, STAT3C in A375 cells diminished the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of AT-II. These data suggest that inhibition of STAT3 signalling contributes to the antimelanoma action of AT-II. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of action underlying the antimelanoma effects of AT-II and provide further pharmacological basis for developing AT-II as a novel melanoma chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25073716

  8. IL-6 Inhibits Starvation-induced Autophagy via the STAT3/Bcl-2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Beibei; Zhou, Zhuo; He, Jianqin; Yan, Chunlan; Ding, Shiping

    2015-01-01

    IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine, has been investigated for its role in regulating autophagy. Yet, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-6 exerted anti-autophagic effects on U937 cells through the STAT3 signaling pathway in vitro. The addition of IL-6 to starved U937 cells significantly activated the phosphorylation level of STAT3 (p-STAT3) at Tyr705 and reduced the protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 of type II (LC3-II) and Beclin 1. By immunoblotting, we also observed a positive correlation between the p-STAT3 level and Bcl-2 level. Furthermore, treatment with a STAT3 inhibitor, LLL12, or overexpression of a mutant form, STAT3Y705F, reversed the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on autophagy. Knockdown of Beclin 1 or Atg14 by siRNA and over-expression of Beclin 1 indicated the involvement of class III PI3K complex in IL-6-mediated inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-6 inhibits starvation-induced autophagy and that p-STAT3 mediates the signal transduction from IL-6 to downstream proteins including Bcl-2 and Beclin1. PMID:26549519

  9. MEK inhibition affects STAT3 signaling and invasion in human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vultur, A; Villanueva, J; Krepler, C; Rajan, G; Chen, Q; Xiao, M; Li, L; Gimotty, P A; Wilson, M; Hayden, J; Keeney, F; Nathanson, K L; Herlyn, M

    2014-04-01

    Elevated activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade is found in the majority of human melanomas and is known to regulate proliferation, survival and invasion. Current targeted therapies focus on decreasing the activity of this pathway; however, we do not fully understand how these therapies impact tumor biology, especially given that melanoma is a heterogeneous disease. Using a three-dimensional (3D), collagen-embedded spheroid melanoma model, we observed that MEK and BRAF inhibitors can increase the invasive potential of ?20% of human melanoma cell lines. The invasive cell lines displayed increased receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity and activation of the Src/FAK/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling axis, also associated with increased cell-to-cell adhesion and cadherin engagement following MEK inhibition. Targeting various RTKs, Src, FAK and STAT3 with small molecule inhibitors in combination with a MEK inhibitor prevented the invasive phenotype, but only STAT3 inhibition caused cell death in the 3D context. We further show that STAT3 signaling is induced in BRAF-inhibitor-resistant cells. Our findings suggest that MEK and BRAF inhibitors can induce STAT3 signaling, causing potential adverse effects such as increased invasion. We also provide the rationale for the combined targeting of the MAPK pathway along with inhibitors of RTKs, SRC or STAT3 to counteract STAT3-mediated resistance phenotypes. PMID:23624919

  10. Gambogic acid inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1: potential role in proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Pandey, Manoj K; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-07-01

    The transcription factor, STAT3, is associated with proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone derived from the resin of traditional Chinese medicine, Garcinia hanburyi (mangosteen), can regulate the STAT3 pathway, leading to suppression of growth and sensitization of cancer cells. We found that GA induced apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells that correlated with the inhibition of both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation. STAT3 phosphorylation at both tyrosine residue 705 and serine residue 727 was inhibited by GA. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of the protein tyrosine kinases Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1) and JAK2. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the GA-induced downregulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. We also found that GA induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by siRNA suppressed the ability of GA to inhibit STAT3 activation and to induce apoptosis, suggesting the critical role of SHP-1 in its action. Moreover, GA downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins, and this correlated with suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that GA blocks STAT3 activation, leading to suppression of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. PMID:21490133

  11. DRUG-REPOSITIONING SCREENING IDENTIFIED PIPERLONGUMINE AS A DIRECT STAT3 INHIBITOR WITH POTENT ACTIVITY AGAINST BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Eckols, T. Kris; Kolosov, Mikhail; Kasembeli, Moses M.; Adam, Abel; Torres, David; Zhang, Xiaomei; Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Wei, Wei; Lewis, Michael T.; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Chang, Jenny C.; Landis, Melissa D.; Creighton, Chad J.; Mancini, Michael A.; Tweardy, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect, and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been employed to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. Piperlongumine inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that piperlongumine directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl (pY) peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as JAKs, Src kinase family members, or RTKs. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient derived xenografts (PDX). PL’s anti-tumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30 mg/Kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 plays a role. PMID:24681959

  12. Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

    2015-03-12

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role. PMID:24681959

  13. Bigelovin inhibits STAT3 signaling by inactivating JAK2 and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao-hao; Kuang, Shan; Wang, Ying; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Gu, Yuan; Hu, Li-hong; Yu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the function and mechanism of bigelovin, a sesquiterpene lactone from the flower of Chinese herb Inula hupehensis, in regulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling and cancer cell growth. Methods: HepG2 cells stably transfected with the STAT3-responsive firefly luciferase reporter plasmid (HepG2/STAT3 cells), and a panel of human cancer cell lines were used to identify active compounds. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Western blotting was used to detect protein expression and phosphorylation. Kinase assays were performed and the reaction between bigelovin and thiol-containing compounds was analyzed with LC-MS. Results: Bigelovin (1–50 ?mol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in HepG2/STAT3 cells (IC50=3.37 ?mol/L) and the constitutive STAT3 activation in A549 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, bigelovin dose-dependently inhibited JAK2 phosphorylation in HeLa and MDA-MB-468 cells, as well as the enzymatic activity of JAK2 in vitro (IC50=44.24 ?mol/L). Pretreatment of the cells with DTT (500 ?mol/L) or GSH (500 ?mol/L) eliminated the inhibitory effects of bigelovin on the IL-6-induced and the constitutive STAT3 activation. The results in LC-MS analysis suggested that bigelovin might react with cysteine residues of JAK2 leading to inactivation of JAK2. Bigelovin (5 and 20 ?mol/L) had no effects on the signaling pathways of growth factors EGF, PDGF or insulin. Finally, bigelovin suppressed the cell viability and induced apoptosis in 10 different human cancer cell lines, particularly those with constitutively activated STAT3. Conclusion: Bigelovin potently inhibits STAT3 signaling by inactivating JAK2, and induces apoptosis of a variety of human cancer cells in vitro. PMID:25619393

  14. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, LY5, inhibits cell viability, cell migration, and angiogenesis in medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-02-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-? (IFN-?) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-? and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling. PMID:25313399

  15. Prognostic Significance of Serine-Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in pT1-T2 Oral Tongue Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Staffieri, Claudia; Cappellesso, Rocco; Marino, Filippo; Ottaviano, Giancarlo; Val, Matteo; Giacomelli, Luciano; de Filippis, Cosimo; Stellini, Edoardo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 (pSTAT3) is a regulator of numerous genes that play an essential part in the onset, development and progression of cancer; it is involved in cell proliferation and preventing apoptosis, and in invasion, angiogenesis, and the evasion of immune surveillance. This study aimed mainly to investigate the potential prognostic role of pSTAT3 expression in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods Phospho-ser727 STAT3 immunolabeling was correlated with prognostic parameters in 34 consecutive cases of pT1-T2 tongue SCCs undergoing primary surgery. Computer-based image analysis was used for the immunohistochemical reactions analysis. Results Statistical analysis showed a difference in disease-free survival (DFS) when patients were stratified by pN status (P=0.031). Most tumors had variable degrees (mean±SD, 80.7%±23.8%) of intense nuclear immunoreaction to pSTAT3. Our findings rule out any significant association of serine-phosphorylated nuclear STAT3 expression with tumor stage, grade, lymph node metastasis, recurrence rate, or DFS. Conclusion In spite of these results, it is worth further investigating the role of pSTAT3 (serine- and tyrosine-pSTAT3) in oral tongue SCC in larger series because preclinical models are increasingly showing that several anticancer strategies would benefit from STAT3 phosphorylation inhibition. PMID:26330924

  16. Gene expression and biological processes influenced by deletion of Stat3 in pulmonary type II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Ikegami, Machiko; Wang, Yanhua; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    Background The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates gene expression in response to numerous growth factors and cytokines, playing an important role in many cellular processes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Stat3 influences gene expression in the lung, the effect of pulmonary epithelial cell specific deletion of Stat3 on genome wide mRNA expression profiling was assessed. Differentially expressed genes were identified from Affymetrix Murine GeneChips analysis and subjected to gene ontology classification, promoter analysis, pathway mapping and literature mining. Results Total of 791 mRNAs were significantly increased and 314 mRNAs were decreased in response to the deletion of Stat3?/? in the lung. STAT is the most enriched cis-elements in the promoter regions of those differentially expressed genes. Deletion of Stat3 induced genes influencing protein metabolism, transport, chemotaxis and apoptosis and decreased the expression of genes mediating lipid synthesis and metabolism. Expression of Srebf1 and 2, genes encoding key regulators of fatty acid and steroid biosynthesis, was decreased in type II cells from the Stat3?/? mice, consistent with the observation that lung surfactant phospholipids content was decreased. Stat3 influenced both pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways that determine cell death or survival. Akt, a potential transcriptional target of Stat3, was identified as an important participant in Stat3 mediated pathways including Jak-Stat signaling, apoptosis, Mapk signaling, cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Conclusion Deletion of Stat3 from type II epithelial cells altered the expression of genes regulating diverse cellular processes, including cell growth, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Pathway analysis indicates that STAT3 regulates cellular homeostasis through a complex regulatory network that likely enhances alveolar epithelial cell survival and surfactant/lipid synthesis, necessary for the protection of the lung during injury. PMID:18070348

  17. A Novel Missense (M206K) STAT3 Mutation in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Deregulates STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guangzhen; Witzig, Thomas E.; Gupta, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Persistent STAT3 activation has been found in activated B-cell like diffuse large B cell tumors (DLBCL). To investigate whether genetic mutations play a role in aberrant STAT3 signaling in DLBCL, we bi-directionally sequenced all 24 exons of the STAT3 gene in DLBCL tumors (n?=?40). We identified 2 novel point mutations in 2 separate (2/40; 5%) patients at exon 7 and 24. Point mutation 2552G>A was a silent mutation in the stop codon. Another heterozygous mutation 857T>A encoded a methionine substitution by lysine at codon 206 (M206K) in the coiled-coil domain of STAT3. We performed site directed mutagenesis to mutate wild type (WT) STAT3? and STAT3? at codon 206 and constructed stable cell lines by lentiviral transfection of STAT3?WT, STAT3?M206K, STAT3?WT and STAT3?M206K plasmids. The mutation was found to increase STAT3 phosphorylation in STAT3? mutant cell lines with no effect on the STAT3? mutant cell line. Transcriptional activation was also increased in the STAT3? mutant cells compared with STAT3? WT cells as detected by a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, STAT3?M206K mutant cells were resistant to JAK2 pathway inhibition compared to STAT3? WT cells. These results indicate that missense mutations in STAT3 increase signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway. JAK2 inhibitors may be useful in the patient with this STAT3 mutation as well as those with pathway activation by other mechanisms. PMID:23861822

  18. STAT3 in CD4+ T helper Cell differentiation and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Egwuagu, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Jak/STAT pathways influence cell-fate decisions made by differentiating naïve T-cells, regulate the intensity and duration of inflammatory responses and are implicated in pathogenic mechanisms of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Among the STATs, the STAT3 protein has emerged as an important determinant of whether the naïve T cell differentiates into regulatory (Treg) or an inflammatory (Th17) T cell lineage. STAT3 also has potent anti-inflammatory effects and regulates critical cellular processes such as, cell growth, apoptosis and transcription of inflammatory genes. Dysregulation of STAT3 pathway has therefore been implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, as well as, a number of malignant and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the role of STAT3 in immunity, with particular emphasis on T cell lineage specification and disease etiology. New insights from animal models of uveitis, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases are discussed as exemplars of critical roles that STAT3 pathways play in inflammatory diseases and on how inhibiting STAT3 can be exploited to mitigate pathogenic autoimmunity. PMID:19648026

  19. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces proliferation and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lin-Lin; Deng, Wei-Wei; Huang, Cong-Fa; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we accessed the expression and correlation of p-STAT3 with Survivin, Cyclin D1, CD147, Slug and Ki67 by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-STAT3, Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p<0.05). While, the level of p-STAT3 and expression of Cyclin D1 and CD147 was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p>0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-STAT3 up-regulates the expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 (p<0.05). Moreover, the activation of STAT3 was associated with proliferation marker Ki-67 (p<0.05). Selective inhibition of STAT3 by a small molecule S3I-201 significantly reduced human SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells proliferation, migration and invasion with the corresponding decrease in expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. These findings indicate that high phosphorylation level of STAT3 in AdCC is related to Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. We suggest that the inhibition of STAT3 may be a novel strategy for neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of AdCC. PMID:26175943

  20. Inhibition of STAT3 reduces proliferation and invasion in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lin-Lin; Deng, Wei-Wei; Huang, Cong-Fa; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we accessed the expression and correlation of p-STAT3 with Survivin, Cyclin D1, CD147, Slug and Ki67 by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-STAT3, Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p<0.05). While, the level of p-STAT3 and expression of Cyclin D1 and CD147 was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p>0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-STAT3 up-regulates the expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147 (p<0.05). Moreover, the activation of STAT3 was associated with proliferation marker Ki-67 (p<0.05). Selective inhibition of STAT3 by a small molecule S3I-201 significantly reduced human SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells proliferation, migration and invasion with the corresponding decrease in expression of Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. These findings indicate that high phosphorylation level of STAT3 in AdCC is related to Survivin, Slug, Cyclin D1 and CD147. We suggest that the inhibition of STAT3 may be a novel strategy for neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of AdCC. PMID:26175943

  1. IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway playing a regulatory role in ulcerative colitis carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Li-Jun; Li, Dong-Yue; Sun, Li-Ying; Yin, Xun-Hai; Sang, Guo-Yin; Xu, Dan; Tang, Yin-Hua; Wang, Xi; Li, Peng; Wu, Feng; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Large-scale clinical studies have shown that ulcerative colities were related with colorectal cancer. In this study, animal model was established by AOM/DSS method to explore the activation of IL-6-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway and the expression of pathway-related proteins in ulcerative colitis carcinogenesis, in order to lay a foundation for exploring the regulation mechanism of IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway in ulcerative colitis carcinogenesis. Method: AOM/DSS modeling method was used to establish animal models of ulcerative colitis carcinogenesis; colonic mucosa specimens were collected at different time points for pathological examination. Immunohistochemical method and western blot were used to detect the expression of IL6, STAT3 and SOCS3 protein in the control group, UC model + empty vector group and UC model + STAT3 knockout group. Results: In UC model + empty vector group, IL6 and STAT3 expression was increased as lesion degree increased (P < 0.05). The expression of SOCS3 was weakened and the degree of activation decreased (P < 0.05). IL6 expression increased in UC model + STAT3 knockout group (P < 0.05) while the expression of SOCS3 decreased; compared with the UC model + empty vector group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The expression and activation of IL6 and STAT3 expression were enhanced in ulcerative colitis carcinogenesis, and their expression increased with the lesion degree increased, reflecting the disease progression to a certain extent. The expression and activation of SOCS3 expression decreased. STAT3 had a certain effect on the expression of SOCS3, playing a certain regulatory role in ulcerative colitis carcinogenesis. PMID:26550113

  2. Development of a STAT3 reporter prostate cancer cell line for high throughput screening of STAT3 activators and inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, My N.; Banerjee, Partha P.

    2008-12-12

    STAT3 is constitutively activated in several cancers, including prostate cancer, and is therefore, a potential target for cancer therapy. DU-145 prostate cancer cells were stably co-transfected with STAT3 reporter and puromycin resistant plasmids to create a stable STAT3 reporter cell line that can be used for high throughput screening of STAT3 modulators. The applicability of this cell line was tested with two known activators and inhibitors of STAT3. As expected, EGF and IL-6 increased STAT3 reporter activity and enhanced the nuclear localization of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3); whereas Cucurbitacin I and AG490 decreased STAT3 reporter activity dose and time-dependently and reduced the localization of pSTAT3 in the nuclei of prostate cancer cells. Given the importance of STAT3 in cancer initiation and progression, the development of a stable STAT3 reporter cell line in prostate cancer cells provides a rapid, sensitive, and cost effective method for the screening of potential STAT3 modulators.

  3. Identification of STAT3 and STAT5 proteins in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and the Day/Night difference in astrocytic STAT3 phosphorylation in response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Simona; ?ervená, Kate?ina; Pa?esová, Dominika; Bendová, Zde?ka

    2016-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins regulate many aspects of cellular physiology from growth and differentiations to immune responses. Using immunohistochemistry, we show the daily rhythm of STAT3 protein in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), with low but significant amplitude peaking in the morning. We also reveal the strong expression of STAT5A in astrocytes of the SCN and the STAT5B signal in nonastrocytic cells. Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acutely induced phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 during both the day and the night and induced phosphorylation on Ser727 but only after the daytime application. The LPS-induced phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705) remained elevated for 24 hr after the daytime application but declined within 8 hr when LPS was applied at night. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26420542

  4. Identification of a natural product-like STAT3 dimerization inhibitor by structure-based virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L-J; Leung, K-H; Chan, D S-H; Wang, Y-T; Ma, D-L; Leung, C-H

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 regulates a variety of genes involved with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, inflammation, and immunity. The purpose of this study was to apply molecular docking techniques to identify STAT3 inhibitors from a database of over 90?000 natural product and natural product-like compounds. The virtual screening campaign furnished 14 hit compounds, from which compound 1 emerged as a top candidate. Compound 1 inhibited STAT3 DNA-binding activity in vitro and attenuated STAT3-directed transcription in cellulo with selectivity over STAT1 and with comparable potency to the well-known STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited STAT3 dimerization and decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in cells without affecting STAT1 dimerization and phosphorylation. Compound 1 also exhibited selective anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells over normal cells in vitro. Molecular docking analysis suggested that compound 1 might putatively function as an inhibitor of STAT3 dimerization by binding to the SH2 domain. This study also validates the use of in silico techniques to identify inhibitors of protein–protein interactions, which are typically considered difficult to target with small molecules. PMID:24922077

  5. Anomalous behaviour of the STAT3 binding site in the human c-myc P2 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Vougier, Stephanie; Cheung, S.-H.; Li Li; Hodgson, Glenn; Shaw, Peter E

    2007-12-21

    The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is necessary for ES cell renewal, plays critical roles during vertebrate development, and has oncogenic potential. STAT3 also mediates cytokine responses notably in the induction of acute phase response genes in the liver. Thus STAT3 is a pleiotropic regulator during cell proliferation and a cell-specific mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. How STAT3 fulfils both roles is unclear. To address this question we attempted to characterise pre-initiation complexes (PICs) on STAT3-responsive promoters containing the c-myc P2 promoter element (P2E) or c-fos Serum-Inducible Element (SIE). Although both promoters mediated cytokine responses in HepG2 cells, poor binding of STAT1 and STAT3 in vitro precluded isolation of active promoter complexes on the P2E. The inability of STAT3 to bind the P2E in vitro correlated with failure of the P2E to mediate cytokine-responsive gene expression in several other cell types. Thus the c-myc P2E behaves as a dual-purpose STAT3 element with anomalous characteristics in HepG2 cells.

  6. Combined targeting of Stat3/NF?B/Cox-2/EP4 for effective management of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Xie, Jianping; Bedolla, Roble; Rivas, Paul; Chakravarthy, Divya; Freeman, James W; Reddick, Robert; Kopetz, Scott; Peterson, Amanda; Wang, Huamin; Fischer, Susan M; Kumar, Addanki P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Near equal rates of incidence and mortality emphasize the need for novel targeted approaches for better management of pancreatic cancer patients. Inflammatory molecules NF?B and Stat3 are overexpressed in pancreatic tumors. Inhibition of one protein allows cancer cells to survive using the other. The goal of the present study is to determine whether targeting Stat3/NF?B cross talk with a natural product Nexrutine (Nx) can inhibit inflammatory signaling in pancreatic cancer. Experimental design HPNE, HPNE-Ras, BxPC3, Capan-2, MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells were tested for growth, apoptosis, Cox-2, NF?B and Stat3 level in response to Nx treatment. Transient expression, gel shift, ChIP was used to examine transcriptional regulation of Cox-2. Stat3 knockdown was used to decipher Stat3/NF?B cross talk. Histopathological and immunoblotting evaluation was performed on BK5-Cox2 transgenic mice treated with Nx. In vivo expression of prostaglandin receptor EP4 was analyzed in a retrospective cohort of pancreatic tumors using a TMA. Results Nx treatment inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. Reduced levels and activity of Stat3, NF?B and their cross talk led to transcriptional suppression of Cox-2 and subsequent decreased levels of PGE2 and PGF2. Stat3 knockdown studies suggest Stat3 as negative regulator of NF?B activation. Nx intervention reduced the levels of NF?B, Stat3 and fibrosis in vivo. Expression of prostaglandin receptor EP4 that is known to play a role in fibrosis was significantly elevated in human pancreatic tumors. Conclusions Dual inhibition of Stat3-NF?B by Nx may overcome problems associated with inhibition of either pathway. PMID:24520096

  7. Somatic mutations activating STAT3 in human inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Pilati, Camilla; Amessou, Mohamed; Bihl, Michel P.; Balabaud, Charles; Van Nhieu, Jeanne Tran; Paradis, Valérie; Nault, Jean Charles; Izard, Tina; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Couchy, Gabrielle; Poussin, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCAs) are benign liver tumors. 60% of these tumors have IL-6 signal transducer (IL6ST; gp130) mutations that activate interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling. Here, we report that 12% of IHCA subsets lacking IL6ST mutations harbor somatic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations (6/49). Most of these mutations are amino acid substitutions in the SH2 domain that directs STAT3 dimerization. In contrast to wild-type STAT3, IHCA STAT3 mutants constitutively activated the IL-6 signaling pathway independent of ligand in hepatocellular cells. Indeed, the IHCA STAT3 Y640 mutant homodimerized independent of IL-6 and was hypersensitive to IL-6 stimulation. This was associated with phosphorylation of tyrosine 705, a residue required for IL-6–induced STAT3 activation. Silencing or inhibiting the tyrosine kinases JAK1 or Src, which phosphorylate STAT3, impaired constitutive activity of IHCA STAT3 mutants in hepatocellular cells. Thus, we identified for the first time somatic STAT3 mutations in human tumors, revealing a new mechanism of recurrent STAT3 activation and underscoring the role of the IL-6–STAT3 pathway in benign hepatocellular tumorigenesis. PMID:21690253

  8. STAT3 restrains RANK- and TLR4-mediated signaling by suppressing expression of the E2 ubiquitin ligase Ubc13

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiyuan; Hu, Hongbo; Greeley, Nathaniel; Jin, Jin; Matthews, Allison J.; Ohashi, Erika; Caetano, Mauricio S.; Li, Haiyan S.; Wu, Xuefeng; Mandal, Pijus K.; McMurray, John S.; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator STAT3 curbs pro-inflammatory cytokine production mediated by NF-?B signaling in innate immune cells, yet the mechanism by which this occurs has been unclear. Here we identify STAT3 as a pivotal negative regulator of Ubc13, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that facilitates TRAF6 K63-linked ubiquitination and NF-?B activation. Ubc13 accumulates intracellularly in the absence of STAT3. Depletion of Ubc13 in Stat3-deficient macrophages subdues excessive RANKL- or LPS-dependent gene expression, indicating Ubc13 overexpression mediates enhanced transcriptional responses in the absence of STAT3. In RANKL-activated macrophages, STAT3 is stimulated by autocrine IL-6 and inhibits accrual of Ets-1, Set1 methyltransferase and trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at the Ube2n (Ubc13) promoter. These results delineate a mechanism by which STAT3 operates as a transcriptional repressor on Ube2n, thus modulating NF-?B activity by regulation of Ubc13 abundance. Our data suggest this pathway plays important roles in bone homeostasis and restraint of inflammation. PMID:25503582

  9. Identification of the coding region for a second Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA 2) by transfection of cloned DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Lantzsch, N; Lenoir, G M; Sauter, M; Takaki, K; Béchet, J M; Kuklik-Roos, C; Wunderlich, D; Bornkamm, G W

    1985-01-01

    Cell lines were established by co-transfection of cloned M-ABA Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA fragments with plasmids conferring resistance to dominant selective markers. A baby hamster kidney cell line carrying the HindIII-I1 fragment exhibits a nuclear antigen of 82 000 daltons, serologically defined as EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1. Furthermore, a Rat-1 cell line transfected with DNA of the clone pM 780-28 containing three large internal repeats (BglII-U) and the adjacent BglII-C fragment expresses a nuclear antigen of 82 000 daltons which can be visualized only by a subset of anti EBNA-positive human sera. Sera recognizing the 82 000-dalton protein of the transfected cell line reacted with a protein of the same size in the non-producer line Raji, designated as EBNA 2. Conversely, sera without reactivity to the 82 000-dalton protein failed to react with EBNA 2 of Raji cells. P3HR-1 and Daudi cells with large deletions in BglII-U and -C are devoid of EBNA 2. The data presented provide evidence that a second EBNA protein is encoded by the region of the EBV genome which is deleted in the non-transforming P3HR-1 strain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2992944

  10. Gambogic Acid Inhibits STAT3 Phosphorylation Through Activation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1: Potential Role in Proliferation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Pandey, Manoj K.; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is associated with proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. We investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone derived from the resin of traditional Chinese medicine, Gamboge hanburyi (mangosteen), can regulate the STAT3 pathway, leading to suppression of growth and sensitization of cancer cells. We found that GA induced apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells that correlated with the inhibition of both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation. STAT3 phosphorylation at both tyrosine residue 705 and serine residue 727 was inhibited by GA. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of the protein tyrosine kinases Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1, and JAK2. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the GA-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a PTP. We also found that GA induced the expression of the PTP SHP-1. Deletion of the SHP-1 gene by small interfering RNA suppressed the ability of GA to inhibit STAT3 activation and to induce apoptosis, suggesting the critical role of SHP-1 in its action. Moreover, GA down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) proteins, and this correlated with suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Overall, these results suggest that GA blocks STAT3 activation, leading to suppression of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. PMID:21490133

  11. Silencing of the transcription factor STAT3 sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging drugs, but not to TNF?- and NK cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Dorota W.; Carré, Thibault; Chouaib, Salem; Kaminska, Bozena

    2013-02-15

    Transcription factor STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) is persistently active in human tumors and may contribute to tumor progression. Inhibition of STAT3 expression/activity could be a good strategy to modulate tumor cell survival and responses to cancer chemotherapeutics or immune cytotoxicity. We silenced STAT3 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells to elucidate its role in cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics, TNF? and natural killer (NK)-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that STAT3 is not essential for basal survival and proliferation of A549 cancer cells. Stable silencing of STAT3 expression sensitized A549 cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in a p53-independent manner. Sensitization to DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics could be due to down-regulation of the Bcl-xL expression in STAT3 depleted cells. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 in cancer cells did not modulate responses to TNF? and NK-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that STAT3 depletion increased the NF?B activity likely providing the compensatory, pro-survival signal. The treatment with TNF?, but not doxorubicin, enhanced this effect. We conclude that STAT3 is not crucial for the control of basal cell proliferation and survival of lung carcinoma cells but modulates susceptibility to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics by regulation of intrinsic pro-survival pathways. - Highlights: ? STAT3 silencing is negligent for basal lung cancer cell viability and proliferation. ? STAT3 depletion sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics. ? STAT3 depletion has no effect on susceptibility to extrinsic apoptosis inducers. ? Increased pro-survival NF?B activity may compensate for STAT3 depletion.

  12. STAT3-Mediated Metabolic Reprograming in Cellular Transformation and Implications for Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Valeria; Camporeale, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 mediates the signaling downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors, regulating the expression of target genes. It is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y-P) in many tumors, where its transcriptional activity can induce a metabolic switch toward aerobic glycolysis and down-regulate mitochondrial activity, a prominent metabolic feature of most cancer cells, correlating with reduced production of ROS, delayed senescence, and protection from apoptosis. STAT3 can, however, also localize to mitochondria, where its serine-phosphorylated (S-P) form preserves mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and controls the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, also promoting survival and resistance to apoptosis in response to specific signals/oncogenes such as RAS. Thus, downstream of different signals, both nuclear, Y-P STAT3, and mitochondrial, S-P STAT3, can act by promoting cell survival and reducing ROS production. Here, we discuss these properties in the light of potential connections between STAT3-driven alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and the development of drug resistance in cancer patients. PMID:26106584

  13. Effects of STAT3 Gene Silencing and Rapamycin on Apoptosis in Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jun-Wei; Lv, Guo-Yue; Xie, Shu-Li; Wang, Guang-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways are important for regulating apoptosis, and are frequently activated in cancers. In this study, we targeted STAT3 and mTOR in human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells and examined the subsequent alterations in cellular apoptosis. The expression of STAT3 was silenced with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmid. The activity of mTOR was inhibited using rapamycin. Following treatment, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry and Hoechst33258 immunofluorescence staining was used to examine cellular apoptosis. JC-1 staining was used to monitor depolarization of mitochondrial membrane (??m). Furthermore, the expression of activated caspase 3 protein was analyzed by Western blotting. Compared to non-treated or control siRNA-transfected cells, significantly higher levels of apoptosis were detected in siSTAT3-transfected or rapamycin-treated cells (P < 0.05), which was further enhanced in cells targeted for both molecules (P < 0.05). The pro-apoptotic effects were accompanied with concomitant depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and up-regulation of activated caspase 3. Combined treatments using rapamycin and STAT3 gene silencing significantly increases apoptosis in Bel-7402 cells, displaying more dramatic effect than any single treatment. This study provides evidence for targeting multiple molecules in cancer therapy. PMID:22408571

  14. SIRT1 counteracted the activation of STAT3 and NF-?B to repress the gastric cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Qiming; Yang, Yuxia; Liu, Jingping; Ma, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) possesses apparently dual roles in regulation of tumor. Previous reports have documented the crosstalk between SIRT1 with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) signaling in leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In this study, the purpose was to survey the regulatory effects of SIRT1 on gastric cancer (GC) cells (AGS and MKN-45) and the relationships between SIRT1 and activation of STAT3 and NF-?B in GC cells. We found the SIRT1 activator (resveratrol RSV) contributed to the repression of viability and increase of senescence, which were rescued by SIRT1 inhibitor (nicotinamide NA) and SIRT1 depletion by CCK-8 assay and SA-?-gal assay respectively. Further study found SIRT1 activation (RSV supplement) not only inhibited the activation of STAT3 including STAT3 mRNA level, c-myc mRNA level phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) proteins and acetylizad STAT3 (acSTAT3) proteins, but also repression of pNF-?B p65 and acNF-?B p65. NA reversed the effects of RSV. In addition, either RSV or NA application could not change the cellular viability and senescence in MKN-45 cells with STAT3 knockdown or NF-?B knockdown. Overall, our findings suggested SIRT1 activation could induced the loss of viability and increases of senescence in GC in vitro. Moreover, our observations revealed SIRT1 displayed growth inhibitory activity in GC cells highly associated with causing repression of activation of STAT3 and NF-?B proteins via deacetylation. PMID:25664004

  15. T40214/PEI Complex, a Potent Therapeutics for Prostate Cancer that Targets STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weerasinghe, Priya; Li, Yifei; Guan, Yongli; Zhang, Ruiwen; Tweardy, David J.; Jing, Naijie

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in American and the second leading cause of cancer death. The treatment options employed for patients with advanced and metastatic prostate cancer are limited. As a critical mediator of oncogenic signaling, STAT3 is active in 82% of patients with prostate cancer. STAT3 has become a very important molecular target for prostate cancer therapy since it upregulates the oncogenes encoding apoptosis inhibitors, cell-cycle regulators, and inducers of angiogenesis. However, no anti-tumor drug whose primary mode of action is to target STAT3 has yet reached the clinic. To this end, we have laid the initial groundwork to develop the STAT3-inhibiting G-quartet oligodeoxynucleotide (GQ-ODN), T40214, for treatment of prostate cancers. Methods We employed in vitro and in vivo assays, including western blots, EMSA, cell cycle analysis, TUNEL and xenograft models, to determine the drug efficacy and mechanism of T40214/PEI complex. Results The results demonstrated that (i) T40214 significantly inhibited STAT3 activation and induced apoptosis in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells; (ii) T40214 delivered by PEI (ployethylenimine) significantly suppressed prostate tumor growth in tumor-bearning nude mice due to that T40214 inhibited STAT3 activation and then greatly promoted apoptosis, reduced angiogenesis and cell proliferation in prostate tumors. Conclusion Our studies suggested that STAT3 is a critical oncogenic signal, which strongly influences the progression of prostate cancers and that T40214/PEI complex is a promising candidate for treatment of patients with prostate tumors and represents a novel strategy for prostate cancer therapy. PMID:18615483

  16. IL-6 Induced STAT3 Signalling Is Associated with the Proliferation of Human Muscle Satellite Cells Following Acute Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Kyle G.; McKay, Bryon R.; De Lisio, Michael; Little, Jonathon P.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Parise, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the satellite cell (SC) is a key regulator of muscle growth during development and muscle adaptation following exercise, the regulation of human muscle SC function remains largely unexplored. STAT3 signalling mediated via interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently come to the forefront as a potential regulator of SC proliferation. The early response of the SC population in human muscle to muscle-lengthening contractions (MLC) as mediated by STAT3 has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve male subjects (21±2 y; 83±12 kg) performed 300 maximal MLC of the quadriceps femoris at 180°•s?1 over a 55° range of motion with muscle samples (vastus lateralis) and blood samples (antecubital vein) taken prior to exercise (PRE), 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3) and 24 hours (T24) post-exercise. Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of muscle biopsies were purified and analyzed for total and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) by western blot. p-STAT3 was detected in cytoplasmic fractions across the time course peaking at T24 (p<0.01 vs. PRE). Nuclear total and p-STAT3 were not detected at appreciable levels. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of SCs expressing p-STAT3 with ?60% of all SCs positive for p-STAT3 at T24 (p<0.001 vs. PRE). Additionally, cMyc, a STAT3 downstream gene, was significantly up-regulated in SCs at T24 versus PRE (p<0.05). Whole muscle mRNA analysis revealed induction of the STAT3 target genes IL-6, SOCS3, cMyc (peaking at T3, p<0.05), IL-6R? and GP130 (peaking at T24, p<0.05). In addition, Myf5 mRNA was up-regulated at T24 (p<0.05) with no appreciable change in MRF4 mRNA. Conclusions/Significant Findings We demonstrate that IL-6 induction of STAT3 signaling occurred exclusively in the nuclei of SCs in response to MLC. An increase in the number of cMyc+ SCs indicated that human SCs were induced to proliferate under the control of STAT3 signaling. PMID:21408055

  17. Chronic inflammation up-regulates P-gp in peripheral mononuclear blood cells via the STAT3/Nf-?b pathway in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Zhou, Fang; Chen, Qianying; Kang, An; Lu, Meng; Liu, Wenyue; Zang, Xiaojie; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, often suffer drug intolerance. This resistance can be divided into intrinsic resistance and acquired resistance. Although there is agreement on acquired resistance, studies regarding intrinsic resistance have demonstrated inconsistencies, especially for Crohn’s disease. For this reason, an animal model of Crohn’s disease was induced with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid solution (TNBS), and intrinsic resistance was analyzed by measuring the function and expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC), followed by mechanistic studies. The results revealed reduced retention of cyclosporine A in PMBC over-expressing P-gp in a TNBS-treated group and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-? as well as LPS in plasma. These cytokines and LPS can induce P-gp expression through the STAT3/Nf-?b pathway, contributing to a decrease of cyclosporine A retention, which can be reversed by the application of a P-gp inhibitor. Our results demonstrated that the sustained chronic inflammation could induce the intrinsic resistance presented as P-gp over-expression in PBMC in Crohn’s disease through STAT3/Nf-?b pathway and this resistance might be reversed by combinational usage of P-gp inhibitors. PMID:26324318

  18. STAT3 and MCL-1 associate to cause a mesenchymal epithelial transition.

    PubMed

    Renjini, A P; Titus, Shiny; Narayan, Prashanth; Murali, Megha; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Laloraya, Malini

    2014-04-15

    Embryo implantation is effected by a myriad of signaling cascades acting on the embryo-endometrium axis. Here we show, by using MALDI TOF analysis, far-western analysis and colocalization and co-transfection studies, that STAT3 and MCL-1 are interacting partners during embryo implantation. We show in vitro that the interaction between the two endogenous proteins is strongly regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Implantation, pregnancy and embryogenesis are distinct from any other process in the body, with extensive, but controlled, proliferation, cell migration, apoptosis, cell invasion and differentiation. Cellular plasticity is vital during the early stages of development for morphogenesis and organ homeostasis, effecting the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and, the reverse process, mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). STAT3 functionally associates with MCL-1 in the mammalian breast cancer cell line MCF7 that overexpresses STAT3 and MCL-1, which leads to an increased rate of apoptosis and decreased cellular invasion, disrupting the EMT. Association of MCL-1 with STAT3 modulates the normal, anti-apoptotic, activity of MCL-1, resulting in pro-apoptotic effects. Studying the impact of the association of STAT3 with MCL-1 on MET could lead to an enhanced understanding of pregnancy and infertility, and also metastatic tumors. PMID:24481815

  19. STAT3 in Cancer—Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The roles and significance of STAT3 in cancer biology have been extensively studied for more than a decade. Mounting evidence has shown that constitutive activation of STAT3 is a frequent biochemical aberrancy in cancer cells, and this abnormality directly contributes to tumorigenesis and shapes many malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from more recent experimental and clinicopathologic studies have suggested that STAT3 also can exert tumor suppressor effects under specific conditions. Importantly, some of these studies have demonstrated that STAT3 can function either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background or presence/absence of specific coexisting biochemical defects. Thus, in the context of cancer biology, STAT3 can be a friend or foe. In the first half of this review, we will highlight the “evil” features of STAT3 by summarizing its oncogenic functions and mechanisms. The differences between the canonical and non-canonical pathway will be highlighted. In the second half, we will summarize the evidence supporting that STAT3 can function as a tumor suppressor. To explain how STAT3 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we will discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT3?, one of the two STAT3 splicing isoforms. Taken together, it is clear that the roles of STAT3 in cancer are multi-faceted and far more complicated than one appreciated previously. The new knowledge has provided us with new approaches and strategies when we evaluate STAT3 as a prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. PMID:24995504

  20. STAT1 deficiency redirects IFN signalling toward suppression of TLR response through a feedback activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Sik; Kim, Dong Chan; Kim, Hong-Mi; Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kwon, Soon Jae; Kang, Suk-Jo; Kim, Sun Chang; Choi, Go-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) potentiate macrophage activation typically via a STAT1-dependent pathway. Recent studies suggest a functioning of STAT1-independent pathway in the regulation of gene expression by IFN-?, thus pointing to the diversity in cellular responses to IFNs. Many functions of IFNs rely on cross-regulation of the responses to exogenous inflammatory mediators such as TLR ligands. Here we investigated the contribution of STAT1-independent pathway to macrophage activation and its underlying mechanism in the context of combined stimulation of IFN and TLR. We found that TLR-induced production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-12) was not simply nullified but was significantly suppressed by signaling common to IFN-? and IFN-? in STAT1-null macrophages. Such a shift in the suppression of TLR response correlated with a sustained STAT3 activation and attenuation of NF-?B signaling. Using a JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibitor or STAT3-specific siRNA, blocking STAT3 in that context restored TNF-? production and NF-?B signaling, thus indicating a functional cross-regulation among STAT1, STAT3, and NF-?B. Our results suggest that STAT1 deficiency reprograms IFN signaling from priming toward suppression of TLR response via feedback regulation of STAT3, which may provide a new insight into the host defense response against microbial pathogens in a situation of STAT1 deficiency. PMID:26299368

  1. RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui; Huang, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  2. Mammary Gland Remodeling Depends on gp130 Signaling through Stat3 and MAPK*

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Axel

    Mammary Gland Remodeling Depends on gp130 Signaling through Stat3 and MAPK* Received death and tissue remodeling in the mouse mammary gland during involution, which is partially induced, cell-cell communication, and cell cycle regulation (8­10). In the mammary gland, the cycle

  3. ?-Tocotrienol is a novel inhibitor of constitutive and inducible STAT3 signalling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma: potential role as an antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and chemosensitizing agent

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Li, Feng; Manu, Kanjoormana Aryan; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Loo, Ser Yue; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play a critical role in the survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and chemoresistance of tumour cells. Thus, agents that suppress STAT3 phosphorylation have potential as cancer therapies. In the present study, we investigated whether the apoptotic, antiproliferative and chemosensitizing effects of ?-tocotrienol are associated with its ability to suppress STAT3 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of ?-tocotrienol on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and phosphatase, STAT3-regulated gene products, cellular proliferation and apoptosis in HCC cells was investigated. KEY RESULTS ?-Tocotrienol inhibited both the constitutive and inducible activation of STAT3 with minimum effect on STAT5. ?-Tocotrienol also inhibited the activation of Src, JAK1 and JAK2 implicated in STAT3 activation. Pervanadate reversed the ?-tocotrienol-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that ?-tocotrienol induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and deletion of the SHP-1 gene by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of ?-tocotrienol to inhibit STAT3 activation. ?-Tocotrienol also down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products, including cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, Mcl-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, ?-tocotrienol inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs (paclitaxel and doxorubicin) used for the treatment of HCC. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Overall, these results suggest that ?-tocotrienol is a novel blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway, with a potential role in future therapies for HCC and other cancers. PMID:21198544

  4. Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Nishimura, Kohji; Uda, Atsushi; Mukai, Akira; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Kume, Manabu; Makimoto, Hiroo; Bito, Toshinori; Nishigori, Chikako; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori

    2014-01-01

    Hand–foot skin reaction is a most common multi-kinase inhibitor-related adverse event. This study aimed to examine whether the toxicity of sorafenib and sunitinib for human keratinocytes was associated with inhibiting signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We studied whether STAT3 activity affects sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition in HaCaT cells by WST-8 assay. Stattic enhanced the cell-growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of sorafenib and sunitinib. HaCaT cells transfected with constitutively-active STAT3 (STAT3C) were resistant to the sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. STAT3 activity decreased after short-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib in a dose-dependent manner and recovered after long-term treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib at low doses. Moreover, the expression of survivin and bcl-2 decreased after treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib was concomitant with variations in STAT3 activity. Sorafenib-induced STAT3 inhibition was mediated by regulation via MAPK pathways in HaCaT cells, while sunitinib-induced STAT3 inhibition was not. Thus, STAT3 activation mediating apoptosis suppressors may be a key factor in sorafenib and sunitinib-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity. PMID:25013907

  5. Mouse hematopoietic cell–targeted STAT3 deletion: stem/progenitor cell defects, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS overproduction, and a rapid aging–like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Messina-Graham, Steven; Moh, Akira; Cooper, Scott; Hangoc, Giao; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Broxmeyer, Hal E.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Stat3 is important for proper regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) proliferation, survival, and cytokine signaling responses. A new, noncanonical role for Stat3 in mitochondrial function has been discovered recently. However, there is little information on the role(s) of mitochondrial Stat3 in HSC/HPC function, especially potential effects of Stat3/mitochondrial dysregulation in human diseases. We investigated hematopoietic cell–targeted deletion of the STAT3 gene in HSCs/HPCs with a focus on mitochondrial function. We found that STAT3?/? mice, which have a very shortened lifespan, dysfunctional/dysregulated mitochondrial function and excessive reactive oxygen species production in HSCs/HPCs that coincides with pronounced defects in function. These animals have a blood phenotype with similarities to premature aging and to human diseases of myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasms such as erythroid dysplasia, anemia, excessive myeloproliferation, and lymphomyeloid ratio shifts. We show herein that the lifespan of STAT3?/? animals is lengthened by treatment with a reactive oxygen species scavenger, which lessened the severity of the blood phenotype. These data suggest a need for more detailed studies of role(s) of Stat3 in HSC/HPC mitochondrial function in human diseases and raise the idea that mitochondrial Stat3 could be used as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22665934

  6. AG490 inhibits NFATc1 expression and STAT3 activation during RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chang-hong; Zhao, Jin-xia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhong-qiang; Deng, Xiao-li; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiang-yuan

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •AG490 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. •AG490 affects cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. •AG490 reduces NFATc1 expression during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. •AG490 disrupts the activation of RANKL-mediated JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. •STAT3 depletion partly mimics the effect of AG490 on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Commonly, JAK/STAT relays cytokine signals for cell activation and proliferation, and recent studies have shown that the elevated expression of JAK/STAT is associated with the immune rejection of allografts and the inflammatory processes of autoimmune disease. However, the role which JAK2/STAT3 signaling plays in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of AG490, specific JAK2 inhibitor, on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. AG490 significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in murine osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 induced by RANKL. AG490 suppressed cell proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Furthermore, AG490 also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 but not c-Fos in RAW264.7. Subsequently, we investigated various intracellular signaling components associated with osteoclastogenesis. AG490 had no effects on RANKL-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2. Interestingly, AG490 partly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Ser{sup 727} in STAT3. Additionally, down-regulation of STAT3 using siRNA resulted in suppression of TRAP, RANK and NFATc1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AG490 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NFATc1 production and cell proliferation via the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of JAK2 may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclastogenesis.

  7. Phosphorylation status determines the opposing functions of Smad2/Smad3 as STAT3 cofactors in TH17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Hwan; Sudo, Katsuko; Kuroda, Masahiko; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Lee, In-Kyu; Han, Jin Soo; Nakae, Susumu; Imamura, Takeshi; Kim, Juryun; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Dae-Kee; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Weinstein, Michael; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki; Mamura, Mizuko

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are the pivotal cytokines to induce IL-17-producing CD4(+) T helper cells (TH17); yet their signalling network remains largely unknown. Here we show that the highly homologous TGF-? receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads): Smad2 and Smad3 oppositely modify STAT3-induced transcription of IL-17A and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor, ROR?t encoded by Rorc, by acting as a co-activator and co-repressor of STAT3, respectively. Smad2 linker phosphorylated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) at the serine 255 residue interacts with STAT3 and p300 to transactivate, whereas carboxy-terminal unphosphorylated Smad3 interacts with STAT3 and protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) to repress the Rorc and Il17a genes. Our work uncovers carboxy-terminal phosphorylation-independent noncanonical R-Smad-STAT3 signalling network in TH17 differentiation. PMID:26194464

  8. Phosphorylation status determines the opposing functions of Smad2/Smad3 as STAT3 cofactors in TH17 differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Hwan; Sudo, Katsuko; Kuroda, Masahiko; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Lee, In-Kyu; Han, Jin Soo; Nakae, Susumu; Imamura, Takeshi; Kim, Juryun; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Dae-Kee; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Weinstein, Michael; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki; Mamura, Mizuko

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are the pivotal cytokines to induce IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper cells (TH17); yet their signalling network remains largely unknown. Here we show that the highly homologous TGF-? receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads): Smad2 and Smad3 oppositely modify STAT3-induced transcription of IL-17A and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor, ROR?t encoded by Rorc, by acting as a co-activator and co-repressor of STAT3, respectively. Smad2 linker phosphorylated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) at the serine 255 residue interacts with STAT3 and p300 to transactivate, whereas carboxy-terminal unphosphorylated Smad3 interacts with STAT3 and protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) to repress the Rorc and Il17a genes. Our work uncovers carboxy-terminal phosphorylation-independent noncanonical R-Smad–STAT3 signalling network in TH17 differentiation. PMID:26194464

  9. Leptin Protects Host Cells from Entamoeba histolytica Cytotoxicity by a STAT3-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Verkerke, Hans P.; Paul, Shom N.; Mackey, Aaron J.; Petri, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The adipocytokine leptin links nutritional status to immune function. Leptin signaling protects from amebiasis, but the molecular mechanism is not understood. We developed an in vitro model of ameba-host cell interaction to test the hypothesis that leptin prevents ameba-induced apoptosis in host epithelial cells. We demonstrated that activation of mammalian leptin signaling increased cellular resistance to amebic cytotoxicity, including caspase-3 activation. Exogenous expression of the leptin receptor conferred resistance in susceptible cells, and leptin stimulation enhanced protection. A series of leptin receptor signaling mutants showed that resistance to amebic cytotoxicity was dependent on activation of STAT3 but not the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) or STAT5. A common polymorphism in the leptin receptor (Q223R) that increases susceptibility to amebiasis in humans and mice was found to increase susceptibility to amebic cytotoxicity in single cells. The Q223R polymorphism also decreased leptin-dependent STAT3 activation by 21% relative to that of the wild-type (WT) receptor (P = 0.035), consistent with a central role of STAT3 signaling in protection. A subset of genes uniquely regulated by STAT3 in response to leptin was identified. Most notable were the TRIB1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) genes, which have opposing roles in the regulation of apoptosis. Overall apoptotic genes were highly enriched in this gene set (P < 1E?05), supporting the hypothesis that leptin regulation of host apoptotic genes via STAT3 is responsible for protection. This is the first demonstration of a mammalian signaling pathway that restricts amebic pathogenesis and represents an important advance in our mechanistic understanding of how leptin links nutrition and susceptibility to infection. PMID:22331430

  10. Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murano, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo ; Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo ; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

  11. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Leve, Fernanda; Peres-Moreira, Rubem J; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana; Morgado-Díaz, José A

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR). Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 ?M LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of ?-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways involved in cell cycle control. PMID:26418031

  12. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Fernanda; Peres-Moreira, Rubem J.; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana; Morgado-Díaz, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR). Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 ?M LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of ?-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways involved in cell cycle control. PMID:26418031

  13. Therapeutic Retrobulbar Inhibition of STAT3 Protects Ischemic Retina Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mansin; Li, Ying; Li, Shang; Zhang, Shaodan; Li, Weiyi; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Chaoran; Barnstable, Colin J; Zhang, Samuel S; Zhang, Chun; Huang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Abnormal activation and/or proliferation of astrocytes, termed astrogliosis, have been observed during optic nerve degeneration. Our previous study identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling as an important regulator of astrogliosis in the optic nerve in a rat transient ischemia/reperfusion model. In this study, we used pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activation in the same model to assess whether it could attenuate reactive astrogliosis and to observe its influence on optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Our findings show that retrobulbar inhibition of STAT3 in optic nerve head astrocytes leads to (a) increased nerve fiber bundle survival in the optic nerve, (b) increased nerve fiber bundle and RGC survival in the retina, (c) decreased astrocyte reactivation in the optic nerve (d) decreased remodeling of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and (e) no influence of astrocyte reactivation inside the retina. Taken together, the Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway contributes to astrocyte reactivation in the optic nerve, which plays a pivotal role in neurodegeneration after transient ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. Inhibition of this pathway provides a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glaucomatous neuropathy, and could extend to other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25344318

  14. Caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of STAT3? in ES cells, in mammary glands undergoing forced involution and in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, James R; Watson, Susan MR; Tevendale, Maxine CL; Watson, Christine J; Clarke, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Background The STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) transcription factor family mediates cellular responses to a wide range of cytokines. Activated STATs (particularly STAT3) are found in a range of cancers. Further, STAT3 has anti-apoptotic functions in a range of tumour cell lines. After observing a proteolytic cleavage in STAT3? close to a potential apoptotic caspase protease cleavage site we investigated whether STAT3? might be a caspase substrate. Methods STAT3? status was investigated in vitro in several cell systems:- HM-1 murine embryonic stem (ES) cells following various interventions; IOUD2 murine ES cells following induction to differentiate along neural or adipocyte lineages; and in a number of breast cancer cell lines. STAT3? status was also analysed in vivo in wild type murine mammary glands undergoing controlled, forced involution. Results Immunoblotting for STAT3? in HM-1 ES cell extracts detected amino and carboxy terminal species of approximately 48 kDa and 43 kDa respectively – which could be diminished dose-dependently by cell treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) donor drug sodium nitroprusside (SNP). UV irradiation of HM-1 ES cells triggered the STAT3? cleavage (close to a potential caspase protease cleavage site). Interestingly, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) and the JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG490 both inhibited cleavage dose-dependently, and cleavage was significantly lower in a heterozygous JAK2 knockout ES cell clone. STAT3? cleavage also occurred in vivo in normal murine mammary glands undergoing forced involution, coinciding with a pulse of phosphorylation of residue Y705 on full-length STAT3?. Cleavage also occurred during IOUD2 ES cell differentiation (most strikingly along the neural lineage) and in several human breast cancer cell lines, correlating strongly with Y705 phosphorylation. Conclusion This study documents a proteolytic cleavage of STAT3? into 48 kDa amino and 43 kDa carboxyl terminal fragments in a range of cell types. STAT3? cleavage occurs close to a potential caspase site, and can be inhibited dose-dependently by SNP, AG490 and z-VAD-FMK. The cleavage seems to be caspase-dependent and requires the phosphorylation of STAT3? at the Y705 residue. This highly regulated STAT3? cleavage may play an important role in modulating STAT3 transcriptional activity. PMID:17295906

  15. Mutations in the linker domain affect phospho-STAT3 function and suggest targets for interrupting STAT3 activity.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Claudia; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Klinge, Sebastian; Darnell, James E

    2015-12-01

    Crystallography of the cores of phosphotyrosine-activated dimers of STAT1 (132-713) and STAT3 (127-722) bound to a similar double-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide established the domain structure of the STATs and the structural basis for activation through tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization. We reported earlier that mutants in the linker domain of STAT1 that connect the DNA-binding domain and SH2 domain can prevent transcriptional activation. Because of the pervasive importance of persistently activated STAT3 in many human cancers and the difficulty of finding useful drug candidates aimed at disrupting the pY interchange in active STAT3 dimers, we have examined effects of an array of mutants in the STAT3 linker domain. We have found several STAT3 linker domain mutants to have profound effects of inhibiting STAT3 transcriptional activation. From these results, we propose (i) there is definite functional interaction of the linker both with the DNA binding domain and with the SH2 domain, and (ii) these putative contacts provide potential new targets for small molecule-induced pSTAT3 inhibition. PMID:26553978

  16. The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cong; Su, Jia; Li, Zhijun; Xiao, Rui; Wen, Jianxun; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xueting; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2015-10-27

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we show that TGR5 is a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway. We firstly show that TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells and strongly induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. We then found that TGR5 activation antagonized STAT3 signaling pathway through suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcription activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-6. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression mediated by STAT3. It suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric cancer proliferation and migration at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric cancer. PMID:26417930

  17. SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S.

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of SPARC impaired cell proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression induces STAT3 mediated cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPARC expression significantly inhibited pre-established tumor growth in nude-mice. -- Abstract: Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation.

  18. Embelin reduces colitis-associated tumorigenesis through limiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun; Jiao, Hongmei; Teng, Guigen; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Rongxin; Wang, Yunhong; Hebbard, Lionel; George, Jacob; Qiao, Liang

    2014-05-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling regulates survival and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Embelin is a small molecule inhibitor of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. We previously showed that embelin inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro, and effectively suppresses 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice. Here, we explored the antitumor effects and mechanisms of embelin on colitis-associated cancer (CAC) using the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) model, with a particular focus on whether embelin exerts its effect through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. We found that embelin significantly reduced incidence and tumor size in CAC-bearing mice. In addition to inhibiting proliferation of tumor epithelial cells, embelin suppressed colonic IL-6 expression and secretion, and subsequently STAT3 activation in vivo. Importantly, in vitro studies have revealed that in colon cancer cells, embelin diminished both the constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation by stimulating Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) activity. Moreover, embelin protected mice from AOM/DSS-induced colitis before tumor development. Embelin decreased IL-1?, IL-17a, and IL-23a expression as well as the number of CD4(+) T cells and macrophages infiltrating the colonic tissues. Thus, our findings demonstrated that embelin suppresses CAC tumorigenesis, and its antitumor effect is partly mediated by limiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and Th17 immune response. Embelin may be a potential agent in the prevention and treatment of CAC. PMID:24651526

  19. Inhibition of STAT3 activity delays obesity-induced thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Won; Han, Cho Rong; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark C; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2016-01-01

    Compelling epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is a risk factor for many human cancers, including thyroid cancer. In recent decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has dramatically increased along with a marked rise in obesity prevalence. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet (HFD) effectively induced the obese phenotype in a mouse model of thyroid cancer (Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice). Moreover, HFD activates the STAT3 signal pathway to promote more aggressive tumor phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of S3I-201, a specific inhibitor of STAT3 activity, on HFD-induced aggressive cancer progression in the mouse model of thyroid cancer. WT and Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice were treated with HFD together with S3I-201 or vehicle-only as controls. We assessed the effects of S3I-201 on HFD-induced thyroid cancer progression, the leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway, and key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). S3I-201 effectively inhibited HFD-induced aberrant activation of STAT3 and its downstream targets to markedly inhibit thyroid tumor growth and to prolong survival. Decreased protein levels of cyclins D1 and B1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CDK6, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein led to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in S3I-201-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. Reduced occurrence of vascular invasion and blocking of anaplasia and lung metastasis in thyroid tumors of S3I-201-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice were mediated via decreased expression of vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases, two key effectors of EMT. The present findings suggest that inhibition of the STAT3 activity would be a novel treatment strategy for obesity-induced thyroid cancer. PMID:26552408

  20. Folic acid mediates activation of the pro-oncogene STAT3 via the Folate Receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mariann F; Greibe, Eva; Skovbjerg, Signe; Rohde, Sarah; Kristensen, Anders C M; Jensen, Trine R; Stentoft, Charlotte; Kjær, Karina H; Kronborg, Camilla S; Martensen, Pia M

    2015-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-described pro-oncogene found constitutively activated in several cancer types. Folates are B vitamins that, when taken up by cells through the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC), are essential for normal cell growth and replication. Many cancer cells overexpress a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Folate Receptor ? (FR?). The function of FR? in cancer cells is still poorly described, and it has been suggested that transport of folate is not its primary function in these cells. We show here that folic acid and folinic acid can activate STAT3 through FR? in a Janus Kinase (JAK)-dependent manner, and we demonstrate that gp130 functions as a transducing receptor for this signalling. Moreover, folic acid can promote dose dependent cell proliferation in FR?-positive HeLa cells, but not in FR?-negative HEK293 cells. After folic acid treatment of HeLa cells, up-regulation of the STAT3 responsive genes Cyclin A2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were verified by qRT-PCR. The identification of this FR?-STAT3 signal transduction pathway activated by folic and folinic acid contributes to the understanding of the involvement of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects as well as in tumour growth. Previously, the role of folates in these diseases has been attributed to their roles as one-carbon unit donors following endocytosis into the cell. Our finding that folic acid can activate STAT3 via FR? adds complexity to the established roles of B9 vitamins in cancer and neural tube defects. PMID:25841994

  1. Gprc5a deletion enhances the transformed phenotype in normal and malignant lung epithelial cells by eliciting persistent Stat3 signaling induced by autocrine leukemia inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Deng, Jiong; Fujimoto, Junya; Kadara, Humam; Men, Taoyan; Lotan, Dafna; Lotan, Reuben

    2010-11-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) is activated by cytokines and growth factors in lung cancers and regulates expression of genes implicated in cell growth, survival, and transformation. Previously, we found that mice with a deletion of the G protein-coupled receptor, family C, group 5, member a (Gprc5a) gene develop lung tumors, indicating that Gprc5a is a tumor suppressor. Herein, we show that epithelial cells from Gprc5a knockout mouse lung (Gprc5a(-/-) cells) survive better in vitro in medium deprived of exogenous growth factors and form more colonies in semisolid medium than their counterparts from wild-type mice (Gprc5a(+/+) cells). Stat3 tyrosine 705 phosphorylation and expression of several Stat3-regulated antiapoptotic genes were higher in Gprc5a(-/-) than in Gprc5a(+/+) cells. Both cell types secreted leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif); however, whereas Stat3 activation was persistent in Gprc5a(-/-) cells, it was transient in Gprc5a(+/+) cells. Lung adenocarcinoma cells isolated from Gprc5a(-/-) mice also exhibited autocrine Lif-mediated Stat3 activation. The level of Socs3, the endogenous Stat3 inhibitory protein, was higher in Gprc5a(+/+) than in Gprc5a(-/-) cells, and expression of the tumor suppressor stabilized Socs3. Inhibition of Stat3 signaling in Gprc5a(-/-) normal and cancer cells by the Janus-activated kinase 2 inhibitor AG490 or by a dominant negative Stat3(Y705F) increased starvation-induced apoptosis and inhibited colony formation. These results show that persistent Stat3 activation is important for the survival and transformation of Gprc5a(-/-) lung cells and suggest that the tumor suppressive effects of Gprc5a are mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of Stat3 signaling through Socs3 stabilization. PMID:20959490

  2. Expression of Myc, but not pSTAT3, is an adverse prognostic factor for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with epratuzumab/R-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Matthew J.; Wellik, Linda E.; Law, Mark E.; Han, Jing Jing; Ozsan, Nazan; Micallef, Ivana N.; Dogan, Ahmet; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    STAT3 regulates cell growth by up-regulating downstream targets, such as Myc. The frequency of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) and Myc expression and their prognostic relevance is unknown within diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) germinal center B-cell (GCB) and non-GCB subtypes. pSTAT3 and Myc were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tumors from 40 DLBCL patients uniformly treated on a clinical trial of epratuzumab/rituximab-CHOP. A total of 35% of cases were pSTAT3-positive, and pSTAT3 positivity was more frequent in the non-GCB (P = .06) type but did not correlate with event-free survival (EFS). Myc expression was observed in 50% of cases and was more frequent in non-GCB type (P = .07). Myc-positive cases had inferior EFS in all patients, including the GCB and pSTAT3-positive cases, were more likely to express Myc (P = .06). Myc translocations involving the major breakpoint regions were found in 10% (3 of 29) of cases, and all 3 cases were GCB and had an inferior EFS (P = .09). pSTAT3, but not Myc expression, was correlated with elevated pretreatment serum cytokines, such as IL-10 (P = .05), G-CSF (P = .03), and TNF-? (P = .04). pSTAT3 IHC in DLBCL tumors has the potential to identify patients for STAT3 pathway–directed therapy; Myc IHC is a potential marker for inferior EFS in GCB patients. PMID:23018644

  3. Expression and Activation of STAT3 in the Astrocytes of Optic Nerve in a Rat Model of Transient Intraocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Wenqian; Zhang, Samuel S.; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Lamina cribosa, an astrocyte-rich region, is the origin of axonal degeneration in glaucomatous neuropathy. Astrocytes are particularly activated during optic nerve (ON) degeneration and are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Signalling mechanisms that regulate different aspects of astrocyte reactiviation in response to intraocular hypertensive injury are not well defined. Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein-3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that participates in many biological processes and has been implicated as activator of reactive astrogliosis. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 in regulating the activation of astrocytes to transient intraocular hypertension in vivo by using a rat ocular hypertension model. ON astrocytes hypertrophy was observed early after intraocular hypertensive stress. Morphological changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells coupled with axon loss in the optic nerve was detected at day 7 after the injury. Nestin was significantly upregulated in ON astrocytes as early as day 2 post injury and kept elevated through post injury day 7. Phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was markedly upregulated in ON astrocytes at post injury day 1, prior to the reactivation of ON astrocytes. These findings indicate that STAT3 signalling is involved in the initiation of astrocyte reactivation in optic nerve injury. PMID:23383263

  4. Piperlongumine Blocks JAK2-STAT3 to Inhibit Collagen-Induced Platelet Reactivity Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species†

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hengjie; Houck, Katie L.; Tian, Ye; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Hull, Ken; Zhou, Zhou; Zhou, Mingzhao; Wu, Xiaoping; Tweardy, David J.; Romo, Daniel; Fu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jianning; Dong, Jing-fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Piperlongumine (PL) is a compound isolated from the piper longum plant. It possesses anti-cancer activities through blocking the transcription factor STAT3 and by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer, but not normal cells. It also inhibits platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but the underlying mechanism is not known. Objective We conducted in vitro experiments to test the hypothesis that PL regulates a non-transcriptional activity of STAT3 to specifically reduce the reactivity of human platelets to collagen. Results PL dose-dependently blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation, calcium influx, CD62p expression and thrombus formation on collagen with a maximal inhibition at 100 ?M. It reduced platelet microvesiculation induced by collagen. PL blocked the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 in collagen-stimulated platelets. This inhibitory effect was significantly reduced in platelets pretreated with a STAT3 inhibitor. Although PL induced ROS production in platelets; quenching ROS using excessive reducing agents: 20 ?M GSH and 0.5 mM L-Cysteine, did not block the inhibitory effects. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor Apocynin also had no effect. Conclusions PL inhibited collagen-induced platelet reactivity by targeting the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. We also provide experimental evidence that PL and collagen induce different oxidants that have differential effects on platelets. Studying these differential effects may uncover new mechanisms of regulating platelet functions by oxidants in redox signals. PMID:26645674

  5. Functional status of STAT3 and MAPK3/1 signaling pathways in granulosa cells during bovine follicular deviation.

    PubMed

    Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ferreira, Rogério; Ilha, Gustavo F; Bordignon, Vilceu; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Duggavathi, Raj

    2015-02-01

    Follicle development is coordinated by gonadotropins, steroids, and growth factors, which activate multiple signaling pathways. Phosphorylated-MAPK (pMAPK) level was indicated as an early marker of follicle dominance, whereas phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was increased in granulosa cells of hypophysectomized rats. We hypothesized that MAPK3/1 and STAT3 pathways are regulated in granulosa cells during follicle deviation in cattle. Cyclic beef cows were synchronized and ovariectomized to recover the two largest follicles. Follicular diameter did not differ on Day 2 but was significantly greater in dominant follicles (DFs) than that in subordinate follicles (SFs) on Days 3 and 4 of the follicular wave. The elevated abundance of CYP19A1 mRNA expression in granulosa cells of DFs and cleaved caspase 3 in Day-4 SFs further validated our in vivo model. Before deviation, pMAPK3/1 levels were significantly higher in granulosa cells of the future DF. STAT3 mRNA and total protein (tSTAT3) were higher in granulosa cells of SFs collected on Day 4. Furthermore, levels of pSTAT3 were dramatically increased in granulosa cells of Day-4 SFs. In conclusion, pMAPK3/1 was increased in the future DF, but such differential abundance between the DF and SF was not evident after deviation. The higher abundance of pSTAT3 in granulosa cells of SFs after deviation suggests that this pathway may be involved in granulosa cell death and follicular atresia. PMID:25442017

  6. Brassinin inhibits STAT3 signaling pathway through modulation of PIAS-3 and SOCS-3 expression and sensitizes human lung cancer xenograft in nude mice to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Chulwon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Persistent phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently observed in tumor cells. We found that brassinin (BSN) suppressed both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in lung cancer cells. Moreover, BSN induced PIAS-3 protein and mRNA, whereas the expression of SOCS-3 was reduced. Knockdown of PIAS-3 by small interfering RNA prevented inhibition of STAT3 and cytotoxicity by BSN. Overexpression of SOCS-3 in BSN-treated cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation and cell viability. BSN down-regulated STAT3-regulated gene products, inhibited proliferation, invasion, as well as induced apoptosis. Most importantly, when administered intraperitoneally, combination of BSN and paclitaxel significantly decreased the tumor development in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model associated with down-modulation of phospho-STAT3, Ki-67 and CD31. We suggest that BSN inhibits STAT3 signaling through modulation of PIAS-3 and SOCS-3, thereby attenuating tumor growth and increasing sensitivity to paclitaxel. PMID:25788267

  7. Stat3 is involved in control of MASP2 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberger, Claudia; Hanson, Steven; Klingenhoff, Andreas; Oesterle, Daniela; Frankenberger, Marion; Endo, Yuichi; Matsushita, Misao; Fujita, Teizo; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Stover, Cordula

    2007-12-28

    Little is known about determinants regulating expression of Mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), the effector component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the MASP2 promoter regions in human, mouse, and rat, revealed conservation of two putative Stat binding sites, termed StatA and StatB. Site directed mutagenesis specific for these sites was performed. Transcription activity was decreased 5-fold when StatB site was mutated in the wildtype reporter gene construct. Gel retardation and competition assays demonstrated that proteins contained in the nuclear extract prepared from HepG2 specifically bound double-stranded StatB oligonucleotides. Supershift analysis revealed Stat3 to be the major specific binding protein. We conclude that Stat3 binding is important for MASP2 promoter activity.

  8. Leukemia inhibitory factor inhibits neuronal terminal differentiation through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Cheil; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Matarazzo, Valéry; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Esther J.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult central nervous system raises questions concerning the neurotrophic factors that regulate postnatal neuronal development. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are a useful model, because they are capable of robust neurogenesis throughout adulthood. We have investigated the role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in postnatal neuronal development by using ORNs as a model. LIF is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in various aspects of neuronal development, including phenotype determination, survival, and in response to nerve injury. LIF-deficient mice display significant increases, both in the absolute amount and in the number of cells expressing olfactory marker protein, a marker of mature ORNs. The maturation of ORNs was significantly inhibited by LIF in vitro. LIF activated the STAT3 pathway in ORNs, and transfection of ORNs with a dominant negative form of STAT3 abolished the effect of LIF. These findings demonstrate that LIF negatively regulates ORN maturation via the STAT3 pathway. Thus, LIF plays a critical role in controlling the transition of ORNs to maturity. Consequently, a population of ORNs is maintained in an immature state to facilitate the rapid repopulation of the olfactory epithelium with mature neurons during normal cell turnover or after injury. PMID:12084939

  9. Bortezomib enhances antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell responses against immune-resistant cancer cells generated by STAT3-ablated dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Wang Jae; Hur, Daeyoung; Wu, T.-C.; Kim, Daejin

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have received attention as a new therapeutic modality against cancer. However, increased STAT3 activity in the tumor microenvironment makes DCs tolerogenic and suppresses their antitumor activity. In this study, we explored the effects of a combination treatment consisting of a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, and an antigen specific STAT3-ablated (STAT3?/?) DC-based vaccine on the control of TC-1(P3) tumors, a p53-degraded immune resistant cancer cells. We found that E7-antigen expressing STAT3?/? DC (E7-DC-1STAT3?/?) vaccination enhanced generation of E7-specific CD8+ T cells, but was not enough to control TC-1(P3) cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether bortezomib could create a synergistic effect with E7-DC-1STAT3?/? vaccination. We found that apoptosis via down-regulation of STAT3 and NF-?B and up-regulation of Fas and death receptor 5 (DR5) expression in TC-1(P3) induced by bortezomib was independent of p53 status. We also observed that TC-1(P3) cells pretreated with bortezomib had markedly enhanced anti-tumor effects on E7-specific CD8+ T cells through a Fas/DR5-mediated mechanism. In addition, TC-1(P3) tumor-bearing mice treated with bortezomib prior to vaccination with E7-DC-1STAT3?/? demonstrated enhanced generation of E7-specific CD8+ T cells and prolonged survival compared to those treated with monotherapy. These results suggest that the anti-tumor effects against a p53-degraded immune resistant variant generated by antigen-expressing STAT3-ablated mature DCs may be enhanced by bortezomib via death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:23428347

  10. Conditional deletion of Stat3 in mammary epithelium impairs the acute phase response and modulates immune cell numbers during post-lactational regression

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Katherine; Wickenden, Julie A; Allen, Judith E; Watson, Christine J

    2012-01-01

    Mammary gland regression following weaning (involution) is associated with extensive cell death and the acquisition of an inflammatory signature. Characterizing the interplay between mammary epithelial cells, the re-emerging stroma and immune cells has implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Stat3 has a role in orchestrating cell death and involution, and we sought to determine whether expression of Stat3 by the mammary epithelium also influences the innate immune environment and inflammatory cell influx in the gland. We examined mice in which Stat3 is conditionally deleted only in the mammary epithelium. Distinct sets of genes associated with the acute phase response and innate immunity are markedly up-regulated during first phase involution in a Stat3-dependent manner. During second phase involution, chitinase 3-like 1, which has been associated with wound healing and chronic inflammatory conditions, is dramatically up-regulated by Stat3. Also at this time, the number of mammary macrophages and mast cells increases per unit area, and this increase is impaired in the absence of epithelial Stat3. Furthermore, expression of arginase-1 and Ym1, markers of alternatively activated macrophages, is significantly decreased in the absence of Stat3, whilst iNOS, a marker associated with classically activated macrophages, shows significantly increased expression in the Stat3-deleted glands. Thus, Stat3 is a key transcriptional regulator of genes associated with innate immunity and wound healing and influences mammary macrophage and mast cell numbers. The presence of epithelial Stat3 appears to polarize the macrophages and epithelial cells towards an alternatively activated phenotype, since in the absence of Stat3, the gland retains a phenotype associated with classically activated macrophages. These findings have relevance to the study of pregnancy-associated breast cancer and the role of Stat3 signalling in recruitment of alternatively activated tumour-associated macrophages in breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22081431

  11. New Insights into the Roles of Stat5a/b and Stat3 in T Cell Development and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lai; Laurence, Arian; O'Shea, John J.

    2009-01-01

    T cell development and differentiation is carefully orchestrated by a series of cytokines. The importance of STAT family proteins in mediating signals by these cytokines is well-known, but new information on the role of STATs in novel aspects of T cell function and new T cell subsets continues to accumulate. Recent studies have placed Stat5a/b and Stat3 center stage in T cell development and differentiation. Stat5a/b are indispensable in T regulatory (Treg) cell development and maintenance, and negatively regulate T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Conversely, Stat3 is essential for Th17 differentiation and inhibits Treg cells. The balance of Treg and Th17 cells is thought to be critical in maintaining immune tolerance, while preserving effective host defense. Therefore, Stat5a/b and Stat3 are emerging to be key players in T cell differentiation and homeostasis. PMID:18708155

  12. ?-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tao; Cui, Xi-juan; Li, Wei; Lin, Wan-run; Lu, Hong-wei; Li, Yi-ming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin, a major xanthone identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901 were treated with ?-mangostin. The cell viability was measured with MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Results: Treatment with ?-mangostin (3–10 ?g/mL) inhibited the viability of both BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells in dose- and time-manners. Furthermore, ?-mangostin (7 ?g/mL) time-dependently increased the apoptosis index of the cancer cells, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cancer cells, and significantly increased the release of cytochrome c and AIF into cytoplasm. Moreover, the ?-mangostin treatment markedly suppressed the constitutive Stat3 protein activation, and Stat3-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 protein levels in the cancer cells. Conclusion: The anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro can be partly attributed to blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:24976157

  13. Mogrol represents a novel leukemia therapeutic, via ERK and STAT3 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Zeng, Yan; Dai, Long-Hai; Cai, Tian-Yu; Zhu, Yue-Ming; Dou, De-Quan; Ma, Lan-Qing; Sun, Yuan-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Unlike solid tumors, the primary strategy for leukemia treatment is chemotherapy. However, leukemia chemotherapy is associated with adverse drug effects and drug resistance. Therefore, it is imperative to identify novel agents that effectively treat leukemia while minimizing adverse effects. The Raf/MEK/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways have been implicated in leukemia carcinogenesis, and provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. Mogrol, a biometabolite of mogrosides found in Siraitia grosvenorii, has exhibited anti-cancer activities; however, the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unclear. To clarify its anti-cancer activity and mechanism of action, we treated K562 leukemia cells with mogrol. Mogrol suppressed leukemia cell growth via inhibition of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways, in particular, through the suppression of p-ERK1/2 and p-STAT3. Inhibition of these pathways suppressed Bcl-2 expression, thereby inducing K562 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, mogrol enhanced p21 expression, resulting in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The findings provide new perspectives regarding the role of mogrol in leukemia treatment. PMID:26101699

  14. The synthetic pentasaccharide fondaparinux attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats via STAT-3.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Laurent; Moussa, Walid Ben; Guillou, Sophie; Tamareille, Sophie; Lamon, Delphine; Prunier, Delphine; Prunier, Fabrice

    2014-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although essential for successful recovery, myocardium reperfusion is associated with reperfusion injury. Two major cell survival signaling cascades are known to be protective against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury: the reperfusion injury salvage kinase, including Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the downstream target GSK-3?, and the survivor activating factor enhancement, which involves STAT-3. Pharmacologic inhibition of factor Xa has been shown to attenuate I/R injury, but the cellular mechanism is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the role of whole blood in fondaparinux (FDX)-induced cardioprotection and the involvement of reperfusion injury salvage kinase and survivor activating factor enhancement pathways. We investigated FDX ability to prevent in vivo I/R injury using a transient coronary ligation rat model and ex vivo using a model of crystalloid-perfused isolated rat heart. In both models, infarct size was assessed after 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial tissues were collected after 15 and 30 min of reperfusion for Western blot analysis. In vivo, FDX decreased infarct size by 29% and induced significant STAT-3 and GSK-3? phosphorylation in comparison to controls. Adding AG490, an inhibitor of JAK/STAT pathway, before I/R, prevented STAT-3 phosphorylation and abolished FDX-induced cardioprotection. On the contrary, FDX did not have an effect on infarct size or hemodynamic parameters in the isolated-heart model. Fondaparinux decreased I/R injury in vivo, but not in a crystalloid-perfused isolated heart. Under our experimental conditions, FDX required whole blood to be protective, and this beneficial effect was mediated through STAT-3 phosphorylation. PMID:24300830

  15. Sphingosine kinase 1 contributes to leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation through IL-6/gp130 transactivation in oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Alshaker, Heba; Wang, Qi; Frampton, Adam E; Krell, Jonathan; Waxman, Jonathan; Winkler, Mathias; Stebbing, Justin; Cooper, Colin; Yagüe, Ernesto; Pchejetski, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for breast cancer. We have recently identified that adipokine leptin regulates the expression of a proto-oncogenic enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked to breast cancer progression and here we investigate the mechanism of leptin-induced STAT3 activation in ER-negative breast cancer. Gene and protein expression in human primary and secondary breast cancer tissues was analysed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay and immunofluorescence. Leptin-induced signalling was analysed in human ER-negative breast cancer cells using Western blotting, qRT-PCR and radiolabelling assays. Gene expression and receptor signalling was modified using small interfering RNA and neutralising antibodies. In human ER-negative breast tumours and lymph node metastases, the expression of leptin receptor significantly correlated with SK1. In ER-negative breast cancer cells, SK1 knockdown led to a significant reduction in leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Knockdown of another known activator of STAT3 signalling, gp130 also resulted in a significant decrease in leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. ELISA assay showed that leptin produces a significant amount of IL-6 in an SK1-dependent manner. IL-6 neutralising antibodies significantly reduced p-STAT3. Immunofluorescent staining of human primary and secondary breast tumours showed significant correlation between SK1 and IL-6 (P < 0.001), SK1 and p-STAT3 (P < 0.01) and IL-6 and p-STAT3 (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that leptin-induced STAT3 is partially cross activated through SK1-mediated IL6 secretion and gp130 activation. Positive correlations in human tissues suggest the potential significance of this pathway in ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:25481644

  16. G-CSF-activated STAT3 enhances production of the chemokine MIP-2 in bone marrow neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Jackson, Hoainam T.; Li, Haiyan S.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ohashi, Erika; Watowich, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow is a critical aspect of the innate immune response, enabling a rapid deployment of phagocytes to infected or inflamed tissue. The cytokine G-CSF, which is induced rapidly during infection, elicits a swift and potent mobilizing response, yet its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of G-CSF and its principal signal transducer STAT3 in regulating expression of the neutrophil chemoattractant MIP-2. Our studies revealed Gr-1hi mature neutrophils as major sources of Cxcl2 (MIP-2) mRNA in bone marrow and G-CSF-responsive MIP-2 protein production. Induction of Cxcl2 was regulated directly by G-CSF-activated STAT3 via interaction at a STAT consensus element in the Cxcl2 promoter. G-CSF coordinately stimulated the association of STAT3, induction of the transcriptionally active H3K4me3 modification, and recruitment of RNA Pol II at the Cxcl2 proximal promoter, as well as the promoter region of Il8rb, encoding the MIP-2 receptor. These results suggest that the G-CSF–STAT3 pathway directly regulates transcriptional events that induce neutrophil mobilization. PMID:23024284

  17. ?-Tocotrienol but not ?-tocopherol blocks STAT3 cell signaling pathway through induction of protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-10-22

    Although ?-tocotrienol (T3), a vitamin E isolated primarily from palm and rice bran oil, has been linked with anticancer activities, the mechanism of this action is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether ?-T3 can modulate the STAT3 cell signaling pathway, closely linked to inflammation and tumorigenesis. We found that ?-T3 but not ?-tocopherol, the most common saturated form of vitamin E, inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this inhibition was not cell type-specific. ?-T3 also inhibited STAT3 DNA binding. This correlated with inhibition of Src kinase and JAK1 and JAK2 kinases. Pervanadate reversed the ?-T3-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. When examined further, we found that ?-T3 induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of ?-T3 to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a vital role for SHP-1 in the action of ?-T3. Also ?-T3 down-modulated activation of STAT3 and induced SHP-1 in vivo. Eventually, ?-T3 down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) gene products; and this correlated with suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cells in sub-G(1) phase of the cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis. This vitamin also sensitized the tumor cells to the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib. Overall, our results suggest that ?-T3 is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway both in vitro and in vivo and thus may have potential in prevention and treatment of cancers. PMID:20720018

  18. ?-Tocotrienol but Not ?-Tocopherol Blocks STAT3 Cell Signaling Pathway through Induction of Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1 and Sensitizes Tumor Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents*

    PubMed Central

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    Although ?-tocotrienol (T3), a vitamin E isolated primarily from palm and rice bran oil, has been linked with anticancer activities, the mechanism of this action is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether ?-T3 can modulate the STAT3 cell signaling pathway, closely linked to inflammation and tumorigenesis. We found that ?-T3 but not ?-tocopherol, the most common saturated form of vitamin E, inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this inhibition was not cell type-specific. ?-T3 also inhibited STAT3 DNA binding. This correlated with inhibition of Src kinase and JAK1 and JAK2 kinases. Pervanadate reversed the ?-T3-induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. When examined further, we found that ?-T3 induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of ?-T3 to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a vital role for SHP-1 in the action of ?-T3. Also ?-T3 down-modulated activation of STAT3 and induced SHP-1 in vivo. Eventually, ?-T3 down-regulated the expression of STAT3-regulated antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), proliferative (cyclin D1), and angiogenic (VEGF) gene products; and this correlated with suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cells in sub-G(1) phase of the cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis. This vitamin also sensitized the tumor cells to the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib. Overall, our results suggest that ?-T3 is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway both in vitro and in vivo and thus may have potential in prevention and treatment of cancers. PMID:20720018

  19. Bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin obtained from grapefruit juice induces chemosensitization and apoptosis through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Moo; Lee, Jong Hyun; Sethi, Gautam; Kim, Chulwon; Baek, Seung Ho; Nam, Dongwoo; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2014-11-01

    Persistent activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been closely related to growth, survival, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of various cancer cells, and thus its inhibition can be considered a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the role of bergamottin (BGM) obtained from grapefruit juice in abrogating the constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This suppression was mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1/2 and c-Src. Pervanadate reversed the BGM induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, BGM induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of BGM to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a critical role for SHP-1 in the action of BGM. BGM also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as COX-2, VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, IAP-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl in MM cells. This correlated with induction of substantial apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and caspase-3 induced PARP cleavage. Also, this agent significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib and thalidomide in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that BGM is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway thus may have a potential in therapy of MM and other cancers. PMID:25130169

  20. IL-11 induces differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells through activation of STAT3 signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Kentaro; Ohno, Yosuke; Ohtake, Junya; Kaneumi, Shun; Kishikawa, Takuto; Takahashi, Norihiko; Taketomi, Akinobu; Kitamura, Hidemitsu

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immune negative regulators in the tumour microenvironment. Interleukin (IL)-11, a member of IL-6 family cytokines, functions through the unique receptor IL-11 receptor ? coupled with the common signal transducer gp130. IL-11-gp130 signalling causes activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway. IL-11 is highly upregulated in many types of cancers and one of the most important cytokines during tumourigenesis and metastasis. However, the precise effect of IL-11 on differentiation into MDSCs is still unknown. Here, we found that CD11b+CD14+ monocytic MDSCs were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors in the presence of IL-11. IL-11-conditioned PBMCs induced higher expression of immunosuppressive molecules such as arginase-1. A reduction of T-cell proliferation was observed when MDSCs generated in the presence of IL-11 were co-cultured with CD3/CD28-stimulated, autologous T cells of healthy donors. Culture of normal PBMCs with IL-11 led to STAT3 phosphorylation and differentiation into MDSCs via STAT3 activation. We confirmed expressions of both IL-11 and phosphorylated STAT3 in tumour tissues of colorectal cancer patients. These findings suggest that monocytic MDSCs may be induced by IL-11 in the tumour microenvironment. Thus, IL-11-mediated regulation in functional differentiation of MDSCs may serve as a possible target for cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Interleukin-6-Specific Activation of the C/EBP? Gene in Hepatocytes Is Mediated by Stat3 and Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, Carrie A.; Sterneck, Esta; Johnson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?) has been implicated as a regulator of acute-phase response (APR) genes in hepatocytes. Its expression increases dramatically in liver during the APR and can be induced in hepatic cell lines by interleukin-6 (IL-6), an acute-phase mediator that activates transcription of many APR genes. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which C/EBP? expression is regulated by IL-6 in hepatoma cells. C/EBP? promoter sequences to ?125 bp are sufficient for IL-6 inducibility of a reporter gene and include an APR element (APRE) that is essential for IL-6 responsiveness. DNA binding experiments and transactivation assays demonstrate that Stat3, but not Stat1, interacts with this APRE. Two Sp1 sites, one of which is adjacent to the APRE, are required for IL-6 induction and transactivation by Stat3. Thus, Stat3 and Sp1 function cooperatively to activate the C/EBP? promoter. Replacement of the APRE with Stat binding elements (SBEs) from the ICAM-1 or C/EBP? promoter, both of which recognize both Stat1 and Stat3, confers responsiveness to gamma interferon, a cytokine that selectively activates Stat1. Sequence comparisons suggest that the distinct Stat binding specificities of the C/EBP? and C/EBP? SBEs are determined primarily by a single base pair difference. Our findings indicate that the cytokine specificity of C/EBP? gene expression is governed by the APRE sequence. PMID:9528783

  2. Ginsenoside 20(S)?Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Le; Chen, Wei; Hou, Huilian; Ye, Zhongxue; Li, Xu

    2015-02-01

    Cancer cells prefer to metabolize glucose through aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. It plays a crucial role in proliferation and progression of cancer cells. However, the complete mechanism remains elusive. In recent studies, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling has been discovered to have roles in cancer?associated changes in metabolism. In this study, we find that the ginsenoside 20(S)?Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, inhibits glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells by regulating hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). We also show that 20(S)?Rg3 regulates HK2 through downregulation of p?STAT3 (Tyr705). Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells weakened the suppression of Warburg effect induced by 20(S)?Rg3. Importantly, 20(S)?Rg3 treatment represses HK2 expression in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results show that 20(S)?Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect by targeting STAT3/HK2 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, highlighting the potentiality of 20(S)?Rg3 to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PMID:25405516

  3. Deguelin suppresses cell proliferation via the inhibition of survivin expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in HTLV-1-transformed T cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeki; Oyake, Tatsuo; Murai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yoji

    2010-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of peripheral T cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The prognosis of aggressive ATL patients remains poor because of its resistance to conventional chemotherapy. We examined the effect of deguelin, a naturally occurring rotenoid, on HTLV-1-transformed T-cell lines, KUT-1 and MT-2 cells. We found that deguelin suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in these cells. Immunoblot analysis showed the inhibition of survivin expression and signal transducers, and activators of transcription (STAT) 3 phosphorylation of both cells. We also observed the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in deguelin-treated cells, indicating that deguelin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitor MG132 prevented the down-regulation of survivin expression and STAT3 dephosphorylation by deguelin, suggesting that the action mechanism of deguelin involves the degradation of survivin and phosphorylated STAT3 through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Our data indicate that deguelin presents a potent anti-proliferative effect in part via the down-regulation of survivin expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Deguelin merits further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ATL. PMID:19781773

  4. STAT3 upregulation in pituitary somatotroph adenomas induces growth hormone hypersecretion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cuiqi; Jiao, Yonghui; Wang, Renzhi; Ren, Song-Guang; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Melmed, Shlomo

    2015-04-01

    Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the Gh promoter and induces transcription. Stable expression of STAT3 in GH3 cells induced expression of endogenous GH, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 further enhanced GH production. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative STAT3 abrogated GH expression. In primary human somatotroph adenoma-derived cell cultures, STAT3 suppression with the specific inhibitor S3I-201 attenuated GH transcription and reduced GH secretion in the majority of derivative cultures. In addition, S3I-201 attenuated somatotroph tumor growth and GH secretion in a rat xenograft model. GH induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, indicating a positive feedback loop between STAT3 and GH in somatotroph tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that adenoma GH hypersecretion is the result of STAT3-dependent GH induction, which in turn promotes STAT3 expression, and suggest STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for pituitary somatotroph adenomas. PMID:25774503

  5. A20 Promotes Liver Regeneration by Decreasing SOCS3 Expression to Enhance IL-6/STAT3 Proliferative Signals

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleide G.; Studer, Peter; Skroch, Marco; Mahiou, Jerome; Minussi, Darlan C.; Peterson, Clayton R.; Wilson, Suzhuei W.; Patel, Virendra I.; Ma, Averil; Csizmadia, Eva; Ferran, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Liver regeneration is of major clinical importance in the setting of liver injury, resection, and transplantation. A20, a potent anti-inflammatory and NF-?B inhibitory protein, has established pro-proliferative properties in hepatocytes, in part through decreasing expression of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, p21. Both C-terminal (7-Zinc fingers; 7Zn) and N-terminal (Nter) domains of A20 were required to decrease p21 and inhibit NF-?B. However, both independently increased hepatocyte proliferation, suggesting that additional mechanisms contributed to the pro-proliferative function of A20 in hepatocytes. We ascribed one of A20’s pro-proliferative mechanisms to increased and sustained IL-6 induced STAT3 phosphorylation, as a result of decreased hepatocyte expression of the negative regulator of IL-6 signaling, SOCS3. This novel A20 function segregates with its 7Zn not Nter domain. Conversely, total and partial loss of A20 in hepatocytes increased SOCS3 expression, hampering IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Following liver resection in mice pro-proliferative targets downstream of IL-6/STAT3 signaling were increased by A20 overexpression and decreased by A20 knockdown. In contrast, IL-6/STAT3 pro-inflammatory targets were increased in A20 deficient livers, and decreased or unchanged in A20 overexpressing livers. Upstream of SOCS3, levels of its microRNA regulator miR203 were significantly decreased in A20-deficient livers. Altogether these results demonstrate that A20 enhances IL-6/STAT3 pro-proliferative signals in hepatocytes by down-regulating SOCS3, likely through a miR203-dependent manner. This finding together with A20 reducing the levels of the potent cell cycle brake p21 establishes its pro-proliferative properties in hepatocytes and prompts the pursuit of A20-based therapies to promote liver regeneration and repair. PMID:23238769

  6. 6-Shogaol exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects through the modulation of STAT3 and MAPKs signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Moo; Kim, Chulwon; Bae, Hang; Lee, Jong Hyun; Baek, Seung Ho; Nam, Dongwoo; Chung, Won-Seok; Shim, Bum Sang; Lee, Seok-Geun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2015-10-01

    6-shogaol (6SG), one of active ingredients in ginger (Zingiber officinale), is known to exhibit anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, and pro-apoptotic activities through a mechanism that is not fully elucidated. Because the aberrant activation of STAT3 and MAPKs have been associated with regulation of proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumors, we hypothesized that 6SG modulates the activation of STAT3 and MAPKs activation in tumor cells. We found that 6SG strongly inhibited constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 through inhibition of the activation of upstream JAK2 and c-Src kinases and nuclear translocation of STAT3 on both MDA-MB231 and DU145 cells. Also, 6SG caused the activation of JNK, p38 MAPK, and ERK. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented 6SG-induced apoptosis. 6SG induced apoptosis as characterized by cleavage of PARP, accumulation of cells in subG1 phase, positive Annexin V binding, down-regulation of STAT3-regulated proteins, and activation of caspase-8, -9, -3 in both MDA-MB231 cells. Compared with other analogues of 6SG, such as 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), and 10-gingerol (10G), 6SG was found to be the most potent blocker of STAT3 activation. We observed that the administration of 6SG alone significantly suppressed the growth of the tumor. As compared to the vehicle control, 6SG also suppressed the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Survivin in tumor tissues. Overall, these findings suggest that 6SG can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and can be used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:24962868

  7. STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spitzner, Melanie; Ebner, Reinhard; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Wienands, Jürgen; Grade, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology. PMID:25268165

  8. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  9. STAT3 and STAT1 mediate IL-11–dependent and inflammation-associated gastric tumorigenesis in gp130 receptor mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Matthias; Najdovska, Meri; Grail, Dianne; Lundgren-May, Therese; Buchert, Michael; Tye, Hazel; Matthews, Vance B.; Armes, Jane; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Hughes, Norman R.; Marcusson, Eric G.; Karras, James G.; Na, Songqing; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Hertzog, Paul J.; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2008-01-01

    Deregulated activation of STAT3 is frequently associated with many human hematological and epithelial malignancies, including gastric cancer. While exaggerated STAT3 signaling facilitates an antiapoptotic, proangiogenic, and proproliferative environment for neoplastic cells, the molecular mechanisms leading to STAT3 hyperactivation remain poorly understood. Using the gp130Y757F/Y757F mouse model of gastric cancer, which carries a mutated gp130 cytokine receptor signaling subunit that cannot bind the negative regulator of cytokine signaling SOCS3 and is characterized by hyperactivation of the signaling molecules STAT1 and STAT3, we have provided genetic evidence that IL-11 promotes chronic gastric inflammation and associated tumorigenesis. Expression of IL-11 was increased in gastric tumors in gp130Y757F/Y757F mice, when compared with unaffected gastric tissue in wild-type mice, while gp130Y757F/Y757F mice lacking the IL-11 ligand–binding receptor subunit (IL-11R?) showed normal gastric STAT3 activation and IL-11 expression and failed to develop gastric tumors. Furthermore, reducing STAT3 activity in gp130Y757F/Y757F mice, either genetically or by therapeutic administration of STAT3 antisense oligonucleotides, normalized gastric IL-11 expression and alleviated gastric tumor burden. Surprisingly, the genetic reduction of STAT1 expression also reduced gastric tumorigenesis in gp130Y757F/Y757F mice and coincided with reduced gastric inflammation and IL-11 expression. Collectively, our data have identified IL-11 as a crucial cytokine promoting chronic gastric inflammation and associated tumorigenesis mediated by excessive activation of STAT3 and STAT1. PMID:18431520

  10. Curcumin suppresses invasiveness and vasculogenic mimicry of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, An; Huang, Jing-Juan; Jin, Xiao-Jie; Li, Ji-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Jia; Huang, Xin-Fang; Cui, Hui-Juan; Xu, Wei-Hua; Sun, Guang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway in invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HEp-2 cells were treated with 1 or 10 ?mol/L curcumin and AG490 (the inhibitor of JAK-2) for 48 h, the invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of tumor cells were tested with Transwell chamber test and tube formation experiment. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF. Western blot assay was employed to determine the expression of JAK-2, STAT3, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF. Compared to control group?there were less tumor cells permeating membrane and less formed tubes after curcumin or AG490 treatment, RT-PCR showed that the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF at mRNA level were decreased (P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated that the expression of JAK-2, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF at protein levels were decreased (P < 0.01), while that of STAT-3 protein had no difference among each group (P > 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the expression of eNOS was down-regulated (P < 0.01). Curcumin and AG490 significantly inhibits invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, and JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway promotes above processes. PMID:25628937

  11. The effect of STAT3 Inhibition on status epilepticus and subsequent spontaneous seizures in the Pilocarpine Model of Acquired Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Grabenstatter, H. L.; Angel, Y. Cruz Del; Carlsen, J.; Wempe, M. F.; White, A. M.; Cogswell, M.; Russek, S. J.; Brooks-Kayal, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), which results in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, activates the JAK/STAT pathway. In the current study, we evaluate whether brief exposure to a selective inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway (WP1066) early after the onset of SE effects the severity of SE or reduces later spontaneous seizure frequency via inhibition of STAT3-regulated gene transcription. Rats that received systemic WP1066 or vehicle at the onset of SE were continuously video-EEG monitored during SE and for one month to assess seizure frequency over time. Protein and/or mRNA levels for pSTAT3, and STAT3-regulated genes including: ICER, Gabra1, c-myc, mcl-1, cyclin D1, and bcl-xl were evaluated in WP1066 and vehicle-treated rats during stages of epileptogenesis to determine the acute effects of WP1066 administration on SE and chronic epilepsy. WP1066 (two 50 mg/kg doses) administered within the first hour after onset of SE results in transient inhibition of pSTAT3 and long-term reduction in spontaneous seizure frequency WP1066 alters the severity of chronic epilepsy without affecting SE or cell death. Early WP1066 administration reduces known downstream targets of STAT3 transcription 24 hours after SE including cyclin D1 and mcl-1 levels, known for their roles in cell-cycle progression and cell survival, respectively. These findings uncover a potential effect of the JAK/STAT pathway after brain injury that is physiologically important and may provide a new therapeutic target that can be harnessed for the prevention of epilepsy development and/or progression. PMID:24051278

  12. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg Extracts and Geranyl Dihydrochalcone Inhibit STAT3 Activity in Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Jung; Jung, Seung-Nam; Chang, Hyeyoun; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Joonku; Choi, Sangho; Nash, Oyekanmi; Han, Dong Cho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog

    2015-05-01

    Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg has traditionally been used in Indonesia for the treatment of liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. In many other countries, it is used for the treatment of malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever. It has been reported that A. altilis extracts have antiatherosclerotic and cytoprotective effects, but its molecular targets in tumor cells are not yet fully understood. The A. altilis extracts and the partially purified fraction have been shown to inhibit STAT3 activity and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the active components, a bioassay-guided isolation of the partially purified fraction resulted in the identification of a geranyl dihydrochalcone, CG901. Its chemical structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The partially purified fraction and the isolated a geranyl dihydrochalcone, CG901, down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes, induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells via caspase-3 and PARP degradation, and inhibited tumor growth in human prostate tumor (DU145) xenograft initiation model. These results suggest that A. altilis could be a good natural source and that the isolated compound will be a potential lead molecule for developing novel therapeutics against STAT3-related diseases, including cancer and inflammation. PMID:25682949

  13. Cryptotanshinone suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells via the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yuqing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Rubin

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a challenging disease worldwide. Cryptotanshinone (CPT) is one of the active constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and exhibits significant antitumor activities in several human cancer cells. However, the efficacy and molecular mechanism of CPT in pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of CPT on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of human pancreatic cancer cell BxPC?3 cells was evaluated. The results demonstrated that CPT inhibited proliferation of the BxPC?3 cells in a concentration?dependent manner, and significantly induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The protein levels of cleaved caspase?3, caspase?9 and poly ADP ribose polymerase were upregulated, while the levels of c?myc, survivin and cyclin D1 were downregulated following treatment with CPT. In addition, CPT decreased the activities of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and several upstream regulatory signaling pathways after 24 h. However, CPT only inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705 within 30 min, without marked effects on the phosphorylation of the other proteins. These results suggested that the inhibition of STAT3 activity by CPT was directly and independent of the upstream regulators in human pancreatic cancer. The present study demonstrated that CPT exerts anticancer effects by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway in human BxPC-3 cells. PMID:26459366

  14. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-?B, and WNT/?-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis. PMID:24662939

  15. Stat3 orchestrates interaction between endothelial and tumor cells and inhibition of Stat3 suppresses brain metastasis of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ping-Chieh; Zhou, Aidong; Yang, Phillip; Conrad, Charles A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Priebe, Waldemar; Patterson, Cam; Sawaya, Raymond; Xie, Keping; Huang, Suyun

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with breast cancer. Our previous studies indicated that Stat3 plays an important role in brain metastasis. Here, we present evidence that Stat3 functions at the level of the microenvironment of brain metastases. Stat3 controlled constitutive and inducible VEGFR2 expression in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Stat3 by WP1066 decreased the incidence of brain metastases and increased survival in a preclinical model of breast cancer brain metastasis. WP1066 inhibited Stat3 activation in tumor-associated endothelial cells, reducing their infiltration and angiogenesis. WP1066 also inhibited breast cancer cell invasion. Our results indicate that WP1066 can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and brain metastasis mediated by Stat3 in endothelial and tumor cells. PMID:25881542

  16. Mmu-miR-351 attenuates the survival of cardiac arterial endothelial cells through targeting STAT3 in the atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Jinlian

    2015-12-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was involved in regulation of endothelial cell survival/apoptosis and was regarded as a target for prevention of atherosclerosis or other cardiovascular diseases. Factors, regulating STAT3 expression and activity, have aroused a wide range of interest, such as miRNAs or transcription factors. The aim of this study is to explore the role of miR-351, a miRNA found not long before, in the regulation of STAT3 expression and endothelial cell survival in the model mice with atherosclerosis (AS). Expression of miR-351 in the serum and cardiac arterial endothelial cells of the WT mice and AS mice was detected. Real-time qPCR analysis showed that miR-351 was upregulated in the serum and endothelial cells of the AS mice, displaying an opposite expression pattern with STAT3. To explore the role and mechanism of miR-351 in the endothelial cell survival, the miR-351 mimic was transfected in to the endothelial cells. MTT and Trypan Blue assays showed miR-351 attenuated the survival of endothelial cells. Our results of the TargetScan output and the 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay indicated that STAT3 was target of miR-351. Additionally, miR-351 resisted the elevation of STAT3 protein level and promotion of endothelial cell survival caused by SD19. Finally, our in vitro angiogenesis assay revealed that miR-351 suppressed angiogenesis and resisted the promotion of angiogenesis caused by SD19. In conclusion, miR-351 was upregulated in the atherosclerotic mice. MiR-351 can attenuate the survival of endothelial cells and suppress angiogenesis through targeting STAT3 in vitro. PMID:26505789

  17. Src/STAT3-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction mediates chemoresistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by promoting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qixing; Wang, Hongli; Hu, Yongliang; Hu, Meiru; Li, Xiaoguang;  , Aodengqimuge; Ma, Yuanfang; Wei, Changyuan; Song, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance in breast cancer, whether acquired or intrinsic, remains a major clinical obstacle. Thus, increasing tumor cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents will be helpful in improving the clinical management of breast cancer. In the present study, we found an induction of HO-1 expression in doxorubicin (DOX)-treated MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, which showed insensitivity to DOX treatment. Knockdown HO-1 expression dramatically upregulated the incidence of MDA-MB-231 cell death under DOX treatment, indicating that HO-1 functions as a critical contributor to drug resistance in MDA-MB-231 cells. We further observed that DOX exposure induced a cytoprotective autophagic flux in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was dependent on HO-1 induction. Moreover, upregulation of HO-1 expression required the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and its upstream regulator, protein kinase Src. Abrogating Src/STAT3 pathway activation attenuated HO-1 and autophagy induction, thus increasing the chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, we conclude that Src/STAT3-dependent HO-1 induction protects MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from DOX-induced death through promoting autophagy. In the following study, we further demonstrated the contribution of Src/STAT3/HO-1/autophagy pathway activation to DOX resistance in another breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, which bears a similar phenotype to MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, activation of Src/STAT3/HO-1/autophagy signaling pathway might play a general role in protecting certain subtypes of breast cancer cells from DOX-induced cytotoxicity. Targeting this signaling event may provide a potential approach for overcoming DOX resistance in breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:26041409

  18. Enhancement of hypothalamic STAT3 acetylation by nuclear receptor Nur77 dictates leptin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Rong; Chen, Hang-Zi; Xiao, Qian; Wang, Wei-Jia; He, Jian-Ping; Li, Xiao-Xue; Yu, Xian-Wen; Li, Li; Wang, Peng; Wan, Xi-Chen; Tian, Xin-Hua; Li, Shu-Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wu, Qiao

    2015-06-01

    Leptin, an anorexigenic hormone in the hypothalamus, suppresses food intake and increases energy expenditure. Failure to respond to leptin will lead to obesity. Here, we discovered that nuclear receptor Nur77 expression is lower in the hypothalamus of obese mice compared with normal mice. Injection of leptin results in significant reduction in body weight in wild-type mice but not in Nur77 knockout (KO) littermates or mice with specific Nur77 knockdown in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic Nur77 not only participates in leptin central control of food intake but also expands leptin's reach to liver and adipose tissues to regulate lipid metabolism. Nur77 facilitates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acetylation by recruiting acetylase p300 and disassociating deacetylase histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to enhance the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and consequently modulates the expression of downstream gene Pomc in the hypothalamus. Nur77 deficiency compromises response to leptin in mice fed a high-fat diet. Severe leptin resistance in Nur77 KO mice with increased appetite, lower energy expenditure, and hyperleptinemia contributes to aging-induced obesity. Our study opens a new avenue for regulating metabolism with Nur77 as the positive modulator in the leptin-driven antiobesity in the hypothalamus. PMID:25576055

  19. Loss of STAT3 in Lymphoma Relaxes NK Cell-Mediated Tumor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Eva Maria; Hoelzl, Maria Agnes; Baeck, Julia; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Schuster, Christian; Reichholf, Brian; Kern, Daniela; Aberger, Fritz; Sexl, Veronika; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factors and proto-oncogenes STAT3 and STAT5 are highly activated in hematological malignancies and represent promising therapeutic targets. Whereas the importance of STAT5 as tumor promoter is beyond doubt, the role of STAT3 in hematological cancers is less well understood. Both, enforced as well as attenuated expression of STAT3 were reported in hematopoietic malignancies. Recent evidence implicates STAT3 as key player for tumor immune surveillance as it both mediates the production of and response to inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of STAT3 deletion in a BCR/ABL-induced lymphoma model, which is tightly controlled by natural killer (NK) cells in vivo. Upon STAT3 deletion tumor growth is significantly enhanced when compared to STAT3-expressing controls. The increased tumor size upon loss of STAT3 was accompanied by reduced NK cell infiltration and decreased levels of the cytokine IFN-? and the chemokine RANTES. Upon transplantation into NK cell-deficient mice differences in lymphoma size were abolished indicating that STAT3 expression in the tumor cells controls NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance. Our findings indicate that STAT3 inhibition in lymphoma patients will impair NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance, which needs to be taken into account when testing STAT3 inhibitors in preclinical or clinical trials. PMID:24473086

  20. Loss of STAT3 in Lymphoma Relaxes NK Cell-Mediated Tumor Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Putz, Eva Maria; Hoelzl, Maria Agnes; Baeck, Julia; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Schuster, Christian; Reichholf, Brian; Kern, Daniela; Aberger, Fritz; Sexl, Veronika; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factors and proto-oncogenes STAT3 and STAT5 are highly activated in hematological malignancies and represent promising therapeutic targets. Whereas the importance of STAT5 as tumor promoter is beyond doubt, the role of STAT3 in hematological cancers is less well understood. Both, enforced as well as attenuated expression of STAT3 were reported in hematopoietic malignancies. Recent evidence implicates STAT3 as key player for tumor immune surveillance as it both mediates the production of and response to inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of STAT3 deletion in a BCR/ABL-induced lymphoma model, which is tightly controlled by natural killer (NK) cells in vivo. Upon STAT3 deletion tumor growth is significantly enhanced when compared to STAT3-expressing controls. The increased tumor size upon loss of STAT3 was accompanied by reduced NK cell infiltration and decreased levels of the cytokine IFN-? and the chemokine RANTES. Upon transplantation into NK cell-deficient mice differences in lymphoma size were abolished indicating that STAT3 expression in the tumor cells controls NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance. Our findings indicate that STAT3 inhibition in lymphoma patients will impair NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance, which needs to be taken into account when testing STAT3 inhibitors in preclinical or clinical trials. PMID:24473086

  1. The Role of STAT3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Harada, Daijiro; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Persistent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been demonstrated in 22%~65% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). STAT3 activation is mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MET, cytokine receptors, such as IL-6, and non-receptor kinases, such as Src. Overexpression of total or phosphorylated STAT3 in resected NSCLC leads to poor prognosis. In a preclinical study, overexpression of STAT3 was correlated with chemoresistance and radioresistance in NSCLC cells. Here, we review the role of STAT3 and the mechanisms of treatment resistance in malignant diseases, especially NSCLC. As STAT3 is a critical mediator of the oncogenic effects of EGFR mutations, we discuss STAT3 pathways in EGFR-mutated NSCLC, referring to mechanisms of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. PMID:24675568

  2. Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua Liu, Fenju

    2015-01-15

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. - Highlights: • Inactivation of STAT3 signaling radiosensitizes malignant glioma cells. • STAT3 inhibition triggers a significant increase of autophagy flux induced by ionizing radiation in glioma cells. • Suppression of autophagy further strengthens the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition in glioma cells. • Dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 induce massive apoptotic cells upon exposure to ionizing radiation.

  3. Overcoming Chemoresistance of Pediatric Ependymoma by Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung-Ah; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The long-term clinical outcome of pediatric intracranial epepdymoma is poor with a high rate of recurrence. One of the main reasons for this poor outcome is the tumor’s inherent resistance to chemotherapy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is overactive in many human cancers, and inhibition of STAT3 signaling is an emerging area of interest in oncology. In this study, the possibility of STAT3 inhibition as a treatment was investigated in pediatric intracranial ependymoma tissues and cell lines. STAT3 activation status was checked in ependymoma tissues. The responses to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and a STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 in primarily cultured ependymoma cells were measured by cell viability assay. Apoptosis assays were conducted to reveal the cytotoxic mechanism of applied agents. Knockdown of STAT3 was tried to confirm the effects of STAT3 inhibition in ependymoma cells. High levels of phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression were observed in ependymoma tissue, especially in the anaplastic histology group. There was no cytotoxic effect of cisplatin, ifosfamide, and etoposide. Both brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and bulk tumor cells (BCs) showed considerably decreased viability after WP1066 treatment. However, BTICs had fewer responses than BCs. No additive or synergistic effect was observed for combination therapy of WP1066 and cisplatin. WP1066 effectively abrogated p-STAT3 expression. An increased apoptosis and decreased Survivin expression were observed after WP1066 treatment. Knockdown of STAT3 also decreased cell survival, supporting the critical role of STAT3 in sustaining ependymoma cells. In this study, we observed a cytotoxic effect of STAT3 inhibitor on ependymoma BTICs and BCs. There is urgent need to develop new therapeutic agents for pediatric ependymoma. STAT3 inhibitors may be a new group of drugs for clinical application. PMID:26500028

  4. STAT3-mediated activation of microRNA cluster 17~92 promotes proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Spaccarotella, Elisa; Pellegrino, Elisa; Ferracin, Manuela; Ferreri, Cristina; Cuccuru, Giuditta; Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Cantarella, Daniela; Taulli, Riccardo; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Medico, Enzo; Negrini, Massimo; Chan, Wing C.; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which can be further subdivided into two distinct entities (ALK+ and ALK?) based on the presence or absence of ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways triggered by ALK signaling, constitutive activation of STAT3 is strictly required for ALK-mediated transformation and survival. Here we performed genome-wide microRNA profiling and identified 48 microRNA concordantly modulated by the inducible knock-down of ALK and STAT3. To evaluate the functional role of differentially expressed miRNA, we forced their expression in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and monitored their influence after STAT3 depletion. We found that the expression of the microRNA-17~92 cluster partially rescues STAT3 knock-down by sustaining proliferation and survival of ALK+ cells. Experiments in a xenograft mouse model indicated that forced expression of microRNA-17~92 interferes with STAT3 knock-down in vivo. High expression levels of the microRNA-17~92 cluster resulted in down-regulation of BIM and TGF?RII proteins, suggesting that their targeting might mediate resistance to STAT3 knock-down in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. We speculate that the microRNA-17~92 cluster is involved in lymphomagenesis of STAT3+ ALCL and that its inhibition might represent an alternative avenue to interfere with ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas. PMID:23975180

  5. MicroRNA-520a-5p displays a therapeutic effect upon chronic myelogenous leukemia cells by targeting STAT3 and enhances the anticarcinogenic role of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Kaymaz, Burçin Tezcanl?; Cetinta?, Vildan Bozok; Aktan, Ca?da?; Kosova, Buket

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously demonstrated for having essential roles in a wide range of cancer types including leukemia. Antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of capsaicin have been reported in several cancers. We aimed to study miRNAs involved in the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia cell model and the effects of the capsaicin treatment on cell proliferation and miRNA regulation. miR-520a-5p expression was extremely downregulated in capsaicin-treated cells. Repressing the level of miR-520a-5p by transient transfection with specific miRNA inhibitor oligonucleotides resulted in induced inhibition of proliferation in leukemic cells. According to bioinformatics analysis, STAT3 messenger RNA was predicted as a putative miR-520a-5p target; which was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation inhibition was enhanced upon knockdown of STAT3 by RNA interference applications, but when miR-520a-5p inhibitor was additionally transfected onto STAT3 silenced cells, cell viability was dramatically decreased in leukemia cells. Finally, we observed the effects of capsaicin following miR-520a-5p inhibitor transfection upon cell proliferation, apoptosis, and STAT3 expression levels. We determined that, downregulation of miR-520a-5p affected the proliferation inhibition enhanced by capsaicin and reduced STAT3 mRNA and protein expression levels and increased apoptotic cell number. In summary, miR-520a-5p displays a therapeutic effect by targeting STAT3 and impacting the anticancer effects of capsaicin; whereas capsaicin, potentially through the miR-520a-5p/STAT3 interaction, induces apoptosis and inhibits K562 leukemic cell proliferation with need of further investigation. PMID:24870597

  6. Inhibition of mTOR reduce Stat3 and PAI related angiogenesis in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Yue; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Lu; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex biological process, which is involved in tumorigenesis and progression. However, the molecular mechanism of underlying angiogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we accessed the expression of proteins related angiogenesis by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-S6S235/236 (a downstream molecule of mTOR), p-Stat3T705, PAI, EGFR, and HIF-1? was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p < 0.05). While, the expression of these proteins was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-S6S235/236 up-regulates the expression of EGFR/p-Stat3T705 (p < 0.05) and HIF-1?/PAI (p < 0.05). Moreover, the activation of p-S6S235/236, EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI associated with angiogenesis (CD34) and proliferation (Ki-67). In vitro, Rapamycin suppressed the expression of p-S6S235/236, EGFR, p-Stat3T705, HIF-1? and PAI. Further more, target inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth of SACC-83 cells line nude mice xenograft and decreased the expression of p-S6S235/236, EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI. Taken together, these data revealed that mTOR signaling pathway regulates tumor angiogenesis by EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin could effectively reduced tumor growth. It is likely that mTOR inhibitors may be a potential candidate for treatment of AdCC. PMID:25520866

  7. Early methyl donor deficiency may induce persistent brain defects by reducing Stat3 signaling targeted by miR-124.

    PubMed

    Kerek, R; Geoffroy, A; Bison, A; Martin, N; Akchiche, N; Pourié, G; Helle, D; Guéant, J-L; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, C; Daval, J-L

    2013-01-01

    The methyl donors folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 are centrepieces of the one-carbon metabolism that has a key role in transmethylation reactions, and thus in epigenetic and epigenomic regulations. Low dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are frequent, especially in pregnant women and in the elderly, and deficiency constitutes a risk factor for various diseases, including neurological and developmental disorders. In this respect, both vitamins are essential for normal brain development, and have a role in neuroplasticity and in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. The consequences of a methyl donor deficiency (MDD) were studied both in vivo in rats exposed in utero, and in vitro in hippocampal progenitors (H19-7 cell line). Deficiency was associated with growth retardation at embryonic day 20 (E20) and postnatally with long-term brain defects in selective areas. mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor Stat3 were found to be decreased in the brains of deprived fetuses and in differentiating progenitors (62 and 48% for total Stat3 protein, respectively), along with a strong reduction in its phosphorylation at both Tyr??? and Ser?²? residues. Vitamin shortage also affected upstream kinases of Stat3 signaling pathway (phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Src, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38) as well as downstream target gene products (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), thus promoting apoptosis. Conversely, the expression of the Stat3 regulator miR-124 was upregulated in deficiency conditions (?65%), and its silencing by using siRNA partly restored Stat3 signaling in hippocampal neurons by increasing specifically the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Src kinases. Furthermore, miR-124 siRNA improved the phenotype of deprived cells, with enhanced neurite outgrowth. Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of Stat3 signaling by miR-124 would be a key factor in the deleterious effects of MDD on brain development. PMID:23928694

  8. Sustained Submicromolar H2O2 Levels Induce Hepcidin via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)*

    PubMed Central

    Millonig, Gunda; Ganzleben, Ingo; Peccerella, Teresa; Casanovas, Guillem; Brodziak-Jarosz, Lidia; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Dick, Tobias P.; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mueller, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin regulates mammalian iron homeostasis by blocking ferroportin-mediated iron export from macrophages and the duodenum. During inflammation, hepcidin is strongly induced by interleukin 6, eventually leading to the anemia of chronic disease. Here we show that hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes strongly up-regulate hepcidin when exposed to low concentrations of H2O2 (0.3–6 ?m), concentrations that are comparable with levels of H2O2 released by inflammatory cells. In contrast, bolus treatment of H2O2 has no effect at low concentrations and even suppresses hepcidin at concentrations of >50 ?m. H2O2 treatment synergistically stimulates hepcidin promoter activity in combination with recombinant interleukin-6 or bone morphogenetic protein-6 and in a manner that requires a functional STAT3-responsive element. The H2O2-mediated hepcidin induction requires STAT3 phosphorylation and is effectively blocked by siRNA-mediated STAT3 silencing, overexpression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3), and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is required for H2O2 responsiveness, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) is required for adequate basal signaling, whereas Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is dispensable upstream of STAT3. Importantly, hepcidin levels are also increased by intracellular H2O2 released from the respiratory chain in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of hepcidin regulation by nanomolar levels of sustained H2O2. Thus, similar to cytokines, H2O2 provides an important regulatory link between inflammation and iron metabolism. PMID:22932892

  9. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  10. PARD3 Inactivation in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas Impairs STAT3 and Promotes Malignant Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bonastre, Ester; Verdura, Sara; Zondervan, Ilse; Facchinetti, Federica; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Chiara, Maria Dolores; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Carretero, Julian; Condom, Enric; Vidal, Agustin; Sidransky, David; Villanueva, Alberto; Roz, Luca; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Savola, Suvi; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2015-01-01

    Correct apicobasal polarization and intercellular adhesions are essential for the appropriate development of normal epithelia. Here, we investigated the contribution of the cell polarity regulator PARD3 to the development of lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC). Tumor-specific PARD3 alterations were found in 8% of LSCCs examined, placing PARD3 among the most common tumor suppressor genes in this malignancy. Most PAR3-mutant proteins exhibited a relative reduction in the ability to mediate formation of tight junctions and actin-based protrusions, bind atypical protein kinase C, activate RAC1, and activate STAT3 at cell confluence. Thus, PARD3 alterations prevented the formation of contacts between neighboring cells and the subsequent downstream signaling. Notably, reconstituting PAR3 activity in vivo reduced tumor-invasive and metastatic properties. Our findings define PARD3 as a recurrently inactivated cell polarity regulator in LSCC that affects tumor aggressiveness and metastasis. PMID:25833829

  11. The IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation of PML through SENP1 induction

    SciTech Connect

    Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Kawakami, Shiho; Muromoto, Ryuta; Togi, Sumihito; Ikeda, Osamu; Kamitani, Shinya; Sekine, Yuichi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2008-07-11

    Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) plays an important role in the regulation of different signaling pathways and is involved in the formation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein nuclear bodies following sumoylation of PML. In the present study, we found that IL-6 induces desumoylation of PML and dissociation between PML and SUMO1 in hepatoma cells. We also found that IL-6 induces mRNA expression of SENP1, a member of the SUMO-specific protease family. Furthermore, wild-type SENP1 but not an inactive SENP1 mutant restored the PML-mediated suppression of STAT3 activation. These results indicate that the IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation and inactivation PML through SENP1 induction.

  12. The autophagy molecule Beclin 1 maintains persistent activity of NF-?B and Stat3 in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Hua

    2015-10-01

    The retroviral oncoprotein Tax from human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces persistent activation of I?B kinase (IKK)/NF-?B signaling, an essential step for initiating HTLV-1 oncogenesis. The regulation of the IKK/NF-?B signaling in HTLV-1-transformed T cells remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we showed that the autophagy molecule Beclin1 not only executed a cytoprotective function through induction of autophagy but also played a pivotal role in maintaining Tax-induced activation of two key survival factors, NF-?B and Stat3. Silencing Beclin1 in HTLV-1-transformed T cells resulted in diminished activities of NF-?B and Stat3 as well as impaired growth. In Beclin1-depleted cells, Tax failed to activate NF-?B and Stat3 at its full capacity. In addition, we showed that Beclin1 interacted with the catalytic subunits of IKK. Further, we observed that selective inhibition of IKK repressed the activities of both NF-?B and Stat3 in the context of HTLV-1-transformation of T cells. Our data, therefore, unveiled a key role of Beclin1 in maintaining persistent activities of both NF-?B and Stat3 in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:26319552

  13. Special suppressive role of miR-29b in HER2-positive breast cancer cells by targeting Stat3

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Li, Rong; Zhang, Junyi; Li, Aimin; Luo, Rongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: MiR-29b has been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers. However, its role in the regulation of breast cancer is controversial. Materials and methods: In this paper, we explored the expression of miR-29b in a cohort of 67 pairs of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens with detailed pathological and clinical characteristics, and further analyzed the effects of miR-29b on the malignant phenotype of HER-2-positive breast cancer cells and the relevant mechanisms involved. Results: We found that the miR-29b expression is negatively associated with HER-2 expression in breast cancer tissues. Moreover, overexpression of miR-29b induced a complex phenotype in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells, namely an inhibition of cell proliferation, block of G1/S phase transition, induction of cell apoptosis, suppression of cell invasion in vitro, as well as inhibition on tumor growth in vivo, indicating that miR-29b functions as a tumor suppressor in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Further bioinformatic prediction suggested that oncogene Stat3, which is an up-stream regulator of HER-2, was a target gene of miR-29b in breast cancer cells. We have shown that knocking down of Stat3 attenuated the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells similar to overexpression of miR-29b, while restore expression of Stat3 in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells partially abolished the suppressive effects of miR-29b. Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggest that miR-29b could reverse the malignant phenotype of HER-2-positvie breast cancer through, at least partially, targeting Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:26175849

  14. Oroxylin A induces autophagy in human malignant glioma cells via the mTOR-STAT3-Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zou, Meijuan; Hu, Chen; You, Qidong; Zhang, Aixia; Wang, Xuerong; Guo, Qinglong

    2015-11-01

    Autophagy is a tightly-regulated catabolic pathway involving degradation of cellular proteins, cytoplasm and organelles. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy plays a potential role in cell death as a tumor suppressor and that its induction especially in combination with apoptosis could be beneficial. It remains unclear if all cancer cells behave the same mechanism when autophagy is induced. Although mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is well known as a negative regulator of autophagy, the relationship between signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and autophagy has not yet been investigated. Oroxylin A, a natural mono-flavonoid extracted from Scutellariae radix, is a promising therapeutic agent for treating multiple cancers. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying the effect of oroxylin A on malignant glioma cells. We showed that oroxylin A inhibited the proliferation of malignant glioma cells by inducing autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Oroxylin A treatment inhibits the AKT and ERK activation and the downstream phosphorylation level of mTOR and STAT3. In addition, oroxylin A treatment decreases the expression of Notch-1 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) but upregulates Beclin 1, the key autophagy-related protein. 3-MA (autophagy inhibitor) or knockdown of Beclin 1 partially can rescue cells from oroxylin A-induced autophagic cell death. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 aggravates oroxylin A-induced autophagic cell death. Our data reveal an important role of autophagy in enhancing cell death induced by oroxylin A and conclude that oroxylin A exerts anti-malignant glioma proficiency by inducing autophagy via the ERK/AKT-mTOR-STAT3-Notch signaling cascade. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25213258

  15. Novel aminotetrazole derivatives as selective STAT3 non-peptide inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Rognan, Didier; Boibessot, Thibault; Luzet, Vincent; Yesylevskyy, Semen; Ramseyer, Christophe; Pudlo, Marc

    2015-10-20

    The development of inhibitors blocking STAT3 transcriptional activity is a promising therapeutic approach against cancer and inflammatory diseases. In this context, the selectivity of inhibitors against the STAT1 transcription factor is crucial as STAT3 and STAT1 play opposite roles in the apoptosis of tumor cells and polarization of the immune response. A structure-based virtual screening followed by a luciferase-containing promoter assay on STAT3 and STAT1 signaling were used to identify a selective STAT3 inhibitor. An important role of the aminotetrazole group in modulating STAT3 and STAT1 inhibitory activities has been established. Optimization of the hit compound leads to 23. This compound inhibits growth and survival of cells with STAT3 signaling pathway while displaying a minimal effect on STAT1 signaling. Moreover, it prevents lymphocyte T polarization into Th17 and Treg without affecting their differentiation into Th1 lymphocyte. PMID:26352675

  16. Loss-of-Function PTPRD Mutations Lead to Increased STAT3 Activation and Sensitivity to STAT3 Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua; Lui, Vivian; Xiao, Xiao; Chan, Timothy A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D (PTPRD) is a putative tumor suppressor in several cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). STAT3 is a frequently hyperactivated oncogene in HNSCC. As STAT3 is a direct substrate of PTPRD, we sought to determine the genetic or epigenetic alterations of PTPRD that contribute to overactive STAT3 in HNSCC. Methods We analyzed data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and our previous whole-exome sequencing study and summarized the mutation, methylation, and copy number status of PTPRD in HNSCC and other cancers. In vitro studies involved standard transfection and MTT protocols, as well as methylation-specific PCR. Results Our findings indicate that PTPRD mutation, rather than methylation or copy number alteration, is the primary mechanism by which PTPRD function is lost in HNSCC. We demonstrate that overexpression of wild-type PTPRD in HNSCC cells significantly inhibits growth and STAT3 activation while PTPRD mutants do not, suggesting that mutation may lead to loss of function and subsequent hyper-phosphorylation of PTPRD substrates, especially STAT3. Importantly, we determined that HNSCC cells harboring an endogenous PTPRD mutation are more sensitive to STAT3 blockade than PTPRD wild-type cells. We additionally found that PTPRD mRNA expression does not correlate with pSTAT3 expression, suggesting that alterations that manifest through altered mRNA expression, including hypermethylation and gene copy number alterations, do not significantly contribute to STAT3 overactivation in HNSCC. Conclusion PTPRD mutation, but not methylation or copy number loss, may serve as a predictive biomarker of sensitivity to STAT3 inhibitors in HNSCC. PMID:26267899

  17. Gastrin acting on the cholecystokinin2 receptor induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression through JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/Akt pathway in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Guo-Sheng; Shao, Yun; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Hai-Chen; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Chan; He, Xiao-Pu; Sun, Wei-Hao

    2013-05-10

    Gastrin, cholecystokinin2 receptor (CCK2R), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been implicated in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. Our study demonstrated that antagonist or siRNA against CCK2R blocked amidated gastrin (G17)-induced activation of STAT3 and Akt in gastric cancer cell lines. G17-increased COX-2 expression and cell proliferation were effectively blocked by CCK2R antagonist and inhibitors of JAK2 and PI3K. In addition, knockdown of STAT3 expression significantly attenuated G17-induced PI3K/Akt activation, COX-2 expression, and cell proliferation. These results suggest that CCK2R-mediated COX-2 up-regulation via JAK2/STAT3/PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferative effect of G17 on human gastric cancer cells. PMID:23376640

  18. Cardioprotective function of mitochondrial-targeted and transcriptionally inactive STAT3 against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek, Karol; Xu, Aijun; Hu, Ying; Thompson, Jeremy; He, Jun; Larner, Andrew C; Salloum, Fadi N; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J

    2015-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that contributes a crucial role in protection against ischemia (ISC)-reperfusion (REP) injury by driving expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant genes. STAT3 is also present in the mitochondria, where it modulates the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and the permeability transition pore. Transgenic mice that overexpress a mitochondrial-targeted, transcriptionally inactive STAT3 in cardiomyocytes (MLS-STAT3E mice) exhibit a persistent, partial blockade of electron transfer through complex I that uniquely did not lead to tissue dysfunction at baseline, yet increased mitochondrial ischemic tolerance. The direct contribution of non-transcriptional, mitochondria-localized STAT3 to protection during ISC-REP remains to be established. We hypothesized that the enhanced mitochondrial tolerance to ischemia present in MLS-STAT3E mice would decrease cardiac injury during ISC-REP. In the isolated buffer-perfused heart model, MLS-STAT3E hearts exhibit a decreased infarct size compared to non-transgenic littermate hearts. Contractile recovery, expressed as a percent of LV developed pressure before ISC, is improved in MLS-STAT3E mice. Mitochondria isolated at the end of 60 min. of REP from MLS-STAT3E hearts show attenuated ROS release. The partial and persistent blockade of complex I present in MLS-STAT3E mice decreases cardiac injury during REP, in part via a persistent decrease in ROS production and attenuation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening at the onset of REP. In vivo, MLS-STAT3E hearts exhibit substantially higher postoperative survival rate and a substantial decrease in myocardial infarct size. STAT3 mediates cardioprotection not only via canonical action as a transcription factor, but also as a modulator of ETC activity directly in the mitochondria. PMID:26358226

  19. Transcriptional activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and STAT5B partially mediate homeobox A1-stimulated oncogenic transformation of the immortalized human mammary epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Perry, Jo K; Kannan, Nagarajan; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Gluckman, Peter D; Emerald, B Starling; Lobie, Peter E

    2008-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the p44/42 MAPK pathway is one pathway involved in homeobox (HOX) A1-stimulated oncogenesis. However, inhibition of MAPK kinase 1 does not completely prevent HOXA1-stimulated oncogenic transformation, suggesting the involvement of additional signal transduction pathways. Here, we report that forced expression of HOXA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells significantly increased levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, 5A, and 5B mRNA by transcriptional up-regulation. The protein levels of STAT3 and 5B, but not STAT5A, and protein phosphorylation levels of STAT3 and 5B were significantly increased by forced expression of HOXA1. Forced expression of STAT3 or STAT5B was sufficient to transform oncogenically an immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line. Accordingly, inhibition of STAT3 or STAT5B activity with dominant negative STAT3 or STAT5B abrogated the ability of HOXA1 to stimulate cell proliferation, survival, oncogenic transformation, and generation of large disorganized multiacinar structures in three-dimensional culture. These results suggest that HOXA1 partially mediates oncogenic transformation of the immortalized human mammary epithelial cell through modulation of the STAT3 and STAT5B pathways. PMID:18276758

  20. Disruption of STAT3 signalling promotes KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Beatrice; Schramek, Daniel; Mueller, Kristina M.; Moll, Herwig P.; Svinka, Jasmin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Blaas, Leander; Hruschka, Natascha; Zboray, Katalin; Stiedl, Patricia; Nivarthi, Harini; Bogner, Edith; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mohr, Thomas; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Kenner, Lukas; Poli, Valeria; Aberger, Fritz; Stoiber, Dagmar; Egger, Gerda; Esterbauer, Harald; Zuber, Johannes; Moriggl, Richard; Eferl, Robert; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Penninger, Josef M.; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is considered to play an oncogenic role in several malignancies including lung cancer; consequently, targeting STAT3 is currently proposed as therapeutic intervention. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 plays an unexpected tumour-suppressive role in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Indeed, lung tissue-specific inactivation of Stat3 in mice results in increased KrasG12D-driven AC initiation and malignant progression leading to markedly reduced survival. Knockdown of STAT3 in xenografted human AC cells increases tumour growth. Clinically, low STAT3 expression levels correlate with poor survival and advanced malignancy in human lung AC patients with smoking history, which are prone to KRAS mutations. Consistently, KRAS mutant lung tumours exhibit reduced STAT3 levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that STAT3 controls NF-?B-induced IL-8 expression by sequestering NF-?B within the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting IL-8-mediated myeloid tumour infiltration and tumour vascularization and hence tumour progression. These results elucidate a novel STAT3–NF-?B–IL-8 axis in KRAS mutant AC with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. PMID:25734337

  1. Stat3 induces oncogenic Skp2 expression in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hanhui; Zhao, Wenrong; Yang, Dan

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of Skp2 by IL-6 or Stat3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through bound to its promoter region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activates Skp2 expression through recruitment of P300. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stat3 activation decreases the P27 stability. -- Abstract: Dysregulated Skp2 function promotes cell proliferation, which is consistent with observations of Skp2 over-expression in many types of human cancers, including cervical carcinoma (CC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated Skp2 expression have not been fully explored. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced Stat3 activation is viewed as crucial for multiple tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Skp2 is a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in the human cervical carcinoma cells. Our data show that IL-6 administration or transfection of a constitutively activated Stat3 in HeLa cells activates Skp2 mRNA transcription. Using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, we show that Stat3 binds to the promoter region of Skp2 and promotes its activity through recruiting P300. As a result of the increase of Skp2 expression, endogenous p27 protein levels are markedly decreased. Thus, our results suggest a previously unknown Stat3-Skp2 molecular network controlling cervical carcinoma development.

  2. High glucose enhances progression of cholangiocarcinoma cells via STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Saengboonmee, Charupong; Seubwai, Wunchana; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), however, the effects and mechanisms of high glucose on progression of CCA remain unclear. This study reports for the first time of the enhancing effects of high glucose on aggressive phenotypes of CCA cells via STAT3 activation. CCA cells cultured in high glucose media exerted significantly higher rates of cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion than those cultured in normal glucose. The phosphokinase array revealed STAT3 as the dominant signal activated in response to high glucose. Increased nuclear STAT3, p-STAT3 and its downstream target proteins, cyclin D1, vimentin and MMP2, were shown to be underling mechanisms of high glucose stimulation. The link of high glucose and STAT3 activation was confirmed in tumor tissues from CCA patients with DM that exhibited higher STAT3 activation than those without DM. Moreover, the levels of STAT3 activation were correlated with the levels of blood glucose. Finally, decreasing the level of glucose or using a STAT3 inhibitor could reduce the effects of high glucose. These findings suggest that controlling blood glucose or using a STAT3 inhibitor as an alternative approach may improve the therapeutic outcome of CCA patients with DM. PMID:26743134

  3. Disruption of STAT3 signalling promotes KRAS-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Beatrice; Schramek, Daniel; Mueller, Kristina M; Moll, Herwig P; Svinka, Jasmin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Blaas, Leander; Hruschka, Natascha; Zboray, Katalin; Stiedl, Patricia; Nivarthi, Harini; Bogner, Edith; Gruber, Wolfgang; Mohr, Thomas; Zwick, Ralf Harun; Kenner, Lukas; Poli, Valeria; Aberger, Fritz; Stoiber, Dagmar; Egger, Gerda; Esterbauer, Harald; Zuber, Johannes; Moriggl, Richard; Eferl, Robert; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Penninger, Josef M; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is considered to play an oncogenic role in several malignancies including lung cancer; consequently, targeting STAT3 is currently proposed as therapeutic intervention. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 plays an unexpected tumour-suppressive role in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Indeed, lung tissue-specific inactivation of Stat3 in mice results in increased Kras(G12D)-driven AC initiation and malignant progression leading to markedly reduced survival. Knockdown of STAT3 in xenografted human AC cells increases tumour growth. Clinically, low STAT3 expression levels correlate with poor survival and advanced malignancy in human lung AC patients with smoking history, which are prone to KRAS mutations. Consistently, KRAS mutant lung tumours exhibit reduced STAT3 levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that STAT3 controls NF-?B-induced IL-8 expression by sequestering NF-?B within the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting IL-8-mediated myeloid tumour infiltration and tumour vascularization and hence tumour progression. These results elucidate a novel STAT3-NF-?B-IL-8 axis in KRAS mutant AC with therapeutic and prognostic relevance. PMID:25734337

  4. Paeoniflorin inhibits human glioma cells via STAT3 degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao-hu; Ou-yang, Jia; Xing, Ying; Li, Dan-yan; Dong, Xing-yu; Liu, Ru-en; Xu, Ru-xiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the underlying mechanism for the potent proapoptotic effect of paeoniflorin (PF) on human glioma cells in vitro, focusing on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Significant time- and dose-dependent apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation were observed in PF-treated U87 and U251 glioma cells. Expression of STAT3, its active form phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), and several downstream molecules, including HIAP, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and Survivin, were significantly downregulated upon PF treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 induced resistance to PF, suggesting that STAT3 was a critical target of PF. Interestingly, rapid downregulation of STAT3 was consistent with its accelerated degradation, but not with its dephosphorylation or transcriptional modulation. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the prodegradation effect of PF on STAT3 was mainly through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway rather than via lysosomal degradation. These findings indicated that PF-induced growth suppression and apoptosis in human glioma cells through the proteasome-dependent degradation of STAT3. PMID:26508835

  5. Novel high-throughput screening system for identifying STAT3-SH2 antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Yutaka; Mochizuki, Masato; Matsuno, Kenji; Haino, Takeharu; Asai, Akira

    2009-03-13

    Constitutive activation of the oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 frequently occurs in various human malignancies. STAT3 activation involves dimerization via intermolecular pTyr-SH2 interaction. Thus, antagonizing this interaction is a feasible approach to inhibit STAT3 activation for cancer therapy. In order to identify selective STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a biochemical HTS system based on AlphaScreen technology, which measures the abilities of test compounds to antagonize pTyr-SH2 interactions. We screened our chemical libraries using this system and identified 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (5,15-DPP) as a selective STAT3-SH2 antagonist. Selective inhibition of STAT3 nuclear translocation and DNA biding activity was observed in cells treated with 5,15-DPP. IL-6-dependent dimerization of STAT3, c-myc promoter binding and c-myc protein expression were all suppressed by 5,15-DPP, whereas no decrement in either expression or phosphorylation level of STAT3 was observed. Thus, the HTS assay system represented herein may be useful for identifying novel STAT3-SH2 antagonists.

  6. Icaritin suppresses multiple myeloma, by inhibiting IL-6/JAK2/STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zijian; Peng, Hongling; Luo, Yunya; Deng, Mingyang; Li, Ruijuan; Dai, Chongwen; Xu, Yunxiao; Liu, Sufang; Zhang, Guangsen

    2015-01-01

    Icaritin is an active prenylflavonoid derived from Epimedium genus, a traditional Chinese medicine. Icaritin has a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities, including cardiovascular function improvement, hormone regulation and antitumor activity. Here, we investigated the effect of icaritin on multiple myeloma (MM) in vitro and in vivo. Icaritin inhibited cell growth of MM cell line and primary MM cells. In contrast, icaritin had low or no cytotoxic effect on normal hematopoiesis. We also demonstrated that in MM xenograft mouse models, icaritin suppressed tumor growth and decreased serum IL-6 and IgE levels, but did not show adverse reactions such as body weight loss. The anti-MM activity of icaritin was mainly mediated by inhibiting IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling. We suggest that icaritin can be further tested in clinical trials in MM. PMID:25865044

  7. RTVP-1 promotes mesenchymal transformation of glioma via a STAT-3/IL-6-dependent positive feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Nis David; Ziv-Av, Amotz; Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; deCarvalho, Ana; Mikkelsen, Tom; Poisson, Laila; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, exhibit increased invasiveness and resistance to anti-tumor treatments. We explored the role of RTVP-1, a glioma-associated protein that promotes glioma cell migration, in the mesenchymal transformation of GBM. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrated that RTVP-1 expression was higher in mesenchymal GBM and predicted tumor recurrence and poor clinical outcome. ChiP analysis revealed that the RTVP-1 promoter binds STAT3 and C/EBP?, two master transcription factors that regulate mesenchymal transformation of GBM. In addition, IL-6 induced RTVP-1 expression in a STAT3-dependent manner. RTVP-1 increased the migration and mesenchymal transformation of glioma cells. Similarly, overexpression of RTVP-1 in human neural stem cells induced mesenchymal differentiation, whereas silencing of RTVP-1 in glioma stem cells (GSCs) decreased the mesenchymal transformation and stemness of these cells. Silencing of RTVP-1 also increased the survival of mice bearing GSC-derived xenografts. Using gene array analysis of RTVP-1 silenced glioma cells we identified IL-6 as a mediator of RTVP-1 effects on the mesenchymal transformation and migration of GSCs, therefore acting in a positive feedback loop by upregulating RTVP-1 expression via the STAT3 pathway. Collectively, these results implicate RTVP-1 as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:26267319

  8. Thyroid Hormone Promotes Neuronal Differentiation of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells by Inhibiting STAT3 Signaling Through TR?1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunhai; Zhou, Zhou; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Li, Maoquan; Zhang, Lei; Qu, Mingyue; Yang, Ju; Wang, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A deficiency of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) during pregnancy may have severe impacts on fetal brain development. However, the cellular targets of THs and their underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we found that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy in mice inhibited neurogenesis in the embryonic telencephalon and caused learning and memory impairment in the offspring. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we treated cultured mouse embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) with a physiological level of 3, 5, 3?-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3). We found that T3 promoted the neuronal differentiation of eNSCs, while inhibiting astrocytic differentiation. In addition, the proliferation and maintenance of eNSCs were inhibited by T3. Furthermore, the TH receptor alpha 1 (TR?1) was detected in the eNSCs both in vivo and in vitro. Silencing TR?1 protein expression with specific siRNA eliminated the effects of T3 on eNSCs. We also found that T3 decreased STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3-DNA binding activity through TR?1. The over expression of STAT3 attenuated the promotive effects of T3 on neuronal differentiation of eNSCs. Taken together, these results suggest that T3 promotes the neuronal differentiation of eNSCs by inhibiting STAT3 signaling activity through TR?1 and contributes to early neurogenesis in the embryonic telencephalon. Our studies reveal the physiological effects of TH in regulating eNSCs differentiation and suggest that eNSCs are one of the major cellular targets in the central nervous system by which TH influences early brain development. These findings also provide new insights into the mechanisms of neurological deficits caused by TH deficiency during embryogenesis. PMID:22468949

  9. NF-?B-Induced IL-6 Ensures STAT3 Activation and Tumor Aggressiveness in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Braden C.; Hong, Suk W.; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Twitty, George B.; Gray, G. Kenneth; Yu, Hao; Benveniste, Etty N.; Nozell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, neurologically destructive and deadly tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). In GBM, the transcription factors NF-?B and STAT3 are aberrantly activated and associated with tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and chemoresistance. In addition, common activators of NF-?B and STAT3, including TNF-? and IL-6, respectively, are abundantly expressed in GBM tumors. Herein, we sought to elucidate the signaling crosstalk that occurs between the NF-?B and STAT3 pathways in GBM tumors. Using cultured GBM cell lines as well as primary human GBM xenografts, we elucidated the signaling crosstalk between the NF-?B and STAT3 pathways utilizing approaches that either a) reduce NF-?B p65 expression, b) inhibit NF-?B activation, c) interfere with IL-6 signaling, or d) inhibit STAT3 activation. Using the clinically relevant human GBM xenograft model, we assessed the efficacy of inhibiting NF-?B and/or STAT3 alone or in combination in mice bearing intracranial xenograft tumors in vivo. We demonstrate that TNF-?-induced activation of NF-?B is sufficient to induce IL-6 expression, activate STAT3, and elevate STAT3 target gene expression in GBM cell lines and human GBM xenografts in vitro. Moreover, the combined inhibition of NF-?B and STAT3 signaling significantly increases survival of mice bearing intracranial tumors. We propose that in GBM, the activation of NF-?B ensures subsequent STAT3 activation through the expression of IL-6. These data verify that pharmacological interventions to effectively inhibit the activity of both NF-?B and STAT3 transcription factors must be used in order to reduce glioma size and aggressiveness. PMID:24244348

  10. Wogonin suppresses human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell A549 migration in inflammatory microenvironment by modulating the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jing; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Yi; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long; Lu, Na

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence from various clinical and experimental studies has demonstrated that the inflammatory microenvironment facilitates tumor metastasis. Clinically, it will be a promising choice to suppress tumor metastasis by targeting inflammatory microenvironment. Our previous studies have demonstrated that wogonin (a bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin) possesses the anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory activity, but we have little idea about its efficacy on inflammatory-induced tumor metastasis and the mechanism underlying it. In this study, we focused on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of tumor metastasis, to evaluate the effects of wogonin on tumor metastasis in inflammatory microenvironment. We found that wogonin inhibited THP-1 conditioned-medium- (CM-) and IL-6-induced EMT by inactivating STAT3 signal. And in wogonin-treated A549 cells which pretreated with THP-1 CM or IL-6, the expression level of E-cadherin, an EMT negative biomarker, increased while that of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and EMT-related transcription factors including Snail and Twist decreased. Moreover, wogonin inhibited IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, prevented p-STAT3 dimer translocation into the nucleus, and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of p-STAT3. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in the tumor xenografts mice, including downregulation of p-STAT3, N-cadherin, and Vimentin while up-regulation of E-cadherin. Wogonin also inhibit the metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. Taken all data together, we concluded that wogonin suppresses tumor cells migration in inflammatory microenvironment by inactivating STAT3 signal. PMID:24976450

  11. Increased STAT3 phosphorylation on CD27(+) B-cells from common variable immunodeficiency disease patients.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Antonio; Pons, Jaume; Lanio, Nallibe; Cunill, Vanesa; Frontera, Guillem; Crespí, Catalina; Matamoros, Núria; Ferrer, Joana M

    2015-12-01

    Maturation and differentiation of B-cells are driven by T-cells' help through IL-21/STAT3 axis in GC centers or through extrafollicular pathways, in a T-independent manner. B-cell differentiation is defective in common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) patients. We investigated if IL-21/STAT3 axis alterations could influence B-cell fate. We activated purified CVID B-cells with surrogate T-dependent (anti-CD40), T-independent (TLR-9 ligand) stimuli or through B-cell receptor engagement (anti-IgM) with or without IL-21. IL-21 mediated STAT3 activation was greater on CD27(-) than CD27(+) B-cells depending on the stimulus. IL-21 alone induced STAT3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3) only on CD27(-) B-cells and IL-21 induced higher pSTAT3 levels on CD27(-) than CD27(+) B-cells after anti-IgM or anti-CD40 activation. CVID CD27(+) B-cells showed selective STAT3 hyperphosphorylation after activation with anti-IgM or anti-CD40 alone and anti-IgM, anti-CD40 or ODN combined with IL-21. Increased STAT3 activation during immune responses could result in B-cell differentiation defects in CVID. PMID:26360251

  12. Disruption of STAT3 by niclosamide reverses radioresistance of human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Shuo; Li, Rui; Park, Dongkyoo; Xie, Maohua; Sica, Gabriel L.; Cao, Ya; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge affecting the outcomes of patients with lung cancer is the development of acquired radioresistance. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to therapy are not fully understood. Here we discovered that ionizing radiation (IR) induces phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in association with increased levels of Bcl2/Bcl-XL in various human lung cancer cells. To uncover new mechanism(s) of radioresistance of lung cancer, we established lung cancer cell model systems with acquired radioresistance. As compared to radiosensitive parental lung cancer cells (i.e. A549, H358 and H157), the JAK2/STAT3/Bcl2/Bcl-XL survival pathway is significantly more activated in acquired radioresistant lung cancer cells (i.e. A549-IRR, H358-IRR and H157-IRR). Higher levels of STAT3 were found to be accumulated in the nucleus of radioresistant lung cancer cells. Niclosamide, a potent STAT3 inhibitor, can reduce STAT3 nuclear localization in radioresistant lung cancer cells. Intriguingly, either inhibition of STAT3 activity by niclosamide or depletion of STAT3 by RNA interference reverses radioresistance in vitro. Niclosamide alone or in combination with radiation overcame radioresistance in lung cancer xenografts. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of radioresistance and provide a more effective approach to overcome radioresistance by blocking the STAT3/Bcl2/Bcl-XL survival signaling pathway, which may potentially improve lung cancer outcome, especially for those patients who have resistance to radiotherapy. PMID:24362463

  13. Loss of STAT3 in murine NK cells enhances NK cell-dependent tumor surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Dagmar; Putz, Eva M; Straka, Elisabeth; Kudweis, Petra; Biaggio, Mario; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias; Sexl, Veronika

    2014-10-01

    The members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors modulate the development and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance is particularly important in the body's defense against hematological malignancies such as leukemia. STAT3 inhibitors are currently being developed, although their potential effects on NK cells are not clear. We have investigated the function of STAT3 in NK cells with Stat3(?/?)Ncr1-iCreTg mice, whose NK cells lack STAT3. In the absence of STAT3, NK cells develop normally and in normal numbers, but display alterations in the kinetics of interferon-? (IFN-?) production. We report that STAT3 directly binds the IFN-? promoter. In various in vivo models of hematological diseases, loss of STAT3 in NK cells enhances tumor surveillance. The reduced tumor burden is paralleled by increased expression of the activating receptor DNAM-1 and the lytic enzymes perforin and granzyme B. Our findings imply that STAT3 inhibitors will stimulate the cytolytic activity of NK cells against leukemia, thereby providing an additional therapeutic benefit. PMID:25185262

  14. The dark and the bright side of Stat3: proto-oncogene and tumor-suppressor.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Andrea; Simma, Olivia; Hoelbl, Andrea; Kenner, Lukas; Beug, Hartmut; Moriggl, Richard; Sexl, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Stat transcription factors have been implicated in tumorigenesis in mice and men. Stat3 and Stat5 are considered powerful proto-oncogenes, whereas Stat1 has been demonstrated to suppress tumor formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that a constitutive active version of Stat3alpha (Stat3alphaC) may also suppress transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for p53 can be transformed with either c-myc or with rasV12 alone. Interestingly, transformation by c-myc is efficiently suppressed by co-expression of Stat3alphaC, but Stat3alphaC does not interfere with transformation by the rasV12-oncogene. In contrast, transplantation of bone marrow cells expressing Stat3alphaC induces the formation of a highly aggressive T cell leukemia in mice. The leukemic cells invaded multiple organs including lung, heart, salivary glands, liver and kidney. Interestingly, transplanted mice developed a similar leukemia when the bone marrow cells were transduced with Stat3beta, which is also constitutively active when expressed at significant levels. Our experiments demonstrate that Stat3 has both - tumor suppressing and tumor promoting properties. PMID:19273247

  15. Differential roles of STAT3 in the initiation and growth of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Qu, Z; Yan, S; Sun, F; Whitsett, J A; Shapiro, S D; Xiao, G

    2015-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is linked to multiple cancers, including pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, the role of STAT3 in lung cancer pathogenesis has not been determined. Using lung epithelial-specific inducible knockout strategies, we demonstrate that STAT3 has contrasting roles in the initiation and growth of both chemically and genetically induced lung cancers. Selective deletion of lung epithelial STAT3 in mice before cancer induction by the smoke carcinogen, urethane, resulted in increased lung tissue damage and inflammation, K-Ras oncogenic mutations and tumorigenesis. Deletion of lung epithelial STAT3 after establishment of lung cancer inhibited cancer cell proliferation. Simultaneous deletion of STAT3 and expression of oncogenic K-Ras in mouse lung elevated pulmonary injury, inflammation and tumorigenesis, but reduced tumor growth. These studies indicate that STAT3 prevents lung cancer initiation by maintaining pulmonary homeostasis under oncogenic stress, whereas it facilitates lung cancer progression by promoting cancer cell growth. These studies also provide a mechanistic basis for targeting STAT3 to lung cancer therapy. PMID:25284582

  16. Investigating Dynamics of the STAT3 and C/EBP? Pathways upon Stimulation by Inflammatory Cytokines 

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Peng

    2011-08-04

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the dynamics of the Jak-STAT3 (STAT3) and Erk-C/EBP? (C/EBP?) pathways upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and oncostatin M (OSM), which is also a member of the IL...

  17. Shikonin suppresses IL-17-induced VEGF expression via blockage of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xuegang; Gao, Xinghua; Chen, Hongduo; Geng, Long

    2014-04-01

    IL-17 signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in psoriasis, which is a benign, chronic skin disease characterized by keratinocytes hyperproliferation and increased dermal vascularity. Shikonin, isolated from the traditional medical herbs Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has long been found to possess different medicinal properties such as antibacterial, improving wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the effects and mechanisms of shikonin on VEGF expression in keratinocytes mediated by IL-17 signaling, are still not fully clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects and regulatory mechanisms of shikonin on VEGF expression in keratinocytes induced by IL-17 by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited IL-17-induced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in HaCaT cells and the secretion of VEGF by HaCaT cells, inhibited IL-17-induced IL-17R, pJAK2 and pSTAT3 expression, while up-regulated the expression of SOCS1 in HaCaT cells. Additionally, shikonin effectively suppressed VEGF expression in the skin of IL-17 stimulated mice. Furthermore, shikonin suppressed VEGF-induced tube formation of HUVECs and CD34 expression in the skin of IL-17 stimulated mice. These results imply that shikonin suppresses IL-17-induced VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo and the mechanisms may be related to its effect in blockage of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. These data deepen our understanding of shikonin in the inhibition of angiogenesis in inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:24521871

  18. Stat3 Activation in Murine Colitis Induced by Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Elizabeth C.; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Albesiano, Emilia; Wu, XinQun; Wu, Shaoguang; Chan, June; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Ortega, Guillermo; Huso, David L.; Pardoll, Drew; Housseau, Franck; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), a molecular subclass of the common human commensal, B. fragilis, has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. ETBF colitis is characterized by the activation of Stat3 and a Th17 immune response in the colonic mucosa. This study was designed to investigate the time course and cellular distribution of Stat3 activation in ETBF-colonized mice. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type, C57BL/6Stat3?IEC, or Rag-1 mice were inoculated with saline, nontoxigenic B. fragilis or ETBF. Histologic diagnosis and mucosal Stat activation (immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and/or electrophorectic mobility shift assay) were evaluated over time (6–24 h, 1–7 d, and 1–18 mo after inoculation). Mucosal permeability was evaluated at 16 hours, 1 day, and 3 days. Mucosal immune responses were evaluated at 1 week, and 12 and 18 months. Results ETBF induced rapid-onset colitis that persisted for up to 1 year. Stat3 activation (pStat3) was noted in the mucosal immune cells within 16 hours, with colonic epithelial cell activation evident at 24 hours after inoculation. ETBF-induced increased mucosal permeability was first observed at 24 hours after inoculation, after which the initial immune cell pStat3 activation was noted. Immune cell pStat3 was present in the absence of epithelial pStat3 (C57BL/ 6Stat3?IEC). Epithelial pStat3 was present in the absence of T and B cells (Rag-1 mice). pStat3 persisted in the epithelial and immune cells for 1 year, characterized by isolated pStat3-positive cell clusters, with varying intensity distributed through the proximal and distal colon. Similarly, mucosal Th17 immune responses persisted for up to 1 year. Loss of fecal ETBF colonization was associated with the loss of mucosal pStat3 and Th17 immune responses. Conclusions ETBF rapidly induces immune cell pStat3, which is independent of epithelial pStat3. This occurs before ETBF-induced mucosal permeability, suggesting that ETBF, likely through B. fragilis toxin and its action on the colonic epithelial cell, triggers mucosal immune cell Stat3 activation. Peak mucosal Stat3 activation (immune and epithelial cells) occurs subsequently when other colonic bacteria may contribute to the ETBF-initiated immune response due to barrier dysfunction. ETBF induces long-lived, focal colonic Stat3 activation and Th17 immune responses dependent on the ongoing ETBF colonization. Further study is needed to evaluate the early mucosal signaling events, resulting in epithelial Stat3 activation and the sequelae of long-term colonic Stat3 activation. PMID:24704822

  19. A novel human STAT3 mutation presents with autoimmunity involving Th17 hyperactivation

    PubMed Central

    Scholman, Rianne; Spits, Hilde; van Gijn, Marielle; Boes, Marianne; van Montfrans, Joris; Moes, Nicolette; de Roock, Sytze

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in STAT3 have recently been shown to cause autoimmune diseases through increased lymphoproliferation. We describe a novel Pro471Arg STAT3 mutation in a patient with multiple autoimmune diseases, causing hyperactivation of the Th17 pathway. We show that IL-17 production by primary T cells was enhanced and could not be further increased by IL-6, while IL-10 reduced Th17 cell numbers. Moreover, specific inhibition of STAT3 activation resulted in diminished IL-17 production. We show that the Pro471Arg STAT3 mutation yields both increased levels of IgA and IgG, probably due to high IL-21 levels. When remission was reached through medical intervention, IL-17 levels normalized and the clinical symptoms improved, supporting the idea that STAT3 gain-of-function mutations can cause hyperactivation of the Th17 pathway and thereby contribute to autoimmunity. PMID:26343524

  20. Matrine increases NKG2D ligand ULBP2 in K562 cells via inhibiting JAK/STAT3 pathway: a potential mechanism underlying the immunotherapy of matrine in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuzhang; Zhu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lijia; Sun, Xiao; Jia, Zhuxia; Qian, Sixuan; Li, Jianyong; Ma, Lingdi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT3 pathway in the matrine induced ULBP2 expression on the human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. Methods: K562 cells were cultured, and the relevant mRNA expressions were detected. Results: Matrine induced the expression of four NKG2D ligands on K562 cells, of which ULBP2 had the highest increase. After treatment with 0.8 mg/mL matrine for 24 h, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of ULBP2 increased. After matrine treatment, the sensitivity of K562 cells to NK cell-mediated killing increased significantly. After treatment with 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 mg/ mL matrine, the percentage of K562 cells killed by NK cells was significantly higher than that of untreated cells (29.2%) (P<0.05). Matrine significantly inhibit the protein expression of phosphorylated STAT 3 and JAK2. Matrine markedly inhibited the IL-6 expression of K562 cells, and antagonized the IL-6 mediated STAT3 and JAK2 phosphorylation. In addition, matrine enhanced the inhibitory effect of STAT 3 inhibitor on STAT 3 activity. The silencing of STAT expression and inhibition of STAT3 activity significantly up-regulated the ULPB2 expression. Matrine had no effect on the expression of IL-6R and gp130 on K562 cells, the mRNA expression of IL-6R and gp130 increased slightly and the sgp 130 in cell supernatant significantly increased. Conclusions: Our findings reveal IL-6 and IL-6 receptor-mediated JAK/STAT3 pathway is involved in the matrine induced up-regulation of NKG2D ligands ULBP2 on K562 cells. Matrine might inhibit IL-6 expression and then suppress the activation of IL-6 receptor-mediated JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  1. Stem cell-specific expression of Dax1 is conferred by STAT3 and Oct3/4 in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chuanhai; Nakatake, Yuhki; Ura, Hiroki; Akagi, Tadayuki; Niwa, Hitoshi; Koide, Hiroshi Yokota, Takashi

    2008-07-18

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts. An orphan nuclear receptor, Dax1, is specifically expressed in undifferentiated ES cells and plays an important role in their self-renewal. The regulatory mechanism of Dax1 expression in ES cells, however, remains unknown. In this study, we found that STAT3 and Oct3/4, essential transcription factors for ES cell self-renewal, are involved in the regulation of Dax1 expression. Suppression of either STAT3 or Oct3/4 resulted in down-regulation of Dax1. Reporter assay identified putative binding sites for these factors in the promoter/enhancer region of the Dax1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested the in vivo association of STAT3 and Oct3/4 with the putative sites. Furthermore, gel shift assay indicated that these transcription factors directly bind to their putative binding sites. These results suggest that STAT3 and Oct3/4 control the expression of Dax1 to maintain the self-renewal of ES cells.

  2. Prolactin signaling enhances colon cancer stemness by modulating Notch signaling in a Jak2-STAT3/ERK manner

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a secretory cytokine produced by various tissues. Binding to the cognate PRL receptor (PRLR), it activates intracellular signaling via janus kinase (JAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. PRL regulates diverse activities under normal and abnormal conditions, including malignancies. Previous clinical data suggest serum PRL levels are elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. In this study, we first determined the expression of PRL and PRLR in colon cancer tissue and cell lines. Higher levels of PRLR expression were observed in the cancer cells and cell lines compared with normal colonic epithelial cells. Incubation of colon cancer cells with PRL-induced JAK2, STAT3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased expression of Jagged 1, which is a Notch-1 receptor ligand. Notch signaling regulates CRC stem cell population. We observed increased accumulation of the cleaved/active form of Notch-1 receptor (Notch intracellular domain) and increased expression of Notch responsive genes HEY1, HES1 and stem cell marker genes DCLK1, LGR5, ALDH1 and CD44. Finally, inhibiting PRL induced JAK2-STAT3 and JAK2-ERK1/2 using AG490 and PD98059, respectively, leads to complete abrogation of Notch signaling, suggesting a role for this pathway in regulating CRC stem cells. Together, our results demonstrate that cytokine signaling induced by PRL is active in colorectal cancers and may provide a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24265293

  3. T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV

    PubMed Central

    McIlwain, David R; Grusdat, Melanie; Pozdeev, Vitaly I; Xu, Haifeng C; Shinde, Prashant; Reardon, Colin; Hao, Zhenyue; Beyer, Marc; Bergthaler, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Nolan, Garry P; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 is a critical transcription factor activated downstream of cytokine signaling and is integral for the function of multiple immune cell types. Human mutations in STAT3 cause primary immunodeficiency resulting in impaired control of a variety of infections, including reactivation of latent viruses. In this study, we investigate how T-cell functions of STAT3 contribute to responses to viral infection by inducing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice lacking STAT3 specifically in T cells. Although mice with conditional disruption of STAT3 in T cells were able to mount early responses to viral infection similar to control animals, including expansion of effector T cells, we found generation of T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells to be impaired. As a result, STAT3 T cell deficient mice produced attenuated germinal center reactions, and did not accumulate bone marrow virus specific IgG-secreting cells, resulting in failure to maintain levels of virus-specific IgG or mount neutralizing responses to LCMV in the serum. These effects were associated with reduced control of viral replication and prolonged infection. Our results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 in T cells for the generation of functional long-term humoral immunity to viral infections. PMID:25393615

  4. Leptin Suppresses the Rewarding Effects of Running via STAT3 Signaling in Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Fernanda A; Matthys, Dominique; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Sharma, Sandeep; Mogra, Shabana; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The adipose hormone leptin potently influences physical activity. Leptin can decrease locomotion and running, yet the mechanisms involved and the influence of leptin on the rewarding effects of running ("runner's high") are unknown. Leptin receptor (LepR) signaling involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), including in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that are essential for reward-relevant behavior. We found that mice lacking STAT3 in dopamine neurons exhibit greater voluntary running, an effect reversed by viral-mediated STAT3 restoration. STAT3 deletion increased the rewarding effects of running whereas intra-VTA leptin blocked it in a STAT3-dependent manner. Finally, STAT3 loss-of-function reduced mesolimbic dopamine overflow and function. Findings suggest that leptin influences the motivational effects of running via LepR-STAT3 modulation of dopamine tone. Falling leptin is hypothesized to increase stamina and the rewarding effects of running as an adaptive means to enhance the pursuit and procurement of food. PMID:26341832

  5. Constitutive Stat3 activation alters behavior of hair follicle stem and progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dharanija; Macias, Everardo; Carbajal, Steve; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

    2015-02-01

    STATs play crucial roles in a wide variety of biological functions, including development, proliferation, differentiation and migration as well as in cancer development. In the present study, we examined the impact of constitutive activation of Stat3 on behavior of keratinocytes, including keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) in vivo. BK5.Stat3C transgenic (Tg) mice, which express a constitutively active form of Stat3 (Stat3C) in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the bulge region KSCs exhibited a significantly reduced number of CD34+/?6 integrin+ cells compared to non-transgenic (NTg) littermates. There was a concomitant increase in the Lgr-6, Lrig-1, and Sca-1 populations in the Tg mice in contrast to the CD34 and Keratin-15 positive population. In addition, increased expression of c-myc, ?-catenin, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as well as decreased expression of ?6-integrin was observed in the hair follicles of Tg mice. Notably, Sca-1 was found to be a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in keratinocytes. The current data suggest that elevated Stat3 activity leads to depletion of hair follicle KSCs along with a concomitant increase of stem/progenitor cells above the bulge region. Overall, the current data indicate that Stat3 plays an important role in keratinocyte stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. PMID:24038534

  6. T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, David R; Grusdat, Melanie; Pozdeev, Vitaly I; Xu, Haifeng C; Shinde, Prashant; Reardon, Colin; Hao, Zhenyue; Beyer, Marc; Bergthaler, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Nolan, Garry P; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-02-01

    STAT3 is a critical transcription factor activated downstream of cytokine signaling and is integral for the function of multiple immune cell types. Human mutations in STAT3 cause primary immunodeficiency resulting in impaired control of a variety of infections, including reactivation of latent viruses. In this study, we investigate how T-cell functions of STAT3 contribute to responses to viral infection by inducing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice lacking STAT3 specifically in T cells. Although mice with conditional disruption of STAT3 in T cells were able to mount early responses to viral infection similar to control animals, including expansion of effector T cells, we found generation of T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells to be impaired. As a result, STAT3 T cell deficient mice produced attenuated germinal center reactions, and did not accumulate bone marrow virus specific IgG-secreting cells, resulting in failure to maintain levels of virus-specific IgG or mount neutralizing responses to LCMV in the serum. These effects were associated with reduced control of viral replication and prolonged infection. Our results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 in T cells for the generation of functional long-term humoral immunity to viral infections. PMID:25393615

  7. Critical role of STAT3 in melanoma metastasis through anoikis resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fofaria, Neel M.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    Anoikis is an anchorage-independent cell death. Resistance to anoikis is one of the key features of metastatic cells. Here, we analyzed the role of STAT3 in anoikis resistance in melanoma cells leading to metastasis. When grown under anchorage-independent conditions, significant proportion of cells resisted anoikis and these resistant cells had higher rate of migration and invasion as compared to the cells grown under anchorage-dependent conditions. The anoikis resistant cells also had significantly higher expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 than the cells that were attached to the basement membrane. STAT3 inhibitors, AG 490 and piplartine (PL) induced anoikis in a concentration-dependent manner in anoikis resistant cells. Over-expression of STAT3 or treatment with IL-6 not only increased anoikis resistance, but also protected the cancer cells from PL-induced anoikis. On the other hand, silencing STAT3 decreased the potential of cancer cells to resist anoikis and to migrate. STAT3 knock-down cells and PL treated cells did not form tumors as well as failed to metastasize in SCID-NSG mice as compared to untreated anchorage-independent cells, which formed big tumors and extensively metastasized. In summary, our results for the first time establish STAT3 as a critical player that renders anoikis resistance to melanoma cells and enhance their metastatic potential. PMID:25216522

  8. STAT3 silencing inhibits glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Priester, Maike; Copanaki, Ekaterini; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Hensel, Sandra; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Seifert, Volker; Groner, Bernd; Kögel, Donat; Weissenberger, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffuse infiltration remains the fulcrum of glioblastoma's incurability, leading inevitably to recurrence. Therefore, uncovering the pathological mechanism is imperative. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) correlates with glioma malignancy and predicts poor clinical outcome, we determined its role in glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth. Methods STAT3 was silenced in Tu-2449 glioma cells via lentiviral gene transfer. Target gene expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Microvilli were visualized by staining with wheat germ agglutinin. Migration and invasion were measured by Scratch and Matrigel chamber assays. Diffuse infiltration was studied in 350-?m-thick organotypic tissue cultures over 14 days using cells tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and live confocal laser scanning microscopy. Survival of tumor-bearing syngeneic, immunocompetent B6C3F1 mice was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier plots. Results STAT3 silencing reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro and stopped single cell infiltration ex vivo, while STAT3-expressing cells disseminated through the neuropil at ?100 µm/day. STAT3 silencing reduced transcription of several tumor progression genes. Mice with intracranial STAT3 knockdown tumors had a significant (P< .0007) survival advantage over controls, yielding 27% long-term survival. STAT3 knockdown reduced podoplanin expression 50-fold and inhibited concurrent microvilli formation. STAT3 knockdown tumors exhibited a weaker podoplanin immunoreactivity compared with controls. Podoplanin staining was diffuse, preferentially at tumor margins, and absent in normal brain. Conclusions Our results show compelling evidence that STAT3 is a key driver of diffuse infiltration and glioma growth and might therefore represent a promising target for an anti-invasive therapy. PMID:23486688

  9. hsa-miR-4516 mediated downregulation of STAT3/CDK6/UBE2N plays a role in PUVA induced apoptosis in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhari, Shruti; Saini, Neeru

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder mediated by cross-talk occurring between epidermal keratinocytes, dermal vascular cells and immunocytes. Literature reveals that Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a protein involved in transmitting extracellular signals to the nucleus, is a possible important link between keratinocytes and immunocytes and is crucial to the development of psoriasis. Although photochemotherapy using UV in combination with 8 methoxypsoralen is one of the most effective therapy for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Herein, we studied the change in miRNA profiles of cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) before and after in vitro PUVA treatment by 8 methoxypsoralen and found significant up regulation of hsa-miR-4516. We for the first time demonstrate that ectopic expression of hsa-miR-4516 directly targets STAT3 protein by binding to its 3'UTR in HaCaT cells as confirmed by Luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analysis. We further show that overexpression of hsa-miR-4516 downregulates STAT3, p-STAT3, CDK6, and UBE2N proteins that are consistently upregulated in psoriasis and induces apoptosis in HaCaT cells. We also observed that anti-miR-4516 treatment was able to partially inhibit PUVA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-4516 is involved in PUVA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results not only indicate the mechanistic involvement of hsa-miR-4516 in PUVA mediated effects by down-regulating STAT3 in HaCaT keratinocytes, but also highlight the potential of hsa-miR-4516 in development of novel therapeutic strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1630-1638, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24610393

  10. Leptin receptor expressing neurons express phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) and leptin induces STAT3 activation in PDE3B neurons in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Maitrayee; Sahu, Abhiram

    2015-11-01

    Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus is critical for normal food intake and body weight regulation. Cumulative evidence suggests that besides the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway, several non-STAT3 pathways including the phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) pathway mediate leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. We have shown that PDE3B is localized in various hypothalamic sites implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis and that the anorectic and body weight reducing effects of leptin are mediated by the activation of PDE3B. It is still unknown if PDE3B is expressed in the long form of the leptin-receptor (ObRb)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus and whether leptin induces STAT3 activation in PDE3B-expressing neurons. In this study, we examined co-localization of PDE3B with ObRb neurons in various hypothalamic nuclei in ObRb-GFP mice that were treated with leptin (5mg/kg, ip) for 2h. Results showed that most of the ObRb neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, 93%), ventromedial nucleus (VMN, 94%), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN, 95%), ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv, 97%) and lateral hypothalamus (LH, 97%) co-expressed PDE3B. We next examined co-localization of p-STAT3 and PDE3B in the hypothalamus in C57BL6 mice that were treated with leptin (5mg/kg, ip) for 1h. The results showed that almost all p-STAT3 positive neurons in different hypothalamic nuclei including ARC, VMN, DMN, LH and PMv areas expressed PDE3B. These results suggest the possibility for a direct role for the PDE3B pathway in mediating leptin action in the hypothalamus. PMID:26297880

  11. Leptin-induced Growth Stimulation of Breast Cancer Cells Involves Recruitment of Histone Acetyltransferases and Mediator Complex to CYCLIN D1 Promoter via Activation of Stat3*

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Neeraj K.; Vertino, Paula M.; Anania, Frank A.; Sharma, Dipali

    2010-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies documented that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. Leptin, the key player in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control also acts as a growth factor on certain organs in both normal and disease state. In this study, we analyzed the role of leptin and the molecular mechanism(s) underlying its action in breast cancer cells that express both short and long isoforms of leptin receptor. Leptin increased MCF7 cell population in the S-phase of the cell cycle along with a robust increase in CYCLIN D1 expression. Also, leptin induced Stat3-phosphorylation-dependent proliferation of MCF7 cells as blocking Stat3 phosphorylation with a specific inhibitor, AG490, abolished leptin-induced proliferation. Using deletion constructs of CYCLIN D1 promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we show that leptin induced increase in CYCLIN D1 promoter activity is mediated through binding of activated Stat3 at the Stat binding sites and changes in histone acetylation and methylation. We also show specific involvement of coactivator molecules, histone acetyltransferase SRC1, and mediator complex in leptin-mediated regulation of CYCLIN D1 promoter. Importantly, silencing of SRC1 and Med1 abolished the leptin induced increase in CYCLIN D1 expression and MCF7 cell proliferation. Intriguingly, recruitment of both SRC1 and Med1 was dependent on phosphorylated Stat3 as AG490 treatment inhibited leptin-induced recruitment of these coactivators to CYCLIN D1 promoter. Our data suggest that CYCLIN D1 may be a target gene for leptin mediated growth stimulation of breast cancer cells and molecular mechanisms involve activated Stat3-mediated recruitment of distinct coactivator complexes. PMID:17344214

  12. MiRNA-155 mediates TAM resistance by modulating SOCS6-STAT3 signalling pathway in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rong; Wang, Yu; Wang, Cai-Xia; Yin, Miao; Liu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Jian-Peng; Han, Jun-Qing; Wang, Wei-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer induced death in women. Tamoxifen is an endocrine therapy which is administered to 70% of all breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression. Despite the initial response, most patients eventually acquire resistance to the drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which have the ability to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Although the role of a few miRNAs has been described in tamoxifen resistance, little is known about how concerted actions of miRNAs targeting biological networks contribute to its resistance. In this study, we identified that miR-155 is frequently up-regulated in breast cancer with tamoxifen resistance. Ectopic expression of miR-155 induces cell survival and resistance to TAM, whereas inhibition of miR-155 causes cells to apoptosis and enhances TAM sensitivity. Further, we identified SOCS6 as a new direct target of miR-155. Sustained overexpression of miR-155 resulted in repression of SOCS6 protein and mRNA levels, and knockdown of miR-155 increased SOCS6 expression. Introduction of SOCS6 cDNA lacking the 3’-UTR abrogated miR-155-induced cell survival and chemoresistance. Finally, it was verified that SOCS6 or inhibition of STAT3 could inhibit miR-155 STAT3 activation and cell proliferation. In conclusion, our study reveals a molecular link between miR-155 and SOCS6-STAT3 and presents an evidence that miR-155 is a critical therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:26692956

  13. Disruption of Leptin Receptor-STAT3 Signaling Enhances Leukotriene Production and Pulmonary Host Defense against Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Peter; Peters-Golden, Marc; Goel, Deepti; Goldberg, Jared; Brock, Thomas G.; Greenwald-Yarnell, Megan; Myers, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, regulates energy homeostasis and the innate immune response. We previously reported that leptin plays a protective role in bacterial pneumonia, but the mechanisms by which leptin regulates host defense remain poorly understood. Leptin binding to its receptor, LepRb, activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including ERK1/2, STAT5, and STAT3. In this report, we compared the responses of wild type (WT) and s/s mice, which possess a mutant LepRb that prevents leptin induced STAT3 activation, to determine the role of this signaling pathway in pneumococcal pneumonia. Compared with WT animals, s/s mice exhibited greater survival and enhanced pulmonary bacterial clearance following an intratracheal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae. We also observed enhanced phagocytosis and killing of S.pneumoniae in vitro in alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from s/s mice. Interestingly, the improved host defense and AM antibacterial effector functions in s/s mice were associated with increased cysteinyl-leukotriene production in vivo and in AMs in vitro. Augmentation of phagocytosis in AMs from s/s mice could be blocked using a pharmacologic cysteinyl-LT receptor antagonist. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and cPLA2?, known to enhance the release of arachidonic acid for subsequent conversion to LTs, was also increased in AMs from s/s mice stimulated with S.pneumoniae in vitro. These data indicate that ablation of LepRb-mediated STAT3 signaling and the associated augmentation of ERK1/2, cPLA2?, and cysteinyl-LT synthesis confers resistance to s/s mice during pneumococcal pneumonia. These data provide novel insights into the intracellular signaling events by which leptin contributes to host defense against bacterial pneumonia. PMID:21148797

  14. Inhibition of permeability transition pore opening by mitochondrial STAT3 and its role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Boengler, Kerstin; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Heusch, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to cardioprotection by ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Mitochondria are central elements of cardioprotective signaling, most likely by delaying mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and STAT3 has recently been identified in mitochondria. We now characterized the mitochondrial localization of STAT3 and its impact on respiration and MPTP opening. STAT3 was mainly present in the matrix of subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar cardiomyocyte mitochondria. STAT1, but not STAT5 was also detected in mitochondria under physiological conditions. ADP-stimulated respiration was reduced in mitochondria from mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of STAT3 (STAT3-KO) versus wildtypes and in rat mitochondria treated with the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic (STAT3 inhibitory compound, 6-Nitrobenzo[b]thiophene 1,1-dioxide). Mitochondria from STAT3-KO mice and Stattic-treated rat mitochondria tolerated less calcium until MPTP opening occurred. STAT3 co-immunoprecipitated with cyclophilin D, the target of the cardioprotective agent and MPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). However, CsA reduced infarct size to a similar extent in wildtype and STAT3-KO mice in vivo. Thus, STAT3 possibly contributes to cardioprotection by stimulation of respiration and inhibition of MPTP opening. PMID:20960209

  15. Ponicidin Induces Apoptosis via JAK2 and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Fei; Lu, Yun-Min; Qu, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Xiong; Liao, Xiao-Hong; Kong, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ponicidin has a variety of biological effects such as immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory functions as well as anti-viral functions especially in the upper respiratory tract infection. This study was aimed to elucidate the antitumor effect of ponicidin in gastric carcinoma MKN28 cells and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Cell viability was measured by the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK8). Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry as well as cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. Western blot analysis was used to detect the active form of caspase-3 as well as Bax and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expressions after cells were treated with different concentrations of ponicidin. The results revealed that ponicidin could inhibit the growth of MKN28 cells significantly in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle was blocked and ROS generation was increased after the cells were treated with ponicidin. Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated remarkably while Bax expression and the active form of caspase-3 were increased after apoptosis occurred. We therefore conclude that ponicidin exhibited significant growth inhibition of gastric carcinoma cell line MKN28 and induced apoptosis of MKN28 cells via the signaling pathway regulated by Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Ponicidin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for gastric carcinoma. PMID:25588213

  16. Mutations leading to constitutive active gp130/JAK1/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Camilla; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    Constitutive activation of STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) transcription factors is a common feature identified in numerous tumors. Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCA) are benign liver tumors characterized by an inflammatory phenotype and an overexpression of STAT3 target genes. Recurrent somatic mutations in major actors belonging to the IL6/JAK/STAT3 pathway have been identified in these tumors. (1) 60% of IHCA show IL-6 signal transducer (IL6ST; gp130) mutations; (2) 10% harbor mutations of the Fyn-related kinase FRK; (3) 5% harbor mutations in STAT3; (4) 5% harbor somatic mutations in the GNAS complex locus; and (5) 1% of IHCA harbor mutations in the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). All these IHCA-associated mutations promote the constitutive activation of STAT3. In this review, we discuss the role of these mutated genes in IHCA and other tumors. PMID:26188635

  17. Emerging translational approaches to target STAT3 signalling and its impact on vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutzmann, Jochen; Daniel, Jan-Marcus; Bauersachs, Johann; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Sedding, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammation responses characterize the vascular remodelling processes in atherosclerosis, restenosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and angiogenesis. The functional and phenotypic changes in diverse vascular cell types are mediated by complex signalling cascades that initiate and control genetic reprogramming. The signalling molecule's signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in the initiation and continuation of these pathophysiological changes. This review highlights the pivotal involvement of STAT3 in pathological vascular remodelling processes and discusses potential translational therapies, which target STAT3 signalling, to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, current clinical trials using highly effective and selective inhibitors of STAT3 signalling for distinct diseases, such as myelofibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis, are discussed with regard to their vascular (side-) effects and their potential to pave the way for a direct use of these molecules for the prevention or treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:25784694

  18. Stat3 and Gap Junctions in Normal and Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Stephanie; Geletu, Mulu; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Raptis, Leda

    2014-01-01

    Gap junctions are channels linking the interiors of neighboring cells. A reduction in gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) correlates with high cell proliferation, while oncogene products such as Src suppress GJIC, through the Ras/Raf/Erk and other effector pathways. High Src activity was found to correlate with high levels of the Src effector, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3) in its tyrosine-705 phosphorylated, i.e., transcriptionally activated form, in the majority of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer lines examined. However, Stat3 inhibition did not restore GJIC in lines with high Src activity. In the contrary, Stat3 inhibition in normal cells or in lines with low Src activity and high GJIC eliminated gap junctional communication. Therefore, despite the fact that Stat3 is growth promoting and in an activated form acts like an oncogene, it is actually required for junctional permeability. PMID:24670366

  19. Inhibitory effect of ent-Sauchinone on amyloidogenesis via inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-?B activation in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ent-Sauchinone is a polyphenolic compound found in plants belonging to the lignan family. ent-Sauchinone has been shown to modulate the expression of inflammatory factors through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway. It is well known that neuroinflammation is associated with amyloidogenesis. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether ent-Sauchinone could have anti-amyloidogenic effects through the inhibition of NF-?B pathways via its anti-inflammatory property. Methods To investigate the potential effect of ent-Sauchinone on anti-neuroinflammation and anti-amyloidogenesis in in vitro studies, we used microglial BV-2 cells and cultured astrocytes treated with ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 24 hours. For the detection of anti-neuro-inflammatory responses, reative oxygen species (ROS) and Nitric oxide (NO) generation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were measured with assay kits and western blotting. ?-secretase and ?-secretase activities and ?-amyloid levels were determined for measuring the anti-amyloidogenic effects of ent-Sauchinone by enzyme assay kits. NF-?B and STAT3 signals were detected with electromobility shift assay (EMSA) to study the related signaling pathways. The binding of ent-Sauchinone to STAT3 was evaluated by a pull-down assay and by a docking model using Autodock VINA software (Hoover’s Inc., Texas, United states). Results ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 ?M) effectively decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-(1 ?g/ml) induced inflammatory responses through the reduction of ROS and NO generations and iNOS and COX-2 expressions in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. ent-Sauchinone also inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of ?-secretase and ?-secretase activity. NF- ?B amyloid and STAT3, critical transcriptional factors regulating not only inflammation but also amyloidogenesis, were also inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by ent-Sauchinone by blocking the phosphorylation of I ?B and STAT3 in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. The docking model approach showed that ent-Sauchinone binds to STAT3, and the employment of a STAT3 inhibitor and siRNA reversed ent-Sauchinone-induced inhibition NF-?B activation and A? generation. Conclusions These results indicated that ent-Sauchinone inhibited neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-?B activity, and thus could be applied in the treatment of neuro-inflammatory diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24985096

  20. A sesquiterpene lactone antrocin from Antrodia camphorata negatively modulates JAK2/STAT3 signaling via microRNA let-7c and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Wen-Chien; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Ye, Min; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wang, Liang-Shun; Tzeng, David T W; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsiao, Michael; Wu, Alexander T H; Yang, Zhen; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and current therapies fail to treat this disease in majority of cases. Antrodia camphorata is a medicinal mushroom being widely used as food dietary supplement for cancer prevention. The sesquiterpene lactone antrocin is the most potent among >100 secondary metabolites isolated from A. camphorata. However, the molecular mechanisms of antrocin-mediated anticancer effects remain unclear. In this study, we found that antrocin inhibited cell proliferation in two non-small-cell lung cancer cells, namely H441 (wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor, IC50 = 0.75 ?M) and H1975 (gefitnib-resistant mutant T790M, IC50 = 0.83 ?M). Antrocin dose dependently suppressed colony formation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by activated caspase-3 and increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Gene profiling studies indicated that antrocin downregulated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that antrocin suppressed both constitutively activated and interleukin 6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and its subsequent nuclear translocation. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through the suppression of JAK2 and interaction between STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Additionally, antrocin increased microRNA let-7c expression and suppressed STAT signaling. The combination of antrocin and JAK2/STAT3 gene silencing significantly increased apoptosis in H441 cells. Such dual interruption of JAK2 and STAT3 pathways also induced downregulation of antiapoptotic protein mcl-1 and increased caspase-3 expression. In vivo intraperitoneal administration of antrocin significantly suppressed the growth of lung cancer tumor xenografts. Our results indicate that antrocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for human lung cancer cells through constitutive inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. PMID:23880305

  1. Hes1 Increases the Invasion Ability of Colorectal Cancer Cells via the STAT3-MMP14 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weng, MT; Tsao, PN; Lin, HL; Tung, CC; Change, MC; Chang, YT; Wong, JM; Wei, SC

    2015-01-01

    The Notch pathway contributes to self-renewal of tumor-initiating cell and inhibition of normal colonic epithelial cell differentiation. Deregulated expression of Notch1 and Jagged1 is observed in colorectal cancer. Hairy/enhancer of split (HES) family, the most characterized targets of Notch, involved in the development of many cancers. In this study, we explored the role of Hes1 in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. Knocking down Hes1 induced CRC cell senescence and decreased the invasion ability, whereas over-expression of Hes1 increased STAT3 phosphorylation activity and up-regulated MMP14 protein level. We further explored the expression of Hes1 in human colorectal cancer and found high Hes1 mRNA expression is associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. These findings suggest that Hes1 regulates the invasion ability through the STAT3-MMP14 pathway in CRC cells and high Hes1 expression is a predictor of poor prognosis of CRC. PMID:26650241

  2. STAT3 degradation mediated by calcineurin involved in the neurotoxicity of isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Song, Shiyu; Min, Haiyan; Chen, Xiufang; Gao, Qian

    2016-01-20

    Isoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, causes widespread neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain of rodents. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling is crucial for cell survival during the neural network establishment period. The aim of this study was to determine whether isoflurane would target STAT3 to deliver its neurotoxicity. Mice at postnatal day 7 and primary cortical neurons cultured for 5 days were treated with isoflurane. Our data showed that isoflurane exposure downregulated the STAT3 survival pathway in the brain of mice and in primary neurons, whereas the mRNA levels of STAT3 remained unchanged after isoflurane exposure. We found that inhibiting the activity of calcineurin, which specifically promotes STAT3 degradation, alleviated isoflurane-induced neural apoptosis. Further studies showed that isoflurane increased calcineurin activity and that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca channel was involved in these isoflurane-induced molecular cascades. These findings suggest that isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity may stem from STAT3 degradation, partially through the activation of calcineurin. PMID:26694943

  3. Single-molecule fluorescence study of the inhibition of the oncogenic functionality of STAT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoxu; Badali, Daniel; Fletcher, Steven; Avadisian, Miriam; Gunning, Patrick; Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-06-01

    Signal-Transducer-and-Activator-of-Transcription 3 (STAT3) protein plays an important role in the onset of cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma. In this study, we aim to test the effectiveness of a novel peptide drug designed to tether STAT3 to the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane and thus inhibit unwanted transcription. As a first step, STAT3 proteins were successfully labelled with tetramethylrhodamine (TMR), a fluorescent dye with suitable photostability for single molecule studies. The effectiveness of labelling was determined using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in a custom built confocal microscope, from which diffusion times and hydrodynamic radii of individual proteins were determined. A newly developed fluorescein derivative label (F-NAc) has been designed to be incorporated into the structure of the peptide drug so that peptide-STAT3 interactions can be examined. This dye is spectrally characterized and is found to be well suited for its application to this project, as well as other single-molecule studies. The membrane localization via high-affinity cholesterol-bound small-molecule binding agents can be demonstrated by encapsulating TMR-labeled STAT3 and inhibitors within a vesicle model cell system. To this end, unilaminar lipid vesicles were examined for size and encapsulation ability. Preliminary results of the efficiency and stability of the STAT3 anchoring in lipid membranes obtained via quantitative confocal imaging and single-molecule spectroscopy using a custom-built multiparameter fluorescence microscope are reported here.

  4. Functional STAT3 deficiency compromises the generation of human T follicular helper cells

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Danielle T.; Chan, Anna; Batten, Marcel; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Arkwright, Peter D.; Kreins, Alexandra Y.; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Magdorf, Klaus; Kilic, Sara S.; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; French, Martyn A.; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Gray, Paul; Cook, Matthew C.; Fulcher, David A.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Deenick, Elissa K.

    2012-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for providing the necessary signals to induce differentiation of B cells into memory and Ab-secreting cells. Accordingly, it is important to identify the molecular requirements for Tfh cell development and function. We previously found that IL-12 mediates the differentiation of human CD4+ T cells to the Tfh lineage, because IL-12 induces naive human CD4+ T cells to acquire expression of IL-21, BCL6, ICOS, and CXCR5, which typify Tfh cells. We have now examined CD4+ T cells from patients deficient in IL-12R?1, TYK2, STAT1, and STAT3 to further explore the pathways involved in human Tfh cell differentiation. Although STAT1 was dispensable, mutations in IL12RB1, TYK2, or STAT3 compromised IL-12–induced expression of IL-21 by human CD4+ T cells. Defective expression of IL-21 by STAT3-deficient CD4+ T cells resulted in diminished B-cell helper activity in vitro. Importantly, mutations in STAT3, but not IL12RB1 or TYK2, also reduced Tfh cell generation in vivo, evidenced by decreased circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells. These results highlight the nonredundant role of STAT3 in human Tfh cell differentiation and suggest that defective Tfh cell development and/or function contributes to the humoral defects observed in STAT3-deficient patients. PMID:22403255

  5. Nuclear PKM2 contributes to gefitinib resistance via upregulation of STAT3 activation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Zhang, Daoxiang; Chen, Xiaoying; He, Lei; Li, Tianming; Xu, Xiaoping; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib (Iressa, ZD-1839), a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, is currently under investigation in clinical trials for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, as known, some patients develop resistance to TKIs, and the mechanisms mediating intrinsic resistance to EGFR-TKIs in CRC have not been fully characterized. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors reportedly involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in glioma and lung cancer. Here, we demonstrated that the nuclear pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) levels were positively correlated with gefitinib resistance in CRC cells. The overexpression of nuclear PKM2 in HT29 cells decreased the effect of gefitinib therapy, whereas PKM2 knockdown increased gefitinib efficacy. Furthermore, the activation of STAT3 by nuclear PKM2 was associated with gefitinib resistance. Inhibition of STAT3 by Stattic, a STAT3-specific inhibitor, or STAT3-specific siRNA sensitized resistant cells to gefitinib. These results suggest that nuclear PKM2 modulates the sensitivity of CRC cells to gefitinib and indicate that small molecule pharmacological disruption of nuclear PKM2 association with STAT3 is a potential avenue for overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance in CRC patients. PMID:26542452

  6. LLL12, a novel small inhibitor targeting STAT3 for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Mingxin; Li, Chenglong; Lin, Jiayuh; Javle, Milind

    2015-05-10

    The constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in clinical incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but not in normal human hepatocytes. STAT3 signaling plays pivotal roles in angiogenesis, survival, metastasis, and growth of HCC. Recent evidence suggests that the blockade of aberrant STAT3 pathways can be exploited as a therapeutic strategy for HCC. We have developed the novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor LLL12 on the basis of curcumin structure using computer-aided rational design. LLL12 has shown antitumor activity in various solid tumors including breast, brain, pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized LLL12 inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 (Y705) in HCC and show antitumor activity in HCC in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that LLL12 selectively inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in SNU387, SNU398, SNU449, and Hep3B HCC cells in vitro. Furthermore, LLL12 at 5 mg/kg/day significantly inhibited the growth of SNU398 xenografts in nude mice. Collectively, our results indicate that LLL12 could be used to target STAT3 for the effective prevention or treatment of HCC. PMID:25883212

  7. STAT3 Targets Suggest Mechanisms of Aggressive Tumorigenesis in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, Jennifer; Ouyang, Zhengqing; Zhang, Yuping; Kundaje, Anshul; Lacroute, Philippe; Snyder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that, when dysregulated, becomes a powerful oncogene found in many human cancers, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and has two major subtypes: germinal center B-cell?like and activated B–cell—like. Compared with the germinal center B-cell?like form, activated B-cell?like lymphomas respond much more poorly to current therapies and often exhibit overexpression or overactivation of STAT3. To investigate how STAT3 might contribute to this aggressive phenotype, we have integrated genome-wide studies of STAT3 DNA binding using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing with whole-transcriptome profiling using RNA-sequencing. STAT3 binding sites are present near almost a third of all genes that differ in expression between the two subtypes, and examination of the affected genes identified previously undetected and clinically significant pathways downstream of STAT3 that drive oncogenesis. Novel treatments aimed at these pathways may increase the survivability of activated B-cell?like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:24142927

  8. STAT3-dependent reactive astrogliosis in the spinal dorsal horn underlies chronic itch.

    PubMed

    Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Koga, Keisuke; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Kohro, Yuta; Toyonaga, Honami; Yamaguchi, Chiharu; Hasegawa, Ayumi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hachisuka, Junichi; Akira, Shizuo; Okano, Hideyuki; Furue, Masutaka; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    Chronic itch is an intractable symptom of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic and contact dermatitis. Recent studies have revealed neuronal pathways selective for itch, but the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Using mouse models of atopic and contact dermatitis, we demonstrate a long-term reactive state of astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal segments that corresponds to lesioned, itchy skin. We found that reactive astrogliosis depended on the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Conditional disruption of astrocytic STAT3 suppressed chronic itch, and pharmacological inhibition of spinal STAT3 ameliorated the fully developed chronic itch. Mice with atopic dermatitis exhibited an increase in scratching elicited by intrathecal administration of the itch-inducer gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and this enhancement was normalized by suppressing STAT3-mediated reactive astrogliosis. Moreover, we identified lipocalin-2 (LCN2) as an astrocytic STAT3-dependent upregulated factor that was crucial for chronic itch, and we demonstrated that intrathecal administration of LCN2 to normal mice increased spinal GRP-evoked scratching. Our findings indicate that STAT3-dependent reactive astrocytes act as critical amplifiers of itching through a mechanism involving the enhancement of spinal itch signals by LCN2, thereby providing a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch. PMID:26193341

  9. Nuclear PKM2 contributes to gefitinib resistance via upregulation of STAT3 activation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiong; Zhang, Daoxiang; Chen, Xiaoying; He, Lei; Li, Tianming; Xu, Xiaoping; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib (Iressa, ZD-1839), a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, is currently under investigation in clinical trials for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, as known, some patients develop resistance to TKIs, and the mechanisms mediating intrinsic resistance to EGFR-TKIs in CRC have not been fully characterized. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors reportedly involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in glioma and lung cancer. Here, we demonstrated that the nuclear pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) levels were positively correlated with gefitinib resistance in CRC cells. The overexpression of nuclear PKM2 in HT29 cells decreased the effect of gefitinib therapy, whereas PKM2 knockdown increased gefitinib efficacy. Furthermore, the activation of STAT3 by nuclear PKM2 was associated with gefitinib resistance. Inhibition of STAT3 by Stattic, a STAT3-specific inhibitor, or STAT3-specific siRNA sensitized resistant cells to gefitinib. These results suggest that nuclear PKM2 modulates the sensitivity of CRC cells to gefitinib and indicate that small molecule pharmacological disruption of nuclear PKM2 association with STAT3 is a potential avenue for overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance in CRC patients. PMID:26542452

  10. Analysis of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (Stat 3) Pathway in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kremer, Marcus; Specht, Katja; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Nathrath, Michaela; Schaich, Robert; Höfler, Heinz; Fend, Falko

    2003-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription molecules (Stats) play key roles in cytokine-induced signal transduction. Recently, it was proposed that constitutively activated Stat 3 (Stat 3 phosphorylated) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) by preventing apoptosis and inducing proliferation. The study aim was to investigate Stat 3 activation in a series of multiple myeloma (MM) cases and its effect on downstream targets such as the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, and the cell-cycle protein cyclin D1. Forty-eight cases of MM were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections using antibodies against cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, p21, Stat 3, and Stat 3 phosphorylated (P). Their specificity was corroborated by Western blot analysis using eight human MM cell lines as control. The proliferation rate was assessed with the antibody MiB1. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and Stat 3 were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-embedded microdissected tissue. Three different groups determined by the expression of Stat 3P and cyclin D1 (protein and mRNA) were identified: group 1, Stat 3-activated (23 cases, 48%). All cases revealed nuclear expression of Stat 3P. No elevation of Stat 3 mRNA was identified in any of the cases. Three cases in this group showed intermediate to low cyclin D1 protein and mRNA expression. Group 2 included 15 (31%) cases with cyclin D1 staining and lack of Stat 3P. All cases showed intermediate to high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Group 3 included 10 (21%) cases with no expression of either cyclin D1 or Stat 3P. High levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were identified in 89% and 100% of all cases, respectively. In contrast to Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, the expression of Bcl-2 showed an inverse correlation with proliferation rate (P: 0.0003). No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of proliferation rate or expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. However, cyclin D1+ cases were always well differentiated and were more likely to show a lymphoplasmocytoid differentiation (chi-square = 9.55). Overall, constitutive activation of Stat 3 was found in almost half (48%) of the investigated MM cases. However, this does not seem to have a major impact on the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and proliferation. We showed that cyclin D1 overexpression and Stat 3 activation are, mutually exclusive events in MM (P = 0.0066). The universal expression of Mcl-1, independent of activated Stat 3, suggests that its expression is constitutive and that it might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MM. PMID:12707028

  11. Mitochondrial STAT3 contributes to transformation of Barrett's epithelial cells that express oncogenic Ras in a p53-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhua; Huo, Xiaofang; Agoston, Agoston T; Zhang, Xi; Theiss, Arianne L; Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zaika, Alexander; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Lobie, Peter E; Odze, Robert D; Spechler, Stuart J; Souza, Rhonda F

    2015-08-01

    Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3 phosphorylated at serine 727 (Ser727) localizes in mitochondria, but little is known about mitochondrial STAT3's contribution to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, which is the focus of this study. We introduced a constitutively active variant of human STAT3 (STAT3CA) into the following: 1) non-neoplastic Barrett's (BAR-T) cells; 2) BAR-T cells with p53 knockdown; and 3) BAR-T cells that express oncogenic H-Ras(G12V). STAT3CA transformed only the H-Ras(G12V)-expressing BAR-T cells (evidenced by loss of contact inhibition, formation of colonies in soft agar, and generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice), and did so in a p53-independent fashion. The transformed cells had elevated levels of both mitochondrial (Ser727) and nuclear (Tyr705) phospho-STAT3. Introduction of a STAT3CA construct with a mutated tyrosine phosphorylation site into H-Ras(G12V)-expressing Barrett's cells resulted in high levels of mitochondrial phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) with little or no nuclear phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705), and the cells still formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. Thus tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is not required for tumor formation in Ras-expressing Barrett's cells. We conclude that mitochondrial STAT3 (Ser727) can contribute to oncogenesis in Barrett's cells that express oncogenic Ras. These findings suggest that agents targeting STAT3 might be useful for chemoprevention in patients with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:26045618

  12. 2'-hydroxyflavanone inhibits prostate tumor growth through inactivation of AKT/STAT3 signaling and induction of cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaijie; Ning, Zhongyun; Zhou, Jiancheng; Wang, Bin; Fan, Jinhai; Zhu, Jianning; Gao, Yang; Wang, Xinyang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; He, Dalin

    2014-07-01

    Although there have been advances in therapeutic regimes for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), these recent developments have not led to improved cure rates. Thus, more novel agents to prolong patient survival are desired. 2'-Hydroxyflavanone (2HF), a nontoxic natural flavonoid, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the therapeutic effects of 2HF on tumor growth and its potential mechanisms in CRPC have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, utilizing three different metastatic and androgen-independent PCa cell models (PC-3, DU145 and C4-2), we found that 2HF treatment not only resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro, but also delayed subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, besides its known inhibitory effects on aldo?keto reductase activity and de novo androgen synthesis, 2HF also markedly suppressed AKT phosphorylation, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and transactivation subsequently regulating the expression of members of the BCL-2 family (i.e., Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bax) and modulating caspase-mediated cell apoptosis. Overall, this study revealed a novel mechanism for 2HF targeting metastatic CRPC, in which inactivation of AKT/STAT3 signaling led to cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. PMID:24859932

  13. Stat3: linking inflammation to epithelial cancer - more than a "gut" feeling?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is an important environmental factor that promotes tumourigenesis and the progression of established cancerous lesions, and recent studies have started to dissect the mechanisms linking the two pathologies. These inflammatory and infectious conditions trigger immune and stromal cell release of soluble mediators which facilitate survival and proliferation of tumour cells in a paracrine manner. In addition, (epi-)genetic mutations affecting oncogenes, tumour-suppressor genes, chromosomal rearrangements and amplifications trigger the release of inflammatory mediators within the tumour microenvironment to promote neoplastic growth in an autocrine manner. These two pathways converge in tumour cells and result in activation of the latent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) which mediates a transcriptional response favouring survival, proliferation and angiogenesis. The abundance of cytokines that activate Stat3 within the tumour microenvironment, which comprises of members of the interleukin (IL) IL6, IL10 and IL17/23 families, underpins a signaling network that simultaneously promotes the growth of neoplastic epithelium, fuels inflammation and suppresses the host's anti-tumour immune response. Accordingly, aberrant and persistent Stat3 activation is a frequent observation in human cancers of epithelial origin and is often associated with poor outcome. Here we summarize insights gained from mice harbouring mutations in components of the Stat3 signaling cascade and in particular of gp130, the shared receptor for the IL6 family of cytokines. We focus on the various feed-back and feed-forward loops in which Stat3 provides the signaling node in cells of the tumour and its microenvironment thereby functionally linking excessive inflammation to neoplastic growth. Although these observations are particularly pertinent to gastrointestinal tumours, we suggest that the tumour's addiction to persistent Stat3 activation is likely to also impact on other epithelial cell-derived cancers. These insights provide clues to the judicious interference of the gp130/Stat3 signaling cascade in therapeutically targeting cancer. PMID:20478049

  14. Prevention of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock-Mediated Liver Apoptosis by Activation of Stat3?

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Ana; Akcan Arikan, Ayse; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality in the United States. Death among those surviving the initial insult is caused by multiple organ failure (MOF) with the liver among the organs most frequently affected. We previously demonstrated in rodents that trauma complicated by hemorrhagic shock (trauma/HS) results in liver injury that can be prevented by IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation; however, the contribution of the severity of HS to the extent of liver injury, whether or not resuscitation is required and the mechanism for the IL-6 protective effect have not been reported. In the experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the extent of liver apoptosis induced by trauma/HS depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. We established that IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation is capable of completely reversing liver apoptosis and is associated with increased Stat3 activation. Microarray analysis of the livers showed that the main effect of IL-6 was to normalize the trauma/HS-induced apoptosis transcriptome. Pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity within the liver blocked the ability of IL-6 to prevent liver apoptosis and to normalize the trauma/HS- induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. Genetic deletion of a Stat3?, a naturally occurring, dominant-negative isoform of the Stat3, attenuated trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis, confirming a role for Stat3, especially Stat3?, in preventing trauma/HS-mediated liver apoptosis. Thus, trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation reverses HS-induced liver apoptosis, through activation of Stat3?, which normalizes the trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:18997875

  15. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Couronné, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Véronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Fontenay, Michaëla; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bernard, Olivier A.; Mercher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but in no other B-cell lymphoma patients (0 of 104) or patients with myeloid malignancies (0 of 96). Functional in vitro assays indicated that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to a constitutive phosphorylation of the protein. STA21, a STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, inhibited the proliferation of two distinct STAT3 mutated cell lines. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation assay, we observed that STAT3Y640F expression leads to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms with expansion of either myeloid cells or megakaryocytes. Together, these data indicate that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to constitutive activation of STAT3, induces malignant hematopoiesis in vivo, and may represent a novel therapeutic target in some lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23872306

  16. Involvement of fish signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in nodavirus infection induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Yang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Yu, Yepin; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-03-01

    The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is an important signaling pathway activated by interferons in response to virus infection. Fish STAT3 has been demonstrated to be involved in Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection and virus induced paraptosis, but its effects on the replication of other fish viruses still remained uncertain. Here, the roles of grouper STAT3 (Ec-STAT3) in red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection were investigated. The present data showed that the distribution of phosphorylated Ec-STAT3 was altered in RGNNV infected fish cells, and the promoter activity of STAT3 was significantly increased during virus infection, suggesting that STAT3 activation was involved in RGNNV infection. Using STAT3 specific inhibitor, we found that inhibition of Ec-STAT3 in vitro did not affect the transcription and protein synthesis of RGNNV coat protein (CP), however, the severity of RGNNV induced vacuolation and autophagy was significantly increased. Meanwhile, at the late stage of virus infection, RGNNV induced necrotic cell death was significantly decreased after inhibition of Ec-STAT3. Further studies indicated that Ec-STAT3 inhibition significantly increased the transcript level of autophagy related genes, including UNC-51-like kinase 2 (ULK2) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) induced by RGNNV infection. Moreover, the expression of several pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF?, IL-1? and IL-8 were mediated by Ec-STAT3 during RGNNV infection. Together, our results not only firstly revealed that STAT3 exerted novel roles in response to fish virus infection, but also provided new insights into understanding the roles of STAT3 in different forms of programmed cell death. PMID:25555814

  17. : Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and survivin induction by varicella-zoster virus promote replication and skin pathogenesis

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) (IFN) (3, 4) STAT family proteins cytokine (5, 6) STAT3 (7, 8) STAT) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) herpesvirus saimir (12-14) STAT3 Survivin inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) familySTAT3 (Flow Cytometry) FACs buffer VZV HELF 1.5% paraformaldehyde CD3-PE Alexa Fluor 647-pSTAT3

  18. Reinforcement of STAT3 activity reprogrammes human embryonic stem cells to naive-like pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Aksoy, Irène; Gonnot, Fabrice; Osteil, Pierre; Aubry, Maxime; Hamela, Claire; Rognard, Cloé; Hochard, Arnaud; Voisin, Sophie; Fontaine, Emeline; Mure, Magali; Afanassieff, Marielle; Cleroux, Elouan; Guibert, Sylvain; Chen, Jiaxuan; Vallot, Céline; Acloque, Hervé; Genthon, Clémence; Donnadieu, Cécile; De Vos, John; Sanlaville, Damien; Guérin, Jean- François; Weber, Michael; Stanton, Lawrence W; Rougeulle, Claire; Pain, Bertrand; Bourillot, Pierre-Yves; Savatier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)/STAT3 signalling is a hallmark of naive pluripotency in rodent pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), whereas fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and activin/nodal signalling is required to sustain self-renewal of human PSCs in a condition referred to as the primed state. It is unknown why LIF/STAT3 signalling alone fails to sustain pluripotency in human PSCs. Here we show that the forced expression of the hormone-dependent STAT3-ER (ER, ligand-binding domain of the human oestrogen receptor) in combination with 2i/LIF and tamoxifen allows human PSCs to escape from the primed state and enter a state characterized by the activation of STAT3 target genes and long-term self-renewal in FGF2- and feeder-free conditions. These cells acquire growth properties, a gene expression profile and an epigenetic landscape closer to those described in mouse naive PSCs. Together, these results show that temporarily increasing STAT3 activity is sufficient to reprogramme human PSCs to naive-like pluripotent cells. PMID:25968054

  19. SIAH2 antagonizes TYK2-STAT3 signaling in lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sylvia; Chen, Yuan; Ginter, Torsten; Schäfer, Claudia; Buchwald, Marc; Schmitz, Lienhard M.; Klitzsch, Jana; Schütz, Alexander; Haitel, Andrea; Schmid, Katharina; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Haan, Claude; Petersen, Iver; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    The Janus tyrosine kinases JAK1-3 and tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) are frequently hyperactivated in tumors. In lung cancers JAK1 and JAK2 induce oncogenic signaling through STAT3. A putative role of TYK2 in these tumors has not been reported. Here, we show a previously not recognized TYK2-STAT3 signaling node in lung cancer cells. We reveal that the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia-2 (SIAH2) accelerates the proteasomal degradation of TYK2. This mechanism consequently suppresses the activation of STAT3. In agreement with these data the analysis of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples from three patient cohorts revealed that compared to lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) show significantly higher levels of SIAH2 and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation levels. Thus, SIAH2 is a novel molecular marker for SCC. We further demonstrate that an activation of the oncologically relevant transcription factor p53 in lung cancer cells induces SIAH2, depletes TYK2, and abrogates the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. This mechanism appears to be different from the inhibition of phosphorylated JAKs through the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. Our study may help to identify molecular mechanisms affecting lung carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24833526

  20. STAT3 induces anoikis resistance, promotes cell invasion and metastatic potential in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fofaria, Neel M.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells need to attain anoikis resistance to survive prior to metastasis making it a vital trait of malignancy. The mechanism by which pancreatic cancer cells resist anoikis and metastasize is not well established. Significant proportion of pancreatic cancer cells resisted anoikis when grown under anchorage-independent conditions. The cells that resisted anoikis showed higher migratory and invasive characteristics than the cells that were cultured under anchorage-dependent condition. Interestingly, anoikis-resistant cells exhibited significantly increased expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) at Tyr 705, as compared to adherent cells. AG 490 and piplartine (PL) induced significant anoikis in anoikis-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Silencing STAT3 not only reduced the capacity of pancreatic cancer cells to resist anoikis but also reversed its invasive characteristics. Interleukin-6 treatment and overexpression of STAT3 enhanced anoikis resistance and protected the cells from PL-induced anoikis. PL-treated cells completely failed to develop tumors when injected subcutaneously in immune-compromised mice. Moreover, these cells also failed to metastasize when injected intravenously. On the other hand, untreated anoikis-resistant cells not only formed aggressive tumors but also metastasized substantially to lungs and liver when injected intravenously. Metastatic nodules formed by untreated anoikis-resistant cells in lungs exhibited significant phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705. Taken together, our results established the critical involvement of STAT3 in conferring anoikis resistance to pancreatic cancer cells and increased metastasis. PMID:25411359

  1. Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chao-Yuan; Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan ; Lin, Chen-Si; Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan ; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Cheng, Ann-Lii; National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan ; Chen, Kuen-Feng; National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

  2. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  3. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 regulation by novel binding partners

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Muromoto, Ryuta; Sekine, Yuichi; Togi, Sumihito; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki; Oritani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) mediate essential signals for various biological processes, including immune responses, hematopoiesis, and neurogenesis. STAT3, for example, is involved in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancers, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. STAT3 activation is therefore tightly regulated at multiple levels to prevent these pathological conditions. A number of proteins have been reported to associate with STAT3 and regulate its activity. These STAT3-interacting proteins function to modulate STAT3-mediated signaling at various steps and mediate the crosstalk of STAT3 with other cellular signaling pathways. This article reviews the roles of novel STAT3 binding partners such as DAXX, zipper-interacting protein kinase, Krüppel-associated box-associated protein 1, Y14, PDZ and LIM domain 2 and signal transducing adaptor protein-2, in the regulation of STAT3-mediated signaling. PMID:26629315

  4. Leptin activates chicken growth hormone promoter without chicken STAT3 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murase, Daisuke; Namekawa, Shoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that not only regulates food intake and energy homeostasis but also induces growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression and release, thereby controlling growth and metabolism in mammals. The molecular mechanism of leptin-induced regulation of GH gene transcription is unclear. The current study investigated the effects of leptin on the chicken GH (cGH) promoter and the molecular mechanism underlying leptin-induced cGH gene expression in vitro. Leptin activated the cGH promoter in the presence of chPit-1? in CHO cells stably expressing the chicken leptin receptor. Promoter activation did not require STAT-binding elements in the cGH promoter or STAT3 activity. However, JAK2 activation was required for leptin-dependent activity. JAK2-dependent pathways include p42/44 MAPK and PI3K, and inhibition of these pathways partially blocked leptin-induced cGH gene transcription. Although CK2 directly activates JAK2, a CK2 inhibitor blocked leptin-dependent activation of the cGH gene without affecting JAK2 phosphorylation. The CK2 inhibitor suppressed Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Additional data implicate Src family kinases in leptin-dependent cGH gene activation. These results suggest that leptin activates the cGH gene in the presence of chPit-1? via several leptin-activated kinases. Although further study is required, we suggest that the leptin-induced JAK2/p42/44 MAPK and JAK2/PI3K cascades are activated by Src-meditated CK2, leading to CBP phosphorylation and interaction with chPit-1?, resulting in transactivation of the cGH promoter. PMID:26403688

  5. IL-22/STAT3-Induced Increases in SLURP1 Expression within Psoriatic Lesions Exerts Antimicrobial Effects against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Takada, Kiyoko; Nagasaki, Toshinori; Kubo, Natsuki; Ishii, Tomohiro; Kose, Kazuaki; Kageyama, Taihei; Tsuji, Shoutaro; Kawashima, Koichiro; Misawa, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    Background SLURP1 is the causal gene for Mal de Meleda (MDM), an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and transgressive keratosis. Moreover, although SLURP1 likely serves as an important proliferation/differentiation factor in keratinocytes, the possible relation between SLURP1 and other skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, has not been studied, and the pathophysiological control of SLURP1 expression in keratinocytes is largely unknown. Objectives Our aim was to examine the involvement of SLURP1 in the pathophysiology of psoriasis using an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis model mice and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Results SLURP1 expression was up-regulated in the skin of IMQ-induced psoriasis model mice. In NHEKs stimulated with the inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-?, which are reportedly expressed in psoriatic lesions, SLURP1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by IL-22 but not the other two cytokines. The stimulatory effect of IL-22 was completely suppressed in NHEKs treated with a STAT3 inhibitor or transfected with siRNA targeting STAT3. Because IL-22 induces production of antimicrobial proteins in epithelial cells, the antibacterial activity of SLURP1 was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which is known to be associated with disease severity in psoriasis. SLURP1 significantly suppressed the growth of S. aureus. Conclusions These results indicate SLURP1 participates in pathophysiology of psoriasis by regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and by suppressing the growth of S. aureus. PMID:26474319

  6. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction-Mediated Delivery of a Transcription Factor Decoy Inhibits STAT3 Signaling and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Carson, Andrew R.; McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Hasjim, Bima; Lavery, Linda; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many cancers where it acts to promote tumor progression. A STAT3-specific transcription factor decoy has been developed to suppress STAT3 downstream signaling, but a delivery strategy is needed to improve clinical translation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to enhance image-guided local delivery of molecular therapeutics to a target site. The objective of this study was to deliver STAT3 decoy to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors using UTMD to disrupt STAT3 signaling and inhibit tumor growth. Studies performed demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles inhibited STAT3 signaling in SCC cells in vitro. Studies performed in vivo demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles induced significant tumor growth inhibition (31-51% reduced tumor volume vs. controls, p < 0.05) in mice bearing SCC tumors. Furthermore, expression of STAT3 downstream target genes (Bcl-xL and cyclin D1) was significantly reduced (34-39%, p < 0.05) in tumors receiving UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles compared to controls. In addition, the quantity of radiolabeled STAT3 decoy detected in tumors eight hours after treatment was significantly higher with UTMD treatment compared to controls (70-150%, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that UTMD can increase delivery of a transcription factor decoy to tumors in vivo and that the decoy can inhibit STAT3 signaling and tumor growth. These results suggest that UTMD treatment holds potential for clinical use to increase the concentration of a transcription factor signaling inhibitor in the tumor. PMID:26681983

  7. The Expression of p-STAT3 in Stage IV Melanoma: Risk of CNS Metastasis and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Roland; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Schacherer, Christopher W.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key molecular hub of tumorigenesis and immune suppression. The expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) has been shown to be higher in melanoma metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) relative to distant metastasis in the rest of the body (systemic). We sought to determine whether the increased expression of p-STAT3 in non-CNS systemic melanoma metastasis is associated with an increased risk of developing CNS metastasis and is a negative prognostic factor for overall survival time. Methods We retrospectively identified 299 patients with stage IV melanoma. In a tissue microarray of systemic non-CNS metastasis specimens from these patients, we used immunohistochemical analysis to measure the percentage of cells with p-STAT3 expression and Kaplan–Meier survival estimates to analyze the association of p-STAT3 expression with median survival time, time to first CNS metastasis, and development of CNS metastasis. Results Lung metastases exhibited the highest level of p-STAT3 expression while spleen lesions had the lowest. The p-STAT3 expression was not associated with an increased risk of developing CNS metastasis or time to CNS metastasis. However, p-STAT3 expression was a negative prognostic factor for overall survival time in patients that did not develop CNS metastasis. Conclusions Stage IV melanoma patients without CNS metastasis treated with p-STAT3 inhibitors in efficacy studies should be stratified based on tumor expression of p-STAT3; however since p-STAT3 expression is not associated with the risk of CNS disease, increased MRI surveillance of the brain is not likely necessary. PMID:22488042

  8. IL10R2 Overexpression Promotes IL22/STAT3 Signaling in Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khare, Vineeta; Paul, Gregor; Movadat, Oliver; Frick, Adrian; Jambrich, Manuela; Krnjic, Anita; Marian, Brigitte; Wrba, Friedrich; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    The mucosal immune response in the setting of intestinal inflammation contributes to colorectal cancer. IL10 signaling has a central role in gut homeostasis and is impaired in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Out of two IL10 receptor subunits, IL10R1 and IL10R2, the latter is shared among the IL10 family of cytokines and activates STAT signaling. STAT3 is oncogenic in colorectal cancer; however, knowledge about IL10 signaling upstream of STAT3 in colorectal cancer is lacking. Here, expression of IL10 signaling genes was examined in matched pairs from normal and tumor tissue from colorectal cancer patients showing overexpression (mRNA, protein) of IL10R2 and STAT3 but not IL10R1. IL10R2 overexpression was related to microsatellite stability. Transient overexpression of IL10R2 in HT29 cells increased proliferation upon ligand activation (IL10 and IL22). IL22, and not IL10, phosphorylated STAT3 along with increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. A significantly higher expression of IL22R1 and IL10R2 was also confirmed in a separate cohort of colorectal cancer samples. IL22 expression was elevated in gut mucosa from patients with IBD and colitis-associated cancer, which also exhibited increased expression of IL22R1 but not its coreceptor IL10R2. Overall, these data indicate that overexpression of IL10R2 and STAT3 contributes to colorectal carcinogenesis in microsatellite-stable tumors through IL22/STAT3 signaling. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(11); 1227-35. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26130064

  9. Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase downregulation promotes colon carcinogenesis through STAT3-activated microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Degagné, Emilie; Pandurangan, Ashok; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Eltanawy, Abeer; Zhang, Meng; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.; Bittman, Robert; Ahmedi, Yasmin; Saba, Julie D.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of SPL in colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We generated mice with intestinal epithelium-specific Sgpl1 deletion and chemically induced colitis and tumor formation in these animals. Compared with control animals, mice lacking intestinal SPL exhibited greater disease activity, colon shortening, cytokine levels, S1P accumulation, tumors, STAT3 activation, STAT3-activated microRNAs (miRNAs), and suppression of miR-targeted anti-oncogene products. This phenotype was attenuated by STAT3 inhibition. In fibroblasts, silencing SPL promoted tumorigenic transformation through a pathway involving extracellular transport of S1P through S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2), S1P receptor activation, JAK2/STAT3-dependent miR-181b-1 induction, and silencing of miR-181b-1 target cylindromatosis (CYLD). Colon biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease revealed enhanced S1P and STAT3 signaling. In mice with chemical-induced CAC, oral administration of plant-type sphingolipids called sphingadienes increased colonic SPL levels and reduced S1P levels, STAT3 signaling, cytokine levels, and tumorigenesis, indicating that SPL prevents transformation and carcinogenesis. Together, our results suggest that dietary sphingolipids can augment or prevent colon cancer, depending upon whether they are metabolized to S1P or promote S1P metabolism through the actions of SPL. PMID:25347472

  10. Interleukin-6/STAT3 Pathway Signaling Drives an Inflammatory Phenotype in Group A Ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Andrea M; Josephson, Rebecca J; Donson, Andrew M; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M; Amani, Vladimir; Birks, Diane K; Hoffman, Lindsey M; Furtek, Steffanie L; Reigan, Phillip; Handler, Michael H; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2015-10-01

    Ependymoma (EPN) in childhood is a brain tumor with substantial mortality. Inflammatory response has been identified as a molecular signature of high-risk Group A EPN. To better understand the biology of this phenotype and aid therapeutic development, transcriptomic data from Group A and B EPN patient tumor samples, and additional malignant and normal brain data, were analyzed to identify the mechanism underlying EPN Group A inflammation. Enrichment of IL6 and STAT3 pathway genes were found to distinguish Group A EPN from Group B EPN and other brain tumors, implicating an IL6 activation of STAT3 mechanism. EPN tumor cell growth was shown to be dependent on STAT3 activity, as demonstrated using shRNA knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 that blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis. The inflammatory factors secreted by EPN tumor cells were shown to reprogram myeloid cells, and this paracrine effect was characterized by a significant increase in pSTAT3 and IL8 secretion. Myeloid polarization was shown to be dependent on tumor secretion of IL6, and these effects could be reversed using IL6-neutralizing antibody or IL6 receptor-targeted therapeutic antibody tocilizumab. Polarized myeloid cell production of IL8 drove unpolarized myeloid cells to upregulate CD163 and to produce a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these findings indicate that constitutive IL6/STAT3 pathway activation is important in driving tumor growth and inflammatory cross-talk with myeloid cells within the Group A EPN microenvironment. Effective design of Group A-targeted therapy for children with EPN may require reversal of this potentially immunosuppressive and protumor pathway. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(10); 1165-74. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25968456

  11. Design, synthesis and evaluation of XZH-5 analogues as STAT3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Daka, Philias; Liu, Aiguo; Karunaratne, Chamini; Csatary, Erika; Williams, Cameron; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Xu, Zhenghu; Page, Richard C; Wang, Hong

    2015-03-15

    Inhibition of the signaling pathways of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) has shown to be a promising strategy to combat cancer. In this paper we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of a novel class of small molecule inhibitors, that is, XZH-5 and its analogues, as promising leads for further development of STAT3 inhibitors. Preliminary SARs was established for XZH-5 and its derivatives; and the binding modes were predicted by molecular docking. Lead compounds with IC50 as low as 6.5?M in breast cancer cell lines and 7.6?M in pancreatic cancer cell lines were identified. PMID:25698618

  12. IL-6 Trans-signaling-STAT3 Pathway Mediates ECM and Cellular Proliferation in Fibroblasts from Hypertrophic Scar

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sutapa; Ju, Xiaoxi; Sun, Hong; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Brasier, Allan R

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of post-burn hypertrophic scar (HS) remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling-STAT3 pathway in HS fibroblasts (HSF) derived from burned-induced HS skin. HSF showed increased Tyr 705 STAT3 phosphorylation over normal fibroblast (NF) after IL-6•IL-6R? stimulation by immunoassays. The endogenous STAT3 target gene, SOCS3, was upregulated in HSF and showed increased STAT3 binding on its promoter relative to NF in Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay. We observed that the cell surface signaling transducer glycoprotein 130 is upregulated in HSF using Q-RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM), including the expression of alpha2 (1) procollagen (Col1A2) and fibronectin 1 (FN) were seen in HSFs. A STAT3 peptide inhibitor abrogated FN and Col1A2 gene expression in HSF indicating involvement of STAT3 in ECM production. The cellular proliferation markers Cyclin D1, Bcl-Xl and c-Myc were also upregulated in HSF and knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA attenuated c-Myc expression indicating the essential role of STAT3 in fibroblast proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that the IL-6-trans-signaling-STAT3 pathway may play an integral role in HS pathogenesis and disruption of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced HS. PMID:23303450

  13. Persistent STAT3 Activation in Colon Cancer Is Associated with Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Corvinus, Florian M; Orth, Carina; Moriggl, Richard; Tsareva, Svetlana A; Wagner, Stefan; Pfitzner, Edith B; Baus, Daniela; Kaufmann, Roland; Huberb, Lukas A; Zatloukal, Kurt; Beug, Hartmut; Öhlschläger, Peter; Schütz, Alexander; Halbhuber, Karl-Jürgen; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. It has so far been molecularly defined mainly by alterations of the Wnt pathway. We show here for the first time that aberrant activities of the signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT3 actively contribute to this malignancy and, thus, are a potential therapeutic target for CRC. Constitutive STAT3 activity was found to be abundant in dedifferentiated cancer cells and infiltrating lymphocytes of CRC samples, but not in non-neoplastic colon epithelium. Cell lines derived from malignant colorectal tumors lost persistent STAT3 activity in culture. However, implantation of colon carcinoma cells into nude mice resulted in restoration of STAT3 activity, suggesting a role of an extracellular stimulus within the tumor microenvironment as a trigger for STAT activation. STAT3 activity in CRC cells triggered through interleukin-6 or through a constitutively active STAT3 mutant promoted cancer cell multiplication, whereas STAT3 inhibition through a dominant-negative variant impaired IL-6-driven proliferation. Blockade of STAT3 activation in CRC-derived xenograft tumors slowed down their development, arguing for a contribution of STAT3 to colorectal tumor growth. PMID:16036105

  14. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of the STAT3 signaling pathway: Insights into their structural features and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Su-Jung; Han, Young Taek; Hong, Sung-Jun; An, Hongchan; Chang, Dong-Jo; Kim, Taewoo; Lim, Bumhee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Surh, Young-Joon; Suh, Young-Ger

    2015-11-15

    A series of novel STAT3 inhibitors consisting of Michael acceptor has been identified through assays of the focused in-house library. In addition, their mode of action and structural feature responsible for the STAT3 inhibition were investigated. In particular, analog 6 revealed promising STAT3 inhibitory activity in HeLa cell lines. The analog also exhibited selective inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation without affecting STAT1 phosphorylation and cytostatic effect in human breast epithelial cells (MCF10A-ras), which supports cancer cell-specific inhibitory properties. PMID:26392052

  15. Interleukin-17 promotes angiogenesis by stimulating VEGF production of cancer cells via the STAT3/GIV signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bo; Shen, Jing; Cao, Jingyan; Zhou, Yongxu; Shang, Lihua; Jin, Shi; Cao, Shoubo; Che, Dehai; Liu, Fang; Yu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The presence of IL-17-positive cells is observed in a variety of inflammatory associated cancers and IL-17 has been found to be involved in angiogenesis. However, it remains unclear how IL-17 might contribute to tumor angiogenesis. In our study, IL-17 enhanced the formation of vessel-like tubes in HUVECs both directly (when HUVECs were incubated with IL-17) and indirectly (when HUVECs were incubated in conditioned cell media (CCM) from IL-17-treated cancer cells). Our results from experiments using siRNA-mediated knockdowns of STAT3 and GIV suggest that the effects of IL-17 were mediated by activating STAT3/GIV signaling in NSCLC cells and subsequently up-regulating its downstream target VEGF. Consistent with these findings, immunostaining experiments on human NSCLC tissues indicated that IL-17 and GIV expression were significantly and positively associated with increased tumor vascularity. The clinical significance of IL-17 was authenticated by our finding that the combination of intratumoral IL-17?+?cells and GIV expression served as a better prognosticator for survival than either marker alone. Therefore, our finding highlights a novel aspect of STAT3/GIV pathway in the IL-17 promotes tumor angiogenesis of NSCLC. PMID:26524953

  16. The Inflammatory Transcription Factors NF?B, STAT1 and STAT3 Drive Age-Associated Transcriptional Changes in the Human Kidney

    PubMed Central

    O’Brown, Zach K.; Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Higgins, John P.; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Human kidney function declines with age, accompanied by stereotyped changes in gene expression and histopathology, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. To identify potential regulators of kidney aging, we compared age-associated transcriptional changes in the human kidney with genome-wide maps of transcription factor occupancy from ChIP-seq datasets in human cells. The strongest candidates were the inflammation-associated transcription factors NF?B, STAT1 and STAT3, the activities of which increase with age in epithelial compartments of the renal cortex. Stimulation of renal tubular epithelial cells with the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (a STAT3 activator), IFN? (a STAT1 activator), or TNF? (an NF?B activator) recapitulated age-associated gene expression changes. We show that common DNA variants in RELA and NFKB1, the two genes encoding subunits of the NF?B transcription factor, associate with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in gene association studies, providing the first evidence that genetic variation in NF?B contributes to renal aging phenotypes. Our results suggest that NF?B, STAT1 and STAT3 underlie transcriptional changes and chronic inflammation in the aging human kidney. PMID:26678048

  17. Loss of p27 upregulates MnSOD in a STAT3-dependent manner, disrupts intracellular redox activity and enhances cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongyun; Wang, Yulei; Liang, Yuguang; Zhang, Min; Wei, Jinlong; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Fei; Meng, Yan; Zhu, Nina Wu; Li, Jingxia; Wu, Xue-Ru; Huang, Chuanshu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell migration is a dynamic process that is central to a variety of physiological functions as well as disease pathogenesis. The modulation of cell migration by p27 (officially known as CDKN1B) has been reported, but the exact mechanism(s) whereby p27 interacts with downstream effectors that control cell migration have not been elucidated. By systematically comparing p27+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with genetically ablated p27?/? MEFs using wound-healing, transwell and time-lapse microscopic analyses, we provide direct evidence that p27 inhibits both directional and random cell migration. Identical results were obtained with normal and cancer epithelial cells using complementary knockdown and overexpression approaches. Additional studies revealed that overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, officially known as SOD2) and reduced intracellular oxidation played a key role in increased cell migration in p27-deficient cells. Furthermore, we identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as the transcription factor responsible for p27-regulated MnSOD expression, which was further mediated by ERK- and ATF1-dependent transactivation of the cAMP response element (CRE) within the Stat3 promoter. Collectively, our data strongly indicate that p27 plays a crucial negative role in cell migration by inhibiting MnSOD expression in a STAT3-dependent manner. PMID:24727615

  18. MicroRNA-101 inhibits proliferation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in a rat model of hepatopulmonary syndrome by targeting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguo; Zhuang, Liwei; Rong, Haifang; Guo, Yuening; Ling, Xiaohua; Wang, Ruifeng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is one of the reasons for the mortality of patients with perioperative liver disease. Intrapulmonary vascular dilatation is the most important mechanism underlying HPS, and it primarily occurs due to cell proliferation. Inhibiting the proliferation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) may provide a novel strategy to prevent HPS. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and are crucial in cell proliferation. To investigate the mechanism underlying the proliferation of PMVECs in HPS, PMVECs were isolated from rat models of HPS. It was demonstrated that interleukin (IL)?6 could stimulate the janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/ signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling pathway, which promotes the cell proliferation of PMVECs. JAK2 is a novel target gene of miR-101 and it was shown that miR-101 could inhibit cell proliferation by targeting the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR-101 could inhibit the proliferation of PMVECs by targeting the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. This clarifies the role of miR-101 in HPS and provides the theoretical basis of the pathogenesis of HPS. PMID:26498873

  19. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Beliveau, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  20. Activation of miR-21 by STAT3 Induces Proliferation and Suppresses Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Targeting PTEN Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Hesheng; Li, Yumei; Kang, Min

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to investigate the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the mechanisms of regulation of PTEN by miR-21. Fifty-four tissue samples were collected from 42 patients with NPC and 12 healthy controls. Human NPC cell lines CNE-1, CNE-2, TWO3 and C666-1 were used for cell assays. To investigate the expression of miR-21, RT-PCR was employed. RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of STAT3 mRNA and STAT3 protein. To test the effect of miR-21 on the cell growth and apoptosis of NPC cells in vitro, transfection of CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines and flow cytometry were performed. TUNEL assay was used to detect DNA fragmentation. To validate whether miR-21 directly recognizes the 3?-UTRs of PTEN mRNA, luciferase reporter assay was employed. miR-21 expression was increased in NPC tissues compared with control and the same result was found in NPC cell lines. Notably, increased expression of miR-21 was directly related to advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. STAT3, a transcription factor activated by IL-6, directly activated miR-21 in transformed NPC cell lines. Furthermore, miR-21 markedly inhibited PTEN tumor suppressor, leading to increased AKT activity. Both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-21 enhanced NPC cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. miR-21, activated by STAT3, induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in NPC by targeting PTEN-AKT pathway. PMID:25365510

  1. JAK1/STAT3 activation directly inhibits IL-12 production in dendritic cells by preventing CDK9/P-TEFb recruitment to the p35 promoter.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas H; Conzelmann, Michael; Fitzer, Franziska; Giese, Thomas; Gülow, Karsten; Falk, Christine S; Krämer, Oliver H; Dietrich, Sascha; Hecker, Markus; Luft, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Inhibition of Janus-activated kinase-1 (JAK1) is a promising clinical concept for post-transplant immunosuppression and autoimmunity. However, it also raises concerns regarding possible immunosuppressive side effects. Our study investigates JAK1 signalling in the context of CD40L and bacterially activated human MoDC using siRNA and biological inhibitors. We demonstrate that strong stimuli (e.g. intact Escherichia coli or LPS in addition to IL-1?) induce IL-12p70 via a ROS/RELA/CDK9 pathway that is inhibited by simultaneous JAK1/STAT3 signalling. Transcription is effective if RELA recruits the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) component CDK9 to a combined RELA/STAT3 binding site -50 to -20bp upstream of the start site of the IL-12p35 promoter. STAT3 simultaneously attaches to this site and inhibits CDK9 binding. In the presence of IFN?, JAK1/2 inhibitors block STAT1/IRF1/IRF8-dependent activation and simultaneously enhance CDK9-dependent activation signals. This inverse regulation of IFN?- vs. E. coli-induced cytokine production by JAK inhibitors including Ruxolitinib was similarly observed for IL-6 and TNF-? production, but not for IL-10 production. Thus, JAK1 inhibition enhances IL-12p70 production in this context by increased DNA binding of CDK9. In contrast, weak RELA-activation signals (CD40L, LPS) depended on IFN-? induced STAT1/IRF1/IRF8 co-signalling, which was completely blocked by JAK inhibitors as reported before. Our results suggest a novel molecular mechanism of how cytokine responses to invading pathogens are separable from IFN?-dependent autoimmunity by targeting JAK1/STAT3 activation. PMID:25931145

  2. miR-124 inhibits STAT3 signaling to enhance T cell-mediated immune clearance of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Fei; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Xu, Shuo; Doucette, Tiffany; Ferguson, Sherise D.; Yang, Yuhui; McEnery, Kayla; Jethwa, Krishan; Gjyshi, Olsi; Qiao, Wei; Levine, Nicholas B.; Lang, Frederick F.; Rao, Ganesh; Fuller, Gregory N.; Calin, George A.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have been shown to modulate critical gene transcripts involved in tumorigenesis, but their role in tumor-mediated immune suppression is largely unknown. On the basis of miRNA gene expression in gliomas using tissue microarrays, in situ hybridization, and molecular modeling, miR-124 was identified as a lead candidate for modulating signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, a key pathway mediating immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. miR-124 is absent in all grades and pathological types of gliomas. Upon up regulating miR-124 in glioma cancer stem cells (gCSCs), the STAT3 pathway was inhibited, and miR-124 reversed gCSC-mediated immune suppression of T-cell proliferation and induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Treatment of T-cells from immunosuppressed glioblastoma patients with miR-124 induced marked effector response including up regulation of IL-2, IFN-?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Both systemic administration of miR-124 or adoptive miR-124-transfected T-cell transfers exerted potent anti-glioma therapeutic effects in clonotypic and genetically engineered murine models of glioblastoma and enhanced effector responses in the local tumor microenvironment. These therapeutic effects were ablated in both CD4+ and CD8+ depleted mice and nude mouse systems, indicating that the therapeutic effect of miR-124 depends on the presence of a T-cell-mediated antitumor immune response. Our findings highlight the potential application of miR-124 as a novel immunotherapeutic agent for neoplasms and serve as a model for identifying miRNAs that can be exploited as immune therapeutics. PMID:23636127

  3. Niclosamide overcomes acquired resistance to erlotinib through suppression of STAT3 in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Hu, Zhongliang; Sun, Shi-Yong; Chen, Zhuo G.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Sica, Gabriel L.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Curran, Walter J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Deng, Xingming

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy is a major clinical problem for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mechanisms underlying tumor resistance to inhibitors of the kinase activity of EGFR are not fully understood. Here we found that inhibition of EGFR by erlotinib induces STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705 in association with increased Bcl2/Bcl-XL at both mRNA and protein levels in various human lung cancer cells. PTPMeg2 is a physiologic STAT3 phosphatase that can directly dephosphorylate STAT3 at the Tyr705 site. Intriguingly, treatment of cells with erlotinib results in downregulation of PTPMeg2 without activation of STAT3 kinases (i.e. JAK2 or c-Src), suggesting that erlotinib enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3 may occur, at least in part, from suppression of PTPMeg2 expression. Since elevated levels of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), Bcl2 and Bcl-XL were observed in erlotinib-resistant lung cancer (HCC827/ER) cells as compared to erlotinib-sensitive parental HCC827 cells, we postulate that erlotinib-activated STAT3/Bcl2/Bcl-XL survival pathway may contribute to acquired resistance to erlotinib. Both blockage of Tyr705 phosphorylation of STAT3 by niclosamide and depletion of STAT3 by RNA interference in HCC827/ER cells reverses erlotinib resistance. Niclosamide in combination with erlotinib potently represses erlotinib-resistant lung cancer xenografts in association with increased apoptosis in tumor tissues, suggesting that niclosamide can restore sensitivity to erlotinib. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of erlotinib resistance and provide a novel approach to overcome resistance by blocking the STAT3/Bcl2/Bcl-XL survival signaling pathway in human lung cancer. PMID:23894143

  4. STAT3 Inhibition Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Immunogenic Chemotherapy by Stimulating Type 1 Interferon Production by Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heng; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Pietrocola, Federico; Zhou, Heng; Zitvogel, Laurence; Ma, Yuting; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-09-15

    STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor with potent immunosuppressive functions. We found that pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 or its selective knockout in cancer cells improved the tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapies. This combined effect of STAT3 inhibition/depletion and anthracyclines was only found in tumors growing on immunocompetent (not in immunodeficient) mice. As compared with Stat3-sufficient control tumors, Stat3(-/-) cancer cells exhibited an increased infiltration by dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes after chemotherapy. Anthracyclines are known to induce several stress pathways that enhance the immunogenicity of dying and dead cancer cells, thereby stimulating a dendritic cell-dependent and T lymphocyte-mediated anticancer immune response. Among these therapy-relevant stress pathways, Stat3(-/-) cancer cells manifested one significant improvement, namely an increase in the expression of multiple type-1 interferon-responsive genes, including that of the chemokines Cxcl9 and Cxcl10. This enhanced type-1 interferon response could be suppressed by reintroducing wild-type Stat3 (but not a transactivation-deficient mutant Stat3(Y705F)) into the tumor cells. This maneuver also abolished the improved chemotherapeutic response of Stat3(-/-) cancers. Finally, the neutralization of the common type-1 interferon receptor or that of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 (which binds CXCL9 and CXCL10) abolished the difference in the chemotherapeutic response between Stat3(-/-) and control tumors. Altogether, these results suggest that STAT3 inhibitors may improve the outcome of chemotherapy by enhancing the type-1 interferon response of cancer cells. PMID:26208907

  5. Pharmacological Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 Signaling Is a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Ching; Teng, Hao-Wei; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Tai, Wei-Tien; Hung, Man-Hsin; Yang, Shung-Haur; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous data demonstrated that regorafenib (Stivarga) is a pharmacological agonist of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) that enhances SHP-1 activity and induces apoptosis by targeting STAT3 signals in CRC. This study aimed to find a therapeutic drug that is more effective than regorafenib for CRC treatment. Here, we showed that SC-43 was more effective than regorafenib at inducing apoptosis in vitro and suppressing tumorigenesis in vivo. SC-43 significantly increased SHP-1 activity, downregulated p-STAT3Tyr705 level, and induced apoptosis in CRC cells. An SHP-1 inhibitor or knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA both significantly rescued the SC-43–induced apoptosis and decreased p-STAT3Tyr705 level. Conversely, SHP-1 overexpression increased the effects of SC-43 on apoptosis and p-STAT3Tyr705 level. These data suggest that SC-43–induced apoptosis mediated through the loss of p-STAT3Tyr705 was dependent on SHP-1 function. Importantly, SC-43–enhanced SHP-1 activity was because of the docking potential of SC-43, which relieved the autoinhibited N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 and inhibited p-STAT3Tyr705 signals. Importantly, we observed that a significant negative correlation existed between SHP-1 and p-STAT3Tyr705expression in CRC patients (P = .038). Patients with strong SHP-1 and weak p-STAT3Tyr705 expression had significantly higher overall survival compared with patients with weak SHP-1 and strong p-STAT3Tyr705 expression (P = .029). In conclusion, SHP-1 is suitable to be a useful prognostic marker and a pharmacological target for CRC treatment. Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 signaling by SC-43 may serve as a promising pharmacotherapy for CRC. PMID:26476076

  6. Inhibition of p-STAT3 Enhances IFN-? Efficacy Against Metastatic Melanoma in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Gelbard, Alexander; Wei, Jun; Reina-Ortiz, Chantal; Wang, Yongtao; Yang, Eric C.; Hailemichael, Yared; Fokt, Izabela; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Qiao, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Priebe, Waldemar; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Melanoma is a common and deadly tumor that upon metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) has a median survival duration of less than 6 months. Activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as a key mediator that drives the fundamental components of melanoma malignancy, including immune suppression in melanoma patients. We hypothesized that WP1193, a novel inhibitor of STAT3 signaling, would enhance the anti-tumor activity of IFN-? against metastatic melanoma. Experimental Design Combinational therapy of STAT3 blockade agents with IFN-? was investigated in a metastatic and an established syngeneic intracerebral murine tumor model of melanoma. The immunological in vivo mechanisms of efficacy were investigated by T cell and NK cell cytotoxic assays. Results IFN-? immunotherapy was synergistic with WP1193 demonstrating marked in vivo efficacy against metastatic and established intracerebral melanoma. At autopsy, it was noted that there was a decreased trend in mice with melanoma developing leptomeningeal disease (LMD) treated with combinational therapy. The combinational approach enhanced both NK and T cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Conclusions The immune modulatory effects of STAT3 blockade can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of IFN-? immunotherapy by enhancing both innate and adaptive cytotoxic T cell activities. This combination therapy has the potential in the treatment of metastatic melanoma that is typically refractory to this type of immune therapeutic approach. PMID:20388845

  7. Stem Cell Reports Local BMP-SMAD1 Signaling Increases LIF Receptor-Dependent STAT3

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Stem Cell Reports Article Local BMP-SMAD1 Signaling Increases LIF Receptor-Dependent STAT3 Responsiveness and Primed-to-Naive Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cell Conversion Frequency Kento Onishi,1 Peter D. Tonge Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada 2Centre for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

  8. Autoimmunity, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphoproliferation, and mycobacterial disease in patients with activating mutations in STAT3.

    PubMed

    Haapaniemi, Emma M; Kaustio, Meri; Rajala, Hanna L M; van Adrichem, Arjan J; Kainulainen, Leena; Glumoff, Virpi; Doffinger, Rainer; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Trotta, Luca; Chiang, Samuel; Kulmala, Petri; Eldfors, Samuli; Katainen, Riku; Siitonen, Sanna; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kovanen, Panu E; Otonkoski, Timo; Porkka, Kimmo; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Hänninen, Arno; Bryceson, Yenan T; Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Saarela, Janna; Seppänen, Mikko; Mustjoki, Satu; Kere, Juha

    2015-01-22

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors orchestrate hematopoietic cell differentiation. Recently, mutations in STAT1, STAT5B, and STAT3 have been linked to development of immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked-like syndrome. Here, we immunologically characterized 3 patients with de novo activating mutations in the DNA binding or dimerization domains of STAT3 (p.K392R, p.M394T, and p.K658N, respectively). The patients displayed multiorgan autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and delayed-onset mycobacterial disease. Immunologically, we noted hypogammaglobulinemia with terminal B-cell maturation arrest, dendritic cell deficiency, peripheral eosinopenia, increased double-negative (CD4(-)CD8(-)) T cells, and decreased natural killer, T helper 17, and regulatory T-cell numbers. Notably, the patient harboring the K392R mutation developed T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia at age 14 years. Our results broaden the spectrum of phenotypes caused by activating STAT3 mutations, highlight the role of STAT3 in the development and differentiation of multiple immune cell lineages, and strengthen the link between the STAT family of transcription factors and autoimmunity. PMID:25349174

  9. Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in survival and metastasis: Stat3 versus Akt.

    PubMed

    Niit, Maximilian; Hoskin, Victoria; Carefoot, Esther; Geletu, Mulu; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Elliott, Bruce; Raptis, Leda

    2015-12-01

    Both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are important for epithelial cell differentiation and function. Classical cadherins mediate cell to cell interactions and are potent activators of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat3), thereby offering survival signaling. While the epithelial (E)-cadherin is required for cells to remain tightly associated within differentiated epithelial tissues, cadherin-11 promotes invasion and metastasis, preferentially to the bone. Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is mediated through the integrin receptors that bind to the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src complex, thus activating downstream effectors such as Ras/Erk1/2 and PI3k/Akt, but not Stat3. Therefore, at high densities of cultured cells or in epithelial tissues, co-ordinate activation of the complementary cadherin/Stat3 and integrin/FAK pathways can greatly enhance survival and growth of tumor cells. In neoplastically transformed cells on the other hand, a variety of oncogenes including activated Src or receptor tyrosine kinases, activate both pathways. Still, most single-agent therapies directed against these signaling pathways have proven disappointing in the clinic. Combined targeting of the Src/FAK and Stat3 pathways with inhibitory drugs would be expected to have greater efficacy in inhibiting tumor cell survival, and enhancing sensitivity to conventional cytotoxic drugs for treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:26565555

  10. Enriched inhibition of cancer and stem-like cancer cells via STAT-3 modulating niclocelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Jensen, Tor W.; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-04-01

    We describe for the first time a therapeutic strategy to target stem-like cancer cells via STAT-3 modulation using a nanomedicine approach. Niclocelle, a niclosamide loaded rigid core mixed micelle, was synthesized from a self-assembled well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymer and an FDA-approved signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3. Followed by a rigorous physico-chemical characterization, niclocelles were evaluated biologically for cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human melanoma (C32) and breast cancer (MDA-MB231 and MCF-7) cells. Niclocelles were found to selectively reduce the CD44+ stem cell population in C32 cells via STAT-3 modulation.We describe for the first time a therapeutic strategy to target stem-like cancer cells via STAT-3 modulation using a nanomedicine approach. Niclocelle, a niclosamide loaded rigid core mixed micelle, was synthesized from a self-assembled well-defined amphiphilic diblock copolymer and an FDA-approved signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3. Followed by a rigorous physico-chemical characterization, niclocelles were evaluated biologically for cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human melanoma (C32) and breast cancer (MDA-MB231 and MCF-7) cells. Niclocelles were found to selectively reduce the CD44+ stem cell population in C32 cells via STAT-3 modulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00403a

  11. Development of new N-Arylbenzamides as STAT3 Dimerization Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Urlam, Murali K.; Pireddu, Roberta; Ge, Yiyu; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Ying; Lawrence, Harshani R.; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Saïd M.; Lawrence, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The O-tosylsalicylamide S3I-201 (10) was used as a starting point for design and synthesis of novel STAT-3 dimerization inhibitors with improved drug-like qualities. The phosphonic acid 12d and salicylic acids 13f, 13g with a shorter amide linker lacking the O-tosyl group had improved STAT-3 inhibitory activity. The equivalent potencies observed by the replacement of phosphonic acid moiety of 12d with 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid group as in 13f further validates 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid as a phosphotyrosine mimic. The salicylic acid 13f displayed improved whole cell activity. The focused library of salicylic acids 13 with benzamide linker indicated that hydrophobic heptyl and cyclohexyl are the best tolerated R groups and a biphenyl ether (as the Ar group) significantly contributes to STAT3 inhibitory activity. Our docking studies indicated that the acidic groups of 12d, 13f and 13g interact in the p-Tyr-705 binding site in a broadly similar manner, while the phenoxybenzoyl group and the cyclohexylbenzyl group occupying pY+1 and pY-X hydrophobic pockets respectively. The in vitro and cell based potency of 13f warrants further development of this scaffold as STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24073326

  12. Binding modes of peptidomimetics designed to inhibit STAT3 Ankur Dhanik1

    E-print Network

    Kavraki, Lydia E.

    interactions between a specific set of peptidomimetic inhibitors [23­26] and the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain- tive strategy for inhibiting the activity of STAT3. Phosphotyrosine-based peptidomimetic inhibitors- tigated. It is well-known that structures of protein-inhibitor complexes are important for understanding

  13. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induces Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis through inhibiting constitutive and IL-6-induced JAK/STAT3 signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Yi; Hou, Shin-Chen; Chen, Shi-Chen; Kao, Ming-Ching; Yu, Chien-Chih; Funayama, Shinji; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-03-14

    In this study, we examined the effects of several plant-derived natural compounds on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. The results revealed that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) demonstrated the most efficient cytotoxic effects on HNSCC cells. We then investigated the underlying molecular mechanism for the potent proapoptotic effect of EGCG on HNSCC. Cell apoptosis was observed in the EGCG-treated SAS and Cal-27 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In concert with the caspase-8 activation by EGCG, an enhanced expression in functional Fas/CD95 was identified. Consistent with the increased Fas/CD95 expression, a drastic decrease in the Tyr705 phosphorylation of STAT3, a known negative regulator of Fas/CD95 transcription, was shown within 15 min in the EGCG-treated cells, leading to downregulation of the target gene products of STAT3, such as bcl-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mcl-1, and cyclin D1. An overexpression in STAT3 led to resistance to EGCG, suggesting that STAT3 was a critical target of EGCG. Besides inhibiting constitutive expression, EGCG also abrogated the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced JAK/STAT3 signaling and further inhibited IL-6-induced proliferation on HNSCC cells. In comparison with apigenin, curcumin, and AG490, EGCG was a more effective inhibitor of IL-6-induced proliferation on HNSCC cells. Overall, our results strongly suggest that EGCG induces Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis through inhibiting constitutive and IL-6-induced JAK/STAT3 signaling. This mechanism may be partially responsible for EGCG's ability to suppress proliferation of HNSCC cells. These findings provide that EGCG may be useful in the chemoprevention and/or treatment of HNSCC. PMID:22313388

  14. Dendritic Cells from Crohn’s Disease Patients Show Aberrant STAT1 and STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Janne K.; Niemi, Mirja; Sipponen, Taina; Salo, Harri M.; Klemetti, Paula; Färkkilä, Martti; Vakkila, Jukka; Vaarala, Outi

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities of dendritic cells (DCs) and STAT proteins have been reported in Crohn’s disease (CD). Studies on JAK/STAT signaling in DCs are, however, lacking in CD. We applied a flowcytometric single-cell-based phosphoepitope assay to evaluate STAT1 and STAT3 pathways in DC subsets from CD patients. In addition, circulating DC counts were determined, together with the activation-related immunophenotype. We found that IL-6- and IFN-?-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and IFN-?-induced STAT1 phosphorylation were impaired in plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) from CD patients (P?=?0.005, P?=?0.013, and P?=?0.006, respectively). In myeloid DCs (mDCs), IFN-?-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation were attenuated (P<0.001 and P?=?0.048, respectively), but IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was enhanced (P?=?0.026). IFN-?-induced STAT1 signaling was intact in both DC subtypes. Elevated plasma IL-6 levels were detected in CD (P?=?0.004), which strongly correlated with disease activity (??=?0.690, P<0.001) but not with IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. The numbers of pDCs and BDCA3+ mDCs were decreased, and CD40 expression on CD1c+ mDCs was increased in CD. When elucidating the effect of IL-6 signaling on pDC function, we observed that IL-6 treatment of healthy donor pDCs affected the maturation of and modified the T-cell priming by pDCs, favoring Th2 over Th1 type of response and the expression of IL-10 in T cells. Our results implicate DC signaling in human CD. Reduced IL-6 responsiveness in pDCs, together with the attenuated IFN-?-induced signaling in both DC subtypes, may contribute to the immunological dysregulation in CD patients. PMID:23950992

  15. Role of NADPH Oxidase and Stat3 in Statin-Mediated Protection against Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Bartoli, Manuela; El-Remessy, Azza B.; Ma, Guochuan; Matragoon, Suraporn; Lemtalsi, Tahira; Caldwell, R. William; Caldwell, Ruth B.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (statins) reduce signs of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients and animals. Indirect clinical evidence supports the actions of statins in improving cardiovascular function, but the mechanisms of their protective actions in the retina are not understood. Prior studies have implicated oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase–mediated activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in diabetes-induced increases in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB). Because statins are known to be potent antioxidants, the hypothesis for the current study was that the protective effects of statins in preventing diabetic retinopathy involve blockade of diabetes-induced activation of NADPH oxidase and STAT3. METHODS The hypothesis was tested by experiments in which rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and retinal endothelial cells maintained in high-glucose medium were treated with simvastatin. Blood–retinal barrier (BRB) function was assayed by determining extravasation of albumin. Oxidative stress was assayed by measuring lipid peroxidation, protein nitration of tyrosine, dihydroethidine oxidation, and chemiluminescence. Immunoprobe techniques were used to determine the levels of NADPH oxidase subunit expression and STAT3 activation. RESULTS These studies showed that simvastatin blocks diabetes or high-glucose–induced increases in VEGF and ICAM-1 and preserves the BRB by a process involving blockade of diabetes/high-glucose–induced activation of STAT3 and NADPH oxidase. Statin treatment also prevents diabetes-induced increases in expression of the NADPH oxidase catalytic and subunit NOX2. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that simvastatin protects against the early signs of diabetic retinopathy by preventing NADPH oxidase-mediated activation of STAT3. PMID:18378570

  16. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM. PMID:26722442

  17. miR-506 functions as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting STAT3.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Zhou, Lixiang; Zuo, Ling; Luan, Yongxin

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNA-506 (miR-506) has been reported to act as a tumor suppressive or an oncogenic miRNA in different types of tumors. However, the roles and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-506 in glioma remain unclear. In the present study, we performed quantitative PCR to investigate the level of miR-506 in 36 pairs of glioma tumor and matched adjacent tissues, and found that miR-506 was downregulated in the glioma tumors compared to the expression in the adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, a functional assay found that ectopic expression of miR-506 in glioma cells markedly suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was identified as a direct target of miR-506. Western blot assay showed that overexpression of miR-506 not only induced changes in STAT3 expression but also altered expression of its downstream genes, including, Bcl2, cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), in the human glioma cells. In addition, STAT3 mRNA expression was increased in the glioma tissues, and was inversely correlated with miR-506. Importantly, overexpression of STAT3 in glioma cells attenuated the suppressive effects of miR-506 on cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. These results showed that miR-506 functions as a tumor suppressor in glioma by targeting STAT3, suggesting that miR-506 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of human glioma. PMID:26554866

  18. Cytoplasmic p27 promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis via STAT3-mediated Twist1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, D; Besser, A H; Wander, S A; Sun, J; Zhou, W; Wang, B; Ince, T; Durante, M A; Guo, W; Mills, G; Theodorescu, D; Slingerland, J

    2015-01-01

    p27 restrains normal cell growth, but PI3K-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of p27 at threonine 157 (T157) and T198 promotes cancer cell invasion. Here, we describe an oncogenic feedforward loop in which p27pT157pT198 binds Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) promoting STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) recruitment and activation. STAT3 induces TWIST1 to drive a p27-dependent epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and further activates AKT contributing to acquisition and maintenance of metastatic potential. p27 knockdown in highly metastatic PI3K-activated cells reduces STAT3 binding to the TWIST1 promoter, TWIST1 promoter activity and TWIST1 expression, reverts EMT and impairs metastasis, whereas activated STAT3 rescues p27 knockdown. Cell cycle-defective phosphomimetic p27T157DT198D (p27CK-DD) activates STAT3 to induce a TWIST1-dependent EMT in human mammary epithelial cells and increases breast and bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Data support a mechanism in which PI3K-deregulated p27 binds JAK2, to drive STAT3 activation and EMT through STAT3-mediated TWIST1 induction. Furthermore, STAT3, once activated, feeds forward to further activate AKT. PMID:25684140

  19. STAT3 blockade enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents by eradicating head neck stemloid cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Zhi-Li; Liu, Jian-Feng; Ma, Si-Rui; Huang, Cong-Fa; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Signaling transducer and activator 3 (STAT3) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have garnered huge attention as a therapeutic focus, based on evidence that they may represent an etiologic root of tumor initiation and radio-chemoresistance. Here, we investigated the high phosphorylation status of STAT3 (p-STAT3) and its correlation with self-renewal markers in head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Over-expression of p-STAT3 was found to have increased in post chemotherapy HNSCC tissue. We showed that blockade of p-STAT3 eliminated both bulk tumor and side population (SP) cells with characteristics of CSCs in vitro. Inhibition of p-STAT3 using small molecule S3I-201 significantly delayed tumorigenesis of spontaneous HNSCC in mice. Combining blockade of p-STAT3 with cytotoxic drugs cisplatin, docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (TPF) enhanced the antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo with decreased tumor sphere formation and SP cells. Taken together, our results advocate blockade of p-STAT3 in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs enhance efficacy by improving CSCs eradication in HNSCC. PMID:26556875

  20. Alantolactone selectively suppresses STAT3 activation and exhibits potent anticancer activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jaemoo; Li, Rui-Juan; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-02-01

    The important goal of cancer drug discovery is to develop therapeutic agents that are effective, safe, and affordable. In the present study, we demonstrated that alantolactone, which is a sesquiterpene lactone, has potential activity against triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Alantolactone effectively suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at tyrosine 705. Alantolactone decreased STAT3 translocation to the nucleus, its DNA-binding, and STAT3 target gene expression. Alantolactone significantly inhibits STAT3 activation with a marginal effect on MAPKs and on NF-?B transcription; however, this effect is not mediated by inhibiting STAT3 upstream kinases. Although SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, which are protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), were not affected by alantolactone, the treatment with a PTP inhibitor reversed the alantolactone-induced suppression of STAT3 activation, indicating that PTP plays an important role in the action of alantolactone. Finally, alantolactone treatment resulted in the inhibition of migration, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation. The in vivo administration of alantolactone inhibited the growth of human breast xenograft tumors. These results provide preclinical evidence to continue the development of alantolactone as a STAT3 inhibitor and as a potential therapeutic agent against breast cancer. PMID:25434800

  1. S-Adenosylmethionine Affects ERK1/2 and Stat3 Pathways and Induces Apotosis in Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ilisso, Concetta Paola; Sapio, Luigi; Delle Cave, Donatella; Illiano, Michela; Spina, Annamaria; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna; Naviglio, Silvio; Porcelli, Marina

    2016-02-01

    Osteosarcoma is a very aggressive bone tumor. Its clinical outcome remains discouraging despite intensive surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are demanded. S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a naturally occurring molecule that is synthesized in our body by methionine adenosyltransferase isoenzymes and is also available as a nutritional supplement. AdoMet is the principal methyl donor in numerous methylation reactions and is involved in many biological functions. Interestingly, AdoMet has been shown to exert antiproliferative action in various cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are just starting to be studied. Here, we investigated the effects of AdoMet on the proliferation of osteosarcoma U2OS cells and the underlying mechanisms. We carried out direct cell number counting, MTT and flow cytometry-based assays, and immunoblotting experiments in response to AdoMet treatment. We found that AdoMet strongly inhibits proliferation of U2OS cells by slowing-down cell cycle progression and by inducing apoptosis. We also report that AdoMet consistently causes an increase of p53 and p21 cell-cycle inhibitor, a decrease of cyclin A and cyclin E protein levels, and a marked increase of pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, the AdoMet-induced antiproliferative effects were dynamically accompanied by profound changes in ERK1/2 and STAT3 protein and phosphorylation levels. Altogether, our data enforce the evidence of AdoMet acting as a biomolecule with antiproliferative action in osteosarcoma cells, capable of down-regulating ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways leading to cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis, and provide a rationale for the possible use of AdoMet in osteosarcoma therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 428-435, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174106

  2. Selective inhibition of the function of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 with a phosphorylation site-specific intrabody

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Mi Young; Park, Jiyoung; Lim, Jung Mi; Joo, Sei Yoon; Shin, Seung-Pil; Shim, Hyun Bo; Chung, Junho; Kang, Dongmin; Woo, Hyun Ae; Rhee, Sue Goo

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a multifunctional protein that participates in signaling pathways initiated by various growth factors and cytokines. It exists in multiple forms including those phosphorylated on Tyr705 (pYSTAT3) or Ser727 (pSSTAT3) as well as the unphosphorylated protein (USTAT3). In addition to the canonical transcriptional regulatory role of pYSTAT3, both USTAT3 and pSSTAT3 function as transcriptional regulators by binding to distinct promoter sites and play signaling roles in the cytosol or mitochondria. The roles of each STAT3 species in different biological processes have not been readily amenable to investigation, however. We have now prepared an intrabody that binds specifically and with high affinity to the tyrosine-phosphorylated site of pYSTAT3. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the intrabody in HepG2 cells as well as mouse liver blocked both the accumulation of pYSTAT3 in the nucleus and the production of acute phase response proteins induced by interleukin-6. Intrabody expression did not affect the overall accumulation of pSSTAT3 induced by interleukin-6 or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the PMA-induced expression of the c-Fos gene, or the PMA-induced accumulation of pSSTAT3 specifically in mitochondria. In addition, it had no effect on interleukin-6–induced expression of the gene for IFN regulatory factor 1, a downstream target of STAT1. Our results suggest that the engineered intrabody is able to block specifically the downstream effects of pYSTAT3 without influencing those of pSSTAT3, demonstrating the potential of intrabodies as tools to dissect the cellular functions of specific modified forms of proteins that exist as multiple species. PMID:24733900

  3. Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Interleukin-10 against Hypertrophic Scarring by Activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Scar-Forming Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fang, Xiaobing; Hu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Zheng, Zhao; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai; Zhu, Xiongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. Objective To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10. Methods Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB). Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins. Results HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs. Conclusion IL-10 apparently inhibits fibrosis by activating AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of the IL-10 receptor, and by facilitating crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signal transduction pathways. PMID:24878845

  4. Identification of STAT1 and STAT3 Specific Inhibitors Using Comparative Virtual Screening and Docking Validation

    PubMed Central

    Szelag, Malgorzata; Czerwoniec, Anna; Wesoly, Joanna; Bluyssen, Hans A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) facilitate action of cytokines, growth factors and pathogens. STAT activation is mediated by a highly conserved SH2 domain, which interacts with phosphotyrosine motifs for specific STAT-receptor contacts and STAT dimerization. The active dimers induce gene transcription in the nucleus by binding to a specific DNA-response element in the promoter of target genes. Abnormal activation of STAT signaling pathways is implicated in many human diseases, like cancer, inflammation and auto-immunity. Searches for STAT-targeting compounds, exploring the phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-SH2 interaction site, yielded many small molecules for STAT3 but sparsely for other STATs. However, many of these inhibitors seem not STAT3-specific, thereby questioning the present modeling and selection strategies of SH2 domain-based STAT inhibitors. We generated new 3D structure models for all human (h)STATs and developed a comparative in silico docking strategy to obtain further insight into STAT-SH2 cross-binding specificity of a selection of previously identified STAT3 inhibitors. Indeed, by primarily targeting the highly conserved pTyr-SH2 binding pocket the majority of these compounds exhibited similar binding affinity and tendency scores for all STATs. By comparative screening of a natural product library we provided initial proof for the possibility to identify STAT1 as well as STAT3-specific inhibitors, introducing the ‘STAT-comparative binding affinity value’ and ‘ligand binding pose variation’ as selection criteria. In silico screening of a multi-million clean leads (CL) compound library for binding of all STATs, likewise identified potential specific inhibitors for STAT1 and STAT3 after docking validation. Based on comparative virtual screening and docking validation, we developed a novel STAT inhibitor screening tool that allows identification of specific STAT1 and STAT3 inhibitory compounds. This could increase our understanding of the functional role of these STATs in different diseases and benefit the clinical need for more drugable STAT inhibitors with high specificity, potency and excellent bioavailability. PMID:25710482

  5. The IL-10/STAT3-mediated anti-inflammatory response: recent developments and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Andrew P.; Diez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a fundamental response of the immune system whose successful termination involves the elimination of the invading pathogens, the resolution of inflammation and the repair of the local damaged tissue. In this context, the interleukin 10 (IL-10)-mediated anti-inflammatory response (AIR) represents an essential homeostatic mechanism that controls the degree and duration of inflammation. Here, we review recent work on the mechanistic characterization of the IL-10-mediated AIR on multiple levels: from the cataloguing of the in vivo genomic targets of STAT3 (the transcription factor downstream of IL-10) to the identification of specific co-factors that endow STAT3 with genomic-binding specificity, and how genomic and computational methods are being used to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of this essential physiological response in macrophages. PMID:23943603

  6. Association of pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway with peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing-Fu; Lin, Guo-Shi; Lin, Zhi-Xiong; Chen, Yu-Peng; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Tan, Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that peritumoral edema is vasogenic cerebral edema in malignant glioma, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (pSTAT3) strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma. However, there is no study with regard to the correlation between pSTAT3 or VEGF and peritumoral edema. Such evidence may contribute to providing new targets for the management of peritumoral cerebral. In this study, newly diagnosed glioblastoma tissues from 84 patients were collected to investigate pSTAT3 and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry, and peritumoral edema was detected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. We found that a significantly positive correlation emerged between VEGF and pSTAT3 expression (P = 0.000) in glioblastoma tissues, but they were not related to patient gender and age (P > 0.05); the expression of pSTAT3 and VEGF were associated with peritumoral edema extent (P = 0.005), but not with edema shape (P > 0.05). Therefore, the pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway, which is correlated with peritumoral edema extent, might be a regulatory mechanism in the course of peritumoral edema formation during glioblastoma tumorigenesis and progression, thereby suggesting that STAT3 inhibition might be helpful for alleviation of peritumoral cerebral edema. PMID:25337261

  7. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Takamura, Naoki; Kato, Akiko; Takebayashi, Minoru; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

  8. Reactive oxygen species production has a critical role in hypoxia-induced Stat3 activation and angiogenesis in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi Ok; Park, Kyung-Jae; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Chung, Yong-Gu; Chi, Sung-Gil; Kang, Shin-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with hypoxia-associated morphologic features including pseudopalisading necrosis and endothelial hyperplasia. It has been known that hypoxia can activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and subsequently induce angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced Stat3 activation has not been defined. In this study, we explored the possible implication of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypoxia-driven Stat3 activation in human glioblastoma. We found that hypoxic stress increased ROS production as well as Stat3 activation and that ROS inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium, rotenone and myxothiazol) and an antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) blocked Stat3 activation under hypoxic conditions. To determine a major route of ROS production, we tested whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4) is involved in hypoxia-induced ROS production. Nox4 expression was found to be increased at both mRNA and protein levels in hypoxic glioblastoma cells. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox4 expression abolished hypoxia induced Stat3 activation and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, which is associated with tumor cells' ability to trigger tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro. Our findings indicate that elevated ROS production plays a crucial role for Stat3 activation and angiogenesis in hypoxic glioblastoma cells. PMID:26297045

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of anatabine via inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Paris, Daniel; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Abdullah, Laila; Bachmeier, Corbin; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Reed, Jon; Verma, Megha; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of cholinergic agonists, such as nicotine. In the present study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of anatabine, a minor tobacco alkaloid also present in plants of the Solanacea family which displays a chemical structural similarity with nicotine. Our data show that anatabine prevents STAT3 and NF?B phosphorylation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TNF-? in SH-SY5Y, HEK293, human microglia and human blood mononuclear cells. Using human whole blood, we found that anatabine prevents IL-1? production induced by LPS. We assessed anatabine's anti-inflammatory activity in vivo using an acute model of inflammation by challenging wild-type mice with LPS. We observed that anatabine reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-1? and TNF-?) in the plasma, kidney and spleen of the animals following the injection of LPS and concomitantly opposes STAT3 phosphorylation induced by LPS in the spleen and kidney. We also investigated the impact of anatabine on neuroinflammation using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (Tg APPsw) that displays elevated cytokine levels in the brain. Following a chronic oral treatment with anatabine, a reduction in brain TNF-? and IL-6 levels compared to untreated Tg APPsw mice was observed. Moreover, an increased STAT3 phosphorylation was detected in the brains of Tg APPsw mice compared to wild-type littermates and was inhibited by anatabine treatment. Overall our data show that the anti-inflammatory activity of anatabine in vitro and in vivo is mediated in part via an inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. PMID:23178521

  10. n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) maintains stem cell pluripotency by activating Jak2/Stat3 pathway and increases the efficiency of iPS cells generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent-leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency. PMID:22970157

  11. Cryptotanshinone, a Stat3 inhibitor, suppresses colorectal cancer proliferation and growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Saud, Shakir M; Young, Matthew R; Colburn, Nancy H; Hua, Baojin

    2015-08-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CPT) is a natural compound extracted from herbal medicine that has been previously shown to possess antitumor properties in various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential role of CPT in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Using SW480, HCT116, and LOVO colorectal cancer cell lines, the effects of CPT on cell viability, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity were evaluated. The results showed that CPT significantly inhibited the growth and viability of SW480, HCT116, and LOVO cell lines by inducing apoptosis and prevented anchorage dependent growth on agar. In addition, CPT inhibited the activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathways in colorectal cancer cells. Stat3 is a transcription factor that mediates the expression of various genes associated with many cellular processes, such as inflammation and cell growth, and has been shown to promote several cancer types, including colorectal cancer. These findings indicate that CPT may be a potential candidate for the treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer in part by inhibiting the activation of Stat3. PMID:25912550

  12. Withaferin-A Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Blocking STAT3 Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bu Young; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera (known as Ashwagandha) is a medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin-A, a withanolide derived from the leaf extract of W. somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells, such as leukemia, breast cancer and colon cancer cells. Methods: We investigated the anti-cancer effects of withaferin-A on the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. And we evaluated the effects of withaferin-A on the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and the growth of HCT116 cells in xenograft mouse tumor model. Results: In the present study, we found that withaferin-A inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT116 cells with withaferin-A attenuated interleukin-6-induced activation of STAT3, which has been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. To examine the effect of withaferin-A on HCT116 cells proliferation in vivo, we generated HCT116 cells xenograft tumors in Balb/c nude mice and treated the tumor bearing mice with or without withaferin-A intraperitoneally. Treatment with withaferin-A exhibited significant decrease in the volume and weight of tumors as compared to untreated controls. Conclusions: The present study suggests that withaferin-A holds the potential to be developed as a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 for the treatment of HCT116. PMID:26473157

  13. Loss of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPRD leads to aberrant STAT3 activation and promotes gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Berenice; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Wu, Wei H.; Pedraza, Alicia; Brennan, Cameron W.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.; Huse, Jason T.; Holland, Eric C.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    PTPRD, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-?, is one of the most frequently inactivated genes across human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). PTPRD undergoes both deletion and mutation in cancers, with copy number loss comprising the primary mode of inactivation in GBM. However, it is unknown whether loss of PTPRD promotes tumorigenesis in vivo, and the mechanistic basis of PTPRD function in tumors is unclear. Here, using genomic analysis and a glioma mouse model, we demonstrate that loss of Ptprd accelerates tumor formation and define the oncogenic context in which Ptprd loss acts. Specifically, we show that in human GBMs, heterozygous loss of PTPRD is the predominant type of lesion and that loss of PTPRD and the CDKN2A/p16INK4A tumor suppressor frequently co-occur. Accordingly, heterozygous loss of Ptprd cooperates with p16 deletion to drive gliomagenesis in mice. Moreover, loss of the Ptprd phosphatase resulted in phospho-Stat3 accumulation and constitutive activation of Stat3-driven genetic programs. Surprisingly, the consequences of Ptprd loss are maximal in the heterozygous state, demonstrating a tight dependence on gene dosage. Ptprd loss did not increase cell proliferation but rather altered pathways governing the macrophage response. In total, we reveal that PTPRD is a bona fide tumor suppressor, pinpoint PTPRD loss as a cause of aberrant STAT3 activation in gliomas, and establish PTPRD loss, in the setting of CDKN2A/p16INK4A deletion, as a driver of glioma progression. PMID:24843164

  14. 6-Shogaol from dried ginger inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of STAT3 and NF-?B signaling.

    PubMed

    Saha, Achinto; Blando, Jorge; Silver, Eric; Beltran, Linda; Sessler, Jonathan; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-06-01

    Despite much recent progress, prostate cancer continues to represent a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in men. Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin neoplasm and second leading cause of death in men. 6-Shogaol (6-SHO), a potent bioactive compound in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In the present study, the effect of 6-SHO on the growth of prostate cancer cells was investigated. 6-SHO effectively reduced survival and induced apoptosis of cultured human (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3) and mouse (HMVP2) prostate cancer cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that 6-SHO reduced constitutive and interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation and inhibited both constitutive and TNF-?-induced NF-?B activity in these cells. In addition, 6-SHO decreased the level of several STAT3 and NF-?B-regulated target genes at the protein level, including cyclin D1, survivin, and cMyc and modulated mRNA levels of chemokine, cytokine, cell cycle, and apoptosis regulatory genes (IL-7, CCL5, BAX, BCL2, p21, and p27). 6-SHO was more effective than two other compounds found in ginger, 6-gingerol, and 6-paradol at reducing survival of prostate cancer cells and reducing STAT3 and NF-?B signaling. 6-SHO also showed significant tumor growth inhibitory activity in an allograft model using HMVP2 cells. Overall, the current results suggest that 6-SHO may have potential as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent for prostate cancer and that further study of this compound is warranted. PMID:24691500

  15. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom toxin and melittin in ovarian cancer cells through induction of death receptors and inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Miran; Park, Mi Hee; Kollipara, Pushpa Saranya; An, Byeong Jun; Song, Ho Sueb; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Jang Heub; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether bee venom and melittin, a major component of bee venom, inhibit cell growth through enhancement of death receptor expressions in the human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3 and PA-1. Bee venom (1–5 ?g/ml) and melittin (0.5–2 ?g/ml) inhibited the growth of SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of death receptor (DR) 3 and DR6 was increased in both cancer cells, but expression of DR4 was increased only in PA-1 cells. Expression of DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, 8, and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 cells. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in SKOV3, but cleaved caspase-8 was increased in PA-1 cells. Moreover, deletion of DR3, DR4, and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed bee venom and melittin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 by bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cell. These results suggest that bee venom and melittin induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancer cells through enhancement of DR3, DR4, and DR6 expression and inhibition of STAT3 pathway. -- Highlights: ? Some studies have showed that bee venom and/or melittin have anti-cancer effects. ? We found that bee venom and melittin inhibited cell growth in ovarian cancer cells. ? Bee venom and melittin induce apoptosis in SKOV3 and PA-1.

  16. Integrated analysis reveals that STAT3 is central to the crosstalk between HER/ErbB receptor signaling pathways in human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chunhong; Zhang, Yi; Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER, also known as ErbB) drive cellular proliferation, pro-survival and stress responses by activating several downstream kinases, in particular ERK, p38, JNK (SAPK), the PI3K/AKT, as well as various transcriptional regulators such as STAT3. When co-expressed, first three members of HER family (HER1-3) can form homo- and hetero-dimers. Based on the considerable evidence which suggest that every receptor dimer activates intracellular signaling pathways differentially, we hypothesized that the HER dimerization pattern is a better predictor of downstream signaling than the total receptor activation levels. We validated our hypothesis using a combination of model-based analysis to quantify the HER dimerization patterns and multi-factorial experiments where HER dimerization patterns and signaling crosstalk were rationally perturbed. We have measured the activation of HER1-3 receptors and of the sentinel signaling proteins ERK, AKT, p38, JNK, STAT3 as a function of time in a panel of human mammary epithelial (HME) cells expressing different levels of HER1-3 stimulated with various ligand combinations. Our analysis using multiple ways of clustering the activation data has confirmed that the HER receptor dimer is a better predictor of the signaling through p38, ERK and AKT pathways than the total HER receptor expression and activation levels. Targeted inhibition studies to identify the causal effects allowed us to obtain a consensus regulatory interaction model, which revealed that STAT3 occupies a central role in the crosstalk between the studied pathways.

  17. Peripheral nerve regeneration and NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of adult sensory neurons converge on STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of neuropoietic cytokine receptor gp130.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Serena; Baeumer, Bastian E; Scherbakov, Nadja; Andratsch, Manfred; Rose-John, Stefan; Dechant, Georg; Bandtlow, Christine E; Kress, Michaela

    2014-09-24

    After nerve injury, adult sensory neurons can regenerate peripheral axons and reconnect with their target tissue. Initiation of outgrowth, as well as elongation of neurites over long distances, depends on the signaling of receptors for neurotrophic growth factors. Here, we investigated the importance of gp130, the signaling subunit of neuropoietic cytokine receptors in peripheral nerve regeneration. After sciatic nerve crush, functional recovery in vivo was retarded in SNS-gp130(-/-) mice, which specifically lack gp130 in sensory neurons. Correspondingly, a significantly reduced number of free nerve endings was detected in glabrous skin from SNS-gp130(-/-) compared with control mice after nerve crush. Neurite outgrowth and STAT3 activation in vitro were severely reduced in cultures in gp130-deficient cultured neurons. Surprisingly, in neurons obtained from SNS-gp130(-/-) mice the increase in neurite length was reduced not only in response to neuropoietic cytokine ligands of gp130 but also to nerve growth factor (NGF), which does not bind to gp130-containing receptors. Neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic factors was partially rescued in gp130-deficient neurons by leptin, which activates STAT3 downstream of leptic receptor and independent of gp130. The neurite outgrowth response of gp130-deficient neurons to NGF was fully restored in the presence of leptin. Based on these findings, gp130 signaling via STAT3 activation is suggested not only to be an important regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro and in vivo, but as determining factor for the growth promoting action of NGF in adult sensory neurons. PMID:25253866

  18. Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5 inhibit expression of miR-22, a novel tumor suppressor microRNA, in cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sibbesen, Nina A.; Kopp, Katharina L.; Litvinov, Ivan V.; Jønson, Lars; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Fredholm, Simon; Petersen, David L.; Nastasi, Claudia; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lindahl, Lise M.; Gniadecki, Robert; Mongan, Nigel P.; Sasseville, Denis; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Iversen, Lars; Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Geisler, Carsten; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Janus kinase-3 (Jak3) and its key down-stream effectors, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) and STAT5, is a key feature of malignant transformation in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, it remains only partially understood how Jak3/STAT activation promotes lymphomagenesis. Recently, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this malignancy. Here, we show that (i) malignant T cells display a decreased expression of a tumor suppressor miRNA, miR-22, when compared to non-malignant T cells, (ii) STAT5 binds the promoter of the miR-22 host gene, and (iii) inhibition of Jak3, STAT3, and STAT5 triggers increased expression of pri-miR-22 and miR-22. Curcumin, a nutrient with anti-Jak3 activity and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also trigger increased expression of pri-miR-22 and miR-22. Transfection of malignant T cells with recombinant miR-22 inhibits the expression of validated miR-22 targets including NCoA1, a transcriptional co-activator in others cancers, as well as HDAC6, MAX, MYCBP, PTEN, and CDK2, which have all been implicated in CTCL pathogenesis. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that de-regulated Jak3/STAT3/STAT5 signalling in CTCL cells represses the expression of the gene encoding miR-22, a novel tumor suppressor miRNA. PMID:26244872

  19. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom toxin and melittin in ovarian cancer cells through induction of death receptors and inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jo, Miran; Park, Mi Hee; Kollipara, Pushpa Saranya; An, Byeong Jun; Song, Ho Sueb; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Jang Heub; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether bee venom and melittin, a major component of bee venom, inhibit cell growth through enhancement of death receptor expressions in the human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3 and PA-1. Bee venom (1-5 ?g/ml) and melittin (0.5-2 ?g/ml) inhibited the growth of SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of death receptor (DR) 3 and DR6 was increased in both cancer cells, but expression of DR4 was increased only in PA-1 cells. Expression of DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, 8, and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 cells. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in SKOV3, but cleaved caspase-8 was increased in PA-1 cells. Moreover, deletion of DR3, DR4, and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed bee venom and melittin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 by bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cell. These results suggest that bee venom and melittin induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancer cells through enhancement of DR3, DR4, and DR6 expression and inhibition of STAT3 pathway. PMID:22027265

  20. MiR-125a-5p Decreases the Sensitivity of Treg cells Toward IL-6-Mediated Conversion by Inhibiting IL-6R and STAT3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Kong, Chao; Tsun, Andy; Chen, Chen; Song, Huihui; Shi, Guochao; Pan, Wen; Dai, Dai; Shen, Nan; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor FOXP3 is essential for the differentiation and function of regulatory T cells (Treg). It is established that the transcription factor GATA-3 is induced in Treg cells under inflammatory conditions. GATA-3 stabilizes FOXP3 levels to avoid the differentiation of Treg cells into inflammatory-like T cells. The IL-6 signal pathway influences the sensitivity of Treg cells towards instability. The mechanism of GATA-3 in regulating FOXP3 and its relation to the IL-6 pathway remains unclear. Here we report how miR-125a-5p plays an important role in regulating the conversion of Treg cells by IL-6. miR-125a-5p expression is low in Treg cells under steady state conditions and can be induced by GATA-3 to inhibit the expression of IL-6R and STAT3. This finding reveals a GATA3/miR-125a-5p/IL-6R and STAT3/FOXP3 regulatory pathway, which determines how Treg cells respond to inflammatory IL-6-rich conditions. PMID:26424054

  1. Dual-inhibitors of STAT5 and STAT3: studies from molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shengjuan; Yu, Rilei; Yu, Yanqing; Li, Yanni

    2014-08-01

    Although molecularly targeted therapy with imatinib has improved treatments of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), clinical resistance gradually develops in patients with accelerated or blast phase CML. The inability of imatinib to cure CML suggests that inactivation of BCR-ABL kinase activity alone is not sufficient to control the disease. Aberrant STAT signaling and constitutive STAT5 or STAT3 activation are frequently found in both acute and chronic leukemia. Constitutive activation of STAT5 and STAT3 are associated with imatinib resistance on leukemia cells. Development of drugs targeting SH2 domains of STAT5 and STAT3 provides a novel strategy for the treatment of the imatinib-resistant CML. Here, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the interactions of the drugs targeting STAT3 and STAT5 receptors at molecular level. The calculated binding free energies are consistent with the ranking of the experimental affinities and our simulations also explained their differences in binding energy. Then virtual screening based on molecular docking and molecular dynamics was applied to screen a set of ~1500 compounds for dual inhibitors of the SH2 domains of STAT5 and STAT3. Three top score compounds obtained in virtual screening were compound 660, 304, and 561. Results show that the three predicted dual-inhibitors are well fitted within the two binding domains and are predicted to present improved STAT5 and STAT3 SH2 inhibitory activity. PMID:25098340

  2. Activation of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway Is Associated With Poor Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Meng, Bin; Iqbal, Javeed; Ding, B. Belinda; Perry, Anamarija M.; Cao, Wenfeng; Smith, Lynette M.; Bi, Chengfeng; Jiang, Chunsun; Greiner, Timothy C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Rimsza, Lisa; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Campo, Elias; Braziel, Rita M.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Cook, James R.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Armitage, James O.; Vose, Julie M.; Staudt, Louis M.; McKeithan, Timothy W.; Chan, Wing C.; Ye, B. Hilda; Fu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported that constitutive STAT3 activation is a prominent feature of the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL). In this study, we investigated whether STAT3 activation can risk stratify patients with DLBCL. Patients and Methods By an immunohistochemical method, we investigated phosphotyrosine STAT3 (PY-STAT3) expression from 185 patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). Cell line-based siRNA experiments were also performed to generate an 11-gene, PY-STAT3 activation signature, which was used to study a previously published cohort of 222 patients with DLBCL. The STAT3 activation status determined by these two methods and by STAT3 mRNA levels were then correlated with survival. Results PY-STAT3 was detected in 37% of DLBCL and enriched in ABC-DLBCL cases (P = .03). PY-STAT3 positivity significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS; P = .01) and event-free survival (EFS; P = .006). Similar observations were made for high levels of STAT3 mRNA. In multivariable analysis, PY-STAT3 status (P = .02), International Prognostic Index (P = .02), and BCL2 expression (P = .046) were independent prognosticators of OS in this cohort. Among the cell-of-origin subgroups, PY-STAT3 was associated with poor EFS among non–germinal center B-cell DLBCL cases only (P = .027). Similarly, the 11-gene STAT3 activation signature correlated with poor survival in the entire DLBCL cohort (OS, P < .001; EFS, P < .001) as well as the ABC-DLBCL subgroup (OS, P = .029; EFS, P = .025). Conclusion STAT3 activation correlated with poor survival in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP, especially those with tumors of the ABC-DLBCL subtype. PMID:24220563

  3. Predominant Activation of JAK/STAT3 Pathway by Interleukin-6 Is Implicated in Hepatocarcinogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Jung, In Hye; Choi, Jeffrey Hyun-Kyu; Chung, Yong-Yoon; Lim, Ga-Lam; Park, Young-Nyun; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an important process leading to tumorigenesis. Therefore, targeting and controlling inflammation can be a promising cancer therapy. Inflammation is often caused by a variety of inflammatory cytokine such as the interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotrophic cytokine known to be involved in the tumorigenesis. In this study, an in vivo hepatic tumorigenesis model of zebrafish was generated to demonstrate a direct consequence of the human IL6 expression causing hepatocarcinogenesis. To do this, an elevated expression of the hIL6 gene was established to specifically target the zebrafish hepatocytes by transgenesis. Interestingly, the elevated hIL6 expression caused the chronic inflammation which results in a massive infiltration of inflammatory cells. This eventually resulted in the generation of various dysplastic lesions such as clear cell, small cell, and large cell changes, and also eosinophilic and basophilic foci of hepatocellular alteration. Hepatocellular carcinoma was then developed in the transgenic zebrafish. Molecular characterization revealed upregulation of the downstream components involved in the IL6-mediated signaling pathways, especially PI3K/Akt and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Further investigation indicated that PI3K was the most reactive to the infiltrated inflammatory cells and dysplasia with large cell change, whereas STAT3 was heavily activated in the region with dysplastic foci, suggesting that the JAK/STAT3 pathway was mainly implicated in the hepatic tumorigenesis in the current model. Our present study provides an in vivo evidence of the relationship between chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis and reinforces the pivotal role of IL6 in the inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26297436

  4. MicroRNA-204 targets JAK2 in breast cancer and induces cell apoptosis through the STAT3/BCl-2/survivin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xilong; Qiu, Wenxiu; Zhang, Guoqiang; Xu, Shujian; Gao, Qiang; Yang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators that potentially play critical roles in cancer cell biological processes. Previous studies have shown that miR-204 plays an important role in various human cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms of this microRNA in breast cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated that miR-204 expression level was markedly reduced in both the human breast cancer tissue and cultured breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231). Overexpression of miR-204 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis in breast cancer cells, which were reversed by co-transfection of miR-204 inhibitor. We validated that Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), as a direct target of miR-204, is overexpressed in breast cancer. Knockdown of JAK2 suppressed cell viability and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the level of miR-204 is negatively correlated with p-STAT3 and anti-apoptotic genes BCl-2 and surviving in breast cancer. In conclusions, miR-204 targets JAK2 and suppressed JAK2 and p-JAK2 expression in breast cancer, which further inhibit the activation of STAT3, BCl-2 and survivin. These findings indicate that manipulation of miR-204 expression may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26191195

  5. Methyl 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate Isolated from Fomes fomentarius Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response by Blocking Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Ji-Hyun; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Seo, Dong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Fomes fomentarius is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and is used in traditional oriental therapies. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of this species have been previously reported, the identity of the bioactive compounds responsible for this activity remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether methyl 9-oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate (FF-8) purified from F. fomentarius exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FF-8 suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 through downregulation of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS. In addition, pretreatment of cells with FF-8 led to a reduction in levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conversely, FF-8 did not affect nuclear factor ?B, p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Instead, FF-8 specifically interfered with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation induced by LPS. Collectively, this study demonstrated that FF-8 purified from F. fomentarius suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with LPS by inhibiting STAT3 activation. Further studies will be required to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of FF-8 in vivo. PMID:26539049

  6. A novel phosphorylated STAT3 inhibitor enhances T cell cytotoxicity against melanoma through inhibition of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wei, Jun; Sharma, Amit K.; Barr, Jason; Abou-Ghazal, Mohamed K.; Fokt, Izabela; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Rao, Ganesh; Grimm, Elizabeth; Priebe, Waldemar; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as a key mediator that drives the fundamental components of melanoma malignancy, including immune suppression in melanoma patients. Increasing evidence also suggests that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in suppressing anti-tumor immunity and play a dominant role in negating efficacious immunotherapy approaches. We hypothesized that WP1066, a novel inhibitor of STAT3 signaling, reverses immune suppression through the inhibition of Tregs and that this contributes to the antitumor activity of these agents against melanoma brain metastases. We found that the mean percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) was significantly elevated in samples from patients with melanoma brain metastases compared to healthy donors, 16.13% ± 2.48% vs 4.17% ± 1.79%. The p-STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 enhanced CD3+ (which contained Tregs) but not CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity against human A375 melanoma cells, indicating that this p-STAT3 blockade agent did not directly activate CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, the p-STAT3 inhibitor did not enhance the cytotoxicity of CD3+CD25- T cells (from which Tregs were excluded), indicating that the enhanced cytotoxicity of WP1066 is secondary to its inhibition of Tregs. This was confirmed by demonstrating that WP1066 inhibited FoxP3+ Treg induction in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CD3+ T cells exhibited markedly enhanced levels of phosphorylated ZAP-70, a critical proximal signal in T cell activation, after exposure to WP1066. Similar effects were not observed in Treg-depleted CD3+CD25- T cell populations, confirming that the T cell activation by WP compounds is secondary to their inhibition of the Tregs. These results suggest that WP1066 enhances T cell cytotoxicity against melanoma through inhibition of Tregs. PMID:19002459

  7. Interferon-gamma-induced dephosphorylation of STAT3 and apoptosis are dependent on the mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Peng . E-mail: fangp@ohsu.edu; Hwa, Vivian; Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2006-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) exhibits diverse biological activities, including control of cell growth and tumor suppression. Here, we report that the treatment of M12 cells, a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, with IFN-{gamma}, resulted in marked inhibition of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These effects were not seen with either IFN-{alpha} or IFN-{beta}. M12 cells, like many other human cancer cells, contain constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The basal levels of both Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are also markedly elevated in M12 cells. Strikingly, IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition of M12 cells were associated with persistent suppression of the constitutive tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pY-STAT3). The IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3, however, was inhibited when the mTOR pathway was specifically blocked by rapamycin. Inhibition of PI-3K with low-dose LY294002, or MAPK with PD98059 also suppressed the mTOR/p70 S6k pathway, and correlated with the blockage of IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Simultaneously, treatment with LY294002, PD98059, or rapamycin abolished IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis in M12 cells. The inhibition of the mTOR pathway, however, did not affect IFN-{gamma}-induced activation of STAT1 pathway, and suppression of STAT1 expression by siRNA had no effect on IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that an intact mTOR pathway is critical for IFN-{gamma}-induced suppression of pY-STAT3 and apoptosis. Our study thus provides novel insights into the contributions of signaling pathways other than the classical JAK/STAT1 pathway in the anti-proliferative, proapoptotic actions of IFN-{gamma}.

  8. STAT3-dependent CXC chemokine formation and neutrophil migration in streptococcal M1 protein-induced acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songen; Hwaiz, Rundk; Luo, Lingtao; Herwald, Heiko; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes cause infections ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). The M1 serotype of Streptococcus pyogenes is most frequently associated with STSS. Herein, it was hypothesized that STAT3 signaling might be involved in M1 protein-evoked lung inflammation. The STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, was administered to male C57Bl/6 mice before iv challenge with M1 protein. Bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue were harvested for quantification of STAT3 activity, neutrophil recruitment, edema, and CXC chemokine formation. Neutrophil expression of Mac-1 was quantified by use of flow cytometry. Levels of IL-6 and HMGB1 were determined in plasma. CXCL2-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was studied in vitro. Administration of S3I-201 markedly reduced M1 protein-provoked STAT3 activity, neutrophil recruitment, edema formation, and inflammatory changes in the lung. In addition, M1 protein significantly increased Mac-1 expression on neutrophils and CXC chemokine levels in the lung. Treatment with S3I-201 had no effect on M1 protein-induced expression of Mac-1 on neutrophils. In contrast, inhibition of STAT3 activity greatly reduced M1 protein-induced formation of CXC chemokines in the lung. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition markedly decreased plasma levels of IL-6 and HMGB1 in animals exposed to M1 protein. Moreover, we found that S3I-201 abolished CXCL2-induced neutrophil migration in vitro. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that STAT3 signaling plays a key role in mediating CXC chemokine production and neutrophil infiltration in M1 protein-induced acute lung inflammation. PMID:25840996

  9. HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-?-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

  10. HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-?-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

  11. Notch1–STAT3–ETBR signaling axis controls reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    LeComte, Matthew D.; Shimada, Issei S.; Sherwin, Casey; Spees, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Defining the signaling network that controls reactive astrogliosis may provide novel treatment targets for patients with diverse CNS injuries and pathologies. We report that the radial glial cell antigen RC2 identifies the majority of proliferating glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+) reactive astrocytes after stroke. These cells highly expressed endothelin receptor type B (ETBR) and Jagged1, a Notch1 receptor ligand. To study signaling in adult reactive astrocytes, we developed a model based on reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem cells isolated from GFAP-CreER-Notch1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. By loss- and gain-of-function studies and promoter activity assays, we found that Jagged1/Notch1 signaling increased ETBR expression indirectly by raising the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a previously unidentified EDNRB transcriptional activator. Similar to inducible transgenic GFAP-CreER-Notch1-cKO mice, GFAP-CreER-ETBR-cKO mice exhibited a defect in reactive astrocyte proliferation after cerebral ischemia. Our results indicate that the Notch1–STAT3–ETBR axis connects a signaling network that promotes reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury. PMID:26124113

  12. STAT3-Activating Cytokines: A Therapeutic Opportunity for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Paul M.; Putoczki, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells that secrete mucus toward the lumen, which collectively separates the immune sentinels in the underlying lamina propria from the intestinal microflora to prevent aberrant immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes a group of autoimmune diseases that arise from defects in epithelial barrier function and, as a consequence, aberrant production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, and IL-22 are elevated in human IBD patients and corresponding mouse models and, through activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway, can both propagate and ameliorate disease. In particular, cytokine-mediated activation of STAT3 in the epithelial lining cells affords cellular protection, survival, and proliferation, thereby affording therapeutic opportunities for the prevention and treatment of colitis. In this review, we focus on recent insights gained from therapeutic modulation of the activities of IL-6, IL-11, and IL-22 in models of IBD and advocate a cautionary approach with these cytokines to minimize their tumor-promoting activities on neoplastic epithelium. PMID:25760898

  13. STAT3-Activating Cytokines: A Therapeutic Opportunity for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Paul M; Putoczki, Tracy L; Ernst, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells that secrete mucus toward the lumen, which collectively separates the immune sentinels in the underlying lamina propria from the intestinal microflora to prevent aberrant immune responses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes a group of autoimmune diseases that arise from defects in epithelial barrier function and, as a consequence, aberrant production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, and IL-22 are elevated in human IBD patients and corresponding mouse models and, through activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway, can both propagate and ameliorate disease. In particular, cytokine-mediated activation of STAT3 in the epithelial lining cells affords cellular protection, survival, and proliferation, thereby affording therapeutic opportunities for the prevention and treatment of colitis. In this review, we focus on recent insights gained from therapeutic modulation of the activities of IL-6, IL-11, and IL-22 in models of IBD and advocate a cautionary approach with these cytokines to minimize their tumor-promoting activities on neoplastic epithelium. PMID:25760898

  14. STAT3 Blockade Inhibits Radiation-Induced Malignant Progression in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jasmine; Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin; Wang, Susan; Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A; Salvatierra, Nicolas A; Wong, Robyn A; Schmidt, Christin; Weaver, Valerie M; Weiss, William A; Persson, Anders I

    2015-10-15

    High grade gliomas (HGG) are classified into four subgroups based on transcriptional signatures and phenotypic characteristics. In particular, the proneural-to-mesenchymal transition (PMT) is associated with increased malignancy, poor prognosis, and disease recurrence, but the underlying causes of PMT are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether radiotherapy promotes PMT using a genetically engineered mouse model of proneural HGG. We found that cranial ionizing radiation induced robust and durable PMT in tumors. Additionally, we isolated primary proneural HGG cells from mouse and human tumors and demonstrate that radiation induced a sustained cell-intrinsic mesenchymal transition associated with increased invasiveness and resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide. Expectedly, irradiation-induced PMT was also associated with activation of the STAT3 transcription factor, and the combination of STAT3 blockade using JAK2 inhibitors with radiation abrogated the mesenchymal transition and extended survival of mice. Taken together, our data suggest that clinical JAK2 inhibitors should be tested in conjunction with radiation in patients with proneural HGG as a new strategy for blocking the emergence of therapy-resistant mesenchymal tumors at relapse. Cancer Res; 75(20); 4302-11. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26282165

  15. Leptin differentially regulates STAT3 activation in the ob/ob mice adipose mesenchymal stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptin-deficient genetically obese ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Studies have shown that multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute...

  16. Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 is regulated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Chong, Phyllis S Y; Lu, Xiao; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Bi, Chonglei; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Zhou, Yafeng; Tan, Tuan Zea; Yang, Henry; Chung, Tae-Hoon; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2014-12-01

    Overexpression of protein-tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) has been identified in about 50% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The mechanism of regulation of PRL-3 remains obscure. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a latent transcriptional factor, has also been often found to be activated in AML. We first identified STAT3-consensus-binding sites in the promoter of PRL-3 genes. Then we experimentally validated the direct binding and transcriptional activation. We applied shRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression approaches in STAT3(-/-) liver cells and leukemic cells to validate the functional regulation of PRL-3 by STAT3. A STAT3 core signature, derived through data mining from publicly available gene expression data, was employed to correlate PRL-3 expression in large AML patient samples. We discovered that STAT3 binds to the -201 to -210 region of PRL-3, which was conserved between human and mouse. Importantly, PRL-3 protein was significantly reduced in mouse STAT3-knockout liver cells compared with STAT3-wild type counterparts, and ectopic expression of STAT3 in these cells led to a pronounced increase in PRL-3 protein. We demonstrated that STAT3 functionally regulated PRL-3, and STAT3 core signature was enriched in AML with high PRL-3 expression. Targeting either STAT3 or PRL-3 reduced leukemic cell viability. Silencing PRL-3 impaired invasiveness and induced leukemic cell differentiation. In conclusion, PRL-3 was transcriptionally regulated by STAT3. The STAT3/PRL-3 regulatory loop contributes to the pathogenesis of AML, and it might represent an attractive therapeutic target for antileukemic therapy. PMID:25139404

  17. VEGF drives cancer-initiating stem cells through VEGFR-2/Stat3 signaling to upregulate Myc and Sox2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Pan, C; Sun, J; Gilbert, C; Drews-Elger, K; Azzam, D J; Picon-Ruiz, M; Kim, M; Ullmer, W; El-Ashry, D; Creighton, C J; Slingerland, J M

    2015-06-11

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor, is also implicated in self-renewal in several normal tissue types. VEGF has been shown to drive malignant stem cells but mechanisms thereof and tumor types affected are not fully characterized. Here, we show VEGF promotes breast and lung cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal via VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)/STAT3-mediated upregulation of Myc and Sox2. VEGF increased tumor spheres and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, both proxies for stem cell function in vitro, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lines and dissociated primary cancers, and in lung cancer lines. VEGF exposure before injection increased breast cancer-initiating cell abundance in vivo yielding increased orthotopic tumors, and increased metastasis from orthotopic primaries and following tail vein injection without further VEGF treatment. VEGF rapidly stimulated VEGFR-2/JAK2/STAT3 binding and activated STAT3 to bind MYC and SOX2 promoters and induce their expression. VEGFR-2 knockdown or inhibition abrogated VEGF-mediated STAT3 activation, MYC and SOX2 induction and sphere formation. Notably, knockdown of either STAT3, MYC or SOX2 impaired VEGF-upregulation of pSTAT3, MYC and SOX2 expression and sphere formation. Each transcription factor, once upregulated, appears to promote sustained activation of the others, creating a feed-forward loop to drive self-renewal. Thus, in addition to angiogenic effects, VEGF promotes tumor-initiating cell self-renewal through VEGFR-2/STAT3 signaling. Analysis of primary breast and lung cancers (>1300 each) showed high VEGF expression, was prognostic of poor outcome and strongly associated with STAT3 and MYC expression, supporting the link between VEGF and CSC self-renewal. High-VEGF tumors may be most likely to escape anti-angiogenics by upregulating VEGF, driving CSC self-renewal to re-populate post-treatment. Our work highlights the need to better define VEGF-driven cancer subsets and supports further investigation of combined therapeutic blockade of VEGF or VEGFR-2 and JAK2/STAT3. PMID:25151964

  18. HAb18G/CD147 Promotes pSTAT3-Mediated Pancreatic Cancer Development via CD44s †, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Tang, Wenhua; Wu, Xiaoqing; Karnak, David; Meng, Xiaojie; Thompson, Rachel; Hao, Xinbao; Li, Yongmin; Qiao, Xiaotan T.; Lin, Jiayuh; Fuchs, James; Simeone, Diane M.; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Xu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose STAT3 plays a critical role in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. However, therapeutically targeting STAT3 is failure in clinic. We previously identified HAb18G/CD147 as an effective target for cancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate potential role of HAb18G/CD147 in STAT3-involved pancreatic tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design The expression of HAb18G/CD147, pSTAT3 and CD44s were determined in tissue microarrays. The tumorigenic function and molecular signaling mechanism of HAb18G/CD147 was assessed by in vitro cellular and clonogenic growth, reporter assay, immunoblot, immunofluorescence staining, immunoprecipitation, and in vivo tumor formationusing loss or gain-of-function strategies. Results Highly expressed HAb18G/CD147 promoted cellular and clonogenic growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. CyPA, a ligand of CD147, stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation and its downstream genes cyclin D1/survivin through HAb18G/CD147 dependent mechanisms. HAb18G/CD147 was associated and co-localized with cancer stem cell marker CD44s in lipid rafts. The inhibitors of STAT3 and survivin, as well as CD44s neutralizing antibodies suppressed the HAb18G/CD147-induced cell growth. High HAb18G/CD147 expression in pancreatic cancer was significantly correlated with the poor tumor differentiation, and the high co-expression of HAb18G/CD147-CD44s-STAT3 associated with poor survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Conclusions We identified HAb18G/CD147 as a novel upstream activator of STAT3 via interacts with CD44s and plays a critical role in the development of pancreatic cancer. The data suggest HAb18G/CD147 could be a promising therapeutic target for highly aggressive pancreatic cancer and a surrogate marker in the STAT3-targeted molecular therapies. PMID:24132924

  19. Zerumbone inhibits growth of hormone refractory prostate cancer cells by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 pathway and increases paclitaxel sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jorvig, Jessica E; Chakraborty, Arup

    2015-02-01

    Zerumbone, a phytochemical isolated from Zingiber zerumbet has been shown previously to exhibit antineoplastic activity. But, the effect of zerumbone in prostate cancer has not been evaluated. Prostate cancer is frequently associated with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which exerts its oncogenic effects through activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) followed by activation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Here, we investigated whether the anticancer effects of zerumbone are mediated through inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and whether zerumbone can increase the paclitaxel (PTX) sensitivity of prostate cancer cells. Zerumbone exerted significant cytotoxicity of DU145 versus PC3 prostate cancer cells through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Zerumbone selectively inhibited JAK2 in both DU145 and PC3 cells. However, the biological axis of IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 was inhibited only in DU145 cells as no STAT3 phosphorylation was detected in PC3 cells even after IL-6 stimulation. Other signaling pathways in DU145 cells remained unaffected. The expression of prostate cancer-associated genes, including cyclin D1, IL-6, COX2, and ETV1, was blocked. Zerumbone also synergistically increased the sensitivity to PTX. Further preclinical study might reveal the potential use of zerumbone as a chemotherapeutic agent for hormone refractory prostate cancer where IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling is aberrantly active and may be combined with PTX. PMID:25243457

  20. Partial inhibition of gp130-Jak-Stat3 signaling prevents Wnt-?-catenin-mediated intestinal tumor growth and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Phesse, Toby J; Buchert, Michael; Stuart, Emma; Flanagan, Dustin J; Faux, Maree; Afshar-Sterle, Shoukat; Walker, Francesca; Zhang, Hui-Hua; Nowell, Cameron J; Jorissen, Robert; Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Eissmann, Moritz F; Poh, Ashleigh R; Malaterre, Jordane; Pearson, Helen B; Kirsch, David G; Provero, Paolo; Poli, Valeria; Ramsay, Robert G; Sieber, Oliver; Burgess, Antony W; Huszar, Dennis; Vincan, Elizabeth; Ernst, Matthias

    2014-09-30

    Most colon cancers arise from somatic mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), and these mutations cause constitutive activation of the Wnt-to-?-catenin pathway in the intestinal epithelium. Because Wnt-?-catenin signaling is required for homeostasis and regeneration of the adult intestinal epithelium, therapeutic targeting of this pathway is challenging. We found that genetic activation of the cytokine-stimulated pathway mediated by the receptor gp130, the associated Jak (Janus kinase) kinases, and the transcription factor Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was required for intestinal regeneration in response to irradiation-induced damage in wild-type mice and for tumorigenesis in Apc-mutant mice. Systemic pharmacological or partial genetic inhibition of gp130-Jak-Stat3 signaling suppressed intestinal regeneration, the growth of tumors in Apc-mutant mice, and the growth of colon cancer xenografts. The growth of Apc-mutant tumors depended on gp130-Jak-Stat3 signaling for induction of the polycomb repressor Bmi-1, and the associated repression of genes encoding the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21. However, suppression of gp130-Jak-Stat3 signaling did not affect Wnt-?-catenin signaling or homeostasis in the intestine. Thus, these data not only suggest a molecular mechanism for how the gp130-Jak-Stat3 pathway can promote cancer but also provide a rationale for therapeutic inhibition of Jak in colon cancer. PMID:25270258

  1. PERK-Dependent Activation of JAK1 and STAT3 Contributes to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yudong; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Qin, Hongwei; Nozell, Susan E.; Mobley, James A.; Corbett, John A.; Benveniste, Etty N.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are associated with many neurological diseases. Here, we have examined the interaction between ER stress and JAK/STAT-dependent inflammation in glial cells. We show that ER stress is present in the central nervous system (CNS) concomitant with inflammation and astrogliosis in the multiple sclerosis (MS) mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Astrocytes do not easily succumb to ER stress but rather activate an inflammatory program involving activation of STAT3 in a JAK1-dependent fashion. ER stress-induced activation of the JAK1/STAT3 axis leads to expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and several chemokines. Moreover, the activation of STAT3 signaling is dependent on PERK, a central component of the ER stress response, which we show is phosphorylated by JAK1. Disruption of PERK abrogates ER stress-induced activation of STAT3 and subsequent gene expression. Additionally, ER-stressed astrocytes, via paracrine signaling, can stimulate activation of microglia, leading to production of IL-6 and oncostatin M (OSM). These IL-6 cytokines can then synergize with ER stress in astrocytes to drive inflammation. Together, this work describes a new PERK/JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway that elicits a feed-forward inflammatory loop involving astrocytes and microglia to drive neuroinflammation, which may be relevant in diseases such as MS. PMID:25113558

  2. FL3, a Synthetic Flavagline and Ligand of Prohibitins, Protects Cardiomyocytes via STAT3 from Doxorubicin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Adeline; Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Wilmet, Jean-Philippe; Désaubry, Laurent; Nebigil, Canan G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The clinical use of doxorubicin for the treatment of cancer is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Flavaglines are natural products that have both potent anticancer and cardioprotective properties. A synthetic analog of flavaglines, FL3, efficiently protects mice from the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The mechanism underlying this cardioprotective effect has yet to be elucidated. Methods and Results Here, we show that FL3 binds to the scaffold proteins prohibitins (PHBs) and thus promotes their translocation to mitochondria in the H9c2 cardiomyocytes. FL3 induces heterodimerization of PHB1 with STAT3, thereby ensuring cardioprotection from doxorubicin toxicity. This interaction is associated with phosphorylation of STAT3. A JAK2 inhibitor, WP1066, suppresses both the phosphorylation of STAT3 and the protective effect of FL3 in cardiomyocytes. The involvement of PHBs in the FL3-mediated cardioprotection was confirmed by means of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting PHB1 and PHB2. The siRNA knockdown of PHBs inhibits both phosphorylation of STAT3 and the cardioprotective effect of FL3. Conclusion Activation of mitochondrial STAT3/PHB1 complex by PHB ligands may be a new strategy against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and possibly other cardiac problems. PMID:26536361

  3. PRDX6 promotes tumor development via the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in a urethane-induced lung tumor model.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Park, Mi Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Jo, Mi Ran; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Yoon, Do Young; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-03-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a bifunctional protein with both glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and iPLA2 activities. Even though several pathophysiological functions have been studied, the definitive role of PRDX6 in tumor growth is not clear. Here, we compared carcinogen-induced tumor growth in PRDX6-transgenic (Tg) mice and non-Tg mice to evaluate the roles of PRDX6 in lung tumor development. Urethane (1g/kg)-induced tumor incidence in PRDX6-Tg mice was significantly higher compared to non-Tg mice. In the tumors of PRDX6-Tg mice, the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and STAT3 DNA binding were also increased, accompanied by increased GPx and iPLA2 activities. PRDX6 was colocalized with JAK2 in tumor tissues and lung cancer cells and also showed physical interaction with JAK2. We found that increasing levels of PRDX6 increase the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Furthermore, PRDX6-Tg mice showed altered cytokine levels in the tumors, especially leading to increased CCL5 levels. We validated that the activation of JAK2 was also decreased in lung tumors of CCR5(-/-) mice, and CCL5 increased the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in the lung cancer cells. Thus, our findings suggest that PRDX6 promotes lung tumor development via its mediated and CCL5-associated activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. PMID:25582888

  4. Oncostatin M Mediates STAT3-Dependent Intestinal Epithelial Restitution via Increased Cell Proliferation, Decreased Apoptosis and Upregulation of SERPIN Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Beigel, Florian; Friedrich, Matthias; Probst, Corina; Sotlar, Karl; Göke, Burkhard; Diegelmann, Julia; Brand, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oncostatin M (OSM) is produced by activated T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells and signals through two distinct receptor complexes consisting of gp130 and LIFR (I) or OSMR-? and gp130 (II), respectively. Aim of this study was to analyze the role of OSM in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and intestinal inflammation. Methods OSM expression and OSM receptor distribution was analyzed by PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments, signal transduction by immunoblotting. Gene expression studies were performed by microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Apoptosis was measured by caspases-3/7 activity. IEC migration and proliferation was studied in wounding and water soluble tetrazolium assays. Results The IEC lines Caco-2, DLD-1, SW480, HCT116 and HT-29 express mRNA for the OSM receptor subunits gp130 and OSMR-?, while only HCT116, HT-29 and DLD-1 cells express LIFR mRNA. OSM binding to its receptor complex activates STAT1, STAT3, ERK-1/2, SAPK/JNK-1/2, and Akt. Microarray analysis revealed 79 genes that were significantly up-regulated (adj.-p?0.05) by OSM in IEC. Most up-regulated genes belong to the functional categories “immunity and defense” (p?=?2.1×10?7), “apoptosis” (p?=?3.7×10?4) and “JAK/STAT cascade” (p?=?3.4×10?6). Members of the SERPIN gene family were among the most strongly up-regulated genes. OSM significantly increased STAT3- and MEK1-dependent IEC cell proliferation (p<0.05) and wound healing (p?=?3.9×10?5). OSM protein expression was increased in colonic biopsies of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Conclusions OSM promotes STAT3-dependent intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and wound healing in vitro. Considering the increased OSM expression in colonic biopsy specimens of patients with active IBD, OSM upregulation may modulate a barrier-protective host response in intestinal inflammation. Further in vivo studies are warranted to elucidate the exact role of OSM in intestinal inflammation and the potential of OSM as a drug target in IBD. PMID:24710357

  5. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate inhibits inflammatory response through STAT3 pathway to protect remnant liver function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guang-Hua; Yang, Hua-Yu; Zhang, Jin-Chun; Ren, Jin-Jun; Sang, Xin-Ting; Lu, Xin; Zhong, Shou-Xian; Mao, Yi-Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) on excessive hepatectomy animal model and its possible mechanism. METHODS: We used the standard 90% hepatectomy model in Sprague-Dawley rats developed using the modified Emond’s method, in which the left, middle, right upper, and right lower lobes of the liver were removed. Rats with 90% liver resection were divided into three groups, and were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mL saline (control group), 30 mg/kg (low-dose group) and 60 mg/kg (high-dose group) of MgIG, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at various time points and blood was drawn from the vena cava. Biochemical tests were performed with an automatic biochemical analyzer for the following items: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamyl endopeptidase, total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), total protein, albumin, blood glucose (Glu), hyper-sensitivity C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). Postoperative survival time was observed hourly until death. Hepatocyte regeneration was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and iNOS) was analyzed by ELISA. STAT3 protein and mRNA were analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The high-dose group demonstrated a significantly prolonged survival time, compared with both the control and the low-dose groups (22.0 ± 4.7 h vs 8.9 ± 2.0 vs 10.3 ± 3.3 h, P = 0.018). There were significant differences among the groups in ALT, Glu and PT levels starting from 6 h after surgery. The ALT levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. Both Glu and PT levels were significantly higher in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. At 12 h, ALT, AST, TBil, DBil and TT levels showed significant differences between the MgIG treated groups and the control group. No significant differences in hepatocyte regeneration were found. Compared to the control group, the high-dose group showed a significantly increase in serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-10, and a decrease in IL-6. Both STAT3 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group at 6 h, 12 h, and 18 h after surgery. CONCLUSION: High-dose MgIG can extend survival time in rats after excessive hepatectomy. This hepatoprotective effect is mediated by inhibiting the inflammatory response through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. PMID:26604644

  6. Ixodes ricinus Salivary Serpin IRS-2 Affects Th17 Differentiation via Inhibition of the Interleukin-6/STAT-3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Páleníková, Jana; Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Langhansová, Helena; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmela?, Jind?ich

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cells constitute a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes that play a crucial role in protection against extracellular bacteria and fungi. They are also associated with tissue injury in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we report that serpin from the tick Ixodes ricinus, IRS-2, inhibits Th17 differentiation by impairment of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT-3 signaling pathway. Following activation, mature dendritic cells produce an array of cytokines, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, which triggers the IL-6 signaling pathway. The major transcription factor activated by IL-6 is STAT-3. We show that IRS-2 selectively inhibits production of IL-6 in dendritic cells stimulated with Borrelia spirochetes, which leads to attenuated STAT-3 phosphorylation and finally to impaired Th17 differentiation. The results presented extend the knowledge about the effect of tick salivary serpins on innate immunity cells and their function in driving adaptive immune responses. PMID:25712932

  7. The curcumin analogue hydrazinocurcumin exhibits potent suppressive activity on carcinogenicity of breast cancer cells via STAT3 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Wenxia; Feng, Wenli; Chen, Tingmei

    2012-04-01

    Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development in cancer. In our study, we tested the efficacy of a synthetic curcumin analogue, known as hydrazinocurcumin (HC), in breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that compared to curcumin, HC was more effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and downregulation of an array of STAT3 downstream targets which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion as well as induction of cell apoptosis. It was concluded that HC is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with more favorable pharmacological activity than curcumin, and HC may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for human breast carcinoma. PMID:22179587

  8. Synergistic Effect of Radiation and Interleukin-6 on Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation in Liver Through STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.H.; Chen, P.-J.; Jeng, Y.-M.; Cheng, A.-L.; Huang, L.-R.; Cheng, J.C.-H.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can occur after radiotherapy (RT) for hepatobiliary malignancies. Our previous in vitro culture study identified interleukin-6 (IL-6) as the main bystander mediator of RT-induced HBV replication. We attempted to examine the molecular mechanism in HBV-transgenic mice. Methods and materials: HBV transgenic mice were treated with whole liver RT (4 Gy daily for 5 days) with or without administration of IL-6 (400 ng twice daily for 15 days). The serum level of HBV DNA was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the IL-6 concentration was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The intensity of immunostaining with antibodies to HBV core protein and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in the mouse liver was qualitatively analyzed. HepG2.2.15 cells (a human hepatoblastoma cell line that persistently produces HBV DNA) were used to investigate the molecular role of IL-6 plus RT in HBV reactivation. Results: HBV reactivation was induced in vivo with IL-6 plus RT (5.58-fold) compared with RT alone (1.31-fold, p = .005), IL-6 alone (1.31-fold, p = .005), or sham treatment (1.22-fold, p = .004). HBV core protein staining confirmed augmentation of intrahepatic HBV replication. IL-6 plus RT-induced HBV DNA replication in HepG2.2.15 cells was suppressed by the STAT3 inhibitor AG490 and by transfection with dominant-negative STAT3 plasmid. Phosphorylated STAT3 staining was strongest in liver tissue from mice treated with IL-6 plus RT. The mobility shift assay demonstrated that reactivation was mediated through the interaction of phosphorylated STAT3/hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 complex with HBV enhancer 1. Conclusion: RT to the liver and longer sustained IL-6 induced HBV reactivation through the STAT3 signal transduction pathway.

  9. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Li; Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 ; Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong; Olson, Veronica; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Lin, Jiayuh

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower IC50 in colon cancer stem-like cells. In summary, our results indicate that STAT3 is a novel therapeutic target in colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibition of STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a potential treatment for colorectal cancer.

  10. Association between STAT3 polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ruicheng; Lin, Fusheng; Hu, Chao; Tong, Shilun

    2015-12-01

    Five polymorphisms, rs2293152, rs4796793, rs12949918, rs6503695, rs744166, in the STAT3 gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer, but the results were inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between the five polymorphisms and cancer risk. All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang, VIP, and CNKI. Effect sizes of odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated by using a fixed- or random-effect model. A total of 15 articles were included. Overall, a significantly decreased risk was found for rs12949918 polymorphism (dominant model: OR = 0.83, 95 % CI: 0.75-0.91, recessive model: OR = 0.77, 95 % CI: 0.68-0.87, TC vs. TT: OR = 0.87, 95 % CI: 0.79-0.96, CC vs. TT: OR = 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.62-0.81), and for rs744166 polymorphism (recessive model: OR = 0.75, 95 % CI: 0.58-0.98; GG vs. AA: OR = 0.68, 95 % CI: 0.51-0.90), while there was no significant association for other three polymorphisms under all genetic models. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, for rs12949918 polymorphism, similar results were detected among Caucasians, similarly, a significant decreased risk was observed in Asians under dominant and CC vs. TT model; for rs2293152 polymorphism, significant association was detected among Asians under recessive model. This meta-analysis suggests that the STAT3 rs12949918 and rs744166 polymorphisms, but not other three polymorphisms, may be an important protective factor for cancer. PMID:26063618

  11. The Coiled-Coil Domain of Stat3 Is Essential for Its SH2 Domain-Mediated Receptor Binding and Subsequent Activation Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor and Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Kee, Wei Hua; Seow, Kah Tong; Fung, Winnie; Cao, Xinmin

    2000-01-01

    STAT proteins are a family of latent transcription factors that mediate the response to various cytokines and growth factors. Upon stimulation by cytokines, STAT proteins are recruited to the receptors via their SH2 domains, phosphorylated on a specific tyrosine, dimerized, and translocated into the nucleus, where they bind specific DNA sequences and activate the target gene transcription. STATs share highly conserved structures, including an N-domain, a coiled-coil domain, a DNA-binding domain, a linker domain, and an SH2 domain. To investigate the role of the coiled-coil domain, we performed a systematic deletion analysis of the N-domain and each of the ?-helices and mutagenesis of conserved residues in the coiled-coil region of Stat3. Our results indicate that the coiled-coil domain is essential for Stat3 recruitment to the receptor and the subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent activities, such as dimer formation, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding, stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or interleukin-6 (IL-6). Single mutation of Asp170 or, to a lesser extent, Lys177 in ?-helix 1 diminishes both receptor binding and tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, the Asp170 mutant retains its ability to bind to DNA when phosphorylated on Tyr705 by Src kinase in vitro, implying a functional SH2 domain. Finally, we demonstrate a direct binding of Stat3 to the receptor. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role for the coiled-coil domain that regulates the early events in Stat3 activation and function. PMID:10982829

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus BamHI W Repeat Number Limits EBNA2/EBNA-LP Coexpression in Newly Infected B Cells and the Efficiency of B-Cell Transformation: a Rationale for the Multiple W Repeats in Wild-Type Virus Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Rosemary J.; Kao, Kuan-Yu; Nagra, Jasdeep K.; Rickinson, Alan B.

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gammaherpesvirus with potent B-cell growth-transforming ability, contains multiple copies of a 3-kb BamHI W repeat sequence; each repeat carries (i) a promoter (Wp) that initiates transformation by driving EBNA-LP and EBNA2 expression and (ii) the W1W2 exons encoding the functionally active repeat domain of EBNA-LP. The W repeat copy number of a virus therefore influences two potential determinants of its transforming ability: the number of available Wp copies and the maximum size of the encoded EBNA-LP. Here, using recombinant EBVs, we show that optimal B-cell transformation requires a minimum of 5 W repeats (5W); the levels of transforming ability fall progressively with viruses carrying 4, 3, and 2 W repeats, as do the levels of Wp-initiated transcripts expressed early postinfection (p.i.), while viruses with 1 copy of the wild-type W repeat (1W) and 0W are completely nontransforming. We therefore suggest that genetic analyses of EBV transforming function should ensure that wild-type and mutant strains have equal numbers (ideally at least 5) of W copies if the analysis is not to be compromised. Attempts to enhance the transforming function of low-W-copy-number viruses, via the activity of helper EBV strains or by gene repair, suggested that the critical defect is not related to EBNA-LP size but to the failure to achieve sufficiently strong coexpression of EBNA-LP and EBNA2 early postinfection. We further show by the results of ex vivo assays that EBV strains in the blood of infected individuals typically have a mean of 5 to 8 W copies, consistent with the view that evolution has selected for viruses with an optimal transforming function. PMID:21957300

  13. Systemic Administration of a Cyclic Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Decoy Oligonucleotide Inhibits Tumor Growth without Inducing Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Malabika; Paul, Kathleen; Freilino, Maria L; Li, Hua; Li, Changyou; Johnson, Daniel E; Wang, Lin; Eiseman, Julie; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked to tumorigenesis in most malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Intravenous delivery of a chemically modified cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide with improved serum and thermal stability demonstrated antitumor efficacy in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression such as cyclin D1 and Bcl-XL in a mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy of the cyclic STAT3 decoy after multiple intravenous doses in Foxn1 nu mice in anticipation of clinical translation. The two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of cyclic STAT3 decoy demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor volume compared with the control groups (mutant cyclic STAT3 decoy or saline) in conjunction with downmodulation of STAT3 target gene expression. There was no dose-dependent effect of cyclic STAT3 decoy on tumor volume or STAT3 target gene expression. There were no significant changes in body weights between the groups during the dosing period, after the dosing interval or on the day of euthanasia. No hematology or clinical chemistry parameters suggested toxicity of the cyclic STAT3 decoy compared with saline control. No gross or histological pathological abnormalities were noted at necropsy in any of the animals. These findings suggest a lack of toxicity of intravenous administration of a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. In addition, comparable antitumor effects indicate a lack of dose response at the two dose levels investigated. PMID:24395569

  14. Stat3 Defines Three Populations of Müller Glia and Is Required for Initiating Maximal Müller Glia Proliferation in the Regenerating Zebrafish Retina

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig M.; Gorsuch, Ryne A.; Bailey, Travis J.; Ackerman, Kristin M.; Kassen, Sean C.; Hyde, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the role of Stat3, Ascl1a, and Lin28a in Müller glia reentry into the cell cycle following damage to the zebrafish retina. Immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the temporal and spatial expression of Stat3 and Ascl1a proteins following rod and cone photoreceptor cell apoptosis. Stat3 expression was observed in all Müller glia, while Ascl1a expression was restricted to only the mitotic Müller glia. Knockdown of Stat3 protein expression did not affect photoreceptor apoptosis, but significantly reduced, without abolishing, the number of proliferating Ascl1a-positive Müller glia. Knockdown of Ascl1a protein also did not change the extent of photoreceptor apoptosis, but did yield significantly fewer Müller glia that reentered the cell cycle relative to the stat3 morphant and significantly decreased the number and intensity of Stat3 expressing Müller glia. Finally, introduction of lin28a morpholinos resulted in decreased Müller glia expression of Stat3 and Ascl1a, significantly reducing the number of proliferating Müller glia. Thus, there are three populations of Müller glia in the light-damaged zebrafish retina: 1) Stat3-expressing Ascl1a-nonexpressing nonproliferating (quiescent) Müller glia, 2) Stat3-dependent Ascl1a-dependent proliferating Müller glia, 3) Stat3-independent Ascl1a-dependent proliferating Müller glia. While Ascl1a and Lin28a are required for Müller glia proliferation, Stat3 is necessary for the maximal number of Müller glia to proliferate during regeneration of the damaged zebrafish retina. PMID:22886421

  15. Knockdown of PKC? expression inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and decreases invasiveness of human glioma cells partially through Stat3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaming; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Shiyun; Ji, Yonghua; Chen, Fuxue

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common primary central nervous system tumor. Despite considerable research effort, little progress has been made in the therapeutic treatment of this disease. Protein kinase C? (PKC?), an important intracellular signaling molecule, modulates diverse cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and differentiation. The aim of the study is to investigate whether knockdown of PKC? expression by RNA interference (RNAi) could affect the growth, apoptosis and invasion of human glioma cells, and the involvement of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway in these effects. Our data showed that knockdown of PKC? expression inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and decreased invasiveness of human glioma cell lines U251 and U87, as well as suppressed the growth of U87 cell-derived tumors in nude mice. Moreover, PKC? physically interacts with Stat3, and knockdown of PKC? expression attenuated Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) expression in the two human glioma cell lines. These results support an important role for PKC? in glioma cell growth, apoptosis and invasion, and PKC? exerting its above effects at least in part through Stat3. Thus, PKC? has the potential to be an attractive therapeutic target for glioma therapy. PMID:24888992

  16. The STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 synergizes with vorinostat to induce apoptosis of mantle cell lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang; Chen, Na; Zhou, Xiang-xiang; Ge, Xue-ling; Feng, Li-li; Li, Pei-pei; Li, Xin-yu; Geng, Ling-yun; Wang, Xin

    2015-08-14

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) characterized by the translocation t (11; 14) (q13; q32). Drug resistance remains a formidable obstacle to treatment and the median survival for MCL patients is between 3 and 5 years. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover novel approaches to MCL therapy. The signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been found to be constitutively activated in several subtypes of MCL cell lines and MCL tumors. WP1066, a small-molecule inhibitor of STAT3, exerted antitumor activity in hematological and solid malignancies by inhibiting key survival and growth signaling pathways. In the present study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of WP1066 combined with pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) in a panel of MCL cell lines. In addition, potential mechanisms involved were also explored. The outcome showed that combination of WP1066 with SAHA resulted in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in MCL cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, combination of WP1066 with SAHA inhibited the constitutive STAT3 activation and modulated mRNA expressions of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes. Our findings suggest that agents targeting the STAT3 pathway such as WP1066 may be useful therapeutic drugs for MCL when combined with SAHA. PMID:26116769

  17. The FGFR4-G388R Polymorphism Promotes Mitochondrial STAT3 Serine Phosphorylation to Facilitate Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Toru; Asa, Sylvia L.; Zheng, Lei; Mayr, Thomas; Ullrich, Axel; Ezzat, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common intracranial neoplasms, yet few germline abnormalities have been implicated in their pathogenesis. Here we show that a single nucleotide germline polymorphism (SNP) substituting an arginine (R) for glycine (G) in the FGFR4 transmembrane domain can alter pituitary cell growth and hormone production. Compared with FGFR4-G388 mammosomatotroph cells that support prolactin (PRL) production, FGFR4-R388 cells express predominantly growth hormone (GH). Growth promoting effects of FGFR4-R388 as evidenced by enhanced colony formation was ascribed to Src activation and mitochondrial serine phosphorylation of STAT3 (pS-STAT3). In contrast, diminished pY-STAT3 mediated by FGFR4-R388 relieved GH inhibition leading to hormone excess. Using a knock-in mouse model, we demonstrate the ability of FGFR4-R385 to promote GH pituitary tumorigenesis. In patients with acromegaly, pituitary tumor size correlated with hormone excess in the presence of the FGFR4-R388 but not the FGFR4-G388 allele. Our findings establish a new role for the FGFR4-G388R polymorphism in pituitary oncogenesis, providing a rationale for targeting Src and STAT3 in the personalized treatment of associated disorders. PMID:22174695

  18. Glioblastoma cancer-initiating cells inhibit T cell proliferation and effector responses by the STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Barr, Jason; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wang, Yongtao; Wu, Adam; Sharma, Amit K.; Gumin, Joy; Henry, Verlene; Colman, Howard; Priebe, Waldemar; Sawaya, Raymond; Lang, Frederick F.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer that responds poorly to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Glioma cancer-initiating cells have been shown to recapitulate the characteristic features of GBM and mediate chemotherapy and radiation resistance. However, it is unknown whether the cancer-initiating cells contribute to the profound immune suppression in GBM patients. Recent studies have found that the activated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key mediator in GBM immunosuppression. We isolated and generated CD133+ cancer-initiating single colonies from GBM patients and investigated their immune suppressive properties. We found that the cancer-initiating cells inhibited T cell proliferation and activation, induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) and triggered T cell apoptosis. The STAT3 pathway is constitutively active in these clones and the immunosuppressive properties were markedly diminished when the STAT3 pathway was blocked in the cancer-initiating cells. These findings indicate that cancer-initiating cells contribute to GBMs’ immune evasion and that blockade of the STAT3 pathway has therapeutic potential. PMID:20053772

  19. CCR5 Blockade Suppresses Melanoma Development Through Inhibition of IL-6-Stat3 Pathway via Upregulation of SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiu; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, we found that chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) neutralization resulted in reduced melanoma tumor size, decreased percentage of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and increased proportion of cluster of differentiation (CD)3(+) T cells in tumor tissues. Suppressive activity of MDSCs on CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cell proliferation is significantly inhibited by anti-CCR5 antibody. CCR5 blockade also suppresses interleukin (IL)-6 induction, which in turn deactivates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in tumors. Furthermore, the suppressed B16 tumor growth induced by CCR5 blockade is abolished with additional administration of recombinant IL-6. CCR5 blockade also induces suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) upregulations, and anti-CCR5 antibody fails to suppress expression of phospho-Stat3 (p-Stat3), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), and IL-6 in cells transfected with SOCS3 short-interfering RNA (SiRNA). All these data suggest that CCR5 blockade suppresses melanoma development through inhibition of IL-6-Stat3 pathway via upregulation of SOCS3. PMID:26047948

  20. Tetrandrine suppresses human glioma growth by inhibiting cell survival, proliferation and tumour angiogenesis through attenuating STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ru; Ye, Jie-Cheng; Li, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Yi-Kai; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Li, Jin-Ying; Zhong, Xue-Yun; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-10-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-tumour activity. However, its effects on human glioma remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Tet inhibited human glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. It has been hypothesised that Tet inhibits glioma growth by affecting glioma cell survival, proliferation and vasculature in and around the xenograft tumour in the chick CAM model and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediated these activities. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis of the inhibitory effects of Tet on cell survival using a TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis; on cell proliferation based on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen; and on angiogenesis using a CAM anti-angiogenesis assay. We used western blotting to investigate the role of STAT3 on the anti-glioma activities of Tet. The results revealed that Tet inhibited survival and proliferation in human glioma cells, impaired tumour angiogenesis and decreased the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 and its downstream proteins. In sum, our data indicate that STAT3 is involved in Tet-induced the regression of glioma growth by activating tumour cell apoptosis, inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26086859

  1. Novel sorafenib analogues induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constitutively activated in various cancers including breast cancer and has emerged as a novel potential anti-cancer target. STAT3 has been demonstrated to be a target of sorafenib, and a protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) has been demonstrated to downregulate p-STAT3 via its phosphatase activity. Here, we tested the efficacy of two sorafenib analogues, SC-1 and SC-43, in breast cancer cells and examined the drug mechanism. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Cell viability was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and western blot. Signal transduction pathways in cells were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of sorafenib, SC-1 and SC-43 was tested in xenografted nude mice. Results SC-1 and SC-43 induced more potent apoptosis than sorafenib, in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 and its downstream proteins cyclin D1 and survivin in a dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cell lines (HCC-1937, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, SK-BR3, MCF-7). Overexpression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected the cells from apoptosis induced by sorafenib, SC-1 and SC-43. Moreover, SC-1 and SC-43 upregulated SHP-1 activity to a greater extent than sorafenib as measured by in vitro phosphatase assays. Knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA reduced apoptosis induced by SC-1 and SC-43. Importantly, SC-1 and SC-43 showed more efficacious antitumor activity and p-STAT3 downregulation than sorafenib in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. Conclusions Novel sorafenib analogues SC-1 and SC-43 induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation and demonstrate greater potency than sorafenib in human breast cancer cells. PMID:23938089

  2. cAMP/PKA enhances interleukin-1?-induced interleukin-6 synthesis through STAT3 in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kumiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iida, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1? induces IL-6 synthesis via activation of the I?B/NF?B pathway, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, but not p44/p42 MAP kinase in rat glioma cell line, C6 cells and that cAMP enhances the IL-6 synthesis. However, the details behind enhancement of IL-1?-induced IL-6 synthesis by cAMP remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the exact mechanism of cAMP underlying the amplification of IL-1?-induced IL-6 synthesis in C6 cells. 8-Bromo cAMP significantly enhanced IL-1?-induced STAT3 phosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation of I?B, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. In addition, we found that forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, significantly enhanced IL-1?-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK) inhibitor I markedly suppressed the amplification by 8-bromo cAMP of IL-1?-induced IL-6 release. IL-1? induced JAK2 phosphorylation, and FLLL32, a specific JAK2 inhibitor, significantly reduced IL-1?-stimulated IL-6 release. 4-Cyano-3-methylisoquinoline, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), significantly attenuated the enhancing effect of 8-bromo cAMP on IL-1?-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. 8-Bromo cAMP markedly induced JAK2 phosphorylation. PKA siRNA transfection reduced enhancement of IL-1?-induced IL-6 release by 8-bromo cAMP. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/PKA pathway upregulates IL-1?-induced IL-6 synthesis through enhancement of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in C6 glioma cells. PMID:26527061

  3. GSK3? inhibition protects the immature brain from hypoxic-ischaemic insult via reduced STAT3 signalling.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Barbara; Joakim Ek, C; Sun, Yanyan; Zhu, Changlian; Sandberg, Mats; Mallard, Carina

    2016-02-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury is an important cause of neurological morbidity in neonates. HI leads to pathophysiological responses, including inflammation and oxidative stress that culminate in cell death. Activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) promotes brain inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test whether inhibition of GSK3? signalling protects against neonatal HI brain injury. Mice were subjected to HI at postnatal day (PND) 9 and treated with a selective GSK3? inhibitor, SB216763. Brain injury and caspase-3 activation, anti-oxidant and inflammatory mRNA responses and activation of STAT3 were analysed. Our results show that HI reduced phosphorylation of GSK3?, thus promoting its kinase activity. The GSK3? inhibitor reduced caspase-3 activation and neuronal cell death elicited by HI and reverted the effects of HI on gene expression of the anti-oxidant enzyme sod2 and mitochondrial factor pgc1?. The HI insult activated STAT3 in glial cells and GSK3? inhibition attenuated STAT3 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation following HI. Further, GSK3? inhibition reduced HI-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tnf? and Il-6, while promoted the anti-inflammatory factor Il-10. In summary, data show that GSK3? inhibition is neuroprotective in neonatal HI brain injury likely via reduced pro-inflammatory responses by blocking STAT3 signalling. Our study suggests that pharmacological interventions built upon GSK3? silencing strategies could represent a novel therapy in neonatal brain injury. PMID:26384655

  4. Quercetin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress to enhance cDDP cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer: involvement of STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongyuan; Liu, Yi; Liao, Jing; Gong, Cheng; Sun, Chaoyang; Zhou, Xiaoshui; Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Taoran; Gao, Qinglei; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make cisplatin (cDDP) more effective and less toxic in the treatment of ovarian cancer for its systemic side effects and high resistance rate. In this study, we investigated the effect of quercetin (Qu) pretreatment on the potentiation of cDDP in ovarian cancer. We found that Qu pretreatment significantly enhanced cDDP cytotoxicity in an ovarian cancer cell line and primary cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that Qu elicited obvious endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and activated all three branches of ERS in ovarian cancer. Specific inhibitors of each ERS pathway, as well as the general ERS stabilizer tauroursodeoxycholic acid, notably diminished such enhancing effects. Furthermore, Qu notably suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation, leading to downregulation of the BCL-2 gene downstream of STAT3. Moreover, blocking ERS restored the protein levels of phosphorylated STAT3 as well as BCL-2 expression, thus abolishing the chemosensitization potency of Qu; these results revealed that Qu affected the STAT3 pathway to enhance cDDP cytotoxicity, and this effect involved ERS signaling. In a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer, Qu enhanced the antitumor effect of cDDP. Tumors from mice treated with cDDP in combination with Qu pretreatment had repressed STAT3 phosphorylation, lower BCL-2 and higher apoptosis levels compared with those from the other groups. Meanwhile, Qu markedly reduced the elevation of blood creatinine during cDDP intervention. These data indicate that Qu pretreatment potentiates the antitumor effects of cDDP in ovarian cancer while protecting the kidneys against damage. Therefore the strategy of Qu pretreatment may be beneficial in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of cDDP against ovarian cancer. PMID:25611565

  5. CD4+ T cell STAT3 phosphorylation precedes acute GVHD, and subsequent Th17 tissue invasion correlates with GVHD severity and therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Betts, Brian C; Sagatys, Elizabeth M; Veerapathran, Anandharaman; Lloyd, Mark C; Beato, Francisca; Lawrence, Harshani R; Yue, Binglin; Kim, Jongphil; Sebti, Said M; Anasetti, Claudio; Pidala, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Th17 cells contribute to severe GVHD in murine bone marrow transplantation. Targeted deletion of the ROR?t transcription factor or blockade of the JAK2-STAT3 axis suppresses IL-17 production and alloreactivity by Th17 cells. Here, we show that pSTAT3 Y705 is increased significantly in CD4(+) T cells among human recipients of allogeneic HCT before the onset of Grade II-IV acute GVHD. Examination of target-organ tissues at the time of GVHD diagnosis indicates that the amount of ROR?t + Th17 cells is significantly higher in severe GVHD. Greater accumulation of tissue-resident Th17 cells also correlates with the use of MTX- compared with Rapa-based GVHD prophylaxis, as well as a poor therapeutic response to glucocorticoids. ROR?t is optimally suppressed by concurrent neutralization of TORC1 with Rapa and inhibition of STAT3 activation with S3I-201, supporting that mTOR- and STAT3-dependent pathways converge upon ROR?t gene expression. Rapa-resistant T cell proliferation can be totally inhibited by STAT3 blockade during initial allosensitization. We conclude that STAT3 signaling and resultant Th17 tissue accumulation are closely associated with acute GVHD onset, severity, and treatment outcome. Future studies are needed to validate the association of STAT3 activity in acute GVHD. Novel GVHD prevention strategies that incorporate dual STAT3 and mTOR inhibition merit investigation. PMID:25663681

  6. STAT3 mutations unify the pathogenesis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells and T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jerez, Andres; Clemente, Michael J.; Makishima, Hideki; Koskela, Hanna; LeBlanc, Francis; Peng Ng, Kwok; Olson, Thomas; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Afable, Manuel; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Guinta, Kathryn; Durkin, Lisa; Hsi, Eric D.; McGraw, Kathy; Zhang, Dan; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Porkka, Kimmo; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; List, Alan; Mustjoki, Satu; Loughran, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of natural killer cells (CLPD-NKs) and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias (T-LGLs) are clonal lymphoproliferations arising from either natural killer cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We have investigated for distribution and functional significance of mutations in 50 CLPD-NKs and 120 T-LGL patients by direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR, and microarray analysis. STAT3 gene mutations are present in both T and NK diseases: approximately one-third of patients with each type of disorder convey these mutations. Mutations were found in exons 21 and 20, encoding the Src homology 2 domain. Patients with mutations are characterized by symptomatic disease (75%), history of multiple treatments, and a specific pattern of STAT3 activation and gene deregulation, including increased expression of genes activated by STAT3. Many of these features are also found in patients with wild-type STAT3, indicating that other mechanisms of STAT3 activation can be operative in these chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, both in wild-type and mutant cases, resulted in accelerated apoptosis. STAT3 mutations are frequent in large granular lymphocytes suggesting a similar molecular dysregulation in malignant chronic expansions of NK and CTL origin. STAT3 mutations may distinguish truly malignant lymphoproliferations involving T and NK cells from reactive expansions. PMID:22859607

  7. Rational combination of MEK inhibitor and the STAT3 pathway modulator for the therapy in K-Ras mutated pancreatic and colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengguang; Xiao, Hui; Wu, Xiaojuan; Li, Chenglong; Liang, Guang; Yang, Shulin; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras mutations are frequently detected in pancreatic and colon cancers, which are associated with the resistance to MEK inhibitors targeting the Ras pathway. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for the acquired resistance is essential for the future clinical development of MEK inhibitors. Here, we identified that Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) was significantly activated following the MEK inhibition using AZD6244, PD98059 and Trametinib in K-Ras mutant pancreatic and colon cancer cells. The STAT3 activation may be important for the MEK inhibitor resistance in these K-Ras mutant cancer cells. We have shown that dual inhibition of STAT3 and MEK using the STAT3 inhibitor LY5 and MEK inhibitor Trametinib exerts significant anti-tumor cell efficacy in K-Ras mutant pancreatic and colon cancer cells in vitro. In addition, Trametinib showed increased suppression on tumor growth in vivo in STAT3 knockdown pancreatic cancer cells compared with tumor growth of control cells without STAT3 knockdown. Taken together, our results suggest the induced STAT3 activation as a possible mechanism for the resistance to MEK inhibitor and demonstrate the potentials of a combination therapy using MEK and STAT3 inhibitors in pancreatic and colon cancers harboring K-Ras mutant proteins. PMID:25961376

  8. Inhibition of STAT3 dimerization and acetylation by garcinol suppresses the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked with proliferation, survival, invasion and angiogenesis of a variety of human cancer cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, novel agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential for both prevention and treatment of HCC. Here we report, garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone, could suppress STAT3 activation in HCC cell lines and in xenografted tumor of HCC in nude mice model. Experimental design Different HCC cell lines have been treated with garcinol and the inhibition of STAT3 activation, dimerization and acetylation have been checked by immunoblotting, immuno-fluorescence, and DNA binding assays. Xenografted tumor model has been generated in nude mice using HCC cell line and effect of garcinol in the inhibition of tumor growth has been investigated. Results Garcinol could inhibit both constitutive and interleukin (IL-6) inducible STAT3 activation in HCC cells. Computational modeling showed that garcinol could bind to the SH2 domain of STAT3 and suppress its dimerization in vitro. Being an acetyltransferase inhibitor, garcinol also inhibits STAT3 acetylation and thus impairs its DNA binding ability. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by garcinol led to the suppression of expression of various genes involved in proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. It also suppressed proliferation and induced substantial apoptosis in HCC cells. Remarkably, garcinol inhibited the growth of human HCC xenograft tumors in athymic nu/nu mice, through the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that garcinol exerts its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects through suppression of STAT3 signaling in HCC both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24655440

  9. Oncostatin M activates STAT3 to promote endometrial cancer invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minjiao; Che, Qi; Liao, Yun; Wang, Huihui; Wang, Jingyun; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Fangyuan; Dai, Chenjun; Wan, Xiaoping

    2015-07-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM), a pleiotropic cytokine, can either promote or inhibit the growth of tumors derived from specific tissues. However, little is known about the activity and expression pattern of OSM in endometrial cancers (ECs). Herein we show that expression of OSM in human ECs was significantly higher than that in hyperplastic or normal tissues. In EC tissues, high OSM levels were positively correlated with tumor stage, histological grade, myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Additionally, we demonstrated that recombinant human OSM (rhOSM) promoted tumor angiogenesis in EC cell lines by activating STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and enhanced both cell migration and cell invasion. rhOSM did not, however, influence the proliferation of EC cells in vitro. In contrast, in our in vivo xenograft model, overexpression of rhOSM promoted cell proliferation, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in nude mice. Collectively, these experiments suggest that OSM may be a tumor promoter that encourages EC progression. OSM may thus serve as a potential target of antiangiogenic therapy for endometrial cancer. PMID:25954856

  10. FoxM1 Directs STAT3 Expression Essential for Human Endometrial Stromal Decidualization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaling; Liao, Yixin; He, Hui; Xin, Qiliang; Tu, Zhaowei; Kong, Shuangbo; Cui, Tongtong; Wang, Bingyan; Quan, Song; Li, Bing; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Human endometrium decidualization, which involves endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation, is a prerequisite for embryo implantation, thus successful pregnancy. The Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1), previously known as HNF-3, HFH-11, MPP2, Win, and Trident, is a transcriptional factor that plays crucial roles in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. However, the molecular mechanism of FoxM1 during human endometrial decidualization remains unexplored. In this study, we first found FoxM1 is dynamically expressed in human endometrium during menstrual cycle. Employing a human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) line, we then demonstrated that FoxM1 inhibition downregulates cyclin B1 expression, delaying G2/M phase transition during HESC proliferation. Additionally, loss of FoxM1 expression blocks the differentiation of HESCs in response to estrogen, progesterone, and dbcAMP. Applying chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique and luciferase assay, we further approved that FoxM1 can transcriptionally active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), ensuring normal HESC differentiation. Besides enriching our knowledge on molecular basis underlying stromal decidualization, these findings help to shed light on the potential molecular causes for the endometrial disorders in humans. PMID:26334131

  11. FoxM1 Directs STAT3 Expression Essential for Human Endometrial Stromal Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yaling; Liao, Yixin; He, Hui; Xin, Qiliang; Tu, Zhaowei; Kong, Shuangbo; Cui, Tongtong; Wang, Bingyan; Quan, Song; Li, Bing; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Human endometrium decidualization, which involves endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation, is a prerequisite for embryo implantation, thus successful pregnancy. The Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1), previously known as HNF-3, HFH-11, MPP2, Win, and Trident, is a transcriptional factor that plays crucial roles in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. However, the molecular mechanism of FoxM1 during human endometrial decidualization remains unexplored. In this study, we first found FoxM1 is dynamically expressed in human endometrium during menstrual cycle. Employing a human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) line, we then demonstrated that FoxM1 inhibition downregulates cyclin B1 expression, delaying G2/M phase transition during HESC proliferation. Additionally, loss of FoxM1 expression blocks the differentiation of HESCs in response to estrogen, progesterone, and dbcAMP. Applying chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique and luciferase assay, we further approved that FoxM1 can transcriptionally active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), ensuring normal HESC differentiation. Besides enriching our knowledge on molecular basis underlying stromal decidualization, these findings help to shed light on the potential molecular causes for the endometrial disorders in humans. PMID:26334131

  12. Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Jie; Zhao Yingchun; Huang Weida . E-mail: whuang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma.

  13. Constitutively activated STAT3 promotes cell proliferation and survival in the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Ding, B. Belinda; Yu, J. Jessica; Yu, Raymond Y.-L.; Mendez, Lourdes M.; Shaknovich, Rita; Zhang, Yonghui; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of at least 2 phenotypic subtypes; that is, the germinal center B-cell–like (GCB-DLBCL) and the activated B-cell–like (ABC-DLBCL) groups. It has been shown that GCB-DLBCL responds favorably to chemotherapy and expresses high levels of BCL6, a transcription repressor known to play a causative role in lymphomagenesis. In comparison, ABC-DLBCL has lower levels of BCL6, constitutively activated nuclear factor-?B, and tends to be refractory to chemotherapy. Here, we report that the STAT3 gene is a transcriptional target of BCL6. As a result, high-level STAT3 expression and activation are preferentially detected in ABC-DLBCL and BCL6-negative normal germinal center B cells. Most importantly, inactivating STAT3 by either AG490 or small interference RNA in ABC-DLBCL cells inhibits cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis. These phenotypes are accompanied by decreased expression of several known STAT3 target genes, including c-Myc, JunB, and Mcl-1, and increased expression of the cell- cycle inhibitor p27. In addition to identifying STAT3 as a novel BCL6 target gene, our results define a second oncogenic pathway, STAT3 activation, which operates in ABC-DLBCL, suggesting that STAT3 may be a new therapeutic target in these aggressive lymphomas. PMID:17951530

  14. The STAT3 HIES mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that activates genes via AGG-element carrying promoters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Ji, Jin-Jun; Le, Wangping; Xu, Yan S; Dou, Dandan; Pan, Jieli; Jiao, Yifeng; Zhong, Tianfei; Wu, Dehong; Wang, Yumei; Wen, Chengping; Xie, Guan-Qun; Yao, Feng; Zhao, Heng; Fan, Yong-Sheng; Chin, Y Eugene

    2015-10-15

    Cytokine or growth factor activated STAT3 undergoes multiple post-translational modifications, dimerization and translocation into nuclei, where it binds to serum-inducible element (SIE, 'TTC(N3)GAA')-bearing promoters to activate transcription. The STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD, 320-494) mutation in hyper immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), called the HIES mutation (R382Q, R382W or V463?), which elevates IgE synthesis, inhibits SIE binding activity and sensitizes genes such as TNF-? for expression. However, the mechanism by which the HIES mutation sensitizes STAT3 in gene induction remains elusive. Here, we report that STAT3 binds directly to the AGG-element with the consensus sequence 'AGG(N3)AGG'. Surprisingly, the helical N-terminal region (1-355), rather than the canonical STAT3 DBD, is responsible for AGG-element binding. The HIES mutation markedly enhances STAT3 AGG-element binding and AGG-promoter activation activity. Thus, STAT3 is a dual specificity transcription factor that promotes gene expression not only via SIE- but also AGG-promoter activity. PMID:26384563

  15. Effect of phosphorylation of MAPK and Stat3 and expression of c-fos and c-jun proteins on hepatocarcinogenesis and their clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, De Yun; Zheng, Hui; Tan, Yi; Cheng, Rui Xue

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of phosphorylation of MAPK and Stat3 and the expression of c-fos and c-jun proteins on hepatocellular carcinogenesis and their clinical significance. METHODS: SP immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of p42/44MAPK, p-Stat3, ca2fos and c-jun proteins in 55 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and their surrounding liver tissues. RESULTS: The positive rates and expression levels of p42/44MAPK, p-Stat3, c-fos and c-jun proteins in HCCs were significantly higher than those in pericarcinomatous liver tissues (PCLT). A positive correlation was observed between the expression of p42/44MAPK and c-fos proteins, and between pa2Stat3 and c-jun, but there was no significant correlation between p42/44MAPK and p-Stat3 in HCCs and their surrounding liver tissues. CONCLUSION: The abnormalities of Ras/Raf/MAPK and JAKs/Stat3 cascade reaction may contribute to malignant transformation of hepatocytes.Hepatocytes which are positive for p42/44MAPK, c-fos or c-jun proteins may be potential malignant pre-cancerous cells. Activation of MAPK and Stat3 proteins may be an early event in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:11819729

  16. Curcumin blocks small cell lung cancer cells migration, invasion, angiogenesis, cell cycle and neoplasia through Janus kinase-STAT3 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Yong-Yu; Ma, Ye-Gang; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, De-Gui; Ren, Yi; Liu, Xiao-Bai; Li, Yao; Li, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development. However, little is known about its anti-tumor mechanism in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we found that curcumin can inhibit SCLC cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion and angiogenesis through suppression of the STAT3. SCLC cells were treated with curcumin (15 µmol/L) and the results showed that curcumin was effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation to downregulate of an array of STAT3 downstream targets ,which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion. Curcumin also suppressed the expression of proliferative proteins (Survivin, Bcl-X(L) and Cyclin B1), and invasive proteins (VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and ICAM-1). Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA was able to induce anti-invasive effects in vitro. In contrast, activation of STAT3 upstream of interleukin 6 (IL-6) leads to the increased cell proliferation ,cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and tumor growth. Our findings illustrate the biologic significance of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling in SCLC progression and provide novel evidence that the pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of SCLC. It was concluded that curcumin is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with favorable pharmacological activity,and curcumin may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for SCLC. PMID:22662257

  17. The STAT3 HIES mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that activates genes via AGG-element carrying promoters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Ji, Jin-Jun; Le, Wangping; Xu, Yan S.; Dou, Dandan; Pan, Jieli; Jiao, Yifeng; Zhong, Tianfei; Wu, Dehong; Wang, Yumei; Wen, Chengping; Xie, Guan-Qun; Yao, Feng; Zhao, Heng; Fan, Yong-Sheng; Chin, Y. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine or growth factor activated STAT3 undergoes multiple post-translational modifications, dimerization and translocation into nuclei, where it binds to serum-inducible element (SIE, ‘TTC(N3)GAA’)-bearing promoters to activate transcription. The STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD, 320–494) mutation in hyper immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), called the HIES mutation (R382Q, R382W or V463?), which elevates IgE synthesis, inhibits SIE binding activity and sensitizes genes such as TNF-? for expression. However, the mechanism by which the HIES mutation sensitizes STAT3 in gene induction remains elusive. Here, we report that STAT3 binds directly to the AGG-element with the consensus sequence ‘AGG(N3)AGG’. Surprisingly, the helical N-terminal region (1–355), rather than the canonical STAT3 DBD, is responsible for AGG-element binding. The HIES mutation markedly enhances STAT3 AGG-element binding and AGG-promoter activation activity. Thus, STAT3 is a dual specificity transcription factor that promotes gene expression not only via SIE- but also AGG-promoter activity. PMID:26384563

  18. Auto-acetylation stabilizes p300 in cardiac myocytes during acute oxidative stress, promoting STAT3 accumulation and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sumit; Wei, Jianqin; Mitrani, Lindsay R; Bishopric, Nanette H

    2012-08-01

    The nuclear acetyltransferase p300 is rapidly and stably induced in the heart during hemodynamic stress, but the mechanism of this induction is unknown. To determine the role of oxidative stress in p300 induction, we exposed neonatal rat cardiac myocytes to doxorubicin (DOX, 1 ?M) or its vehicle, and monitored p300 protein content and stability for 24 h. Levels of p300 rose substantially within 1 h and remained elevated for at least 24 h, while p300 transcript levels declined. In the presence of cycloheximide, the estimated half-life of p300 in control cells was approximately 4.5 h, typical of an immediate-early response protein. DOX treatment prolonged p300 t(1/2) to >24 h, indicating that the sharp rise in p300 levels was attributable to rapid protein stabilization. p300 stabilization was entirely due to an increase in acetylated p300 species with greatly enhanced resistance to proteasomal degradation. The half-life of p300 was dependent on its acetyltransferase activity, falling in the presence of p300 inhibitors curcumin and anacardic acid, and increasing with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. At the same time, acetyl-STAT3, phospho-STAT3-(Tyr 705) and -(Ser 727) increased, together with a prolongation of STAT3 half-life. SiRNA-mediated p300 knockdown abrogated all of these effects, and strongly enhanced DOX-mediated myocyte apoptosis. We conclude that DOX induces an acute amplification of p300 levels through auto-acetylation and stabilization. In turn, elevated p300 provides a key defense against acute oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes by acetylation, activation, and stabilization of STAT3. Our results suggest that HDAC inhibitors could potentially reduce acute anthracycline-mediated cardiotoxicity by promoting p300 auto-acetylation. PMID:22562121

  19. STAT3 is a key pathway in primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shu-Li; Ye, Wei-Min; Zheng, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) arising within an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is rare malignancy, entailing a poor prognosis for delayed diagnosis. The number of reports concerning this entity is extremely small. The aim of this study is to present the clinical and pathologic characteristics of PIOSCC and investigate its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: This study describes three patients with mandibular PIOSCC derived from an OKC over a seven-year pe