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1

Hsp72 up-regulates Epstein-Barr virus EBNALP coactivation with EBNA2  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcriptional coactivator EBNALP specifically associates and colocalizes with Hsp72 in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We now find that overexpression of Hsp72 more than doubled EBNALP coactivation with EBNA2 of a transfected EBV LMP1 promoter in B lymphoblasts, did not affect EBNA2 or EBNALP protein levels, and strongly up-regulated EBNA2 and EBNALP coactivation of LMP1 protein expression from the endogenous EBV genome in latency I infected Akata cells. The Hsp72 ATP, protein binding, and the C-terminal regulatory domains were required for full activity. An EBNALP deletion mutant, EBNALPd45, which does not associate with Hsp72, coactivated with EBNA2, but was not affected by Hsp72 overexpression, despite Hsp72 up-regulation of wild-type EBNALP coactivation with EBNA2 at all levels of EBNALP expression, indicating the importance of Hsp72 association with EBNALP for Hsp72 up-regulation of coactivation. Of importance, a 90% RNAi knockdown of Hsp72 reduced EBNALP coactivation with EBNA2 of transfected EBV LMP1 and Cp promoters by approximately 50%. Overexpression of the Hsp72 C-terminal interacting and regulatory protein, CHIP, strongly down-regulated EBNALP coactivation, independently of CHIP ubiquitin ligase activity. CHIP effects were Hsp72 dependent, indicating a background downmodulating role for CHIP in Hsp72 augmentation of EBNA2 and EBNALP coactivation. Based on these and other cited data, we favor a model in which Hsp72 chaperones EBNALP shuttling of repressors from EBNA2-enhanced promoters. PMID:17341665

Peng, Chih-Wen; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Hong-Chi; Chou, Min-Luen; Lai, Chiou-Yan; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsu, Hsue-Yin

2007-01-01

2

STAT3 negatively regulates thyroid tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Although tyrosine-phosphorylated or activated STAT3 (pY-STAT3) is a well-described mediator of tumorigenesis, its role in thyroid cancer has not been investigated. We observed that 63 of 110 (57%) human primary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases expressed nuclear pY-STAT3 in tumor cells, preferentially in association with the tumor stroma. An inverse relationship between pY-STAT3 expression with tumor size and the presence of distant metastases was observed. Using human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines [harboring rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC, v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), or rat sarcoma virus oncogene (RAS) alterations], we determined that IL-6/gp130/JAK signaling is responsible for STAT3 activation. STAT3 knockdown by shRNA in representative thyroid cancer cell lines that express high levels of pY-STAT3 had no effect on in vitro growth. However, xenografted short hairpin STAT3 cells generated larger tumors than control cells. Similarly, STAT3 deficiency in a murine model of BRAFV600E-induced PTC led to thyroid tumors that were more proliferative and larger than those tumors expressing STAT3wt. Genome expression analysis revealed that STAT3 knockdown resulted in the down-regulation of multiple transcripts, including the tumor suppressor insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7. Furthermore, STAT3 knockdown led to an increase in glucose consumption, lactate production, and expression of Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1?) target genes, suggesting that STAT3 is a negative regulator of aerobic glycolysis. Our studies show that, in the context of thyroid cancer, STAT3 is paradoxically a negative regulator of tumor growth. These findings suggest that targeting STAT3 in these cancers could enhance tumor size and highlight the complexities of the role of STAT3 in tumorigenesis. PMID:22891351

Couto, Joana Pinto; Daly, Laura; Almeida, Ana; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Fagin, James A; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Lima, Jorge; Máximo, Valdemar; Soares, Paula; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline F

2012-08-28

3

Cross-talk between KLF4 and STAT3 regulates axon regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes the regrowth of damaged axons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that KLF4 physically interacts with STAT3 upon cytokine-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 (Y705) on STAT3. This interaction suppresses STAT3-dependent gene expression by blocking its DNA-binding activity. The deletion of KLF4 in vivo induces axon regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) via Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT3 signalling. This regeneration can be greatly enhanced by exogenous cytokine treatment, or removal of an endogenous JAK-STAT3 pathway inhibitor called suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3). These findings reveal an unexpected cross-talk between KLF4 and activated STAT3 in the regulation of axon regeneration that might have therapeutic implications in promoting repair of injured adult CNS.

Qin, Song; Zou, Yuhua; Zhang, Chun-Li

2013-10-01

4

AURKA regulates JAK2-STAT3 activity in human gastric and esophageal cancers.  

PubMed

Aurora kinase A is a frequently amplified and overexpressed gene in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (UGCs). Using in vitro cell models of UGCs, we investigated whether AURKA can regulate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). Our data indicate that overexpression of AURKA in FLO-1 and AGS cells increase STAT3 phosphorylation at the Tyr705 site, whereas AURKA genetic depletion by siRNA results in decreased phosphorylation levels of STAT3 in FLO-1 and MKN45 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AURKA overexpression enhanced STAT3 nuclear translocation while AURKA genetic knockdown reduced the nuclear translocation of STAT3 in AGS and FLO-1 cells, respectively. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that AURKA expression induces transcriptional activity of STAT3. Pharmacological inhibition of AURKA by MLN8237 reduced STAT3 phosphorylation along with down-regulation of STAT3 pro-survival targets, BCL2 and MCL1. Moreover, by using clonogenic cells survival assay, we showed that MLN8237 single dose treatment reduced the ability of FLO-1 and AGS cells to form colonies. Additional experiments utilizing cell models of overexpression and knockdown of AURKA indicated that STAT3 upstream non-receptor tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is mediating the effect of AURKA on STAT3. The inhibition of JAK2 using JAK2-specific inhibitor AZD1480 or siRNA knockdown, in presence of AURKA overexpression, abrogated the AURKA-mediated STAT3 activation. These results confirm that the AURKA-JAK2 axis is the main mechanism by which AURKA regulates STAT3 activity. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, that AURKA promotes STAT3 activity through regulating the expression and phosphorylation levels of JAK2. This highlights the importance of targeting AURKA as a therapeutic approach to treat gastric and esophageal cancers. PMID:24953013

Katsha, Ahmed; Arras, Janet; Soutto, Mohammed; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

2014-12-01

5

STAT3 regulation the expression of VEGF-D in HGC-27 gastric cancer cell  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the potential mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) contribution to the lymphangiogenesis was regulated by the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Methods: We detected the expression in GC tissue, adjacent non-tumor tissue, GC cell lines (AGS, SUN-1, KATO-III, BGC-823, MGC-803, SGC-7901, and HGC-27), and GES-1 cell line. STAT3 siRNA transfection and genome microarray were applied to demonstrate whether the expression of VEGF-D was mediated by the STAT3 in GC. Results: We showed the STAT3, pSTAT3, and VEGF-D expression in GC tissue was significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissue, respectively. In addition, both STAT3 and VEGF-D mRNA expression was much higher in each GC cell line than those in GES-1 cell line. With STAT3 siRNA transfection, we demonstrated that VEGF-D expression level decreased significantly in HGC-27 cell by using the genome microarray representing STAT3 potential regulation the VEGF-D expression. Conclusion: STAT3, a novel signal transducer inactivating in the GC cell, can contribute to the lymph node metastasis by promoting lymphangiogenesis via up-regulation expression of VEGF-D.

Deng, Jingyu; Cui, Jingli; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Rupeng; Zhang, Li; Hao, Xishan; Liang, Han

2014-01-01

6

STAT3 inhibition suppresses proliferation of retinoblastoma through down-regulation of positive feedback loop of STAT3/miR-17-92 clusters  

PubMed Central

Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children, is characterized by the loss of both functional alleles of RB1 gene, which however alone cannot maintain malignant characteristics of retinoblastoma cells. Nevertheless, the investigation of other molecular aberrations such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and miRNAs is still lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3 is activated in retinoblastoma cells, Ki67-positive areas of in vivo orthotopic tumors in BALB/c nude mice, and human retinoblastoma tissues of the advanced stage. Furthermore, target genes of STAT3 including BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, and MMP9 are up-regulated in retinoblastoma cells compared to other retinal constituent cells. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition by targeted siRNA suppresses the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and the formation of in vivo orthotopic tumors. In line with these results, STAT3 siRNA effectively induces down-regulation of target genes of STAT3. In addition, miRNA microarray analysis and further real-time PCR experiments with STAT3 siRNA treatment show that STAT3 activation is related to the up-regulation of miR-17-92 clusters in retinoblastoma cells via positive feedback loop between them. In conclusion, we suggest that STAT3 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach in retinoblastoma through the suppression of tumor proliferation. PMID:25359779

Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Cho, Chang Sik; Cho, Young-Lai; Jun, Hyoung Oh; Yu, Young Suk; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hun

2014-01-01

7

STAT3 inhibition suppresses proliferation of retinoblastoma through down-regulation of positive feedback loop of STAT3/miR-17-92 clusters.  

PubMed

Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children, is characterized by the loss of both functional alleles of RB1 gene, which however alone cannot maintain malignant characteristics of retinoblastoma cells. Nevertheless, the investigation of other molecular aberrations such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and miRNAs is still lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3 is activated in retinoblastoma cells, Ki67-positive areas of in vivo orthotopic tumors in BALB/c nude mice, and human retinoblastoma tissues of the advanced stage. Furthermore, target genes of STAT3 including BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, and MMP9 are up-regulated in retinoblastoma cells compared to other retinal constituent cells. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition by targeted siRNA suppresses the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and the formation of in vivo orthotopic tumors. In line with these results, STAT3 siRNA effectively induces down-regulation of target genes of STAT3. In addition, miRNA microarray analysis and further real-time PCR experiments with STAT3 siRNA treatment show that STAT3 activation is related to the up-regulation of miR-17-92 clusters in retinoblastoma cells via positive feedback loop between them. In conclusion, we suggest that STAT3 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach in retinoblastoma through the suppression of tumor proliferation. PMID:25359779

Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Cho, Chang Sik; Cho, Young-Lai; Jun, Hyoung Oh; Yu, Young Suk; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hun

2014-11-30

8

SOCS3 Negatively Regulates the gp130–STAT3 Pathway in Mouse Skin Wound Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes during wound healing are regulated by cytokines and chemokines, which are secreted by resident and inflammatory cells and activate the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. However, it is not clear to what extent STAT3 in keratinocytes is activated by gp130-containing receptors. We addressed this question genetically by deleting the suppressor of

Bing-Mei Zhu; Yuko Ishida; Gertraud W Robinson; Margit Pacher-Zavisin; Akihiko Yoshimura; Philip M Murphy; Lothar Hennighausen

2008-01-01

9

STAT3-dependent IL-21 production from T helper cells regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The contribution of specific cell types to the production of cytokines that regulate hematopoiesis is still not well defined. We have previously identified T cell–dependent regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) numbers and cycling. In this report, we demonstrated that HPC activity is decreased in mice with STAT3-deficient T cells, a phenotype that is not because of decreased expression of IL-17 or ROR?t. STAT3 expression in T cells was required for IL-21 production by multiple T helper subsets, and neutralization of IL-21 resulted in decreased HPC activity identical to that in mice with STAT3-deficient T cells. Importantly, injection of IL-21 rescued HPC activity in mice with STAT3-deficient T cells. Thus, STAT3-dependent IL-21 production in T cells is required for HPC homeostasis. PMID:21505191

Glosson, Nicole L.; Stritesky, Gretta L.; Yeh, Norman; Kinzfogl, John; Rohrabaugh, Sara L.; Goswami, Ritobrata; Pham, Duy; Levy, David E.; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Blum, Janice S.; Cooper, Scott; Hangoc, Giao

2011-01-01

10

Regulation of Rod Photoreceptor Differentiation by STAT3 Is Controlled by a Tyrosine Phosphatase.  

PubMed

Signal pathways that reduce the levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) allow late retinal progenitors to exit the cell cycle and enter a terminal differentiation pathway into rod photoreceptors. In the mouse retina, we previously identified PKC-?1 and PKC-? isoforms as essential components of a key signal pathway and IGF-1 as a major extrinsic factor regulating rod formation. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that PKC decreases phosphotyrosine but not phosphoserine on STAT3 in neonatal mouse retinas. Neither IGF-1 nor PMA induced a significant change in the levels of STAT3 or in the levels of the key proteins regulating STAT3 degradation, SOCS3, and PIAS3. Treatment of neonatal mouse retinal explants with sodium orthovanadate inhibited the PKC-mediated reduction in pSTAT3, indicating a role for a phosphatase. Addition of the PTEN inhibitor bpV(phen) to explant cultures treated with IGF-1 or PMA had no effect on the reduction in pSTAT3 levels, but the effect of both IGF-1 and PMA was blocked by a concentration of the inhibitor NSC87877 that is selective for the phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2. Inhibition of Shp1/2 phosphatases was also sufficient to abolish the IGF1-mediated induction of rod photoreceptor differentiation in the retina explant cultures. We conclude that one or both of these phosphatases are key components regulating the formation of rod photoreceptors in mouse retina. PMID:25108518

Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Xing, Tiaosi; Zhang, Samuel Shao-Min; Barnstable, Colin J

2015-01-01

11

STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 and serine 727 differentially regulates mouse ESC fates.  

PubMed

STAT3 can be transcriptionally activated by phosphorylation of its tyrosine 705 or serine 727 residue. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling maintains pluripotency by inducing JAK-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3 Y705 (pY705). However, the function of phosphorylated S727 (pS727) in mESCs remains unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in regulating mESC identities, using a small molecule-based system to post-translationally modulate the quantity of transgenic STAT3 in STAT3(-/-) mESCs. We demonstrated that pY705 is absolutely required for STAT3-mediated mESC self-renewal, while pS727 is dispensable, serving only to promote proliferation and optimal pluripotency. S727 phosphorylation is regulated directly by fibroblast growth factor/Erk signaling and crucial in the transition of mESCs from pluripotency to neuronal commitment. Loss of S727 phosphorylation resulted in significantly reduced neuronal differentiation potential, which could be recovered by a S727 phosphorylation mimic. Moreover, loss of pS727 sufficed LIF to reprogram epiblast stem cells to naïve pluripotency, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in the control of mESC fate. PMID:24302476

Huang, Guanyi; Yan, Hexin; Ye, Shoudong; Tong, Chang; Ying, Qi-Long

2014-05-01

12

Interleukin-10 Regulates the Fetal Hyaluronan-Rich Extracellular Matrix via a STAT3 Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background The mid-gestational fetus is capable of regenerative healing. We have recently demonstrated a novel role for the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, as a regulator of hyaluronan (HA) in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The signaling pathway of IL-10 has been studied in monocytes but is unknown in dermal fibroblasts. We hypothesized IL-10 signals through its primary receptor IL-10R1 to activate STAT3 resulting in HA synthesis. Methods Murine mid-gestation (E14.5) fetal fibroblasts (FFb) were evaluated in vitro. Pericellular matrix (PCM) was quantified using a particle exclusion assay. STAT3 levels and cellular localization were evaluated by Western blot/band densitometry and immunocytochemistry/confocal microscopy. HA levels were quantified by ELISA. The effects of IL-10R1 signal blockade by a neutralizing antibory and STAT3 inhibition were evaluated. An ex vivo mid-gestation fetal forearm culture incisional wound model in control and transgenic IL-10?/? mice was used to evaluate the role of STAT3 on the ECM. Results FFb produce a robust hyaluronan-rich PCM which is IL-10R1 and STAT3 dependent. Inhibition of IL-10R1 signaling results in decreased phosphorylated STAT3 levels and inhibition of nuclear localization. Inhibition of STAT3 results in decreased HA production. At day 3, Mid-gestation fetal wounds have efficient re-epithelialization, which is significantly slowed in IL-10?/? wounds at the same gestation and with inhibition of STAT3. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that IL-10 regulates HA synthesis through its primary receptor IL-10R1 and STAT3 activation. This supports a novel-non-immunoregulatory mechanism of IL-10 in its role in fetal regenerative wound healing. PMID:23684616

King, Alice; Balaji, Swathi; Marsh, Emily; Le, Louis D.; Shaaban, Aimen; Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Keswani, Sundeep G.

2013-01-01

13

STAT5 Outcompetes STAT3 To Regulate the Expression of the Oncogenic Transcriptional Modulator BCL6  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5 has been shown to drive cancer pathogenesis through dysregulation of genes involved in cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Although STAT3 and STAT5 are structurally related, they can have opposite effects on key genes, including BCL6. BCL6, a transcriptional repressor, has been shown to be oncogenic in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. BCL6 also plays an important role in breast cancer pathogenesis, a disease in which STAT3 and STAT5 can be activated individually or concomitantly. To determine the mechanism by which these oncogenic transcription factors regulate BCL6 transcription, we analyzed their effects at the levels of chromatin and gene expression. We found that STAT3 increases expression of BCL6 and enhances recruitment of RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at a site associated with transcriptional initiation. STAT5, in contrast, represses BCL6 expression below basal levels and decreases the association of RNA polymerase II at the gene. Furthermore, the repression mediated by STAT5 is dominant over STAT3-mediated induction. STAT5 exerts this effect by displacing STAT3 from one of the two regulatory regions to which it binds. These findings may underlie the divergent biology of breast cancers containing activated STAT3 alone or in conjunction with activated STAT5. PMID:23716595

Walker, Sarah R.; Nelson, Erik A.; Yeh, Jennifer E.; Pinello, Luca; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

2013-01-01

14

JAB1 regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3 in the nucleus. •JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. •JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF expressions. •Nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with STAT3 DNA-binding activity. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that unphosphorylated STAT3 forms a dimer, translocates to the nucleus, binds to the STAT3 binding site, and activates the transcription of STAT3 target genes, thereby playing an important role in oncogenesis in addition to phosphorylated STAT3. Among signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3, nuclear translocation and target DNA-binding are the critical steps for its activation. Therefore, elucidating the regulatory mechanism of these signaling steps of unphosphorylated STAT3 is a potential step in the discovery of a novel cancer drug. However, the mechanism of unphosphorylated STAT3 binding to the promoter of target genes remains unclear. In this study, we focused on Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) as a candidate protein that regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Initially, we observed that both unphosphorylated STAT3 and JAB1 existed in the nucleus of human colon cancer cell line COLO205 at the basal state (no cytokine stimulation). On the other hand, phosphorylated STAT3 did not exist in the nucleus of COLO205 cells at the basal state. Immunoprecipitation using nuclear extract of COLO205 cells revealed that JAB1 interacted with unphosphorylated STAT3. To investigate the effect of JAB1 on unphosphorylated STAT3 activity, RNAi studies were performed. Although JAB1 knockdown tended to increase nuclear STAT3 expression, it significantly decreased unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity. Subsequently, JAB1 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of MDR1, NANOG, and VEGF, which are STAT3 target genes. Furthermore, the expression level of nuclear JAB1, but not nuclear STAT3, correlated with unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity between COLO205 and LoVo cells. Taken together, these results suggest that nuclear JAB1 positively regulates unphosphorylated STAT3 DNA-binding activity through protein–protein interaction in human colon cancer cell line COLO205.

Nishimoto, Arata, E-mail: anishimo@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Kugimiya, Naruji; Hosoyama, Toru; Enoki, Tadahiko [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Li, Tao-Sheng [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hamano, Kimikazu [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery and Clinical Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

2013-08-30

15

STAT3 Regulates MMP3 in Heme-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported that free Heme generated during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice, is central to the pathogenesis of fatal ECM. Heme-induced up-regulation of STAT3 and CXCL10 promotes whereas up-regulation of HO-1 prevents brain tissue damage in ECM. We have previously demonstrated that Heme is involved in the induction of apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we further tested the hypothesis that Heme reduces blood-brain barrier integrity during ECM by induction of apoptosis of brain vascular endothelial cells through STAT3 and its target gene matrix metalloproteinase three (MMP3) signaling. Methods Genes associated with the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway induced upon stimulation by Heme treatment, were assessed using real time RT2 Profile PCR arrays. A human MMP3 promoter was cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, pMMP3, and its activity was examined following exposure to Heme treatment by a luciferase reporter gene assay. In order to determine whether activated nuclear protein STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter and regulates MMP3 gene, we conducted a ChIP analysis using Heme-treated and untreated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBVEC), and determined mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP3 using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Apoptosis in HBVEC treated with Heme was evaluated by MTT and TUNEL assay. Results The results show that (1) Heme activates a variety of JAK/STAT3 downstream pathways in HBVEC. STAT3 targeted genes such as MMP3 and C/EBPb (Apoptosis-related genes), are up regulated in HBVEC treated with Heme. (2) Heme-induced HBVEC apoptosis via activation of STAT3 as well as its downstream signaling molecule MMP3 and upregulation of CXCL10 and HO-1 expressions. (3) Phosphorylated STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter in HBVEC cells, STAT3 transcribed MMP3 and induced MMP3 protein expression in HBVEC cells. Conclusions Activated STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter region and regulates MMP3 in Heme-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:23967200

Liu, Mingli; Wilson, Nana O.; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

2013-01-01

16

Inducible STAT3 NH2 terminal mono-ubiquitination promotes BRD4 complex formation to regulate apoptosis.  

PubMed

Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) are latent transcription factors that are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to cellular activation by the IL-6 superfamily of cytokines to regulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. Here we observe that STAT3 is inducibly mono-ubiquitinated and investigate its consequences. Using domain mapping and highly specific selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometric assays, we identify lysine (K) 97 in its NH2-terminal domain as the major mono-ubiquitin conjugation site. We constructed a mono-ubiquitinated mimic consisting of a deubiquitinase-resistant monomeric ubiquitin fused to the NH2 terminus of STAT3 (ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP). In complex assays of ectopically expressed ubi-STAT3-FP, we observed enhanced complex formation with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a component of the activated positive transcriptional elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in STAT3(+/-) and STAT3(-/-) MEFs showed BRD4 recruitment to STAT3-dependent suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 gene (SOCS3). The effect of a selective small molecule inhibitor of BRD4, JQ1, to inhibit SOCS3 expression demonstrated the functional role of BRD4 for STAT3-dependent transcription. Additionally, ectopic ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP expression upregulated BCL2, BCL2L1, APEX1, SOD2, CCND1 and MYC expression indicating the role of ubiquitinated STAT3 in anti-apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Finally we observed that ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP suppressed TNF?-induced apoptotic cell death, indicating the functional importance of mono-ubiquitinated STAT3 in antiapoptotic gene expression. We conclude that STAT3 mono-ubiquitination is a key trigger in BRD4-dependent antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative gene expression programs. Thus, inhibiting the STAT3 mono-ubiquitination-BRD4 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of STAT3-dependent proliferative diseases. PMID:24657799

Ray, Sutapa; Zhao, Yingxin; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Lee, Chang; Brasier, Allan R

2014-07-01

17

STAT3 Regulates Uterine Epithelial Remodeling and Epithelial-Stromal Crosstalk During Implantation  

PubMed Central

Embryo implantation is regulated by a variety of endometrial factors, including cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors. Earlier studies identified the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine produced by uterine glands, as an essential regulator of implantation. LIF, acting via its cell surface receptor, activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the uterine epithelial cells. However, the precise mechanism via which activated STAT3 promotes uterine function during implantation remains unknown. To identify the molecular pathways regulated by STAT3, we created SWd/d mice in which Stat3 gene is conditionally inactivated in uterine epithelium. The SWd/d mice are infertile due to a lack of embryo attachment to the uterine luminal epithelium and consequent implantation failure. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelial cells of SWd/d mice revealed dysregulated expression of specific components of junctional complexes, including E-cadherin, ?- and ?-catenin, and several claudins, which critically regulate epithelial junctional integrity and embryo attachment. In addition, uteri of SWd/d mice exhibited markedly reduced stromal proliferation and differentiation, indicating that epithelial STAT3 controls stromal function via a paracrine mechanism. The stromal defect arose from a drastic reduction in the production of several members of the epidermal growth factor family in luminal epithelium of SWd/d uteri and the resulting lack of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and mitotic activity in the stromal cells. Collectively, our results uncovered an intricate molecular network operating downstream of STAT3 that regulates uterine epithelial junctional reorganization, and stromal proliferation, and differentiation, which are critical determinants of successful implantation. PMID:24100212

Pawar, Sandeep; Starosvetsky, Elina; Orvis, Grant D.; Behringer, Richard R.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

2013-01-01

18

EGF regulates claudin-2 and -4 expression through Src and STAT3 in MDCK cells.  

PubMed

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a key regulator of epithelial paracellular permeability, a property that depends on tight junctions (TJ) and can be evaluated through the measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). EGF increases the TER of MDCK monolayers by inducing ERK1/2-dependent downregulation of claudin-2 (CLDN-2) and upregulation of claudin-4 (CLDN-4). Because either increments or decrements in TER often involve Src activation and epithelial cell differentiation occasionally depends on STAT3, here we investigated whether EGF might control CLDN-2 downregulation and CLDN-4 upregulation through those proteins. We found that EGF induces Src activation necessary for the reduction of CLDN-2 at the TJ, the degradation of this CLDN, the reduction of the cellular levels of its mRNA and the resulting increase of TER. EGF-induced changes on CLDN-2 protein and mRNA also depend on STAT3 activity. This growth factor increases the levels of STAT3 phosphorylated at Y705 in the nucleus, a process that depends on Src activation. Interestingly, Src and STAT3 activation do not exclusively mediate the EGF-induced downregulation of CLDN-2, but they are also implicated in the EGF-induced CLDN-4 transcription, translation, and exocytic fusion into TJ. Our results indicate that EGF controls the levels of CLDN-2 and -4 proteins and mRNAs through Src and STAT3 activity. PMID:24909426

García-Hernández, Vicky; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Verdejo-Torres, Odette; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Gariglio, Patricio; Contreras, Rubén G

2015-01-01

19

STAT3 Regulates Steady-State Expression of Synaptopodin in Cultured Mouse Podocytes.  

PubMed

The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and circulating factors in many cell types. Synaptopodin (Synpo) is a cytoskeleton regulatory protein expressed in podocyte foot processes that regulates the dynamics of actin filaments and the stability of small GTPases. Here we show that inhibition of STAT3 signaling using the small-molecule inhibitor benzo[b]thiophene,6-nitro-,1,1-dioxide (Stattic), or by STAT3 knockdown by small interfering RNA, caused a decrease in Synpo mRNA and protein in an immortalized mouse podocyte cell line. This loss of Synpo, which occurred in 30-80 minutes, was also seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. The loss of Synpo protein after Stattic or cycloheximide treatment did not occur when podocytes were simultaneously exposed to 1-[N-[(l-3-trans-carboxyoxirane-2-carbonyl)-l-leucyl]amino]-4-guanidinobutane (E-64), an inhibitor of thiol proteases such as cathepsin L. Treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 and evoked a parallel increase in Synpo levels in podocytes. The stimulatory effect of IL-6 on Synpo was completely inhibited by pretreatment with Stattic. By contrast, 30-60-minute exposure to angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibited STAT3 signaling and concurrently reduced Synpo protein levels. The Ang II-evoked loss of Synpo was prevented by E-64 but not by inhibition of calcineurin or blockade of transient receptor potential cation channels. Inhibition of STAT3 by Stattic caused marked changes in the distribution of podocyte actin filaments, and caused a nearly complete suppression of the migration of these cells in wound assays, consistent with the loss of Synpo. Stattic treatment also caused loss of RhoA protein. PMID:25425624

Abkhezr, Mousa; Dryer, Stuart E

2015-02-01

20

14-3-3? Interacts with Stat3 and Regulates Its Constitutive Activation in Multiple Myeloma Cells  

PubMed Central

The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of regulatory signaling molecules that interact with other proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and function as adapter or scaffold proteins in signal transduction pathways. One family member, 14-3-3?, is believed to function in cell signaling, cycle control, and apoptotic death. A systematic proteomic analysis done in our laboratory has identified signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) as a novel 14-3-3? interacting protein. Following our initial finding, in this study, we provide evidence that 14-3-3? interacts physically with Stat3. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 is vital for 14-3-3? interaction and mutation of Ser727 to Alanine abolished 14-3-3?/Stat3 association. Inhibition of 14-3-3? protein expression in U266 cells inhibited Stat3 Ser727 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and decreased both Stat3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Moreover, 14-3-3? is involved in the regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity and 14-3-3? binding to Stat3 protects Ser727 dephosphorylation from protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Taken together, our findings support the model that multiple signaling events impinge on Stat3 and that 14-3-3? serves as an essential coordinator for different pathways to regulate Stat3 activation and function in MM cells. PMID:22279540

Li, Wenliang; Xiong, Qian; Yang, Mingkun; Zheng, Peng; Li, Chongyang; Pei, Jianfeng; Ge, Feng

2012-01-01

21

Bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, and it is downregulated in human gastric cancer and levels correlate with tumor progression and time of survival. However, the mechanism of its dysregulation in gastric cancer is little known. Here we investigate its regulatory mechanism and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 in gastric carcinogenesis. TMEFF2 expression was decreased after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in vivo and in vitro. STAT3 directly binds to the promoter of TMEFF2 and regulates H. pylori-induced TMEFF2 downregulation in normal gastric GES-1 cells and gastric cancer AGS cells. Conversely, TMEFF2 may suppress the phosphorylation of STAT3 and TMEFF2-induced downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation may depend on SHP-1. A highly inverse correlation between the expression of TMEFF2 and pSTAT3 was also revealed in gastric tissues. We now show the deregulation mechanism of TMEFF2 in gastric carcinogenesis and identify TMEFF2 as a new target gene of STAT3. The phosphorylation of STAT3 may be negatively regulated by TMEFF2, and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.© 2014 UICC. PMID:24996057

Sun, Tian-Tian; Tang, Jia-Yin; Du, Wan; Zhao, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Sheng-Li; Chen, Hao-Yan; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

2015-03-01

22

PECAM-1 regulates eNOS activity and localization through STAT3-dependent NOSTRIN expression  

PubMed Central

Objective Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. eNOS is activated by numerous stimuli and its activity is tightly regulated. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) has been implicated in regulating eNOS activity in response to shear stress. The goal of the current study is to determine the role of PECAM-1 in the regulation of basal eNOS activity. Methods and Results We demonstrate that PECAM-1 knockout ECs have increased basal eNOS activity and NO production. Mechanistically, increased eNOS activity is associated with a decrease in the inhibitory interaction of eNOS with caveolin-1; impaired subcellular localization of eNOS; and decreased NOSTRIN expression in the absence of PECAM-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blunted STAT3 activation in the absence of PECAM-1 results in decreased NOSTRIN expression via direct binding of STAT3 to the NOSTRIN promoter. Conclusions Taken together, our results reveal an elegant mechanism of eNOS regulation by PECAM-1 through STAT3-mediated transcriptional control of NOSTRIN. PMID:21183735

McCormick, Margaret E.; Goel, Reema; Fulton, David; Oess, Stefanie; Newman, Debra; Tzima, Ellie

2011-01-01

23

TRPM7 channels regulate glioma stem cell through STAT3 and Notch signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with median survival time of 14.6months. A small fraction of cancer stem cells (CSC) initiate and maintain tumors thus driving glioma tumorigenesis and being responsible for resistance to classical chemo- and radio-therapies. It is desirable to identify signaling pathways related to CSC to develop novel therapies to selectively target them. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7, also known as TRPM7 is a ubiquitous, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) permeable ion channels that are special in being both an ion channel and a serine/threonine kinase. In studies of glioma cells silenced for TRPM7, we demonstrated that Notch (Notch1, JAG1, Hey2, and Survivin) and STAT3 pathways are down regulated in glioma cells grown in monolayer. Furthermore, phospho-STAT3, Notch target genes and CSC markers (ALDH1 and CD133) were significantly higher in spheroid glioma CSCs when compared with monolayer cultures. The results further show that tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 binds and activates the ALDH1 promoters in glioma cells. We found that TRMP7-induced upregulation of ALDH1 expression is associated with increases in ALDH1 activity and is detectable in stem-like cells when expanded as spheroid CSCs. Finally, TRPM7 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. These demonstrate that TRPM7 activates JAK2/STAT3 and/or Notch signaling pathways and leads to increased cell proliferation and migration. These findings for the first time demonstrates that TRPM7 (1) activates a previously unrecognized STAT3?ALDH1 pathway, and (2) promotes the induction of ALDH1 activity in glioma cells. PMID:25192910

Liu, Mingli; Inoue, Koichi; Leng, Tiandong; Guo, Shanchun; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

2014-12-01

24

Methylsulfonylmethane suppresses breast cancer growth by down-regulating STAT3 and STAT5b pathways.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most aggressive form of all cancers, with high incidence and mortality rates. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) inhibits breast cancer growth in mice xenografts. MSM is an organic sulfur-containing natural compound without any toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that MSM substantially decreased the viability of human breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. MSM also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5b, expression of IGF-1R, HIF-1?, VEGF, BrK, and p-IGF-1R and inhibited triple-negative receptor expression in receptor-positive cell lines. Moreover, MSM decreased the DNA-binding activities of STAT5b and STAT3, to the target gene promoters in MDA-MB 231 or co-transfected COS-7 cells. We confirmed that MSM significantly decreased the relative luciferase activities indicating crosstalk between STAT5b/IGF-1R, STAT5b/HSP90?, and STAT3/VEGF. To confirm these findings in vivo, xenografts were established in Balb/c athymic nude mice with MDA-MB 231 cells and MSM was administered for 30 days. Concurring to our in vitro analysis, these xenografts showed decreased expression of STAT3, STAT5b, IGF-1R and VEGF. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis, we confirmed that MSM can effectively regulate multiple targets including STAT3/VEGF and STAT5b/IGF-1R. These are the major molecules involved in tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Thus, we strongly recommend the use of MSM as a trial drug for treating all types of breast cancers including triple-negative cancers. PMID:22485142

Lim, Eun Joung; Hong, Dae Young; Park, Jin Hee; Joung, Youn Hee; Darvin, Pramod; Kim, Sang Yoon; Na, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Tae Sook; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Moon, Eon-Soo; Cho, Byung Wook; Do Park, Kyung; Lee, Hak Kyo; Park, Taekyu; Yang, Young Mok

2012-01-01

25

Methylsulfonylmethane Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth by Down-Regulating STAT3 and STAT5b Pathways  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most aggressive form of all cancers, with high incidence and mortality rates. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) inhibits breast cancer growth in mice xenografts. MSM is an organic sulfur-containing natural compound without any toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that MSM substantially decreased the viability of human breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. MSM also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5b, expression of IGF-1R, HIF-1?, VEGF, BrK, and p-IGF-1R and inhibited triple-negative receptor expression in receptor-positive cell lines. Moreover, MSM decreased the DNA-binding activities of STAT5b and STAT3, to the target gene promoters in MDA-MB 231 or co-transfected COS-7 cells. We confirmed that MSM significantly decreased the relative luciferase activities indicating crosstalk between STAT5b/IGF-1R, STAT5b/HSP90?, and STAT3/VEGF. To confirm these findings in vivo, xenografts were established in Balb/c athymic nude mice with MDA-MB 231 cells and MSM was administered for 30 days. Concurring to our in vitro analysis, these xenografts showed decreased expression of STAT3, STAT5b, IGF-1R and VEGF. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis, we confirmed that MSM can effectively regulate multiple targets including STAT3/VEGF and STAT5b/IGF-1R. These are the major molecules involved in tumor development, progression, and metastasis. Thus, we strongly recommend the use of MSM as a trial drug for treating all types of breast cancers including triple-negative cancers. PMID:22485142

Park, Jin Hee; Joung, Youn Hee; Darvin, Pramod; Kim, Sang Yoon; Na, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Tae Sook; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Moon, Eon-Soo; Cho, Byung Wook; Do Park, Kyung; Lee, Hak Kyo; Park, Taekyu; Yang, Young Mok

2012-01-01

26

Avicin D: A Protein Reactive Plant Isoprenoid Dephosphorylates Stat 3 by Regulating Both Kinase and Phosphatase Activities  

PubMed Central

Avicins, a class of electrophilic triterpenoids with pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, have been shown to induce redox-dependant post-translational modification of cysteine residues to regulate protein function. Based on (a) the cross-talk that occurs between redox and phosphorylation processes, and (b) the role of Stat3 in the process of apoptosis and carcinogenesis, we chose to study the effects of avicins on the processes of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in Stat3. Avicins dephosphorylate Stat3 in a variety of human tumor cell lines, leading to a decrease in the transcriptional activity of Stat3. The expression of Stat3-regulated proteins such as c-myc, cyclin D1, Bcl2, survivin and VEGF were reduced in response to avicin treatment. Underlying avicin-induced dephosphorylation of Stat3 was dephosphorylation of JAKs, as well as activation of protein phosphatase-1. Downregulation of both Stat3 activity and expression of Stat 3-controlled pro-survival proteins, contributes to the induction of apoptosis in avicin treated tumor cells. Based on the role of Stat3 in inflammation and wounding, and the in vivo inhibition of VEGF by avicins in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model, it is likely that avicin-induced inhibition of Stat3 activity results in the suppression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant stromal environment of tumors. Activation of PP-1, which also acts as a cellular economizer, combined with the redox regulation by avicins, can aid in redirecting metabolism from growth promoting anabolic to energy sparing pathways. PMID:19440292

Haridas, Valsala; Nishimura, Goshi; Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Connolly, Fiona; Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Zoltaszek, Robert; Gutterman, Jordan U.

2009-01-01

27

Opposing roles of STAT1 and STAT3 in T cell–mediated hepatitis: regulation by SOCS  

PubMed Central

T cell–mediated fulminant hepatitis is a life-threatening event for which the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Injection of concanavalin A (Con A) into mice recapitulates the histological and pathological sequelae of T cell–mediated hepatitis. In this model, both signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 are activated in the liver. Disruption of the STAT1 gene by way of genetic knockout attenuates liver injury, suppresses CD4+ and NK T cell activation, and downregulates expression of proapoptotic interferon regulatory factor-1 protein and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1), but enhances STAT3 activation and STAT3-controlled antiapoptotic signals. Studies from IFN-?–deficient mice indicate that IFN-? not only is the major cytokine responsible for STAT1 activation but also partially accounts for STAT3 activation. Moreover, downregulation of STAT3 activation in IL-6–deficient mice is associated with decreased STAT3-controlled antiapoptotic signals and expression of SOCS3, but upregulation of STAT1 activation and STAT1-induced proapoptotic signals and exacerbation of liver injury. Taken together, these findings suggest that STAT1 plays a harmful role in Con A–mediated hepatitis by activation of CD4+ and NK T cells and directly inducing hepatocyte death, whereas STAT3 protects against liver injury by suppression of IFN-? signaling and induction of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL. STAT1 and STAT3 in hepatocytes also negatively regulate one another through the induction of SOCS. PMID:12438448

Hong, Feng; Jaruga, Barbara; Kim, Won Ho; Radaeva, Svetlana; El-Assal, Osama N.; Tian, Zhigang; Nguyen, Van-Anh; Gao, Bin

2002-01-01

28

FTO contributes to hepatic metabolism regulation through regulation of leptin action and STAT3 signalling in liver  

PubMed Central

Background The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, but its function is still largely unknown. A link between leptin receptor-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (LepR-STAT3) signalling pathway and FTO was recently suggested in the hypothalamus. Because of the presence of FTO in liver and the role of LepR-STAT3 in the control of hepatic metabolism, we investigated both in vitro and in vivo the potential interrelationship between FTO and LepR-STAT3 signalling pathway in liver and the impact of FTO overexpression on leptin action and glucose homeostasis in liver of mice. Results We found that FTO protein expression is regulated by both leptin and IL-6, concomitantly to an induction of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, in leptin receptor (LepRb) expressing HuH7 cells. In addition, FTO overexpression in vitro altered both leptin-induced Y705 and S727 STAT3 phosphorylation, leading to dysregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression and mitochondrial density, respectively. In vivo, liver specific FTO overexpression in mice induced a reducetion of Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3 in nuclear fraction, associated with reduced SOCS3 and LepR mRNA levels and with an increased G6P expression. Interestingly, FTO overexpression also induced S727 STAT3 phosphorylation in liver mitochondria, resulting in an increase of mitochondria function and density. Altogether, these data indicate that FTO promotes mitochondrial recruitment of STAT3 to the detriment of its nuclear localization, affecting in turn oxidative metabolism and the expression of leptin-targeted genes. Interestingly, these effects were associated in mice with alterations of leptin action and hyperleptinemia, as well as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. Conclusions Altogether, these data point a novel regulatory loop between FTO and leptin-STAT3 signalling pathways in liver cells, and highlight a new role of FTO in the regulation of hepatic leptin action and glucose metabolism. PMID:24410832

2014-01-01

29

Leptin differentially regulate STAT3 activation in ob/ob mouse adipose mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. Currently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. Methods Using leptin deficient ob/ob mice, we investigated whether leptin injection into ob/ob mice increases adipose stem cell numbers and adipose tissue inflammatory marker MCP-1 mRNA and secretion levels. We also determined leptin mediated signaling pathways in the adipose stem cells. Results We report here that adipose stem cell number is significantly increased following leptin injection in ob/ob mice and with treatment of isolated stem cells with leptin in vitro. Leptin also up-regulated MCP-1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further showed that increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were due to increased phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Ser727 but not STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, suggesting differential regulation of MCP-1 gene expression under basal and leptin-stimulated conditions in adipose stem cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies demonstrate that leptin increases adipose stem cell number and differentially activates STAT3 protein resulting in up-regulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Further studies of mechanisms mediating adipose stem cell hyperplasia and leptin signaling in obesity are warranted and may help identify novel anti-obesity target strategies. PMID:23216800

2012-01-01

30

STAT5 Outcompetes STAT3 To Regulate the Expression of the Oncogenic Transcriptional Modulator BCL6  

E-print Network

that STAT3 activation is associated with CD44 stem cell-like triple-negative breast tumors (6). Overex lymphoma. BCL6 also plays an important role in breast cancer pathogenesis, a disease in which STAT3. These findings may un- derlie the divergent biology of breast cancers containing activated STAT3 alone

Yuan, Guo-Cheng "GC"

31

The Ashwell-Morell receptor regulates hepatic thrombopoietin production via JAK2-STAT3 signaling  

PubMed Central

The hepatic Ashwell-Morell receptor (AMR) can bind and remove desialylated platelets. We demonstrate that platelets become desialylated as they circulate and age in blood. Binding of desialylated platelets to the AMR induces hepatic thrombopoietin (TPO) gene transcription and translation, thereby regulating platelet production. The highly conserved endocytic AMR signals through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the acute phase response signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in vivo and in vitro. Recognition of this novel physiological feedback mechanism illuminates the pathophysiology of platelet diseases, such as Essential Thrombocythemia and Immune Thrombocytopenia, and contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia observed with JAK1/2 inhibition. PMID:25485912

Grozovsky, Renata; Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Liu, Kaifeng; Visner, Gary; Hartwig, John H.; Falet, Hervé; Hoffmeister, Karin M.

2015-01-01

32

STAT3 regulates arginase-I in myeloid-derived suppressor cells from cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play a key immunosuppressive role in various types of cancer, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study, we characterized CD14+HLA-DR–/lo cells sorted from the tumors, draining lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of HNSCC patients. CD14+HLA-DR–/lo cells were phenotyped as CD11b+, CD33+, CD34+, arginase-I+, and ROS+. In all 3 compartments, they suppressed autologous, antigen-independent T cell proliferation in a differential manner. The abundance of MDSC correlated with stage, but did not correlate with previous treatment with radiation or subsites of HNSCC. Interestingly, MDSC from all 3 compartments showed high phosphorylated STAT3 levels that correlated with arginase-I expression levels and activity. Stattic, a STAT3-specific inhibitor, and STAT3-targeted siRNA abrogated MDSC’s suppressive function. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling also resulted in decreased arginase-I activity. Analysis of the human arginase-I promoter region showed multiple STAT3-binding elements, and ChIP demonstrated that phosphorylated STAT3 binds to multiple sites in the arginase-I promoter. Finally, rescue of arginase-I activity after STAT3 blockade restored MDSC’s suppressive function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the suppressive function of arginase-I in both infiltrating and circulating MDSC is a downstream target of activated STAT3. PMID:23454751

Vasquez-Dunddel, David; Pan, Fan; Zeng, Qi; Gorbounov, Mikhail; Albesiano, Emilia; Fu, Juan; Blosser, Richard L.; Tam, Ada J.; Bruno, Tullia; Zhang, Hao; Pardoll, Drew; Kim, Young

2013-01-01

33

STAT3 protein up-regulates G?-interacting vesicle-associated protein (GIV)/Girdin expression, and GIV enhances STAT3 activation in a positive feedback loop during wound healing and tumor invasion/metastasis.  

PubMed

G?-interacting vesicle-associated protein (GIV) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that modulates key signaling pathways during a diverse set of biological processes, e.g. wound healing, macrophage chemotaxis, tumor angiogenesis, vascular repair, and cancer invasion/metastasis. We recently demonstrated that GIV is a metastasis-related protein, which serves both as a therapeutic target and as a biomarker for prognostication in cancer patients. Here we report the discovery that GIV is a direct target of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), which is commonly known as a central regulator of tumor metastasis. We identified a single STAT3-binding site on the GIV promoter that was necessary and sufficient for transcriptional activation of GIV during wound healing and cancer invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast carcinomas showed significant correlation between STAT3 activation and elevated GIV expression. Furthermore, we provide evidence that GIV positively autoregulates its own transcription by enhancing STAT3 activation via its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into how STAT3 activation is directly integrated with the receptor tyrosine kinase-GIV-G protein signaling axis. The forward feedback regulation we describe here between GIV and STAT3 may have profound therapeutic implications for cancer and epithelial regeneration/repair and could help invent novel approaches in treating and prognosticating cancer. PMID:23066027

Dunkel, Ying; Ong, Andrew; Notani, Dimple; Mittal, Yash; Lam, Michael; Mi, Xiaoyi; Ghosh, Pradipta

2012-12-01

34

STAT3 Protein Up-regulates G?-interacting Vesicle-associated Protein (GIV)/Girdin Expression, and GIV Enhances STAT3 Activation in a Positive Feedback Loop during Wound Healing and Tumor Invasion/Metastasis*  

PubMed Central

G?-interacting vesicle-associated protein (GIV) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that modulates key signaling pathways during a diverse set of biological processes, e.g. wound healing, macrophage chemotaxis, tumor angiogenesis, vascular repair, and cancer invasion/metastasis. We recently demonstrated that GIV is a metastasis-related protein, which serves both as a therapeutic target and as a biomarker for prognostication in cancer patients. Here we report the discovery that GIV is a direct target of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), which is commonly known as a central regulator of tumor metastasis. We identified a single STAT3-binding site on the GIV promoter that was necessary and sufficient for transcriptional activation of GIV during wound healing and cancer invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast carcinomas showed significant correlation between STAT3 activation and elevated GIV expression. Furthermore, we provide evidence that GIV positively autoregulates its own transcription by enhancing STAT3 activation via its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into how STAT3 activation is directly integrated with the receptor tyrosine kinase-GIV-G protein signaling axis. The forward feedback regulation we describe here between GIV and STAT3 may have profound therapeutic implications for cancer and epithelial regeneration/repair and could help invent novel approaches in treating and prognosticating cancer. PMID:23066027

Dunkel, Ying; Ong, Andrew; Notani, Dimple; Mittal, Yash; Lam, Michael; Mi, Xiaoyi; Ghosh, Pradipta

2012-01-01

35

B Cells Promote Tumor Progression via STAT3 Regulated-Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The role of B cells in cancer and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. Here, we show that tumor-associated B cells with activated STAT3 contribute to tumor development by promoting tumor angiogenesis. B cells with or without Stat3 have opposite effects on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in both B16 melanoma and Lewis Lung Cancer mouse models. Ex vivo angiogenesis assays show that B cell-mediated tumor angiogenesis is mainly dependent on the induction of pro-angiogenic gene expression, which requires Stat3 signaling in B cells. Furthermore, B cells with activated STAT3 are mainly found in or near tumor vasculature and correlate significantly with overall STAT3 activity in human tumors. Moreover, the density of B cells in human tumor tissues correlates significantly with expression levels of several STAT3-downstream pro-angiogenic genes, as well as the degree of tumor angiogenesis. Together, these findings define a novel role of B cells in promoting tumor progression through angiogenesis and identify STAT3 in B cells as potential therapeutic target for anti-angiogenesis therapy. PMID:23734190

Pal, Sumanta; Jove, Veronica; Deng, Jiehui; Zhang, Wang; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Wakabayashi, Mark; Forman, Stephen; Yu, Hua

2013-01-01

36

Transcriptional regulation of STAT3 by SPTBN1 and SMAD3 in HCC through cAMP-response element-binding proteins ATF3 and CREB2.  

PubMed

The cytoskeletal protein Spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1), an adapter protein to SMAD3 in TGF-? signaling, may prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development by downregulating the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). To elucidate the as yet undefined mechanisms that regulate this process, we demonstrate that higher levels of STAT3 transcription are found in livers of heterozygous SPTBN1(+/-) mice as compared to that of wild type mice. We also found increased levels of STAT3 mRNA, STAT3 protein, and p-STAT3 in human HCC cell-lines after knockdown of SPTBN1 or SMAD3, which promoted cell colony formation. Inhibition of STAT3 overrode the increase in cell colony formation due to knockdown of SPTBN1 or SMAD3. We also found that inhibition of SPTBN1 or SMAD3 upregulated STAT3 promoter activity in HCC cell-lines, which is dependent upon the cAMP-response element (CRE) and STAT-binding element (SBE) sites of the STAT3 promoter. Mechanistically, suppression of SPTBN1 and SMAD3 augmented the transcription of STAT3 by upregulating the CRE-binding proteins ATF3 and CREB2 and augmented the binding of those proteins to the regions within or upstream of the CRE site of the STAT3 promoter. Finally, in human HCC tissues, SPTBN1 expression correlated negatively with expression levels of STAT3, ATF3, and CREB2; SMAD3 expression correlated negatively with STAT3 expression; and the level of phosphorylated SMAD3 (p-SMAD3) correlated negatively with ATF3 and CREB2 protein levels. SPTBN1 and SMAD3 collaborate with CRE-binding transcription factors to inhibit STAT3, thereby preventing HCC development. PMID:25096061

Lin, Ling; Yao, Zhixing; Bhuvaneshwar, Krithika; Gusev, Yuriy; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Yang, Shaoxian; Shetty, Kirti; He, Aiwu Ruth

2014-11-01

37

Halofuginone-induced amino acid starvation regulates Stat3-dependent Th17 effector function and reduces established autoimmune inflammation.  

PubMed

The IL-23 pathway is genetically linked to autoimmune disease in humans and is required for pathogenic Th17 cell function in mice. However, because IL-23R-expressing mature Th17 cells are rare and poorly defined in mice at steady-state, little is known about IL-23 signaling. In this study, we show that the endogenous CCR6(+) memory T cell compartment present in peripheral lymphoid organs of unmanipulated mice expresses Il23r ex vivo, displays marked proinflammatory responses to IL-23 stimulation in vitro, and is capable of transferring experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor halofuginone blocks IL-23-induced Stat3 phosphorylation and IL-23-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression in endogenous CCR6(+) Th17 cells via activation of the amino acid starvation response (AAR) pathway. In vivo, halofuginone shows therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, reducing both established disease progression and local Th17 cell effector function within the CNS. Mechanistically, AAR activation impairs Stat3 responses downstream of multiple cytokine receptors via selective, posttranscriptional suppression of Stat3 protein levels. Thus, our study reveals latent pathogenic functions of endogenous Th17 cells that are regulated by both IL-23 and AAR pathways and identifies a novel regulatory pathway targeting Stat3 that may underlie selective immune regulation by the AAR. PMID:24489094

Carlson, Thaddeus J; Pellerin, Alex; Djuretic, Ivana M; Trivigno, Catherine; Koralov, Sergei B; Rao, Anjana; Sundrud, Mark S

2014-03-01

38

Transcriptional regulation of the novel monoamine oxidase renalase: Crucial roles of transcription factors Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89.  

PubMed

Renalase, a novel monoamine oxidase, is emerging as an important regulator of cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of this enzyme remains largely unknown. We undertook a systematic analysis of the renalase gene to identify regulatory promoter elements and transcription factors. Computational analysis coupled with transfection of human renalase promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids (5'-promoter-deletion constructs) into various cell types (HEK-293, IMR32, and HepG2) identified two crucial promoter domains at base pairs -485 to -399 and -252 to -150. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using renalase promoter oligonucleotides with and without potential binding sites for transcription factors Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 displayed formation of specific complexes with HEK-293 nuclear proteins. Consistently, overexpression of Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 augmented renalase promoter activity; additionally, siRNA-mediated downregulation of Sp1, STAT3, and ZBP89 reduced the level of endogenous renalase transcription as well as the transfected renalase promoter activity. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed in vivo interactions of these transcription factors with renalase promoter. Interestingly, renalase promoter activity was augmented by nicotine and catecholamines; while Sp1 and STAT3 synergistically activated the nicotine-induced effect, Sp1 appeared to enhance epinephrine-evoked renalase transcription. Moreover, renalase transcript levels in mouse models of human essential hypertension were concomitantly associated with endogenous STAT3 and ZBP89 levels, suggesting crucial roles for these transcription factors in regulating renalase gene expression in cardiovascular pathological conditions. PMID:25295465

Sonawane, Parshuram J; Gupta, Vinayak; Sasi, Binu K; Kalyani, Ananthamohan; Natarajan, Bhargavi; Khan, Abrar A; Sahu, Bhavani S; Mahapatra, Nitish R

2014-11-11

39

Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma. PMID:24939294

Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

2014-06-01

40

esBAF Facilitates Pluripotency by Conditioning the Genome for LIF/STAT3Signalingand by Regulating Polycomb Function  

PubMed Central

Signaling by the cytokine LIF and its downstream transcription factor, STAT3, prevents differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by opposing MAP kinase signaling. This contrasts with most cell types where STAT3signaling induces differentiation. We find that STAT3binding across the pluripotent genome is dependent upon Brg, the ATPase subunit of a specialized chromatin remodeling complex (esBAF) found in ESCs. Brg is required to establish chromatin accessibility at STAT3 binding targets, in essence preparing these sites to respond to LIF signaling. Moreover, Brg deletion leads to rapid Polycomb (PcG) binding and H3K27me3-mediated silencing of many Brg-activated targets genome-wide, including the target genes of the LIF signaling pathway. Hence, one crucial role of Brg in ESCs involves its ability to potentiate LIF signaling by opposing PcG. Contrary to expectations, Brg also facilitates PcG function at classical PcG target including all four Hox loci, reinforcing their repression in ESCs. These findings reveal that esBAF does not simply antagonize PcG, but rather, the two chromatin regulators act both antagonistically and synergistically with the common goal of supporting pluripotency. PMID:21785422

Ho, Lena; Miller, Erik L.; Ronan, Jehnna L.; Ho, Wenqi; Jothi, Raja; Crabtree, Gerald R

2011-01-01

41

The STAT3 Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is widely expressed and activated by various growth-regulating signals, as well as diverse cytokines, that activate gp130 signaling receptors. Hence, STAT3 is critical for embryonic development and stem cell biology, as well as inflammation, growth regulation, and multiple immune regulatory and homeostatic functions. STAT3 is also found in its activated state in a large number of human cancers and has been correlated with oncogenic activity and tumor maintenance in several systems. The Connections Map highlights activation of STAT3 by interleukin 6 and shows that STAT3 serves as an integration point for components in multiple signaling pathways in addition to those involving JAKs, for example, the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G proteins) of the Gi/o family, and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Science Viewpoint D. S. Aaronson, C. M. Horvath, A road map for those who don't know JAK-STAT. Science 296, 1653-1655 (2002). [Abstract] [Full Text

David S. Aaronson (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV); Curt M. Horvath (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Immunobiology Center REV)

2003-08-26

42

Protein kinase C regulates rod photoreceptor differentiation through modulation of STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

The molecular signals governing retinal development remain poorly understood, but some key molecules that play important roles have been identified. Activation of STAT3 by cytokines such as LIF and CNTF specifically blocks differentiation of rod photoreceptors. Here we test the hypothesis that PKC activation promotes development of rod photoreceptors by inhibiting STAT3. Explant cultures of mouse retina were used to study the effects of PKC activation on rod development. The expression of opsin, a rod specific marker, is induced at an early stage in retina explants cultured in the presence of PMA and this effect is prevented by the PKC inhibitor Go7874. Histological experiments show that there is expression of PKC beta1, but not PKC-alpha in the outer nuclear layer between E17.5 and PN5. In vitro data derived from cell lines shows that activation of PKC results in reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, inhibition of PKC results in increase STAT3 phosphorylation. We suggest that cross talk of signals between STAT3 and PKC may determine the differentiation of rods from retinal progeitors. PMID:20237998

Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Shaomin Zhang, Samuel; Barnstable, Colin J

2010-01-01

43

Constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling regulates hTERT and promotes stem cell-like traits in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Mounting clinical data suggest that high telomerase activity is tightly associated with cancer progression and poor outcomes. Constitutively activated STAT3 is found in ?60% of human malignancies and shows a dismal prognosis. We previously reported that activated STAT3 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell phenotype in human breast cancer. However, little is known how STAT3 is regulated in the cancer stem cell and by which mechanisms STAT3 contributes to poor prognosis in aggressive breast cancer. Here we demonstrate that STAT3 physically interacts with CD44 and NF-kB and activates the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) in human breast cancer stem cells. STAT3 plays a role as a signal transducing molecule between CD44 and NF-kB. In addition to functioning as a catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT has been reported to function as a transcription co-factor which drives EMT and cancer stem cell phenotype in human cancer. We observed that activated hTERT increases CD44 (+) subpopulation, whereas targeted knock-down of hTERT abolished cancer stem cell phenotype. Targeted STAT3 knock-down cells also down-regulated hTERT and decreased CD44 subpopulation. Finally, CD44 knock-down resulted in the abrogation of cancer stem cell phenotype and concurrent down-regulation of pSTAT3 and hTERT. Our study delineates the signaling pathway where STAT3 functions as a modulator for CD44 and hTERT, promoting a cancer stem cell phenotype. The constitutive activation of STAT3 signaling that leads to regulation of hTERT pathway may provide novel therapeutic targets for human breast cancer stem cells. PMID:24386318

Chung, Seyung S; Aroh, Clement; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

2013-01-01

44

TCPTP Regulates SFK and STAT3 Signaling and Is Lost in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling, as mediated by members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family (ErbB1 to -4) of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), Src family PTKs (SFKs), and cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that signal via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is critical to the development and progression of many human breast cancers. EGFR, SFKs, and STAT3 can serve as substrates for the protein tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP (PTPN2). Here we report that TCPTP protein levels are decreased in a subset of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and that TCPTP protein is absent in a large proportion of “triple-negative” primary human breast cancers. Homozygous TCPTP deficiency in murine mammary fat pads in vivo is associated with elevated SFK and STAT3 signaling, whereas TCPTP deficiency in human breast cancer cell lines enhances SFK and STAT3 signaling. On the other hand, TCPTP reconstitution in human breast cancer cell lines severely impaired cell proliferation and suppressed anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft growth in vivo. These studies establish TCPTP's potential to serve as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. PMID:23166300

Shields, Benjamin J.; Wiede, Florian; Gurzov, Esteban N.; Wee, Kenneth; Hauser, Christine; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Molloy, Timothy J.; O'Toole, Sandra A.; Daly, Roger J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Mitchell, Christina A.; McLean, Catriona A.

2013-01-01

45

CCR7 regulates cell migration and invasion through JAK2/STAT3 in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) frequently involves metastasis at diagnosis. Our previous research has demonstrated that CCR7 plays a key role in regulating SCCHN metastasis, and this process involves several molecules, such as PI3K/cdc42, pyk2, and Src. In this study, the goals are to identify whether JAK2/STAT3 also participates in CCR7's signal network, its relationship with other signal pathways, and its role in SCCHN cell invasion and migration. The results showed that stimulation of CCL19 could induce JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, which can be blocked by Src and pyk2 inhibitors. After activation, STAT3 was able to promote low expression of E-cadherin and had no effect on vimentin. This JAk2/STAT3 pathway not only mediated CCR7-induced cell migration but also mediated invasion speed. The immunohistochemistry results also showed that the phosphorylation of STAT3 was correlated with CCR7 expression in SCCHN, and CCR7 and STAT3 phosphorylation were all associated with lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, JAk2/STAT3 plays a key role in CCR7 regulating SCCHN metastasis. PMID:25405202

Liu, Fa-Yu; Safdar, Jawad; Li, Zhen-Ning; Fang, Qi-Gen; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Sun, Chang-Fu

2014-01-01

46

CCR7 Regulates Cell Migration and Invasion through JAK2/STAT3 in Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) frequently involves metastasis at diagnosis. Our previous research has demonstrated that CCR7 plays a key role in regulating SCCHN metastasis, and this process involves several molecules, such as PI3K/cdc42, pyk2, and Src. In this study, the goals are to identify whether JAK2/STAT3 also participates in CCR7's signal network, its relationship with other signal pathways, and its role in SCCHN cell invasion and migration. The results showed that stimulation of CCL19 could induce JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation, which can be blocked by Src and pyk2 inhibitors. After activation, STAT3 was able to promote low expression of E-cadherin and had no effect on vimentin. This JAk2/STAT3 pathway not only mediated CCR7-induced cell migration but also mediated invasion speed. The immunohistochemistry results also showed that the phosphorylation of STAT3 was correlated with CCR7 expression in SCCHN, and CCR7 and STAT3 phosphorylation were all associated with lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, JAk2/STAT3 plays a key role in CCR7 regulating SCCHN metastasis. PMID:25405202

Liu, Fa-Yu; Safdar, Jawad; Li, Zhen-Ning; Fang, Qi-Gen; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Sun, Chang-Fu

2014-01-01

47

STAT3 regulates the migration and invasion of a stem?like subpopulation through microRNA?21 and multiple targets in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Despite advances in the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis remains poor partly due to recurrence or extra/intrahepatic metastasis. Stem?like cancer cells are considered the source of malignant phenotypes including metastasis in various types of cancer. HCC side population (SP), considered as stem?like cancer cells, plays an important role in the migration and invasion in HCC, while the mechanisms involved remain unknown. In the present study, high levels of STAT3 and phospho?STAT3 were observed in MHCC97H SP cells compared with the main population (MP) cells. Inhibition of phospho?STAT3 led to a reduction of miR?21 expression, an increase of PTEN, RECK, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) expression as well as the migration and invasion of SP cells. A set of rescue experiments was performed using different combinations of STAT3 inhibitor, miR?21 mimics and siRNAs to observe the expression of miR?21 targets, cell migration and invasion alterations. Data indicated that the alterations induced by STAT3 inhibition were partly reversed by the upregulation of miR?21. Additionally, the cells migration and invasion when silencing the targets of miR?21 were also reversed by STAT3 inhibition. In conclusion, the present study revealed the aberrant expression of STAT3 and miR?21 in HCC SP cells. Targeting STAT3 may limit HCC migration and invasion, which is likely to involve the regulation of miR?21 and its targets PTEN, RECK and PDCD4. Strategies directed towards STAT3 may therefore be a novel approach for the treatment of HCC. PMID:25571964

Zhang, Ning; Duan, Wei-Dong; Leng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Xing; Xu, Yin-Zhe; Wang, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Dong, Jia-Hong

2015-03-01

48

PPARgamma regulates LIF-induced growth and self-renewal of mouse ES cells through Tyk2-Stat3 pathway.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are genetically normal, pluripotent cells, capable of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a growth factor that can maintain the pluripotency of mouse ES cells in culture. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptor transcription factors that regulate growth and differentiation of many cell types. We have shown earlier that 15-Deoxy-(12,14)-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural ligand for PPARgamma, inhibits LIF-induced proliferation of mouse ES cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that the PPARgamma antagonist Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and 2-Chloro-5-nitro-N-(4-pyridyl)benzamide (T0070907) reverse the inhibition of ES cell proliferation by PPARgamma agonists. Stable transfection of ES cells with a dominant negative PPARgamma1 mutant also reduced the inhibition of proliferation by PPARgamma agonists. While 15d-PGJ2 and ciglitazone-induced growth-arrest in ES cells by blocking LIF signaling, PPARgamma antagonists and dominant negative PPARgamma1 mutant reversed proliferation by restoring LIF-induced Tyk2-Stat3 signaling. These results suggest that PPARgamma regulates LIF-induced growth and self-renewal of mouse ES cells through Tyk2-Stat3 pathway. PMID:19922793

Mo, Caiqing; Chearwae, Wanida; Bright, John J

2010-03-01

49

The Synthetic Tryptanthrin Analogue Suppresses STAT3 Signaling and Induces Caspase Dependent Apoptosis via ERK Up Regulation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Tryptanthrin is a natural product which has been reported to have several medicinal properties. In this study, we tried to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of its bromo analogue (TBr), a potent cytotoxic agent in the induction of cancer cell death. It was found that TBr primarily targets STAT3 and ERK signaling during the induction of apoptosis in several human leukemia cell lines. In HL-60 cells, TBr treatment caused early down regulation of p-STAT3 with concomitant up regulation of p-ERK which led to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The mechanism of TBr mediated inhibition of p-STAT3 was found to be due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of tyrosine 705 and serine 727 p-STAT3. As IL-6 is the main driver of the STAT3 pathway, the effect of TBr on cell death was subdued when treated in the combination with IL-6 in HL60 cells. Interestingly, PD98059 significantly reduced the apoptotic effects of TBr, thus showing the direct involvement of p-ERK in TBr mediated cell death. It was further shown that apoptotic protein Bax silencing in HL-60 cells resists TBr mediated ERK dependent apoptosis. In summary, for the first time we report the mechanism of TBr mediated cell death in human leukemia cell lines by targeting STAT3 and ERK pathways. PMID:25383546

Pathania, Anup S.; Kumar, Suresh; Guru, Santosh K.; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Aithagani, Sravan K.; Singh, Parvinder P.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz

2014-01-01

50

Regulation of Human Endometrial Stromal Proliferation and Differentiation by C/EBP? Involves Cyclin E-cdk2 and STAT3  

PubMed Central

During each menstrual cycle, the human uterus undergoes a unique transformation, known as decidualization, which involves endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation. During this process, the stromal cells are transformed into decidual cells, which produce factors that prepare the uterus for potential embryo implantation. We previously identified the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)? as a regulator of endometrial stromal proliferation and differentiation in mice. In this study, we addressed the role of C/EBP? in human endometrial decidualization. Using small interfering RNA targeted to C/EBP? mRNA, we demonstrated that C/EBP? controls the proliferation of primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) by regulating the expression of several key cell cycle-regulatory factors during the G1-S phase transition. Additionally, loss of C/EBP? expression blocked the differentiation of HESCs in response to estrogen, progesterone, and cyclic AMP. Gene expression profiling of normal and C/EBP?-deficient HESCs revealed that the receptor for the cytokine IL-11 and its downstream signal transducer signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are targets of regulation by C/EBP?. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that C/EBP? controls the expression of STAT3 gene by directly interacting with a distinct regulatory sequence in its 5?-flanking region. Attenuation of STAT3 mRNA expression in HESCs resulted in markedly reduced differentiation of these cells, indicating an important role for STAT3 in decidualization. Gene expression profiling, using STAT3-deficient HESCs, showed an extensive overlap of pathways downstream of STAT3 and C/EBP? during stromal cell differentiation. Collectively, these findings revealed a novel functional link between C/EBP? and STAT3 that is a critical regulator of endometrial differentiation in women. PMID:23097472

Wang, Wei; Taylor, Robert N.

2012-01-01

51

Astrocyte response to motor neuron injury promotes structural synaptic plasticity via STAT3-regulated TSP-1 expression  

PubMed Central

The role of remote astrocyte (AC) reaction to central or peripheral axonal insult is not clearly understood. Here we use a transgenic approach to compare the direct influence of normal with diminished AC reactivity on neuronal integrity and synapse recovery following extracranial facial nerve transection in mice. Our model allows straightforward interpretations of AC–neuron signalling by reducing confounding effects imposed by inflammatory cells. We show direct evidence that perineuronal reactive ACs play a major role in maintaining neuronal circuitry following distant axotomy. We reveal a novel function of astrocytic signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). STAT3 regulates perineuronal astrocytic process formation and re-expression of a synaptogenic molecule, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), apart from supporting neuronal integrity. We demonstrate that, through this new pathway, TSP-1 is responsible for the remote AC-mediated recovery of excitatory synapses onto axotomized motor neurons in adult mice. These data provide new targets for neuroprotective therapies via optimizing AC-driven plasticity. PMID:25014177

Tyzack, Giulia E.; Sitnikov, Sergey; Barson, Daniel; Adams-Carr, Kerala L.; Lau, Nike K.; Kwok, Jessica C.; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J. M.; Karadottir, Ragnhildur T.; Fawcett, James W.; Lakatos, András

2014-01-01

52

STAT3, STAT4, NFATc1, and CTCF regulate PD-1 through multiple novel regulatory regions in murine T cells.  

PubMed

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a crucial negative regulator of CD8 T cell development and function, yet the mechanisms that control its expression are not fully understood. Through a nonbiased DNase I hypersensitivity assay, four novel regulatory regions within the Pdcd1 locus were identified. Two of these elements flanked the locus, bound the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor, and interacted with each other, creating a potential regulatory compartmentalization of the locus. In response to T cell activation signaling, NFATc1 bound to two of the novel regions that function as independent regulatory elements. STAT binding sites were identified in these elements as well. In splenic CD8 T cells, TCR-induced PD-1 expression was augmented by IL-6 and IL-12, inducers of STAT3 and STAT4 activity, respectively. IL-6 or IL-12 on its own did not induce PD-1. Importantly, STAT3/4 and distinct chromatin modifications were associated with the novel regulatory regions following cytokine stimulation. The NFATc1/STAT regulatory regions were found to interact with the promoter region of the Pdcd1 gene, providing a mechanism for their action. Together these data add multiple novel distal regulatory regions and pathways to the control of PD-1 expression and provide a molecular mechanism by which proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 or IL-12, can augment PD-1 expression. PMID:24711622

Austin, James W; Lu, Peiyuan; Majumder, Parimal; Ahmed, Rafi; Boss, Jeremy M

2014-05-15

53

RhoC regulates cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by overexpressing IL-6 and phosphorylation of STAT3.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the correlation between RhoC expression and cancer stem cells (CSCs) formation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The inhibition of RhoC function was achieved using shRNA. The expression of stem cell surface markers, ALDH and CD44 were significantly low in two RhoC depleted HNSCC cell carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, a striking reduction in tumorsphere formation was achieved in RhoC knockdown lines. The mRNA expression of RhoC in RhoC knockdown adherent and tumorspheres are dramatically down regulated as compared with the scrambled control. The mRNA expression of stem cell transcription factors; nanog, oct3/4 (Pouf1), and sox2 were significantly depleted in RhoC knockdown clones. Further, the phosphorylation of STAT3(ser727), and STAT3(tyr705) were significantly down regulated in RhoC knockdown clones. The overexpression of STAT3 in RhoC knockdown did not show any change in expression patterns of either-STAT3(tyr705) or stem cell transcription factors, signifying the role of RhoC in STAT3 activation and thus the expression of nanog, oct3/4 and sox2 in HNSCC. The expression of Inter leukin-6 (IL-6) in RhoC knockdown HNSCC cell lines was dramatically low as compared to the scrambled control. Further, we have shown a rescue in STAT3 phosphorylation by IL-6 stimulation in RhoC knockdown lines. This study is the first of its kind to establish the involvement of RhoC in STAT3 phosphorylation and hence in promoting the activation of core cancer stem cells (CSCs) transcription factors. These findings suggest that RhoC may be a novel target for HNSCC therapy. PMID:24533098

Islam, Mozaffarul; Sharma, Smita; Teknos, Theodoros N

2014-01-01

54

esBAF facilitates pluripotency by conditioning the genome for LIF\\/STAT3 signalling and by regulating polycomb function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signalling by the cytokine LIF and its downstream transcription factor, STAT3, prevents differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This contrasts with most cell types where STAT3 signalling induces differentiation. We find that STAT3 binding across the pluripotent genome is dependent on Brg1, the ATPase subunit of a specialized chromatin remodelling complex (esBAF) found in ESCs. Brg1 is required to

Lena Ho; Erik L. Miller; Jehnna L. Ronan; Wen Qi Ho; Raja Jothi; Gerald R. Crabtree

2011-01-01

55

Novel Thiosemicarbazones Regulate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Pathway: Inhibition of Constitutive and Interleukin 6-Induced Activation by Iron Depletion.  

PubMed

Pharmacologic manipulation of metal pools in tumor cells is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we reveal how the iron-binding ligands desferrioxamine (DFO), di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), and di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC) inhibit constitutive and interleukin 6-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, which promotes proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. We demonstrate that DFO, Dp44mT, and DpC significantly decrease constitutive phosphorylation of the STAT3 transcription factor at Tyr705 in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 as well as the prostate cancer cell line DU145. These compounds also significantly decrease the dimerized STAT3 levels, the binding of nuclear STAT3 to its target DNA, and the expression of downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, c-myc, and Bcl-2. Examination of upstream mediators of STAT3 in response to these ligands has revealed that Dp44mT and DpC could significantly decrease activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src and activation of cAbl in DU145 and MIAPaCa-2 cells. In contrast to the effects of Dp44mT, DpC, or DFO on inhibiting STAT3 activation, the negative control compound di-2-pyridylketone 2-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, or the DFO:Fe complex, which cannot bind cellular iron, had no effect. This demonstrates the role of iron-binding in the activity observed. Immunohistochemical staining of PANC-1 tumor xenografts showed a marked decrease in STAT3 in the tumors of mice treated with Dp44mT or DpC compared with the vehicle. Collectively, these studies demonstrate suppression of STAT3 activity by iron depletion in vitro and in vivo, and reveal insights into regulation of the critical oncogenic STAT3 pathway. PMID:25561562

Lui, Goldie Y L; Kovacevic, Zaklina; V Menezes, Sharleen; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Merlot, Angelica M; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R

2015-03-01

56

Touched and Moved by STAT3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

STAT3, a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors, is a known regulator of cell motility through its transcriptional activating functions. However, new evidence suggests a novel role for non–tyrosine-phosphorylated and cytoplasmically localized STAT3 in mediating cell migration by disrupting an interaction between microtubules and one of its partners, stathmin. The association of STAT3 with stathmin potentiates microtubule polymerization and cell movement.

S. Paul Gao (New York NY; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center REV)

2006-07-11

57

Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Sepsis rapidly activates the host inflammatory response and acute phase response. Severe sepsis, complicated by multiple organ failure, is associated with overwhelming inflammation and high mortality. We previously observed that zinc (Zn) deficiency significantly increases mortality in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis due to over-activation of the inflammatory response. In order to identify potential mechanisms that account for Zn-responsive effects, we generated whole exome expression profiles from the lung tissue of septic mice that were maintained on Zn modified diets. Based on systems analysis, we observed that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response and particularly the JAK-STAT3 pathway, resulting in increased serum amyloid A production. In vitro studies of primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells substantiated that Zn-deficiency augments serum amyloid A production through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 and NF-?B pathways. In contrast, Zn inhibited STAT3 activation through the up-regulation of SHP1 activity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response through up-regulation of the JAK-STAT3 pathway, thereby perpetuating increased inflammation that may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in response to sepsis. PMID:24732911

Liu, Ming-Jie; Bao, Shengying; Napolitano, Jessica R.; Burris, Dara L.; Yu, Lianbo; Tridandapani, Susheela; Knoell, Daren L.

2014-01-01

58

Curcumin and Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibit the Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype via Down-regulation of STAT3–NF?B signaling  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim The cancer stem cell (CSC) model postulates the existence of a small proportion of cancer cells capable of sustaining tumor formation, self-renewal and differentiation. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is known to be selectively activated in breast CSC population. However, it is yet to be determined which molecular mechanisms regulate STAT3 signaling in CSCs and what chemopreventive agents are effective for suppressing CSC growth. The aim of this study was to examine the potential efficacy of curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) against CSC and to uncover molecular mechanisms of their anticancer effects. Materials and methods To suppress CSC phenotype, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells transfected with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) breast cancer cell lines were treated with curcumin (10 ?M) with/without EGCG (10 ?M) for 48 hours. We used tumor-sphere formation and wound-healing assays to determine CSC phenotype. To quantify CSC populations, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting profiling was monitored. STAT3 phosphorylation and interaction with Nuclear Factor kB (NFkB) were analyzed performing western blot and immunoprecipitation assays. Results Combined curcumin and EGCG treatment reduced the cancer stem-like Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) positive cell population. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that curcumin and EGCG specifically inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3-NFkB interaction was retained. Conclusion This study suggests curcumin and EGCG function as antitumor agents for suppressing breast CSCs. STAT3 and NF?B signaling pathways could serve as targets for reducing CSCs leading to novel targeted-therapy for treating breast cancer. PMID:25550533

Chung, Seyung S.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

2015-01-01

59

Stat3 is a positive regulator of gap junctional intercellular communication in cultured, human lung carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Neoplastic transformation of cultured cells by a number of oncogenes such as src suppresses gap junctional, intercellular communication (GJIC); however, the role of Src and its effector Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) upon GJIC in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been defined. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high Src activity in NSCLC biopsy samples compared to normal tissues. Here we explored the potential effect of Src and Stat3 upon GJIC, by assessing the levels of tyr418-phosphorylated Src and tyr705-phosphorylated Stat3, respectively, in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Methods Gap junctional communication was examined by electroporating the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow into cells grown on a transparent electrode, followed by observation of the migration of the dye to the adjacent, non-electroporated cells under fluorescence illumination. Results An inverse relationship between Src activity levels and GJIC was noted; in five lines with high Src activity GJIC was absent, while two lines with extensive GJIC (QU-DB and SK-LuCi6) had low Src levels, similar to a non-transformed, immortalised lung epithelial cell line. Interestingly, examination of the mechanism indicated that Stat3 inhibition in any of the NSCLC lines expressing high endogenous Src activity levels, or in cells where Src was exogenously transduced, did not restore GJIC. On the contrary, Stat3 downregulation in immortalised lung epithelial cells or in the NSCLC lines displaying extensive GJIC actually suppressed junctional permeability. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that although Stat3 is generally growth promoting and in an activated form it can act as an oncogene, it is actually required for gap junctional communication both in nontransformed lung epithelial cells and in certain lung cancer lines that retain extensive GJIC. PMID:23244248

2012-01-01

60

BIS targeting induces cellular senescence through the regulation of 14-3-3 zeta/STAT3/SKP2/p27 in glioblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is an important mechanism for preventing tumor progression. The elevated expression of Bcl-2-interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), an anti-apoptotic and anti-stress protein, often correlates with poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma; however, the role of BIS in the regulation of senescence has not been well defined. Here, we describe for the first time that the depletion of BIS induces G1 arrest and cellular senescence through the accumulation of p27 that is independent of p53, p21 or p16. The increase in p27 expression in BIS-depleted cells was attributable to an impairment of the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, which was caused by a decrease in S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) at the transcriptional level. As an underlying molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that the loss of activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was specifically linked to the suppression of SKP2 expression. Despite a reduction in phospho-STAT3 levels, total STAT3 levels were unexpectedly increased by BIS depletion, specifically in the insoluble fraction. Our results show that 14-3-3? expression is decreased by BIS knockdown and that 14-3-3? depletion per se significantly induced senescence phenotypes. In addition, the ectopic expression of 14-3-3? blocked senescence caused by BIS depletion, which was paralleled with a decrease in insoluble STAT3 in A172 glioblastoma cells. These findings indicate that the impairment of the protein quality control conferred by BIS and/or 14-3-3? is critical for BIS depletion-induced senescence. Moreover, BIS knockdown also induced senescence along with an accumulation of total STAT3 and p27 in several different cell types as well as embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bis-knock out mice with/without variations in 14-3-3? levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that a downregulation of BIS expression could serve as a potential strategy for restricting tumor progression via an induction of senescence through the regulation of STAT3/SKP2/p27 pathway. PMID:25412315

Lee, J-J; Lee, J-S; Cui, M N; Yun, H H; Kim, H Y; Lee, S H; Lee, J-H

2014-01-01

61

Fad104, a Positive Regulator of Adipocyte Differentiation, Suppresses Invasion and Metastasis of Melanoma Cells by Inhibition of STAT3 Activity  

PubMed Central

Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with cancer, and understanding the mechanisms of metastatic processes is essential for the development of cancer therapy. Although the role of several cell adhesion, migration or proliferation molecules in metastasis is established, a novel target for cancer therapy remains to be discovered. Previously, we reported that fad104 (factor for adipocyte differentiation 104), a regulatory factor of adipogenesis, regulates cell adhesion and migration. In this report, we clarify the role of fad104 in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The expression level of fad104 in highly metastatic melanoma A375SM cells was lower than that in poorly metastatic melanoma A375C6 cells. Reduction of fad104 expression enhanced the migration and invasion of melanoma cells, while over-expression of FAD104 inhibited migration and invasion. In addition, melanoma cells stably expressing FAD104 showed a reduction in formation of lung colonization compared with control cells. FAD104 interacted with STAT3 and down-regulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3 in melanoma cells. These findings together demonstrate that fad104 suppressed the invasion and metastasis of melanoma cells by inhibiting activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. These findings will aid a comprehensive description of the mechanism that controls the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. PMID:25671570

Katoh, Daiki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

2015-01-01

62

In Vivo Induction of Apoptosis by Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid, Associated with Down-Regulating STAT3/EGFR Signaling in Sarcoma 180 (S180) Xenografts-Bearing Mice  

PubMed Central

Previous in vitro researches have showed that fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid isolated from sargassum, can inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma, hepatoma, leukemia, colon carcinoma, prostate cancer or urinary bladder cancer cells. But the precise mechanism by which fucoxanthin exerts anticarcinogenic effects is not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed an in vivo study to investigate the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of fucoxanthin on xenografted sarcoma 180 (S180) in mice. Results revealed that fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the growth of sarcoma at the dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. TUNEL analysis showed that the number of positive cells in the fucoxanthin-treated group was higher than that in the control group. Western blotting analysis also revealed the suppressed expression of bcl-2 and enhanced expression of cleaved caspase-3 by fucoxanthin. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blotting analysis showed that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the expressions of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Most importantly, fucoxanthin inhibited the expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. These results indicated that in vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in S180 xenografts-bearing mice. PMID:23118721

Wang, Jun; Chen, Shihui; Xu, Shiqiang; Yu, Xing; Ma, Dongqing; Hu, Xiamin; Cao, Xiaolu

2012-01-01

63

STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons.  

PubMed

STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1? and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emmanuelle; Giorgio, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

2014-01-01

64

STAT3 Regulates Proliferation and Survival of CD8+ T Cells: Enhances Effector Responses to HSV-1 Infection, and Inhibits IL-10+ Regulatory CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Uveitis  

PubMed Central

STAT3 regulates CD4+ T cell survival and differentiation. However, its effects on CD8+ T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that in comparison to WT CD8+ T cells, STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit a preactivated memory-like phenotype, produce more IL-2, proliferate faster, and are more sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD). The enhanced proliferation and sensitivity to AICD correlated with downregulation of class-O forkhead transcription factors (FoxO1, FoxO3A), p21waf1, p27KIP1, Bcl-2, OX-40, and upregulation of FasL, Bax, and Bad. We examined whether STAT3-deficient CD8+ T cells can mount effective response during herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Compared to WT mice, HSV-1-infected STAT3-deficient mice (STAT3KO) produced less IFN-? and virus-specific KLRG-1+ CD8+ T cells. STAT3KO mice are also resistant to EAU and produced less IL-17-producing Tc17 cells. Resistance of STAT3KO to EAU correlated with marked expansion of IL-10-producing regulatory CD8+ T cells (CD8-Treg) implicated in recovery from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, increases of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation observed during inflammation may inhibit expansion of CD8-Tregs, thereby impeding recovery from uveitis. These results suggest that STAT3 is a potential therapeutic target for upregulating CD8+ T cell-mediated responses to viruses and suggest the successful therapeutic targeting of STAT3 as treatment for uveitis, derived, in part, from promoting CD8-Treg expansion. PMID:24204098

Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M.; Lee, Yong-Jun; Frank, Gregory M.; Egwuagu, Charles E.

2013-01-01

65

Targeting constitutively-activated STAT3 in hypoxic ovarian cancer, using a novel STAT3 inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Tumor hypoxia, a feature of many solid tumors including ovarian cancer, is associated with resistance to therapies. We previously demonstrated that hypoxic exposure results in increased expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3). We hypothesized the activation of STAT3 could lead to chemotherapeutic resistance in ovarian cancer cells in hypoxic conditions. In this study, we demonstrate the level of pSTAT3 Tyr705 is increased in the hypoxic regions of human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) specimens, as determined by HIF-1? and CD-31 staining. In vitro mutagenesis studies proved that pSTAT3 Tyr705 is necessary for cell survival and proliferation under hypoxic conditions. In addition, we show that S1PR1, a regulator of STAT3 transcription via the JAK/STAT pathway, is highly expressed in hypoxic ovarian cancer cells (HOCCs). Knock down of S1PR1 in HOCCs reduced pSTAT3 Tyr705 levels and was associated with decreased cell survival. Treatment of HOCCs with the STAT3 inhibitor HO-3867 resulted in a rapid and dramatic decrease in pSTAT3 Tyr705 levels as a result of ubiquitin proteasome degradation. STAT3-target proteins Bcl-xL, cyclin D2 and VEGF showed similar decreases in HO-3867 treated cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of STAT3 Tyr705 promotes cell survival and proliferation in HOCCs, and that S1PR1 is involved in the initiation of STAT3 activation. Targeting hypoxia-mediated STAT3 activation represents a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer and other solid tumors.

McCann, Georgia A.; Naidu, Shan; Rath, Kellie S.; Bid, Hemant K.; Tierney, Brent J.; Suarez, Adrian; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Zhang, Jianying; Hideg, Kálmán; Houghton, Peter; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Cohn, David E.; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

2014-01-01

66

MICRO-RNA146B PROMOTES ALVEOLAR PROGENITOR CELL MAINTENANCE THROUGH PREFERENTIAL REGULATION OF STAT3B  

E-print Network

PTBP1 RANKL RISC SMA SMAD4 STAT3 STAT5a TGF? TRAF6 Argonaute 2 Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf Breast cancer type 1/2 susceptibility protein Comma D ? Cell line... isolated from virgin, pregnant, lactating and 10 days post-weaning (involuting). RT- qPCR showed a 3.5 (6.1± 0.57 SEM vs. 2.3± 0.76 SEM) fold increase in miR146b expression in the PMEC of pregnant and a 6.3 (10.8± 1. 03 SEM vs. 2.3± 0.76 SEM) fold...

Elsarraj, Hanan Sataa

2012-08-31

67

MafB is a downstream target of the IL-10/STAT3 signaling pathway, involved in the regulation of macrophage de-activation.  

PubMed

In spite of the numerous reports implicating MafB transcription factor in the molecular control of monocyte-macrophage differentiation, the precise genetic program underlying this activity has been, to date, poorly understood. To clarify this issue, we planned a number of experiments that were mainly conducted on human primary macrophages. In this regard, a preliminary gene function study, based on MafB inactivation and over-expression, indicated MMP9 and IL-7R genes as possible targets of the investigated transcription factor. Bioinformatics analysis of their promoter regions disclosed the presence of several putative MARE elements and a combined approach of EMSA and luciferase assay subsequently demonstrated that expression of both genes is indeed activated by MafB through a direct transcription mechanism. Additional investigation, performed with similar procedures to elucidate the biological relevance of our observation, revealed that MafB is a downstream target of the IL-10/STAT3 signaling pathway, normally inducing the macrophage de-activation process. Taken together our data support the existence of a signaling cascade by which stimulation of macrophages with the IL-10 cytokine determines a sequential activation of STAT3 and MafB transcription factors, in turn leading to an up-regulated expression of MMP9 and IL-7R genes. PMID:24472656

Gemelli, Claudia; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Bicciato, Silvio; Mazza, Emilia M C; Boraschi, Diana; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Selmi, Tommaso; Tagliafico, Enrico; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis

2014-05-01

68

Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA. PMID:25147435

Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Jennifer; Byun, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Woo, Jung-Won; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

2014-01-01

69

Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

2013-01-01

70

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract–Mediated Regulation of STAT3 Proteins Contributes to Treg Differentiation and Attenuates Inflammation in a Murine Model of Obesity-Associated Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural flavonoid that exerts anti-inflammatory properties. Obesity is an inflammatory condition and inflammatory cells and their secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by inflammation of joints lined by synovium. Previously, we demonstrated that obesity augmented arthritis severity in collagen induced arthritis (CIA), a murine model of human RA. Here, we investigated whether oral administration of GSPE showed antiobesity and anti-arthritic effects in high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and in obese CIA mice, respectively. The pathophysiologic mechanisms by which GSPE attenuates weight gain and arthritis severity in vivo were also investigated. In DIO mice, GSPE administration significantly inhibited weight gain, reduced fat infiltration in liver and improved serum lipid profiles. The antiobesity effect of GSPE was associated with increased populations of regulatory T (Treg) cells and those of decreased Th17 cells. Decrease of Th17 cells was associated with significant inhibition of their key transcriptional factors, pSTAT3Tyr705 and pSTAT3Ser727. On the contrary, GSPE-induced Treg induction was associated with enhanced pSTAT5 expression. To identify the anti-arthritis effects of GSPE, GSPE was given orally for 7 weeks after type II collagen immunization. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the development of autoimmune arthritis in obese CIA model. In line with DIO mice, GSPE administration decreased Th17 cells and reciprocally increased Treg cells by regulating STAT proteins in autoimmune arthritis model. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrotyrosine in synovium were significantly inhibited by GSPE treatment. Taken together, GSPE functions as a reciprocal regulator of T cell differentiation – suppression of Th17 cells and induction of Tregs in both DIO and obese CIA mice. GSPE may act as a therapeutic agent to treat immunologic diseases related with enhanced STAT3 activity such as metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24223854

Byun, Jae Kyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yang, Eun Ji; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Hong, Yeon Sik; Min, Jun Ki; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Cho, Mi-La

2013-01-01

71

Selective oral ROCK2 inhibitor down-regulates IL-21 and IL-17 secretion in human T cells via STAT3-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) regulates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of autoimmunity in mice. Data from a phase 1 clinical trial demonstrate that oral administration of KD025, a selective ROCK2 inhibitor, to healthy human subjects down-regulates the ability of T cells to secrete IL-21 and IL-17 by 90% and 60%, respectively, but not IFN-? in response to T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro. Pharmacological inhibition with KD025 or siRNA-mediated inhibition of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, significantly diminished STAT3 phosphorylation and binding to IL-17 and IL-21 promoters and reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and nuclear hormone RAR-related orphan receptor ?t protein levels in T cells derived from healthy subjects or rheumatoid arthritis patients. Simultaneously, treatment with KD025 also promotes the suppressive function of regulatory T cells through up-regulation of STAT5 phosphorylation and positive regulation of forkhead box p3 expression. The administration of KD025 in vivo down-regulates the progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice via targeting of the Th17-mediated pathway. Thus, ROCK2 signaling appears to be instrumental in regulating the balance between proinflammatory and regulatory T-cell subsets. Targeting of ROCK2 in man may therefore restore disrupted immune homeostasis and have a role in the treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:25385601

Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Nyuydzefe, Melanie S.; Chen, Wei; Scher, Jose U.; Mo, Rigen; Depoil, David; Rao, Nishta; Liu, Ben; Wei, Jianlu; Lucas, Sarah; Koslow, Matthew; Roche, Maria; Schueller, Olivier; Weiss, Sara; Poyurovsky, Masha V.; Tonra, James; Hippen, Keli L.; Dustin, Michael L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Liu, Chuan-ju; Waksal, Samuel D.

2014-01-01

72

mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3  

SciTech Connect

The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

Busch, Susann [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Renaud, Stephen J. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Schleussner, Ekkehard [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Graham, Charles H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Markert, Udo R., E-mail: markert@med.uni-jena.de [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

2009-06-10

73

Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Putative Repression Domain Mediates Coactivation of the LMP1 Promoter with EBNA-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA-3C) regulates virus and cell genes and is essential for EBV-mediated transformation of primary B lymphocytes. EBNA-3C associates with the cellular DNA sequence-specific transcription factors RBP-J and PU.1 and coactivates the EBV LMP1 promoter with EBNA-2 in BL2 and Raji cells under conditions of restrictive growth. We now find that EBNA-3C is similar

Jeffrey Lin; Eric Johannsen; Erle Robertson; Elliott Kieff

2002-01-01

74

Mechanisms of Unphosphorylated STAT3 Transcription Factor Binding to DNA*  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on a single tyrosine residue in response to growth factors, cytokines, interferons, and oncogenes activates its dimerization, translocation to the nucleus, binding to the interferon ? (gamma)-activated sequence (GAS) DNA-binding site and activation of transcription of target genes. STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated in various cancers and drives gene expression from GAS-containing promoters to promote tumorigenesis. Recently, roles for unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) have been described in response to cytokine stimulation, in cancers, and in maintenance of heterochromatin stability. However, the mechanisms underlying U-STAT3 binding to DNA has not been fully investigated. Here, we explore STAT3-DNA interactions by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. We observed that U-STAT3 molecules bind to the GAS DNA-binding site as dimers and monomers. In addition, we observed that U-STAT3 binds to AT-rich DNA sequence sites and recognizes specific DNA structures, such as 4-way junctions and DNA nodes, within negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA. These structures are important for chromatin organization and our data suggest a role for U-STAT3 as a chromatin/genome organizer. Unexpectedly, we found that a C-terminal truncated 67.5-kDa STAT3 isoform recognizes single-stranded spacers within cruciform structures that also have a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. This isoform appears to be abundant in the nuclei of cancer cells and, therefore, may have a role in regulation of gene expression. Taken together, our data highlight novel mechanisms by which U-STAT3 binds to DNA and supports U-STAT3 function as a transcriptional activator and a chromatin/genomic organizer. PMID:22378781

Timofeeva, Olga A.; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Lonskaya, Irina; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Zhang, Xueping; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R.; Cheema, Amrita; Zhang, Lihua; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

2012-01-01

75

Syndecan-1 (CD138) Modulates Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cell Properties via Regulation of LRP-6 and IL-6-Mediated STAT3 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Syndecan-1 (CD138), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a coreceptor for growth factors and chemokines and is a molecular marker associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during development and carcinogenesis. Resistance of Syndecan-1-deficient mice to experimentally-induced tumorigenesis has been linked to altered Wnt-responsive precursor cell pools, suggesting a potential role of Syndecan-1 in breast cancer cell stem function. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still elusive. Here, we decipher the functional impact of Syndecan-1 knockdown using RNA interference on the breast cancer stem cell phenotype of human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and hormone receptor-positive MCF-7 cells in vitro employing an analytical flow cytometric approach. Successful Syndecan-1 siRNA knockdown was confirmed by flow cytometry. Side population measurement by Hoechst dye exclusion and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity revealed that Syndecan-1 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly reduced putative cancer stem cell pools by 60% and 27%, respectively, compared to controls. In MCF-7 cells, Syndecan-1 depletion reduced the side population by 40% and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 by 50%, repectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) phenotype decreased significantly by 6% upon siRNA-mediated Syndecan-1 depletion. Intriguingly, IL-6, its receptor sIL-6R, and the chemokine CCL20, implicated in regulating stemness-associated pathways, were downregulated by >40% in Syndecan-1-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed a dysregulated response to IL-6-induced shifts in E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, activation of STAT-3 and NFkB transcription factors and expression of a coreceptor for Wnt signaling, LRP-6, were reduced by >45% in Syndecan-1-depleted cells compared to controls. At the functional level, Syndecan-1 siRNA reduced the formation of spheres and cysts in MCF-7 cells grown in suspension culture. Our study demonstrates the viability of flow cytometric approaches in analyzing cancer stem cell function. As Syndecan-1 modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via regulation of the Wnt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, it emerges as a promising novel target for therapeutic approaches. PMID:24392029

Vilardo, Laura; Kumar, Sampath Katakam; Kumar, Archana Vijaya; Kelsch, Reinhard; Schneider, Cornelia; Kiesel, Ludwig; Eich, Hans Theodor; Zucchi, Ileana; Reinbold, Rolland; Greve, Burkhard; Götte, Martin

2013-01-01

76

Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity  

SciTech Connect

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth.

Rainio, Eeva-Marja [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 20520 Turku (Finland); Ahlfors, Helena [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Carter, Kara L. [Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ruuska, Marja [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Matikainen, Sampsa [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki (Finland); Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine and Microbiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Koskinen, Paeivi J. [Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku/Abo Akademi University, Tykistoekatu 6B, 20520 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: paivi.koskinen@btk.fi

2005-03-15

77

Linkage between STAT Regulation and Epstein-Barr Virus Gene Expression in Tumors  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines is regulated by EBNA2. However, the factors regulating viral expression in EBV-associated tumors that do not express EBNA2 are poorly understood. In EBV-associated tumors, EBNA1 and frequently LMP1 are synthesized. We found that an alternative latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promoter, L1-TR, located within the terminal repeats is active in both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin's disease tissues. Examination of the L1-TR and the standard ED-L1 LMP1 promoters in electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that both promoters contain functional STAT binding sites. Further, both LMP1 promoters responded in reporter assays to activation of JAK-STAT signaling. Cotransfection of JAK1 or v-Src or treatment of cells with the cytokine interleukin-6 upregulated expression from ED-L1 and L1-TR reporter plasmids. Cotransfection of a dominant negative STAT3? revealed that STAT3 is likely to be the biologically relevant STAT for EBNA1 Qp and LMP1 L1-TR promoter regulation. In contrast, LMP1 expression from ED-L1 was not abrogated by STAT3?, indicating that the two LMP1 promoters are regulated by different STAT family members. Taken together with the previous demonstration of JAK-STAT activation of Qp driven EBNA1 expression, this places two of the EBV genes most commonly expressed in tumors under the control of the same signal transduction pathway. Immunohistochemical analyses of nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumors revealed that STAT3, STAT5, and STAT1 are constitutively activated in these tumors while STAT3 is constitutively activated in the malignant cells of Hodgkin's disease. We hypothesize that chronic or aberrant STAT activation may be both a necessary and predisposing event for EBV-driven tumorigenesis in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:11222718

Chen, Honglin; Lee, Jae Myun; Zong, Yongsheng; Borowitz, Michael; Ng, Mun Hon; Ambinder, Richard F.; Hayward, S. Diane

2001-01-01

78

Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Disrupts Interleukin-6 Signaling by Sequestering STAT3 in the Nucleus  

PubMed Central

In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection. PMID:23903834

Reitsma, Justin M.; Sato, Hiromi; Nevels, Michael

2013-01-01

79

STAT3 Target Genes Relevant to Human Cancers  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery, the STAT3 transcription factor has been extensively studied for its function as a transcriptional regulator and its role as a mediator of development, normal physiology, and pathology of many diseases, including cancers. These efforts have uncovered an array of genes that can be positively and negatively regulated by STAT3, alone and in cooperation with other transcription factors. Through regulating gene expression, STAT3 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in many cellular processes including oncogenesis, tumor growth and progression, and stemness. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that STAT3 may behave as a tumor suppressor by activating expression of genes known to inhibit tumorigenesis. Additional evidence suggested that STAT3 may elicit opposing effects depending on cellular context and tumor types. These mixed results signify the need for a deeper understanding of STAT3, including its upstream regulators, parallel transcription co-regulators, and downstream target genes. To help facilitate fulfilling this unmet need, this review will be primarily focused on STAT3 downstream target genes that have been validated to associate with tumorigenesis and/or malignant biology of human cancers. PMID:24743777

Carpenter, Richard L.; Lo, Hui-Wen

2014-01-01

80

Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6-JAK2-STAT3 that in concert with NF-{kappa}B regulated protection against TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

2011-07-01

81

STAT3: An Anti-Invasive Factor in Colorectal Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in a majority of cancers, and promotes tumorigenesis and even metastasis through transcriptional activation of its target genes. Recently, we discovered that STAT3 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and thus metastasis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC), while it did not affect the overall tumor burden. Furthermore, we found that STAT3 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) suppresses EMT by regulating stability of an EMT inducer, SNAI-1 (Snail-1). Here, STAT3 functions as an adaptor rather than a transcription factor in the post-translational modification of SNAI-1. In this review, we discuss the unexpected and contradictory role of STAT3 in metastasis of CRC and its clinical implications. PMID:24995503

de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Mo, Ji-Hun; Harris, Alexandra R.; Lee, Jongdae; Raz, Eyal

2014-01-01

82

Signal Integration and Gene Induction by a Functionally Distinct STAT3 Phosphoform  

PubMed Central

Aberrant activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor STAT3 is a major driver of solid tumor progression and pathological angiogenesis. STAT3 activity is regulated by numerous posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including Tyr705 phosphorylation, which is widely used as an indicator of canonical STAT3 function. Here, we report a noncanonical mechanism of STAT3 activation that occurs independently of Tyr705 phosphorylation. Using quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we have discovered and characterized a novel STAT3 phosphoform that is simultaneously phosphorylated at Thr714 and Ser727 by glycogen synthase kinase 3? and -? (GSK-3?/?). Both Thr714 and Ser727 are required for STAT3-dependent gene induction in response to simultaneous activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in endothelial cells. In this combinatorial signaling context, preventing formation of doubly phosphorylated STAT3 by depleting GSK-3?/? is sufficient to disrupt signal integration and inhibit STAT3-dependent gene expression. Levels of doubly phosphorylated STAT3 but not of Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 are remarkably elevated in clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma relative to adjacent normal tissue, suggesting that the GSK-3?/?–STAT3 pathway is active in the disease. Collectively, our results describe a functionally distinct, noncanonical STAT3 phosphoform that positively regulates target gene expression in a combinatorial signaling context and identify GSK-3?/?–STAT3 signaling as a potential therapeutic target in renal-cell carcinoma. PMID:24615012

Waitkus, Matthew S.; Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; Willard, Belinda; Tee, Thomas L.; Hsieh, Jason K.; Przybycin, Christopher G.; Rini, Brian I.

2014-01-01

83

Signal integration and gene induction by a functionally distinct STAT3 phosphoform.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor STAT3 is a major driver of solid tumor progression and pathological angiogenesis. STAT3 activity is regulated by numerous posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including Tyr(705) phosphorylation, which is widely used as an indicator of canonical STAT3 function. Here, we report a noncanonical mechanism of STAT3 activation that occurs independently of Tyr(705) phosphorylation. Using quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we have discovered and characterized a novel STAT3 phosphoform that is simultaneously phosphorylated at Thr(714) and Ser(727) by glycogen synthase kinase 3? and -? (GSK-3?/?). Both Thr(714) and Ser(727) are required for STAT3-dependent gene induction in response to simultaneous activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in endothelial cells. In this combinatorial signaling context, preventing formation of doubly phosphorylated STAT3 by depleting GSK-3?/? is sufficient to disrupt signal integration and inhibit STAT3-dependent gene expression. Levels of doubly phosphorylated STAT3 but not of Tyr(705)-phosphorylated STAT3 are remarkably elevated in clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma relative to adjacent normal tissue, suggesting that the GSK-3?/?-STAT3 pathway is active in the disease. Collectively, our results describe a functionally distinct, noncanonical STAT3 phosphoform that positively regulates target gene expression in a combinatorial signaling context and identify GSK-3?/?-STAT3 signaling as a potential therapeutic target in renal-cell carcinoma. PMID:24615012

Waitkus, Matthew S; Chandrasekharan, Unni M; Willard, Belinda; Tee, Thomas L; Hsieh, Jason K; Przybycin, Christopher G; Rini, Brian I; Dicorleto, Paul E

2014-05-01

84

Helicobacter pylori-induced STAT3 activation and signalling network in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important gastric carcinogen. However, the mechanisms of H. pylori induced gastric carcinogenesis through STAT3 activation are largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of H. pylori infection on STAT3 activation and dissected the signalling network of STAT3 in H. pylori- infected gastric carcinogenesis. Methods The expression of phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Gene expression array and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to dissect the STAT3 signalling network on H. pylori co-cultured AGS. Results pSTAT3 was significantly higher in H. pylori -positive gastritis than in H. pylori -negative gastritis ( P = 0.003). In addition, 98% of H. pylori positive intestinal metaplasia specimens showed STAT3 activation, whereas pSTAT3 was significantly decreased in all 43 specimens one year after H. pylori eradication ( P < 0.001). Moreover, pSTAT3 was only detected in the H. pylori -infected gastric tissues of mice but not in control mice. We further identified 6 candidates ( BRUNOL4, FGFR1, SHOX2, JAK3, MAPK8, and PDPN ) were directly up-regulated by H. pylori induced STAT3 activation. Conclusion H. pylori infection triggers the activation of STAT3 and de-regulates multitude of tumorigenic genes which may contribute to the initiation and progression of gastric cancer.

Kang, Wei; Go, Minnie Y.; Tong, Joanna HM.; Ng, Enders KW.; Chiu, Philip WY.; Cheng, Alfred SL.; To, Ka Fai; Sung, Joseph JY.; Yu, Jun

2014-01-01

85

Constitutive activation of Stat3 by the Src and JAK tyrosine kinases participates in growth regulation of human breast carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins has been detected in a wide variety of human primary tumor specimens and tumor cell lines including blood malignancies, head and neck cancer, and breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of Stat3 DNA-binding activity that is constitutively-induced by an unknown mechanism in human breast cancer cell

Roy Garcia; Tammy L Bowman; Guilian Niu; Hua Yu; Sue Minton; Carlos A Muro-Cacho; Charles E Cox; Robert Falcone; Rita Fairclough; Sarah Parsons; Andy Laudano; Aviv Gazit; Alexander Levitzki; Alan Kraker; Richard Jove

2001-01-01

86

Reduced phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser-727 mediated by casein kinase 2 - protein phosphatase 2A enhances Stat3 Tyr-705 induced tumorigenic potential of glioma cells.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a transcription factor that is involved in cell survival and proliferation and has been found to be persistently activated in most human cancers mainly through its phosphorylation at Tyr-705. However, the role and regulation of Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation in cancer cells have not been clearly evaluated. In our findings, correlation studies on the expression of CK2 and Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation levels in human glioma patient samples as well as rat orthotopic tumor model show a degree of negative correlation. Moreover, brain tumor cell lines were treated with various pharmacological inhibitors to inactivate the CK2 pathway. Here, increased Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation upon CK2 inhibition was observed. Overexpression of CK2 (?, ?' or ? subunits) by transient transfection resulted in decreased Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation. Stat3 Tyr-705 residue was conversely phosphorylated in similar situations. Interestingly, we found PP2A, a protein phosphatase, to be a mediator in the negative regulation of Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation by CK2. In vitro assays prove that Ser-727 phosphorylation of Stat3 affects the transcriptional activity of its downstream targets like SOCS3, bcl-xl and Cyclin D1. Stable cell lines constitutively expressing Stat3 S727A mutant showed increased survival, proliferation and invasion which are characteristics of a cancer cell. Rat tumor models generated with the Stat3 S727A mutant cell line formed more aggressive tumors when compared to the Stat3 WT expressing stable cell line. Thus, in glioma, reduced Stat3 Ser-727 phosphorylation enhances tumorigenicity which may be regulated in part by CK2-PP2A pathway. PMID:24726840

Mandal, Tapashi; Bhowmik, Arijit; Chatterjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Uttara; Chatterjee, Sandip; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

2014-08-01

87

STAT3 Inhibition by Microtubule-Targeted Drugs: Dual Molecular Effects of Chemotherapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

To improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies, it is necessary to identify molecular targets that are essential to a tumor cell but dispensable in a normal cell. Increasing evidence indicates that the transcription factor STAT3, which regulates the expression of genes controlling proliferation, survival, and self-renewal, constitutes such a target. Recently it has been found that STAT3 can associate with the cytoskeleton. Since many of the tumors in which STAT3 is activated, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer, are responsive to drugs that target microtubules, we examined the effect of these compounds on STAT3. We found that microtubule stabilizers, such as paclitaxel, or microtubule inhibitors, such as vinorelbine, decrease the activating tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 in tumor cells and inhibit the expression of STAT3 target genes. Paclitaxel decreases the association between STAT3 and microtubules, and appears to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation through induction of a negative feedback regulator. The cytotoxic activity of paclitaxel in breast cancer cell lines correlates with its ability to decrease STAT3 phosphorylation. However, consistent with the necessity for expression of a negative regulator, treatment of resistant MDA-MB-231 cells with the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine restores the ability of paclitaxel to block STAT3-dependent gene expression. Finally, the combination of paclitaxel and agents that directly target STAT3 has beneficial effects in killing STAT3-dependent cell lines. Thus, microtubule-targeted agents may exert some of their effects by inhibiting STAT3, and understanding this interaction may be important for optimizing rational targeted cancer therapies. PMID:21949561

Walker, Sarah R.; Chaudhury, Mousumi; Frank, David A.

2011-01-01

88

Mechanisms of STAT3 activation in the liver of FXR knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is essential in maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis, and FXR?/? mice develop cholestasis, inflammation, and spontaneous liver tumors. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to regulate liver growth, and STAT3 is feedback inhibited by its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Strong activation of STAT3 was detected in FXR?/? mouse livers. However, the mechanism of STAT3 activation with FXR deficiency remains elusive. Wild-type (WT) and FXR?/? mice were used to detect STAT3 pathway activation in the liver. In vivo BA feeding or deprivation was used to determine the role of BAs in STAT3 activation, and in vitro molecular approaches were used to determine the direct transcriptional regulation of SOCS3 by FXR. STAT3 was activated in FXR?/? but not WT mice. BA feeding increased, but deprivation by cholestyramine reduced, serum inflammatory markers and STAT3 activation. Furthermore, the Socs3 gene was determined as a direct FXR target gene. The elevated BAs and inflammation, along with reduced SOCS3, collectively contribute to the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway in the liver of FXR?/? mice. This study suggests that the constitutive activation of STAT3 may be a mechanism of liver carcinogenesis in FXR?/? mice. PMID:24091600

Li, Guodong; Zhu, Yan; Tawfik, Ossama; Kong, Bo; Williams, Jessica A.; Zhan, Le; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li

2013-01-01

89

STAT3 and metabolism: how many ways to use a single molecule?  

PubMed

The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 has been considered as a potential anticancer target since its first description as an oncogene in 1999, recently leading to STAT3 inhibitors been brought to clinical trial for the treatment of solid tumors. However, the past 14 years of intense basic research have uncovered novel STAT3-mediated pathways that could affect the outcome of the designed therapies while at the same time help designing function-specific inhibitors. Particularly intriguing are the recent findings that suggest profound implications of STAT3 with the regulation of cellular metabolism in both canonical, that is transcriptional, and non-canonical ways. Here, after a short description of the main known features of STAT3 signaling and function, we review the recent literature on the role of STAT3 in regulating cellular metabolism and discuss the potential consequences on the therapeutic approaches currently under clinical experimentation. PMID:24500994

Demaria, Marco; Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

2014-11-01

90

An In Vivo Requirement for STAT3 Signaling in TH17 Development and TH17Dependent Autoimmunity 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

STAT3 activation has been observed in several autoimmune diseases, suggesting that STAT3-mediated pathways promote pathologic immune responses. We provide in vivo evidence that the fundamental role of STAT3 signaling in autoimmunity relates to its absolute requirement for generating TH17 T cell responses. We show that STAT3 is a master regulator of this pathogenic T cell subtype, acting at multiple levels

Timothy J. Harris; Joseph F. Grosso; Hung-Rong Yen; Hong Xin; Marcin Kortylewski; Emilia Albesiano; Edward L. Hipkiss; Derese Getnet; Monica V. Goldberg; Charles H. Maris; Franck Housseau; Hua Yu; Drew M. Pardoll; Charles G. Drake

91

Constitutive activation of STAT3 in Sézary syndrome is independent of SHP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive and persistent activation of STAT3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many malignancies. Studies of CTCL cell lines have previously suggested that aberrant activation of STAT3 is mediated via silencing of the negative regulator SHP-1 by promoter methylation. In this study of ex vivo tumour cell populations from 18 Sézary syndrome (SS) patients, constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, JAK1

R C T McKenzie; C L Jones; I Tosi; J A Caesar; S J Whittaker; T J Mitchell

2012-01-01

92

Transcription Factor STAT3 as a Novel Molecular Target for Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 has a critical role in the development of multiple cancer types. Because it is constitutively activated during disease progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, STAT3 has promise as a drug target for cancer therapeutics. Recently, STAT3 was found to have an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells in vitro and in mouse tumor models, suggesting STAT3 is integrally involved in tumor initiation, progression and maintenance. STAT3 has been traditionally considered as nontargetable or undruggable, and the lag in developing effective STAT3 inhibitors contributes to the current lack of FDA-approved STAT3 inhibitors. Recent advances in cancer biology and drug discovery efforts have shed light on targeting STAT3 globally and/or specifically for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the potential importance of STAT3 as a novel target for cancer prevention and of STAT3 inhibitors as effective chemopreventive agents. PMID:24743778

Xiong, Ailian; Yang, Zhengduo; Shen, Yicheng; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang

2014-01-01

93

Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3  

PubMed Central

Constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3 contributes to the pathogenesis of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, targeted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds known to be safe in humans. We found the drug nifuroxazide to be an effective inhibitor of STAT3 function. Nifuroxazide inhibits the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in MM cells by reducing Jak kinase autophosphorylation, and leads to down-regulation of the STAT3 target gene Mcl-1. Nifuroxazide causes a decrease in viability of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines containing STAT3 activation, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although bone marrow stromal cells provide survival signals to myeloma cells, nifuroxazide can overcome this survival advantage. Reflecting the interaction of STAT3 with other cellular pathways, nifuroxazide shows enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with either the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide or the MEK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, using a mechanistic-based screen, we identified the clinically relevant drug nifuroxazide as a potent inhibitor of STAT signaling that shows cytotoxicity against myeloma cells that depend on STAT3 for survival. PMID:18824601

Nelson, Erik A.; Walker, Sarah R.; Kepich, Alicia; Gashin, Laurie B.; Hideshima, Teru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C.

2008-01-01

94

Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3.  

PubMed

Constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3 contributes to the pathogenesis of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, targeted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we developed a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds known to be safe in humans. We found the drug nifuroxazide to be an effective inhibitor of STAT3 function. Nifuroxazide inhibits the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in MM cells by reducing Jak kinase autophosphorylation, and leads to down-regulation of the STAT3 target gene Mcl-1. Nifuroxazide causes a decrease in viability of primary myeloma cells and myeloma cell lines containing STAT3 activation, but not normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although bone marrow stromal cells provide survival signals to myeloma cells, nifuroxazide can overcome this survival advantage. Reflecting the interaction of STAT3 with other cellular pathways, nifuroxazide shows enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with either the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide or the MEK inhibitor UO126. Therefore, using a mechanistic-based screen, we identified the clinically relevant drug nifuroxazide as a potent inhibitor of STAT signaling that shows cytotoxicity against myeloma cells that depend on STAT3 for survival. PMID:18824601

Nelson, Erik A; Walker, Sarah R; Kepich, Alicia; Gashin, Laurie B; Hideshima, Teru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C; Frank, David A

2008-12-15

95

Icaritin Inhibits JAK/STAT3 Signaling and Growth of Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is critical for cancer progression by regulating tumor cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Herein, we investigated the regulation of STAT3 activation and the therapeutic effects of Icaritin, a prenyl flavonoid derivative from Epimedium Genus, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Icaritin showed significant anti-tumor activity in the human and mouse RCC cell lines, 786-O and Renca, respectively. Icaritin inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced phospho-STAT3 (STAT3Y705) and reduced the level of STAT3-regulated proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Survivin, and CyclinD1 in a dose-dependent manner. Icaritin also inhibited activation of Janus-activated kinase-2 (JAK2), while it showed minimal effects on the activation of other key signaling pathways, including AKT and MAPK. Expression of the constitutively active form of STAT3 blocked Icaritin-induced apoptosis, while siRNA directed against STAT3 potentiated apoptosis. Finally, Icaritin significantly blunted RCC tumor growth in vivo, reduced STAT3 activation, and inhibited Bcl-xL and Cyclin E, as well as VEGF expression in tumors, which was associated with reduced tumor angiogenesis. Overall, these results suggest that Icaritin strongly inhibits STAT3 activation and is a potentially effective therapeutic option for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24324713

Li, Shasha; Priceman, Saul J.; Xin, Hong; Zhang, Wang; Deng, Jiehui; Liu, Yong; Huang, Jiabin; Zhu, Wenshan; Chen, Mingjie; Hu, Wei; Deng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Hua; He, Guangyuan

2013-01-01

96

STAT3 as a possible therapeutic target in human malignancies: lessons from acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

STAT3 is important for transcriptional regulation in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). STAT3 has thousands of potential DNA binding sites but usually shows cell type specific binding preferences to a limited number of these. Furthermore, AML is a very heterogeneous disease, and studies of the prognostic impact of STAT3 in human AML have also given conflicting results. A more detailed characterization of STAT3 functions and the expression of various isoforms in human AML will therefore be required before it is possible to design clinical studies of STAT3 inhibitors in this disease, and it will be especially important to investigate whether the functions of STAT3 differ between patients. Several other malignancies also show extensive biological heterogeneity, and the present discussion and the suggested scientific approaches may thus be relevant for other cancer patients. PMID:25374305

Bruserud, Øystein; Nepstad, Ina; Hauge, Michelle; Hatfield, Kimberley Joanne; Reikvam, Håkon

2015-02-01

97

B Lymphocytes from Patients with a Hypomorphic Mutation in STAT3 Resist Epstein-Barr Virus-Driven Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogenes exert potent B cell proliferative effects. EBV infection gives rise to B cell lines that readily proliferate in culture. This ability of EBV represents a powerful tool to study cell proliferation. In efforts to delineate the contribution of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) toward EBV-driven cell proliferation, we have discovered that B cells from patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) resist such EBV oncogene-driven outgrowth of cells. Patients with AD-HIES have a dominant negative mutation in their STAT3 gene which renders most of the protein nonfunctional. Exposure of healthy subject-derived B cells to EBV resulted in early activation of STAT3, rapidly followed by increased expression of its mRNA and protein. STAT3 upregulation preceded the expression of EBNA2, temporally one of the first viral oncogenes to be expressed. We found that STAT3 was necessary for subsequent survival and for proliferation of EBV-infected cells past the S phase of the cell cycle. Consequently, B cells from AD-HIES patients were prone to dying and accumulated in the S phase, thereby accounting for impaired cell outgrowth. Of importance, we have now identified a cohort of patients with a primary immunodeficiency disorder whose B cells oppose EBV-driven proliferative signals. These findings simultaneously reveal how EBV manipulates host STAT3 even before expression of viral oncogenes to facilitate cell survival and proliferation, processes fundamental to EBV lymphomagenesis. PMID:24173212

Koganti, Siva; de la Paz, Amanda; Freeman, Alexandra F.

2014-01-01

98

NANOG Amplifies STAT3 Activation and They Synergistically Induce the Naive Pluripotent Program  

PubMed Central

Summary Reprogramming of a differentiated cell back to a naive pluripotent identity is thought to occur by several independent mechanisms. Two such mechanisms include NANOG and activated STAT3 (pSTAT3), known master regulators of naive pluripotency acquisition [1–5]. Here, we investigated the relationship between NANOG and pSTAT3 during the establishment and maintenance of naive pluripotency. Surprisingly, we found that NANOG enhances LIF signal transduction, resulting in elevated pSTAT3. This is mediated, at least in part, by suppression of the expression of the LIF/STAT3 negative regulator SOCS3. We also discovered NANOG to be limiting for the expression of KLF4, a canonical “Yamanaka” reprogramming factor [6] and key pSTAT3 target [2, 7, 8]. KLF4 expression resulted from the codependent and synergistic action of NANOG and pSTAT3 in embryonic stem cells and during initiation of reprogramming. Additionally, within 48 hr, the combined actions of NANOG and pSTAT3 in a reprogramming context resulted in reactivation of genes associated with naive pluripotency. Importantly, we show that NANOG can be bypassed during reprogramming by exogenous provision of its downstream effectors, namely pSTAT3 elevation and KLF4 expression. In conclusion, we propose that mechanisms of reprogramming are linked, rather than independent, and are centered on a small number of genes, including NANOG. PMID:24462001

Stuart, Hannah T.; van Oosten, Anouk L.; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Martello, Graziano; Miller, Anzy; Dietmann, Sabine; Nichols, Jennifer; Silva, José C.R.

2014-01-01

99

NANOG amplifies STAT3 activation and they synergistically induce the naive pluripotent program.  

PubMed

Reprogramming of a differentiated cell back to a naive pluripotent identity is thought to occur by several independent mechanisms. Two such mechanisms include NANOG and activated STAT3 (pSTAT3), known master regulators of naive pluripotency acquisition [1-5]. Here, we investigated the relationship between NANOG and pSTAT3 during the establishment and maintenance of naive pluripotency. Surprisingly, we found that NANOG enhances LIF signal transduction, resulting in elevated pSTAT3. This is mediated, at least in part, by suppression of the expression of the LIF/STAT3 negative regulator SOCS3. We also discovered NANOG to be limiting for the expression of KLF4, a canonical "Yamanaka" reprogramming factor [6] and key pSTAT3 target [2, 7, 8]. KLF4 expression resulted from the codependent and synergistic action of NANOG and pSTAT3 in embryonic stem cells and during initiation of reprogramming. Additionally, within 48 hr, the combined actions of NANOG and pSTAT3 in a reprogramming context resulted in reactivation of genes associated with naive pluripotency. Importantly, we show that NANOG can be bypassed during reprogramming by exogenous provision of its downstream effectors, namely pSTAT3 elevation and KLF4 expression. In conclusion, we propose that mechanisms of reprogramming are linked, rather than independent, and are centered on a small number of genes, including NANOG. PMID:24462001

Stuart, Hannah T; van Oosten, Anouk L; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Martello, Graziano; Miller, Anzy; Dietmann, Sabine; Nichols, Jennifer; Silva, José C R

2014-02-01

100

Stat3 activation in acute lung injury.  

PubMed

Stat3 plays diverse roles in biological processes including cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. Very little is known regarding its activation and function in the lung during acute inflammation. We now show that Stat3 activation was triggered in lungs and in alveolar macrophages after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes in rats. Low levels of constitutive Stat3 were observed in normal rat lungs as determined by the EMSA. Stat3 activity in whole lung extracts increased 2 h after initiation of IgG immune complex deposition, reaching maximal levels by 4 h, whereas Stat3 activation was found in alveolar macrophages as early as 30 min after onset of injury. Expression and activation of Stat3 mRNA, protein, and protein phosphorylation was accompanied by increased gene expression of IL-6, IL-10, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in whole lung tissues. Both Tyr(705) and Ser(727) phosphorylation were involved in Stat3 activation as assessed in whole lung extracts. C5a (complement 5, fragment a) per se can induce phosphorylation of Ser(727) of Stat3. In vivo, Stat3 activation was dramatically suppressed by depletion of neutrophils or lung macrophages, resulting in reduced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in whole lung tissues. Using blocking Abs to IL-6, IL-10, and C5a, Stat3 activation induced by IgG immune complexes was markedly diminished. These data suggest in the lung injury model used that activation of Stat3 in lungs is macrophage dependent and neutrophil dependent. IL-6, IL-10, and C5a contribute to Stat3 activation in inflamed rat lung. PMID:15187153

Gao, Hongwei; Guo, Ren-Feng; Speyer, Cecilia L; Reuben, Jayne; Neff, Thomas A; Hoesel, L Marco; Riedemann, Niels C; McClintock, Shannon D; Sarma, J Vidya; Van Rooijen, Nico; Zetoune, Firas S; Ward, Peter A

2004-06-15

101

Quercetin exerts anti-melanoma activities and inhibits STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Melanoma is highly resistant to chemotherapy, and the mortality rate is increasing rapidly worldwide. STAT3 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma and constitutive activated STAT3 has been validated can as a target for melanoma therapy. Quercetin, a noncarcinogenic dietary flavonoid with low toxicity, has been shown to exert anti-melanoma activity. However, the anti-melanoma mechanisms of quercetin are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to test the involvement of STAT3 signaling in the inhibitory effects of quercetin on melanoma cell growth, migration and invasion. Our results showed that exposure to quercetin resulted in inhibition of proliferation of melanoma cells, induction of cell apoptosis, and suppression of migratory and invasive properties. Mechanistic study indicated that quercetin inhibited the activation of STAT3 signaling by interfering with STAT3 phosphorylation, and reducing STAT3 nuclear localization. This inhibited STAT3 transcription activity and down-regulated STAT3 targeted genes Mcl-1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF, which are involved in cell growth, migration and invasion. Importantly, overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 partially rescued the growth inhibiting effects induced by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin suppressed A375 tumor growth and STAT3 activities in xenografted mice model, and inhibited murine B16F10 cells lung metastasis in an animal model. Overall, these results indicate that the antitumor activity of quercetin is at least partially due to inhibition of STAT3 signaling in melanoma cells. Our findings provided new insight into the action of quercetin potently inhibits the STAT3 signaling pathway, suggesting it has a potential role in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:24275163

Cao, Hui-Hui; Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Yu, Hua; Cheng, Chi-Yan; Su, Tao; Fong, Wang-Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

2014-02-01

102

Synthesis and biological evaluation of new N-alkylcarbazole derivatives as STAT3 inhibitors: preliminary study.  

PubMed

The signalling pathway of Janus tyrosine Kinases-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) is activated by a number of cytokines, hormones (GH, erythropoietin and prolactin), and growth factors. JAK-STAT signalling is involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These activities are due to different members of JAK-STAT family consisting of: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, Tyk2 and STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT5b, STAT6. Recent studies suggest a key role for STAT family proteins, in particular for STAT3, in selectively inducing and maintaining a pro-carcinogenic inflammatory microenvironment, that promote tumour cells transformation. Moreover, a striking correlation between cancer development/progression and STAT3 persistent activation exists, probably due to STAT3 promoting of the pro-oncogenic inflammatory pathways, like NF-kB, IL-6 and JAK family kinases. Recent study demonstrated that carbazoles can inhibit STAT3 mediated transcription. From these evidences, STAT3 represents a therapeutic target, so we have synthesized a new set of N-alkylcarbazole derivatives substituted in positions 2, 4 and 6, to evaluate their activity on STAT3. Some of these compounds showed an interesting activity as STAT3 selective inhibitors; in particular, compounds 9a 9b and 9c revealed to inhibit the STAT3 activation for the 50%, 90% and 95%, respectively. PMID:23287056

Saturnino, Carmela; Palladino, Chiara; Napoli, Mariagrazia; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Botta, Antonio; Sala, Marina; Carcereri de Prati, Alessandra; Novellino, Ettore; Suzuki, Hisanori

2013-02-01

103

Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for STAT3? Reveal Its Contribution to Constitutive STAT3 Phosphorylation in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery in mice and humans 19 years ago, the contribution of alternatively spliced Stat3, Stat3?, to the overall functions of Stat3 has been controversial. Tyrosine-phosphorylated (p) Stat3? homodimers are more stable, bind DNA more avidly, are less susceptible to dephosphorylation, and exhibit distinct intracellular dynamics, most notably markedly prolonged nuclear retention, compared to pStat3? homodimers. Overexpression of one or the other isoform in cell lines demonstrated that Stat3? acted as a dominant-negative of Stat3? in transformation assays; however, studies with mouse strains deficient in one or the other isoform indicated distinct contributions of Stat3 isoforms to inflammation. Current immunological reagents cannot differentiate Stat3? proteins derived from alternative splicing vs. proteolytic cleavage of Stat3?. We developed monoclonal antibodies that recognize the 7 C-terminal amino acids unique to Stat3? (CT7) and do not cross-react with Stat3?. Immunoblotting studies revealed that levels of Stat3? protein, but not Stat3?, in breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with overall pStat3 levels, suggesting that Stat3? may contribute to constitutive Stat3 activation in this tumor system. The ability to unambiguously discriminate splice alternative Stat3? from proteolytic Stat3? and Stat3? will provide new insights into the contribution of Stat3? vs. Stat3? to oncogenesis, as well as other biological and pathological processes. PMID:25268166

Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Kasembeli, Moses M.; Eckols, T. Kris; Kolosov, Mikhail; Lang, Paul; Christensen, Kurt; Edwards, Dean P.; Tweardy, David J.

2014-01-01

104

Assessing the role of STAT3 in DC differentiation and autologous DC immunotherapy in mouse models of GBM.  

PubMed

Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF? were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors. PMID:24806510

Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

2014-01-01

105

Assessing the Role of STAT3 in DC Differentiation and Autologous DC Immunotherapy in Mouse Models of GBM  

PubMed Central

Cellular microenvironments, particularly those found in tumors, elicit a tolerogenic DC phenotype which can attenuate immune responses. Central to this process is the STAT3-mediated signaling cascade. As a transcription factor and oncogene, STAT3 promotes the expression of genes which allow tumor cells to proliferate, migrate and evade apoptosis. More importantly, activation of STAT3 in tumor infiltrating immune cells has been shown to be responsible, in part, for their immune-suppressed phenotype. The ability of STAT3 to orchestrate a diverse set of immunosuppressive instructions has made it an attractive target for cancer vaccines. Using a conditional hematopoietic knockout mouse model of STAT3, we evaluated the impact of STAT3 gene ablation on the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow precursors. We also assessed the impact of STAT3 deletion on phagocytosis, maturation, cytokine secretion and antigen presentation by GM-CSF derived DCs in vitro. In addition to in vitro studies, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of DC vaccination using STAT3 deficient DCs to wild type counterparts in an intracranial mouse model of GBM. Our results indicated the following pleiotropic functions of STAT3: hematopoietic cells which lacked STAT3 were unresponsive to Flt3L and failed to differentiate as DCs. In contrast, STAT3 was not required for GM-CSF induced DC differentiation as both wild type and STAT3 null bone marrow cells gave rise to similar number of DCs. STAT3 also appeared to regulate the response of GM-CSF derived DCs to CpG. STAT3 null DCs expressed high levels of MHC-II, secreted more IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF? were better antigen presenters in vitro. Although STAT3 deficient DCs displayed an enhanced activated phenotype in culture, they elicited comparable therapeutic efficacy in vivo compared to their wild type counterparts when utilized in vaccination paradigms in mice bearing intracranial glioma tumors. PMID:24806510

Assi, Hikmat; Espinosa, Jaclyn; Suprise, Sarah; Sofroniew, Michael; Doherty, Robert; Zamler, Daniel; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

2014-01-01

106

yuDetecting the percent of peripheral blood mononuclear cells displaying p-STAT-3 in malignant glioma patients  

PubMed Central

Background The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells, propagates tumorigenesis, and is a key regulator of immune suppression in cancer patients. The presence of phosphorylated STAT-3 (p-STAT-3) in the tumor can induce p-STAT-3 in tumor-associated immune cells that can return to the circulatory system. We hypothesized that the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) displaying p-STAT-3 would be increased in glioma patients, which would correlate with the extent of tumor-expressed p-STAT-3, and that higher p-STAT-3 levels in peripheral blood would correlate with a higher fraction of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Methods We measured the percentage of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 in 19 healthy donors and 45 patients with primary brain tumors. The level of p-STAT-3 in tumor tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. The degree of immune suppression was determined based on the fraction of Tregs in the CD4 compartment. Results Healthy donors had 4.8 ± 3.6% of PBMCs that expressed p-STAT-3, while the mean proportion of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 in patients with GBM was 11.8 ± 13.5% (P = 0.03). We did not observe a correlation by Spearman correlation between the degree of p-STAT-3 levels in the tumor and the percent of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3. Furthermore, the percent of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 in glioma patients was not directly correlated with the fraction of Tregs in the CD4 compartment. Conclusion We conclude that the percent of PBMCs displaying p-STAT-3 may be increased in malignant glioma patients. PMID:19900287

Humphries, William; Wang, Yongtao; Qiao, Wei; Reina-Ortiz, Chantal; Abou-Ghazal, Mohamed K; Crutcher, Lamonne M; Wei, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Sawaya, Raymond; Rao, Ganesh; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sujit S; Fuller, Gregory N; Heimberger, Amy B

2009-01-01

107

The human J kappa recombination signal sequence binding protein (RBP-J kappa) targets the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein to its DNA responsive elements.  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein EBNA2, which is essential for the immortalization of human primary B cells by EBV, acts as a transcriptional activator of cellular and viral genes. Specific responsive elements have been characterized in several of the promoters activated by EBNA2. They all share the core sequence GTGGGAA. EBNA2 does not, however, bind to these sequences directly, but appears to be targeted to them by a cellular protein. A similar core sequence has recently been identified as a high-affinity binding site for the human recombination signal sequence binding protein RBP-J kappa. Here we provide evidence that RBP-J kappa binds to specific sequences in EBNA2-responsive elements. Our results also demonstrate that RBP-J kappa makes direct physical contact with EBNA2 in solution and recruits EBNA2 to its cognate DNA sequences, suggesting that RBP-J kappa may mediate EBNA2 transactivation of both cellular and viral genes. Images PMID:7988560

Waltzer, L; Logeat, F; Brou, C; Israel, A; Sergeant, A; Manet, E

1994-01-01

108

JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition blocks skeletal muscle wasting downstream of IL-6 and in experimental cancer cachexia  

PubMed Central

Cachexia, the metabolic dysregulation leading to sustained loss of muscle and adipose tissue, is a devastating complication of cancer and other chronic diseases. Interleukin-6 and related cytokines are associated with muscle wasting in clinical and experimental cachexia, although the mechanisms by which they might induce muscle wasting are unknown. One pathway activated strongly by IL-6 family ligands is the JAK/STAT3 pathway, the function of which has not been evaluated in regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Recently, we showed that skeletal muscle STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear localization, and target gene expression are activated in C26 cancer cachexia, a model with high IL-6 family ligands. Here, we report that STAT3 activation is a common feature of muscle wasting, activated in muscle by IL-6 in vivo and in vitro and by different types of cancer and sterile sepsis. Moreover, STAT3 activation proved both necessary and sufficient for muscle wasting. In C2C12 myotubes and in mouse muscle, mutant constitutively activated STAT3-induced muscle fiber atrophy and exacerbated wasting in cachexia. Conversely, inhibiting STAT3 pharmacologically with JAK or STAT3 inhibitors or genetically with dominant negative STAT3 and short hairpin STAT3 reduced muscle atrophy downstream of IL-6 or cancer. These results indicate that STAT3 is a primary mediator of muscle wasting in cancer cachexia and other conditions of high IL-6 family signaling. Thus STAT3 could represent a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of skeletal muscle in cachexia. PMID:22669242

Bonetto, Andrea; Aydogdu, Tufan; Jin, Xiaoling; Zhang, Zongxiu; Zhan, Rui; Puzis, Leopold; Koniaris, Leonidas G.

2012-01-01

109

Essential role of IL-10/STAT3 in chronic stress-induced immune suppression.  

PubMed

Stress can either enhance or suppress immune functions depending on a variety of factors such as duration of stressful condition. Chronic stress has been demonstrated to exert a significant suppressive effect on immune function. However, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. Here, male C57BL/6 mice were placed in a 50-ml conical centrifuge tube with multiple punctures to establish a chronic restraint stress model. Serum IL-10 levels, IL-10 production by the splenocytes, and activation of STAT3 in the mouse spleen were assessed. We demonstrate that IL-10/STAT3 axis was remarkably activated following chronic stress. Moreover, TLR4 and p38 MAPK play a pivotal role in the activation of IL-10/STAT3 signaling cascade. Interestingly, blocking antibody against IL-10 receptor and inhibition of STAT3 by STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 attenuates stress-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Inhibition of IL-10/STAT3 dramatically inhibits stress-induced reduction in IL-12 production. Furthermore, disequilibrium of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance caused by chronic stress was also rescued by blocking IL-10/STAT3 axis. These results yield insight into a new mechanism by which chronic stress regulates immune functions. IL-10/STAT3 pathway provides a novel relevant target for the manipulation of chronic stress-induced immune suppression. PMID:24513872

Hu, Dan; Wan, Lei; Chen, Michael; Caudle, Yi; LeSage, Gene; Li, Qinchuan; Yin, Deling

2014-02-01

110

Stat3-Efemp2a modulates the fibrillar matrix for cohesive movement of prechordal plate progenitors.  

PubMed

Recently, emerging evidence has shown that Stat3 controls tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Stat3 controls the cell movement remain largely unknown. Embryonic gastrula progenitors display coordinated and orientated migration, called collective cell migration. Collective cell migration is the simultaneous movement of multiple cells and is universally involved in physiological and pathological programs. Stat3 activity is required for the migration of gastrula progenitors, but it does not affect cell specification, thus suggesting that gastrula movements are an excellent model to provide insight into Stat3 control of cell migration in vivo. In this study, we reveal a novel mechanism by which Stat3 modulates extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly to control the coherence of collective migration of prechordal plate progenitors during zebrafish embryonic gastrulation. We show that Stat3 regulates the expression of Efemp2a in the prechordal plate progenitors that migrate anteriorly during gastrulation. Alteration of Stat3-Efemp2a signaling activity disrupted the configuration of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LM) matrices, resulting in defective coherence of prechordal plate progenitor movements in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrate that Efemp2a acts as a downstream effector of Stat3 to promote ECM configuration for coherent collective cell migrations in vivo. PMID:25371367

Zhang, Ting; Yin, Chaoran; Qiao, Liangjun; Jing, Lulu; Li, Hongda; Xiao, Chun; Luo, Ning; Lei, Song; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Jin; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

2014-11-01

111

Activated Rac1 requires gp130 for Stat3 activation, cell proliferation and migration  

SciTech Connect

Rac1 (Rac) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases which controls cell migration by regulating the organization of actin filaments. Previous results suggested that mutationally activated forms of the Rho GTPases can activate the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3), but the exact mechanism is a matter of controversy. We recently demonstrated that Stat3 activity of cultured cells increases dramatically following E-cadherin engagement. To better understand this pathway, we now compared Stat3 activity levels in mouse HC11 cells before and after expression of the mutationally activated Rac1 (Rac{sup V12}), at different cell densities. The results revealed for the first time a dramatic increase in protein levels and activity of both the endogenous Rac and Rac{sup V12} with cell density, which was due to inhibition of proteasomal degradation. In addition, Rac{sup V12}-expressing cells had higher Stat3, tyrosine-705 phosphorylation and activity levels at all densities, indicating that Rac{sup V12} is able to activate Stat3. Further examination of the mechanism of Stat3 activation showed that Rac{sup V12} expression caused a surge in mRNA of Interleukin-6 (IL6) family cytokines, known potent Stat3 activators. Knockdown of gp130, the common subunit of this family reduced Stat3 activity, indicating that these cytokines may be responsible for the Stat3 activation by Rac{sup V12}. The upregulation of IL6 family cytokines was required for cell migration and proliferation induced by Rac{sup V12}, as shown by gp130 knockdown experiments, thus demonstrating that the gp130/Stat3 axis represents an essential effector of activated Rac for the regulation of key cellular functions.

Arulanandam, Rozanne; Geletu, Mulu [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Feracci, Helene [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France)] [Universite Bordeaux 1, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS UPR 8641, 33600 Pessac (France); Raptis, Leda, E-mail: raptisl@queensu.ca [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Queen's University Cancer Institute, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, Rm. 713, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2010-03-10

112

STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair  

PubMed Central

The progression of disease- and age-dependent skeletal muscle wasting results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair1–10. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions11–13. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting14,15, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues16–19. Here we show that IL-6–activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

2015-01-01

113

Upregulation of TPX2 by STAT3: Identification of a Novel STAT3 Binding Site  

PubMed Central

TPX2, a protein involved in mitosis, is considered a good marker for actively proliferating tissues, highly expressed in a number of cancer cells. We show the presence of high-affinity binding site for STAT3 in the 5?-flanking region of the Tpx2 gene, which is in vivo bound by activated STAT3. A specific STAT3 peptide inhibitor represses the expression of the Tpx2 gene and inhibits the binding of STAT3 to its consensus sequence in human cell lines where STAT3 is activated. These results indicate that activated STAT3 contributes to the over-expression of Tpx2 through the binding to an enhancer site. PMID:25401333

Altieri, Fabio; Chichiarelli, Silvia; Turano, Carlo; Eufemi, Margherita

2014-01-01

114

Binding of the Heterogeneous Ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) to the Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2 (EBNA2) Enhances Viral LMP2A Expression  

PubMed Central

The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG) repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively). EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN) and via the ADMA-RG-repeat to the NP9 protein of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K (HML-2) Type 1). The hypothesis of this work was that the methylated RG-repeat mimics an epitope shared with cellular proteins that is used for interaction with target structures. With monoclonal antibodies against the modified RG-repeat, we indeed identified cellular homologues that apparently have the same surface structure as methylated EBNA2. With the SDMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the Sm protein D3 (SmD3) which, like EBNA2, binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to SMN. With the ADMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). Specific binding of the ADMA- antibody to hnRNP K was demonstrated using E. coli expressed/ADMA-methylated hnRNP K. In addition, we show that EBNA2 and hnRNP K form a complex in EBV- infected B-cells. Finally, hnRNP K, when co-expressed with EBNA2, strongly enhances viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) expression by an unknown mechanism as we did not detect a direct association of hnRNP K with DNA-bound EBNA2 in gel shift experiments. Our data support the notion that the methylated surface of EBNA2 mimics the surface structure of cellular proteins to interfere with or co-opt their functional properties. PMID:22879910

Gross, Henrik; Hennard, Christine; Masouris, Ilias; Cassel, Christian; Barth, Stephanie; Stober-Grässer, Ute; Mamiani, Alfredo; Moritz, Bodo; Ostareck, Dirk; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Neuenkirchen, Nils; Fischer, Utz; Deng, Wen; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Noessner, Elfriede; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A.

2012-01-01

115

Morin inhibits STAT3 tyrosine 705 phosphorylation in tumor cells through activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1.  

PubMed

The major goal of cancer drug discovery is to find an agent that is safe and affordable, yet effective against cancer. Here we show that morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) has potential against cancer cells through suppression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, which is closely linked to the transformation, survival, proliferation, and metastasis of cancer. We found that morin completely suppressed inducible and constitutively activated STAT3 and blocked the nuclear translocation of STAT3 and its DNA binding in multiple myeloma and head and neck squamous carcinoma cells. Morin inhibited activated Src, JAK-1, and JAK-2, all of which are linked to STAT3 activation, while up-regulating a protein inhibitor of activated STAT3, PIAS3. Pervanadate reversed the effects of morin on STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating the role of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Furthermore, morin induced SHP1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and silencing of SHP1 abrogated the effect of morin on STAT3 phosphorylation, indicating that morin mediates its effects on STAT3 through SHP1. Suppression of STAT3 correlated with the down-regulation of various gene products linked to tumor survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis and led to sensitization of tumor cells to thalidomide and bortezomib. Comparing the activities of morin with those of four structurally related flavonols demonstrated the importance of hydroxyl groups in the B ring in inhibiting STAT3 activation. These findings suggest that morin suppresses the STAT3 pathway, leading to the down-regulation of STAT3-dependent gene expression and chemosensitization of tumor cells. PMID:23279849

Gupta, Subash C; Phromnoi, Kanokkarn; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2013-04-01

116

MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3?-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China) [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

2013-11-29

117

Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.72. PMID:24681959

Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

2014-03-31

118

STAT3 signaling in pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative disorder associated with enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. The sustainability of this phenotype requires the activation of pro-survival transcription factor like the signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3). Using multidisciplinary and translational approaches, we and others have demonstrated that STAT3 activation in both human and experimental models of PAH accounts for the modulation of the expression of several proteins already known as implicated in PAH pathogenesis, as well as for signal transduction to other transcription factors. Furthermore, recent data demonstrated that STAT3 could be therapeutically targeted in different animal models and some molecules are actually in clinical trials for cancer or PAH treatment. PMID:24058777

Paulin, Roxane; Meloche, Jolyane; Bonnet, Sébastien

2012-01-01

119

Inhibition of STAT3 Expression and Signaling in Resveratrol-Differentiated Medulloblastoma Cells1  

PubMed Central

In this study, the potential influence of resveratrol (3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling of medulloblastoma cells was evaluated by checking the status of STAT3 signaling and its downstream gene expression in two medulloblastoma cell lines (UW228-2 and UW228-3) with and without resveratrol treatment. The results revealed that resveratrol induced neuronal differentiation of medulloblastoma cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression and phosphorylation were detected in normally cultured UW228-2 and UW228-3 cells that were apparently attenuated after resveratrol treatment. The expression of STAT3 downstream genes, survivin, cyclin D1, Cox-2, and c-Myc, was suppressed but Bcl-2 was enhanced by resveratrol. Meanwhile, the production and secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor, a STAT3 activator, became active in resveratrol-treated cells. To further ascertain the significance of STAT3 signaling for medulloblastoma cells, AG490, a selective inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, was used to treat UW228-3 cells. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was inhibited by AG490 accompanied with growth suppression, differentiation-like changes, and down-regulation of survivin, cyclin D1, Cox-2, and c-Myc. Our data thus suggest the importance of STAT3 signaling in maintenance and survival of medulloblastoma cells. This signaling may be the major target of resveratrol. Enhanced leukemia inhibitory factor and Bcl-2 expressions in resveratrol-treated cells might reflect a compensatory response to the loss of STAT3 function. PMID:18592012

Yu, Li-Jun; Wu, Mo-Li; Li, Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qian; Sun, Yuan; Kong, Qing-You; Liu, Jia

2008-01-01

120

Effects of AG490 and S3I-201 on regulation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in relation to angiogenesis in TRAIL-resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in blocking the signaling pathway and the effects of this on the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) cells in vitro. LNCaP human CaP cell line was stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the presence/absence of Janus kinase (JAK) 2 (AG490), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [(STAT3) S3I-201] inhibitors and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Cytotoxic activity, the activation of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 protein, caspase (CASP) 3 activity at protein level, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGFC, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, STAT3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1), CASP8 and CASP9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined. Morphology and apoptosis were confirmed by DAPI staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. IL-6 rapidly induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a peak expression at 3 h at a concentration of 25 ng/ml. In addition, AG490 (50 ?M) and S3I-201 (300 ?M) inhibited STAT3 activation. Western blotting results revealed that p-STAT3 protein expression decreased significantly with AG490 and S3I-201 treatment in LNCaP cells. AG490 and S3I-201 induced the downregulation of VEGFA, MCL-1 and STAT3 and the upregulation of CASP8 and CASP9 mRNA transcription levels. In addition, the inhibitors increased the level of CASP3 protein. Combinations of AG490- and S3I-201-TRAIL did not result in an increase in this effect. Parallel results were found by DAPI staining and TUNEL assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the possible clinical use of AG490 or S3I-201, together with the reduced use of chemotherapeutic agents with high cytotoxicity, for their ability to exert an apoptotic effect, targeting the JAK/STAT3 pathway. PMID:24520293

GURBUZ, VENHAR; KONAC, ECE; VAROL, NURAY; YILMAZ, AKIN; GUROCAK, SERHAT; MENEVSE, SEVDA; SOZEN, SINAN

2014-01-01

121

Rapid inhibition of interleukin-6 signaling and Stat3 activation mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases  

PubMed Central

Gene activation and cellular differentiation induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transcription factor Stat3 are suppressed by several factors, including ionomycin, granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), that block IL-6-induced Stat3 activation. These inhibitory agents activate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and thus the role of MAPKs in the mechanism of inhibition of Stat3 activation was investigated. Inhibition of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation by PMA and ionomycin was rapid (within 5 min) and did not require new RNA or protein synthesis. Inhibition of Stat3 DNA-binding activity and tyrosine phosphorylation by PMA, ionomycin, and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor was reversed when activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) group of MAPKs was blocked by using specific kinase inhibitors. Expression of constitutively active MEK1, the kinase that activates ERKs, or overexpression of ERK2, but not JNK1, inhibited Stat3 activation. Inhibition of Stat3 correlated with suppression of IL-6-induction of a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-dependent reporter gene. In contrast to IL-6, activation of Stat3 by interferon-? was not inhibited. MEKs and ERKs inhibited IL-6 activation of Stat3 harboring a mutation at serine-727, the major site for serine phosphorylation, similar to inhibition of wild-type Stat3, and inhibited Janus kinases Jak1 and Jak2 upstream of Stat3 in the Jak-STAT-signaling pathway. These results demonstrate an ERK-mediated mechanism for inhibiting IL-6-induced Jak-STAT signaling that is rapid and inducible, and thus differs from previously described mechanisms for downmodulation of the Jak-STAT pathway. This inhibitory pathway provides a molecular mechanism for the antagonism of Stat3-mediated IL-6 activity by factors that activate ERKs. PMID:9736697

Sengupta, Tapas K.; Talbot, Erika S.; Scherle, Peggy A.; Ivashkiv, Lionel B.

1998-01-01

122

A Novel Small Molecular STAT3 Inhibitor, LY5, Inhibits Cell Viability, Cell Migration, and Angiogenesis in Medulloblastoma Cells.  

PubMed

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-? (IFN-?) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-? and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling. PMID:25313399

Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J; Lin, Jiayuh

2015-02-01

123

?-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits constitutive and inducible STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of the SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase.  

PubMed

Constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently observed and closely linked with proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated whether ?-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated primarily from the essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), can mediate its effect through interference with the STAT3 activation pathway in cancer cells. The effect of CPO on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases and phosphatase, STAT3-regulated gene products and apoptosis was investigated using both functional proteomics tumor pathway technology platform and different tumor cell lines. We found that CPO suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM), breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with a significant dose- and time-dependent effects observed in MM cells. The suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream kinases c-Src and JAK1/2. Also, vanadate treatment reversed CPO-induced down-regulation of STAT3, suggesting the involvement of a tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that CPO induced the expression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that correlated with the down-regulation of constitutive STAT3 activation. Interestingly, deletion of SHP-1 gene by siRNA abolished the ability of CPO to inhibit STAT3 activation. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by CPO inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and abrogated the invasive potential of tumor cells. Our results suggest for the first time that CPO is a novel blocker of STAT3 signaling cascade and thus has an enormous potential for the treatment of various cancers harboring constitutively activated STAT3. PMID:23765383

Kim, Chulwon; Cho, Somi K; Kapoor, Shweta; Kumar, Ansu; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2014-10-01

124

Gene expression and biological processes influenced by deletion of Stat3 in pulmonary type II epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates gene expression in response to numerous growth factors and cytokines, playing an important role in many cellular processes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Stat3 influences gene expression in the lung, the effect of pulmonary epithelial cell specific deletion of Stat3 on genome wide mRNA expression profiling was assessed. Differentially expressed genes were identified from Affymetrix Murine GeneChips analysis and subjected to gene ontology classification, promoter analysis, pathway mapping and literature mining. Results Total of 791 mRNAs were significantly increased and 314 mRNAs were decreased in response to the deletion of Stat3?/? in the lung. STAT is the most enriched cis-elements in the promoter regions of those differentially expressed genes. Deletion of Stat3 induced genes influencing protein metabolism, transport, chemotaxis and apoptosis and decreased the expression of genes mediating lipid synthesis and metabolism. Expression of Srebf1 and 2, genes encoding key regulators of fatty acid and steroid biosynthesis, was decreased in type II cells from the Stat3?/? mice, consistent with the observation that lung surfactant phospholipids content was decreased. Stat3 influenced both pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways that determine cell death or survival. Akt, a potential transcriptional target of Stat3, was identified as an important participant in Stat3 mediated pathways including Jak-Stat signaling, apoptosis, Mapk signaling, cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Conclusion Deletion of Stat3 from type II epithelial cells altered the expression of genes regulating diverse cellular processes, including cell growth, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. Pathway analysis indicates that STAT3 regulates cellular homeostasis through a complex regulatory network that likely enhances alveolar epithelial cell survival and surfactant/lipid synthesis, necessary for the protection of the lung during injury. PMID:18070348

Xu, Yan; Ikegami, Machiko; Wang, Yanhua; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

2007-01-01

125

Structural and Functional Characterization of a Complex between the Acidic Transactivation Domain of EBNA2 and the Tfb1/p62 Subunit of TFIIH  

PubMed Central

Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can lead to a number of human diseases including Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas. The development of these EBV-linked diseases is associated with the presence of nine viral latent proteins, including the nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2). The EBNA2 protein plays a crucial role in EBV infection through its ability to activate transcription of both host and viral genes. As part of this function, EBNA2 associates with several host transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the Tfb1/p62 (yeast/human) subunit of the general transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and the histone acetyltransferase CBP(CREB-binding protein)/p300, through interactions with its C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD). In this manuscript, we examine the interaction of the acidic TAD of EBNA2 (residues 431–487) with the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH and CBP/p300 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) and transactivation studies in yeast. NMR studies show that the TAD of EBNA2 binds to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Tfb1 (Tfb1PH) and that residues 448–471 (EBNA2448–471) are necessary and sufficient for this interaction. NMR structural characterization of a Tfb1PH-EBNA2448–471 complex demonstrates that the intrinsically disordered TAD of EBNA2 forms a 9-residue ?-helix in complex with Tfb1PH. Within this helix, three hydrophobic amino acids (Trp458, Ile461 and Phe462) make a series of important interactions with Tfb1PH and their importance is validated in ITC and transactivation studies using mutants of EBNA2. In addition, NMR studies indicate that the same region of EBNA2 is also required for binding to the KIX domain of CBP/p300. This study provides an atomic level description of interactions involving the TAD of EBNA2 with target host proteins. In addition, comparison of the Tfb1PH-EBNA2448–471 complex with structures of the TAD of p53 and VP16 bound to Tfb1PH highlights the versatility of intrinsically disordered acidic TADs in recognizing common target host proteins. PMID:24675874

Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Morse, Thomas; Arseneault, Genevieve; Archambault, Jacques; Omichinski, James G.

2014-01-01

126

hSulf-1 inhibits cell proliferation and migration and promotes apoptosis by suppressing stat3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Human sulfatase-1 (hSulf-1) has been shown to desulfate cellular heparin sulfate proteoglycans and modulate several growth factors and cytokines. However, hSulf-1 has not been previously shown to mediate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (stat3) signaling pathway, which is known to regulate cell proliferation, motility and apoptosis. The present study investigated the role of hSulf-1 in stat3 signaling in hepatocellular cancer. hSulf-1 expression vector and stat3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were constructed to control the expression of hSulf-1 and stat3 in HepG2 cells. hSulf-1 was found to inhibit the phosphorylation of stat3 and downregulate its targeted protein. MTT and Transwell chamber assays, as well as Annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining methods, were used to examine the effects of hSulf-1 on stat3-mediated motility, proliferation and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Transfection with hSulf-1 cDNA and/or stat3 siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and motility, concurrent with G0/G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overall, the results of the current study suggested that hSulf-1 functions as a negative regulator of proliferation and migration and as a positive regulator of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma, at least partly via the downregulation of stat3 signaling. PMID:24944651

Liu, Ling; Ding, Feng; Chen, Jiwei; Wang, Boyong; Liu, Zhisu

2014-04-01

127

Morusin induces cell death through inactivating STAT3 signaling in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

STAT3 has been recognized as an efficacious drug target for prostate cancer because of its constitutive activation in this fatal disease. We recently identified the root bark of Morus alba Linn. as a potential STAT3 inhibitor among 33 phytomedicines traditionally used in Korea. Morusin, an active compound isolated from the root bark of Morus alba, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined whether morusin has a potential as an anti-cancer agent in prostate cancer. We found that morusin suppressed viability of prostate cancer cells, but little effect in normal human prostate epithelial cells. Morusin also reduced STAT3 activity by inhibiting its phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and DNA binding activity. In addition, morusin down-regulated expression of STAT3 target genes encoding Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Survivin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1, which are involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. Furthermore, morusin induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by reducing STAT3 activity. Taken together, these results suggest that morusin could be a potentially therapeutic agent for prostate cancer by reducing STAT3 activity and inducing apoptosis. PMID:25628938

Lim, Sung-Lyul; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kang, Sukmin; Park, Dain; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Um, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Jun-Hee; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Jang, Jung-Hee; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Seok-Geun

2015-01-01

128

Morusin induces cell death through inactivating STAT3 signaling in prostate cancer cells  

PubMed Central

STAT3 has been recognized as an efficacious drug target for prostate cancer because of its constitutive activation in this fatal disease. We recently identified the root bark of Morus alba Linn. as a potential STAT3 inhibitor among 33 phytomedicines traditionally used in Korea. Morusin, an active compound isolated from the root bark of Morus alba, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined whether morusin has a potential as an anti-cancer agent in prostate cancer. We found that morusin suppressed viability of prostate cancer cells, but little effect in normal human prostate epithelial cells. Morusin also reduced STAT3 activity by inhibiting its phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and DNA binding activity. In addition, morusin down-regulated expression of STAT3 target genes encoding Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Survivin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1, which are involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. Furthermore, morusin induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by reducing STAT3 activity. Taken together, these results suggest that morusin could be a potentially therapeutic agent for prostate cancer by reducing STAT3 activity and inducing apoptosis. PMID:25628938

Lim, Sung-Lyul; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kang, Sukmin; Park, Dain; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Um, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Jun-Hee; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Jang, Jung-Hee; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Seok-Geun

2015-01-01

129

Stat3 activation in human endometrial and cervical cancers  

PubMed Central

The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) has been implicated in the oncogenesis of cancer and is regarded as a novel target for cancer therapy. Stat3 is classified as a proto-oncogene, because an activated form of Stat3 can mediate oncogenic transformation in cultured cells and tumour formation in nude mice. The constitutive activation of Stat3 has been frequently detected in various types of human cancers. However, the constitutive activation of Stat3 in endometrial and cervical cancers has not been studied. We examined tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 (activated form of Stat3) in multiple endometrial and cervical cancer tissues using tissue microarray slides as well as cancer cell lines to explore the possible activation of Stat3. Our results indicated that elevated phosphorylation of Stat3 was detected in cervical and endometrial cancer cell lines. Our results also showed that elevated levels of phosphorylation of Stat3 protein were detected in the endometrial and cervical cancer specimens. This is the first study to demonstrate that Stat3 is activated in human endometrial and cervical cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical staining showed that activated Stat3 is associated with increased expression of downstream antiapoptotic genes, Bcl-xL, survivin, and Mcl-1 in these tissues. Expression of a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines expressing elevated levels of Stat3 phosphorylation. Further, a JAK/Stat3 small molecular inhibitor, JSI-124, induced apoptosis more selectively in HeLa and SiHa cancer cell lines than Ishikawa cell line without elevated levels of Stat3 phosphorylation. These results indicate that Stat3 is activated in human endometrial and cervical cancers and the inhibition of constitutive Stat3 signaling may be an effective target for cancer intervention in these two cancers. PMID:17311011

Chen, C-L; Hsieh, F-C; Lieblein, J C; Brown, J; Chan, C; Wallace, J A; Cheng, G; Hall, B M; Lin, J

2007-01-01

130

Involvement of fish signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in SGIV replication and virus induced paraptosis.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor which plays crucial roles in immune regulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, transformation, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, a novel STAT3 gene from orange spotted grouper (Ec-STAT3) was cloned and characterized. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that full-length of Ec-STAT3 was 3105-bp long and contained a 280-bp 5'UTR, a 470-bp 3'UTR, and a 2355-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 784-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein of Ec-STAT3 showed 98% identity to that of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Amino acid alignment showed that Ec-STAT3 contained four conserved domains, including a protein interaction domain, a coiled coil domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the highest expression level was detected in the liver, followed by skin and spleen. After injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), the transcript of Ec-STAT3 in spleen was increased significantly. To further explore the function of Ec-STAT3, we investigated the roles of Ec-STAT3 in SGIV infection in vitro. Immune fluorescence analysis indicated that SGIV infection altered the distribution of phosphorylated Ec-STAT3 in nucleus, and a small part of phosphorylated Ec-STAT3 was associated with virus assembly sites, suggesting that Ec-STAT3 might be important for SGIV infection. Using STAT3 specific inhibitor, S3I-201, we found that inhibition of Ec-STAT3 activation decreased the SGIV replication significantly. Moreover, inhibition of Ec-STAT3 activation obviously altered SGIV infection induced cell cycle arrest and the expression of pro-survival genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax inhibitor. Together, our results firstly demonstrated the critical roles of fish STAT3 in DNA virus replication and virus induced paraptosis, but also provided new insights into the mechanism of iridovirus pathogenesis. PMID:25230133

Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Yang, Ying; Wei, Shina; Qin, Qiwei

2014-12-01

131

Viability and stress protection of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells involves overactivation of mitochondrial phosphoSTAT3Ser727  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of functionally defective CD5-positive B lymphocytes. The clinical course of CLL is highly variable, ranging from a long-lasting indolent disease to an unpredictable and rapidly progressing leukemia requiring treatment. It is thus important to identify novel factors that reflect disease progression or contribute to its assessment. Here, we report on a novel STAT3-mediated pathway that characterizes CLL B cells-extended viability and oxidative stress control. We observed that leukemic but not normal B cells from CLL patients exhibit constitutive activation of an atypical form of the STAT3 signaling factor, phosphorylated on serine 727 (Ser727) in the absence of detectable canonical tyrosine 705 (Tyr705)-dependent activation in vivo. The Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 molecule (pSTAT3Ser727) is localized to the mitochondria and associates with complex I of the respiratory chain. This pSer727 modification is further controlled by glutathione-dependent antioxidant pathway(s) that mediate stromal protection of the leukemic B cells and regulate their viability. Importantly, pSTAT3Ser727, but neither Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 nor total STAT3, levels correlate with prolonged in vivo CLL B cells survival. Furthermore, STAT3 activity contributes to the resistance to apoptosis of CLL, but not normal B cells, in vitro. These data reveal that mitochondrial (Mt) pSTAT3Ser727 overactivity is part of the antioxidant defense pathway of CLL B cells that regulates their viability. Mt pSTAT3Ser727 appears to be a newly identified cell-protective signal involved in CLL cells survival. Targeting pSTAT3Ser727 could be a promising new therapeutic approach. PMID:25299776

Capron, C; Jondeau, K; Casetti, L; Jalbert, V; Costa, C; Verhoyen, E; Massé, J M; Coppo, P; Béné, M C; Bourdoncle, P; Cramer-Bordé, E; Dusanter-Fourt, I

2014-01-01

132

The Import of the Transcription Factor STAT3 into Mitochondria Depends on GRIM-19, a Component of the Electron Transport Chain  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a nuclear transcription factor, is also present in mitochondria and regulates cellular respiration in a transcriptional-independent manner. The mechanism of STAT3 import into mitochondria remains obscure. In this report we show that mitochondrial-localized STAT3 resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In vitro import studies show that the gene associated with retinoid interferon induced cell mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a complex I subunit that acts as a chaperone to recruit STAT3 into mitochondria. In addition, GRIM-19 enhances the integration of STAT3 into complex I. A S727A mutation in STAT3 reduces its import and assembly even in the presence of GRIM-19. Together, our studies unveil a novel chaperone function for GRIM-19 in the recruitment of STAT3 into mitochondria. PMID:23271731

Tammineni, Prasad; Anugula, Chandrashekhar; Mohammed, Fareed; Anjaneyulu, Murari; Larner, Andrew C.; Sepuri, Naresh Babu Venkata

2013-01-01

133

Function of Mitochondrial Stat3 in Cellular Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines such as interleukin-6 induce tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of Stat3 that results in activation of Stat3-responsive genes. We provide evidence that Stat3 is present in the mitochondria of cultured cells and primary tissues, including the liver and heart. In Stat3-\\/- cells, the activities of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC) were significantly decreased. We identified

Joanna Wegrzyn; Ramesh Potla; Yong-Joon Chwae; Naresh B. V. Sepuri; Qifang Zhang; Thomas Koeck; Marta Derecka; Karol Szczepanek; Magdalena Szelag; Agnieszka Gornicka; Akira Moh; Shadi Moghaddas; Qun Chen; Santha Bobbili; Joanna Cichy; Jozef Dulak; Darren P. Baker; Alan Wolfman; Dennis Stuehr; Medhat O. Hassan; Xin-Yuan Fu; Narayan Avadhani; Jennifer I. Drake; Paul Fawcett; Edward J. Lesnefsky; Andrew C. Larner

2009-01-01

134

ChatStat 3.1.6  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have a website, there may have been times where you would have liked to talk with visitors who have browsed on in to say hello. ChatStat 3.16 offers users the ability to conduct live chat sessions with website visitors, along with free dynamic web analytic software. Visitors can also chat with other operators via instant message and even let visitors request a "call back". This application is compatible with computers running Windows NT and newer.

2008-01-01

135

In vivo imaging reveals a phase-specific role of STAT3 during central and peripheral nervous system axon regeneration  

PubMed Central

In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), damaged axons regenerate successfully, whereas axons in the CNS fail to regrow. In neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which extend branches to both the PNS and CNS, only a PNS lesion but not a CNS lesion induces axonal growth. How this differential growth response is regulated in vivo is only incompletely understood. Here, we combine in vivo time-lapse fluorescence microscopy with genetic manipulations in mice to reveal how the transcription factor STAT3 regulates axonal regeneration. We show that selective deletion of STAT3 in DRG neurons of STAT3-floxed mice impairs regeneration of peripheral DRG branches after a nerve cut. Further, overexpression of STAT3 induced by viral gene transfer increases outgrowth and collateral sprouting of central DRG branches after a dorsal column lesion by more than 400%. Notably, repetitive in vivo imaging of individual fluorescently labeled PNS and CNS axons reveals that STAT3 selectively regulates initiation but not later perpetuation of axonal growth. With STAT3, we thus identify a phase-specific regulator of axonal outgrowth. Activating STAT3 might provide an opportunity to “jumpstart” regeneration, and thus prime axons in the injured spinal cord for application of complementary therapies that improve axonal elongation. PMID:21447717

Bareyre, Florence M.; Garzorz, Natalie; Lang, Claudia; Misgeld, Thomas; Büning, Hildegard; Kerschensteiner, Martin

2011-01-01

136

Treatment of IL-21R-Fc control autoimmune arthritis via suppression of STAT3 signal pathway mediated regulation of the Th17/Treg balance and plasma B cells.  

PubMed

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a T cell-derived cytokine modulating T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell responses. To determine whether IL-21 contributes to pathologic processes, recombinant IL-21 receptor (R) fusion protein (rhIL-21R-Fc) was examined in mice models of autoimmune arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis). DBA/1J mice were immunized with chicken type II collagen and then treated intraperitoneally with rhIL-21R-Fc, which was initiated after the onset of arthritis symptoms in 20% of the cohort. The mice were assessed 3 times per week for signs of arthritis and histologic features as well as serum immunoglobulin. Cytokine messenger RNA levels in the spleen were also examined. STAT3 phosphorylation is dose dependently activated by IL-21 and inhibited by rhIL-21R-Fc in vitro using T cells. Treatment of DBA/1J mice with rhIL-21R-Fc reduced the clinical and histologic signs of CIA. The IL-17 and STAT3-expressing CD4(+) splenocytes dramatically decreased in the rhIL-21R-Fc treated mice. IL-21R-Fc treated mice also decreased the production of IgG, STAT3 phosphorylation, and plasma cell transcription factor (Blimp1). These findings demonstrate a pathogenic role of IL-21 in animal models of RA, suggesting IL-21 as a promising therapeutic target among human RA. PMID:25447400

Ryu, Jun-Geol; Lee, Jennifer; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Park, Jin-Sil; Lee, Seon-Yeong; Moon, Young-Mee; Yoo, Seok-Ho; Park, Young-Woo; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La; Kim, Ho-Youn

2015-02-01

137

Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration  

SciTech Connect

Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

2012-05-01

138

Silencing of the transcription factor STAT3 sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging drugs, but not to TNF?- and NK cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Transcription factor STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) is persistently active in human tumors and may contribute to tumor progression. Inhibition of STAT3 expression/activity could be a good strategy to modulate tumor cell survival and responses to cancer chemotherapeutics or immune cytotoxicity. We silenced STAT3 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells to elucidate its role in cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics, TNF? and natural killer (NK)-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that STAT3 is not essential for basal survival and proliferation of A549 cancer cells. Stable silencing of STAT3 expression sensitized A549 cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics doxorubicin and cisplatin in a p53-independent manner. Sensitization to DNA damage-inducing chemotherapeutics could be due to down-regulation of the Bcl-xL expression in STAT3 depleted cells. In contrast, knockdown of STAT3 in cancer cells did not modulate responses to TNF? and NK-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that STAT3 depletion increased the NF?B activity likely providing the compensatory, pro-survival signal. The treatment with TNF?, but not doxorubicin, enhanced this effect. We conclude that STAT3 is not crucial for the control of basal cell proliferation and survival of lung carcinoma cells but modulates susceptibility to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics by regulation of intrinsic pro-survival pathways. - Highlights: ? STAT3 silencing is negligent for basal lung cancer cell viability and proliferation. ? STAT3 depletion sensitizes lung cancer cells to DNA damaging chemotherapeutics. ? STAT3 depletion has no effect on susceptibility to extrinsic apoptosis inducers. ? Increased pro-survival NF?B activity may compensate for STAT3 depletion.

Kulesza, Dorota W. [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland); Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Carré, Thibault; Chouaib, Salem [Unité INSERM U753, Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif Cedex (France); Kaminska, Bozena, E-mail: bozenakk@nencki.gov.pl [Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw (Poland)

2013-02-15

139

Peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3 form a redox relay for H2O2 signaling.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acts as a signaling messenger by oxidatively modifying distinct cysteinyl thiols in distinct target proteins. However, it remains unclear how redox-regulated proteins, which often have low intrinsic reactivity towards H2O2 (kapp ?1-10 M(-1) s(-1)), can be specifically and efficiently oxidized by H2O2. Moreover, cellular thiol peroxidases, which are highly abundant and efficient H2O2 scavengers, should effectively eliminate virtually all of the H2O2 produced in the cell. Here, we show that the thiol peroxidase peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), one of the most H2O2-reactive proteins in the cell (kapp ?10(7)-10(8) M(-1) s(-1)), acts as a H2O2 signal receptor and transmitter in transcription factor redox regulation. Prx2 forms a redox relay with the transcription factor STAT3 in which oxidative equivalents flow from Prx2 to STAT3. The redox relay generates disulfide-linked STAT3 oligomers with attenuated transcriptional activity. Cytokine-induced STAT3 signaling is accompanied by Prx2 and STAT3 oxidation and is modulated by Prx2 expression levels. PMID:25402766

Sobotta, Mirko C; Liou, Willy; Stöcker, Sarah; Talwar, Deepti; Oehler, Michael; Ruppert, Thomas; Scharf, Annette N D; Dick, Tobias P

2015-01-01

140

Uterine Deletion of Gp130 or Stat3 Shows Implantation Failure with Increased Estrogenic Responses  

PubMed Central

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a downstream target of estrogen, is essential for implantation in mice. LIF function is thought to be mediated by its binding to LIF receptor (LIFR) and recruitment of coreceptor GP130 (glycoprotein 130), and this receptor complex then activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. However, the importance of LIFR and GP130 acting via STAT3 in implantation remains uncertain, because constitutive inactivation of Lifr, Gp130, or Stat3 shows embryonic lethality in mice. To address this issue, we generated mice with conditional deletion of uterine Gp130 or Stat3 and show that both GP130 and STAT3 are critical for uterine receptivity and implantation. Implantation failure in these deleted mice is associated with higher uterine estrogenic responses prior to the time of implantation. These heightened estrogenic responses are not due to changes in ovarian hormone levels or expression of their nuclear receptors. In the deleted mice, estrogen-responsive gene, Lactoferrin (Ltf), and Mucin 1 protein, were up-regulated in the uterus. In addition, progesterone-responsive genes, Hoxa10 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were markedly down-regulated in STAT3-inactivated uteri. These changes in uteri of deleted mice were reflected by the failure of differentiation of the luminal epithelium, which is essential for blastocyst attachment. PMID:23885093

Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

141

SIRT1 counteracted the activation of STAT3 and NF-?B to repress the gastric cancer growth  

PubMed Central

Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) possesses apparently dual roles in regulation of tumor. Previous reports have documented the crosstalk between SIRT1 with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) signaling in leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In this study, the purpose was to survey the regulatory effects of SIRT1 on gastric cancer (GC) cells (AGS and MKN-45) and the relationships between SIRT1 and activation of STAT3 and NF-?B in GC cells. We found the SIRT1 activator (resveratrol RSV) contributed to the repression of viability and increase of senescence, which were rescued by SIRT1 inhibitor (nicotinamide NA) and SIRT1 depletion by CCK-8 assay and SA-?-gal assay respectively. Further study found SIRT1 activation (RSV supplement) not only inhibited the activation of STAT3 including STAT3 mRNA level, c-myc mRNA level phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) proteins and acetylizad STAT3 (acSTAT3) proteins, but also repression of pNF-?B p65 and acNF-?B p65. NA reversed the effects of RSV. In addition, either RSV or NA application could not change the cellular viability and senescence in MKN-45 cells with STAT3 knockdown or NF-?B knockdown. Overall, our findings suggested SIRT1 activation could induced the loss of viability and increases of senescence in GC in vitro. Moreover, our observations revealed SIRT1 displayed growth inhibitory activity in GC cells highly associated with causing repression of activation of STAT3 and NF-?B proteins via deacetylation.

Lu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Qiming; Yang, Yuxia; Liu, Jingping; Ma, Xin

2014-01-01

142

STAT3 activation in response to growth factors or cytokines participates in retina precursor proliferation.  

PubMed

Growth factors and cytokines play an important role in the development of central nervous systems including neurons of the retina. However, the molecular pathways that trigger cell growth remain unclear in neuronal precursors. In the present studies, we used a retinal explant culture system to investigate the response of signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STATs) to extrinsic factors during mouse retinal development. Retinas from embryonic and neonatal stages showed that STAT3 but not STAT1 was activated in response to ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in distinct patterns. STAT3 activation was detected in the outermost retina layer in response to CNTF, LIF, FGF1, and IFN-alpha 24 hr after stimulation in postnatal day 1 (PN1) explants, but not FGF2, EGF, IFN-gamma, and retinoic acid (RA). Cytokine stimulation increased the number of cells incorporating BrdU and the labelled cells co-localized with phosphorylated STAT3, indicating that STAT3 may play an essential role in coupling extrinsic factors to retina precursor cell (RPC) proliferation. Furthermore, persistent expression of two neural precursor markers, Hes1 and Otx2 was detected in outer retinal layers and correlated with STAT3 activation by CNTF, suggesting that STAT3 activation may play a critical role in stimulating mitotic precursors. These results strongly support a model that STAT3-mediated signalling regulates precursor populations during mouse retina development. PMID:15978261

Zhang, Samuel Shao-Min; Liu, Mu-Gen; Kano, Arihiro; Zhang, Chun; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Barnstable, Colin J

2005-07-01

143

P300-dependent STAT3 acetylation is necessary for angiotensin II-induced pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Aim: To explore the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, especially STAT3 acetylation, in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells. Methods: Rat renal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK-52E) was used. STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation, as well as the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were examined using Western blotting. The level and localization of STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 were detected with fluorescence immunocytochemistry. The cells were transfected with a plasmid vector carrying p300 gene or siRNA targeting p300 to regulate p300 expression. Results: Overexpression of p300 significantly increased STAT3 acetylation on Lys685, STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705, and the expression of TGF-?1, collagen IV and fibronectin in the cells. Treatment of the cells with Ang II (1 ?mol/L) significantly increased STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 through JAK2 activation, and dose-dependently increased the expression of fibronectin, collagen IV and TGF-?1. Pretreatment with curcumin, an inhibitor of JAK2 and p300, blocked Ang II-induced effects. Knockdown of p300 significantly decreased STAT3 acetylation on Lys685, and abolished Ang II-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705, whereas pretreatment of the cells with C646, a selective inhibitor of p300, inhibited Ang II-induced STAT3 nuclear translocation and the expression of TGF-?1, collagen IV and fibronectin. Pretreatment of the cells with AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor, markedly inhibited Ang II-induced STAT3 phosphorylation on Tyr705 and fibronectin expression. Conclusion: p300-dependent STAT3 acetylation is necessary for Ang II-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and the consequent pro-fibrotic responses in renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:25088002

Ni, Jun; Shen, Yang; Wang, Zhen; Shao, De-cui; Liu, Jia; Kong, Ya-li; Fu, Lan-jun; Zhou, Li; Xue, Hong; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Chen; Lu, Li-min

2014-01-01

144

RRAD promotes EGFR-mediated STAT3 activation and induces temozolomide resistance of malignant glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extremely aggressive brain cancer with a median survival of less than 2 years. GBM is characterized by abnormal activation of receptor tyrosine kinase and constitutively activated STAT3. Although EGFR phosphorylation and STAT3 activation are essential for the maintenance of GBM cancer stem cells, the molecular mechanism underlying endosome-mediated STAT3 activation is not fully understood. In the current study, we showed that GTP-binding protein RRAD (RAS associated with diabetes, RAD) physically associates with EGFR, and EEA1, enhancing the stability and endosome-associated nuclear translocation of EGFR. Functionally, RRAD contributes to the activation of STAT3 and expression of the stem cell factors OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2, thereby enhancing self-renewing ability, tumor sphere formation, EMT, and in vivo tumorigenesis. Most importantly, RRAD contributes to poor survival in patients with GBM. RRAD expression is correlated with temozolomide resistance, and, conversely, depletion of RRAD leads to sensitization of highly temozolomide-resistant GBM cells. Our data collectively support a novel function of RRAD in STAT3 activation and provide evidence that RRAD acts as a positive regulator in the EGFR signaling pathway. These results demonstrate a critical role for RRAD in GBM tumorigenesis and provide a rationale for the development of pharmacologic inhibitors of RRAD in GBM. PMID:25313011

Yeom, Seon-Yong; Nam, Do-Hyun; Park, Chaehwa

2014-12-01

145

STAT3 Activates miR-155 in Th17 Cells and Acts in Concert to Promote Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) and STAT3 are implicated in uveitis and pathogenic mechanisms of CNS autoimmune diseases. In our study, we used miR-155?/? mice and mice with targeted STAT3 deletion in T cells (CD4-STAT3KO) to investigate roles of miR-155 and STAT3 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a mouse model of human uveitis. Methods. We induced EAU in WT, miR-155?/?, or CD4-STAT3KO mice by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein/complete Freund's adjuvant (IRBP/CFA) or adoptive transfer of T cells. EAU was assessed by funduscopy and histology. RNA expression was analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while cytokine production was assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results. We used a combination of genomic and genetic tools to provide the first evidence that STAT3 binds directly to the miR-155 locus and that STAT3 is required for miR-155 expression. Furthermore, STAT3-dependent increase in miR-155 expression in vivo correlated temporally with onset of EAU, and miR-155?/? or CD4-STAT3KO mice did not suffer EAU. CD4+ lymph node cells from IRBP-immunized WT mice transferred EAU to naïve wild-type (WT) and miR-155?/? mice, while miR-155?/? IRBP-specific T cells did not. Conclusions. Although miR-155 and STAT3 have been implicated in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), uveitis, or rheumatoid arthritis, their exact roles in these diseases are unclear. We show here for the first time to our knowledge that STAT3 regulates miR-155 expression in Th17 cells. We show further that STAT3 and miR-155 form an axis that promotes the expansion of pathogenic Th17 cells that mediate uveitis. Thus, STAT3 and miR-155 may be therapeutic targets for treating uveitis and other Th17-mediated inflammatory disorders. PMID:23674757

Escobar, Thelma; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Muljo, Stefan A.; Egwuagu, Charles E.

2013-01-01

146

Genome-Wide Uncovering of STAT3-Mediated miRNA Expression Profiles in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies resulting in high mortality worldwide. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor which is frequently activated and aberrantly expressed in CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs which play important roles in many cancers. However, little is known about the global miRNA profiles mediated by STAT3 in CRC cells. In the present study, we applied RNA interference to inhibit STAT3 expression and profiled the miRNA expression levels regulated by STAT3 in CRC cell lines with deep sequencing. We found that 26 and 21 known miRNAs were significantly overexpressed and downexpressed, respectively, in the STAT3-knockdown CRC cell line SW480 (SW480/STAT3-siRNA) compared to SW480 transfected with scrambled siRNAs (SW480/siRNA-control). The miRNA expression profiling was then validated by quantitative real-time PCR for selected known miRNAs. We further predicted the putative target genes for the dysregulated miRNAs and carried out functional annotation including GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis for selected miRNA targets. This study directly depicts STAT3-mediated miRNA profiles in CRC cells, which provides a possible way to discover biomarkers for CRC therapy. PMID:25126546

Zhang, Jufeng; Luo, Xia; Li, Huiming; Deng, Ling

2014-01-01

147

Inflamm-aging: STAT3 signaling pushes muscle stem cells off balance.  

PubMed

Two recent studies shed light on mechanisms underlying muscle dysfunction in age and disease. They reveal that JAK-STAT signaling regulates myogenic differentiation, leading to a reduced reservoir of muscle stem cells. Both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 signaling improve stem cell homeostasis and physiology of aged and dystrophic muscles. PMID:25280215

Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mouchiroud, Guy

2014-10-01

148

Mammary Gland Remodeling Depends on gp130 Signaling through Stat3 and MAPK*  

E-print Network

Mammary Gland Remodeling Depends on gp130 Signaling through Stat3 and MAPK* Received death and tissue remodeling in the mouse mammary gland during involution, which is partially induced, cell-cell communication, and cell cycle regulation (8­10). In the mammary gland, the cycle

Ullrich, Axel

149

RANKL downregulates cell surface CXCR6 expression through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 is down-regulated during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCR6 reduction was nearly reversed by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL16 alone does not positively regulate osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays an essential role in osteoclast differentiation and function. Chemokines and their receptors have recently been shown to play critical roles in osteoclastogenesis, however, whether CXCL16-CXCR6 plays role in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unknown. In this study, we first reported that RANKL decreased CXCR6 in a dose-dependent manner, which may be through deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling induced by CXCL16. Interestingly, RANKL-mediated CXCR6 reduction may be associated to the activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation. When STAT3 activation was blocked by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490, RANKL failed to shut down CXCR6 expression during osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL16 alone did not augment RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and did not alter RANKL-receptor RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that reduction of CXCL16-CXCR6 is critical in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, which is mainly through the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. CXCL16-CXCR6 axis may become a novel target for the therapeutic intervention of bone resorbing diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

Li, Changhong; Zhao, Jinxia; Sun, Lin; Yao, Zhongqiang; Liu, Rui [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Jiansheng [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Liu, Xiangyuan, E-mail: liu-xiangyuan@263.net [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

2012-12-14

150

STAT3 in Cancer—Friend or Foe?  

PubMed Central

The roles and significance of STAT3 in cancer biology have been extensively studied for more than a decade. Mounting evidence has shown that constitutive activation of STAT3 is a frequent biochemical aberrancy in cancer cells, and this abnormality directly contributes to tumorigenesis and shapes many malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from more recent experimental and clinicopathologic studies have suggested that STAT3 also can exert tumor suppressor effects under specific conditions. Importantly, some of these studies have demonstrated that STAT3 can function either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background or presence/absence of specific coexisting biochemical defects. Thus, in the context of cancer biology, STAT3 can be a friend or foe. In the first half of this review, we will highlight the “evil” features of STAT3 by summarizing its oncogenic functions and mechanisms. The differences between the canonical and non-canonical pathway will be highlighted. In the second half, we will summarize the evidence supporting that STAT3 can function as a tumor suppressor. To explain how STAT3 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we will discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT3?, one of the two STAT3 splicing isoforms. Taken together, it is clear that the roles of STAT3 in cancer are multi-faceted and far more complicated than one appreciated previously. The new knowledge has provided us with new approaches and strategies when we evaluate STAT3 as a prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. PMID:24995504

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Raymond

2014-01-01

151

Targeting STAT3 in cancer: how successful are we?  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 occurs in many human tumors. Moreover, studies utilizing genetic and pharmacological approaches to modulate constitutive STAT3 activity have provided compelling evidence for the critical role of aberrant STAT3 activity in malignant transformation and tumor progression, and thereby validated STAT3 as a novel cancer drug target. Objective This review is intended to be a full coverage of the efforts to develop direct STAT3 inhibitors and will provide a discussion on the inhibitory modalities developed to date. Methods Review of the literature focused on the modalities and mechanisms that directly target and inhibit the STAT protein or its functions. Results/conclusion While a variety of STAT3 inhibitors have been identified that induce antitumor cell effects in vitro and in vivo, the landscape remains murky. With a few exceptions, most of the STAT3 inhibitors reported to date have not undergone an in vivo efficacy, pharmacology or toxicity testing. Also, there is no evidence, per the published literature of an impending clinical development for the few agents that were reported to exhibit in vivo efficacy. Overall, there is the need for a reassessment of the ongoing strategies to target STAT3 intended not only for refinement, but also for incorporating some new technologies to strengthen our efforts and ensure the success – sooner, rather than later – of identifying suitable anti-STAT3 agents for development into clinically useful anticancer therapeutics. PMID:19053881

Yue, Peibin; Turkson, James

2008-01-01

152

Intranuclear localization of the transcription coadaptor CBP/p300 and the transcription factor RBP-Jk in relation to EBNA-2 and -5 in B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

We have studied the expression and the localization of the cellular proteins CBP/p300 and RBP-Jk in in vitro EBV-infected human B lymphocytes in relation to the EBNA-2 and EBNA-5 proteins. We found that the level of CBP/p300 was elevated drastically by EBV infection and also after activation by CD40 ligation. Thus the increase in CBP/p300 expression in the EBV-infected cells is related to the virus-induced activation and proliferation of the cells. EBNA-2 and RBP-Jk colocalized in the nucleoplasm, which is in accordance with their functional interaction. We confirmed earlier reports about the presence and colocalization of EBNA-5 and CBP in the nuclear POD bodies. On the other hand, neither EBNA-2 nor p300 was detected in the PODs. The expression of these two proteins overlapped in some distinct dots of the nucleoplasm. Taken together, the different patterns of CBP and p300 expression and their different localization in relation to the PML bodies and two EBV-encoded proteins in the B cells may provide some clue to their distinct functional roles. PMID:11601899

Bandobashi, K; Maeda, A; Teramoto, N; Nagy, N; Székely, L; Taguchi, H; Miyoshi, I; Klein, G; Klein, E

2001-09-30

153

Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

Murano, Tatsuro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi, E-mail: rokamoto.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

2014-01-17

154

Therapeutic Retrobulbar Inhibition of STAT3 Protects Ischemic Retina Ganglion Cells.  

PubMed

Astrocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Abnormal activation and/or proliferation of astrocytes, termed astrogliosis, have been observed during optic nerve degeneration. Our previous study identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling as an important regulator of astrogliosis in the optic nerve in a rat transient ischemia/reperfusion model. In this study, we used pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activation in the same model to assess whether it could attenuate reactive astrogliosis and to observe its influence on optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Our findings show that retrobulbar inhibition of STAT3 in optic nerve head astrocytes leads to (a) increased nerve fiber bundle survival in the optic nerve, (b) increased nerve fiber bundle and RGC survival in the retina, (c) decreased astrocyte reactivation in the optic nerve (d) decreased remodeling of astrocytes in the optic nerve, and (e) no influence of astrocyte reactivation inside the retina. Taken together, the Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway contributes to astrocyte reactivation in the optic nerve, which plays a pivotal role in neurodegeneration after transient ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. Inhibition of this pathway provides a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glaucomatous neuropathy, and could extend to other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25344318

Wong, Mansin; Li, Ying; Li, Shang; Zhang, Shaodan; Li, Weiyi; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Chaoran; Barnstable, Colin J; Zhang, Samuel S; Zhang, Chun; Huang, Ping

2014-10-25

155

Lipopolysaccharides upregulate hepcidin in neuron via microglia and the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation is closely related to brain iron homeostasis. Our previous study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can regulate expression of iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin; however, the mechanism is undefined. Here, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of LPS in rat brain upregulated hepcidin and downregulated ferroportin 1 in the cortex and substantia nigra. LPS increased hepcidin expression in neurons only when they were co-cultured with BV-2 microglia, and the upregulation was suppressed by IL-6 neutralizing antibody in vitro. In addition, IL-6 but not IL-1?, IL-1?, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased hepcidin expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in cortical neurons and MES23.5 dopaminergic neurons. These effects were blocked by the STAT3 inhibitor, stattic. Our results show that neurons are the major source of increased hepcidin expression in response to LPS challenge but microglia play a key mediator role by releasing IL-6 and recruiting the STAT3 pathway. We conclude that LPS upregulates hepcidin expression in neurons via microglia and the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:24659348

Qian, Zhong-Ming; He, Xuan; Liang, Tuo; Wu, Ka-Chun; Yan, Yik-Chun; Lu, Li-Na; Yang, Guang; Luo, Qian Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

2014-12-01

156

Determinants of the extent and duration of STAT3 signaling  

PubMed Central

Multiple molecular mechanisms have been identified that are responsible for the deregulation of the quantitative aspects of JAK-STAT signaling. These mechanisms enhance the extent and the duration of, e.g., STAT3 activation and have profound consequences on the phenotypes of the affected cells. The fine tuning of STAT3 signaling is required to maintain its physiological functions and its deregulation is associated with diverse pathological states. Deregulation can be exerted by the gain of function of components mediating the activation of STAT3 or the loss of function of molecules involved in the deactivation steps of STAT3. Gain of function mutations can involve tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate STAT3, mutations in cytokine and growth factor receptors causing their ligand independent activation, mutations in STAT3 that enhance and prolong its tyrosine phosphorylation and the autocrine or paracrine production and secretion of cytokines, most notably IL-6. Diminished deactivation of phosphorylated STAT3 can be due to the reduced expression of tyrosine phosphatases, inactivating mutations in these enzymes, silencing or functional inactivation of SOCS molecules, post-transcriptional inhibition of PIAS3 expression or deletion mutations in the lymphocyte adaptor protein, LNK. STAT3 variants that exhibit autonomous transactivation potential have been detected in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia in clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. These patients also were preferentially affected by neutropenia and rheumatoid disorders and the results suggest that activating STAT3 mutations in T lymphocytes could be a cause of autoimmune diseases. PMID:24058775

2012-01-01

157

JAK2 inhibitor blocks the inflammation and growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro through the JAK/STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates that the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway may play an important role in chronic inflammation which promotes cancer progression, yet the mechanism is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the JAK/STAT3 pathway in the growth and cancer-related inflammation (CRI) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by studying the crosstalk between the JAK/STAT3 pathway and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which are important inflammatory factors associated with tumorigenesis. Cell growth and the cell cycle were assessed by CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The protein levels of STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, VEGF, NF-?B p65, phosphorylated NF-?B p65 and COX-2 in ESCC cells following treatment with JAK2 inhibitor for 48 h or interleukin-6 (IL-6) for 24 h were detected. RT-PCR was performed to study the interaction among STAT3, NF-?B and COX-2 by transfection of siRNAs targeted at STAT3 and NF-?B. STAT3 was activated in 3 ESCC cell lines at different levels. Blocking the JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibited cancer growth through regulation of cell growth, cell cycle and angiogenesis. Likewise, abrogation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway decreased CRI by downregulating levels of NF-?B p65 phosphorylation, COX-2 and IL-6 concentration. In addition, CRI and cancer growth were accelerated by IL-6 through stimulation of the JAK/STAT3 and NF-?B p65 pathway. Moreover, STAT3 and NF-?B both regulated COX-2 as a downstream gene. The JAK/STAT3 pathway is an important pathway which links CRI and cancer growth through IL-6 and crosstalk with the NF-?B p65 subunit and COX-2. The STAT3 pathway could be a novel target both for cancer treatment and prevention in ESCC. PMID:25405520

Fang, Juemin; Chu, Li; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yijing; Hu, Fei; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Huaxin; Liu, Zhuqing; Xu, Qing

2015-01-01

158

Novel CD47: SIRP? Dependent Mechanism for the Activation of STAT3 in Antigen-Presenting Cell  

PubMed Central

Cell surface CD47 interacts with its receptor, signal-regulatory-protein ? (SIRP?) that is expressed predominantly on macrophages, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. This “don’t eat me” signal is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRP? at the cytoplasmic ITIM motifs and the recruitment of the phosphatase, SHP-1. We previously revealed a novel mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 pathway and the regulation of human APC maturation and function that is based on cell:cell interaction. In this study, we present evidence supporting the notion that CD47:SIRP? serves as a cell surface receptor: ligand pair involved in this contact-dependent STAT3 activation and regulation of APC maturation. We show that upon co-culturing APC with various primary and tumor cell lines STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 expression are induced, and such regulation could be suppressed by specific CD47 siRNAs and shRNAs. Significantly, >50% reduction in CD47 expression abolished the contact-dependent inhibition of T cell activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association between SIRP? and STAT3. Thus, we suggest that in addition to signaling through the ITIM-SHP-1 complex that transmit an anti-phagocytotic, CD47:SIRP? also triggers STAT3 signaling that is linked to an immature APC phenotype and peripheral tolerance under steady state and pathological conditions. PMID:24073274

Toledano, Natan; Gur-Wahnon, Devorah; Ben-Yehuda, Adi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

2013-01-01

159

Novel CD47: SIRP? dependent mechanism for the activation of STAT3 in antigen-presenting cell.  

PubMed

Cell surface CD47 interacts with its receptor, signal-regulatory-protein ? (SIRP?) that is expressed predominantly on macrophages, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. This "don't eat me" signal is mediated through tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRP? at the cytoplasmic ITIM motifs and the recruitment of the phosphatase, SHP-1. We previously revealed a novel mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 pathway and the regulation of human APC maturation and function that is based on cell:cell interaction. In this study, we present evidence supporting the notion that CD47:SIRP? serves as a cell surface receptor: ligand pair involved in this contact-dependent STAT3 activation and regulation of APC maturation. We show that upon co-culturing APC with various primary and tumor cell lines STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 expression are induced, and such regulation could be suppressed by specific CD47 siRNAs and shRNAs. Significantly, >50% reduction in CD47 expression abolished the contact-dependent inhibition of T cell activation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical association between SIRP? and STAT3. Thus, we suggest that in addition to signaling through the ITIM-SHP-1 complex that transmit an anti-phagocytotic, CD47:SIRP? also triggers STAT3 signaling that is linked to an immature APC phenotype and peripheral tolerance under steady state and pathological conditions. PMID:24073274

Toledano, Natan; Gur-Wahnon, Devorah; Ben-Yehuda, Adi; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

2013-01-01

160

Ethanolamine is a novel STAT-3 dependent cardioprotective agent.  

PubMed

Ethanolamine is a biogenic amine found naturally in the body as part of membrane lipids and as a metabolite of the cardioprotective substances, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and anandamide. In the brain, ethanolamine, formed from the breakdown of anandamide protects against ischaemic apoptosis. However, the effects of ethanolamine in the heart are unknown. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is a critical prosurvival factor in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, we investigated whether ethanolamine protects the heart via activation of STAT-3. Isolated hearts from wildtype or cardiomyocyte specific STAT-3 knockout (K/O) mice were pre-treated with ethanolamine (Etn) (0.3 mmol/L) before I/R insult. In vivo rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischaemia/2 h reperfusion in the presence or absence of 5 mg/kg S1P and/or the FAAH inhibitor, URB597. Infarct size was measured at the end of each protocol by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Pre-treatment with ethanolamine decreased infarct size in isolated mouse or rat hearts subjected to I/R but this infarct sparing effect was lost in cardiomyocyte specific STAT-3 deficient mice. Pre-treatment with ethanolamine increased nuclear phosphorylated STAT-3 [control 0.75 ± 0.08 vs. Etn 1.50 ± 0.09 arbitrary units; P < 0.05]. Our findings suggest a novel cardioprotective role for ethanolamine against I/R injury via activation of STAT-3. PMID:20938668

Kelly, Roisin F; Lamont, Kim T; Somers, Sarin; Hacking, Damian; Lacerda, Lydia; Thomas, Paul; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

2010-11-01

161

Targeting oxidative stress in the hypothalamus: the effect of transcription factor STAT3 knockdown on endogenous antioxidants-mediated appetite control.  

PubMed

It has been reported that the redox sensing system in the hypothalamus participates in fuel metabolism and that endogenous antioxidants contribute to the regulation of phenylpropanolamine (PPA), an anorectic drug-induced appetite suppression. We explored whether the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is involved in PPA's action. Rats were given PPA once a day for 4 days. Changes in endogenous antioxidants, Janus kinase-2 (JAK2), STAT3, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), levels during PPA treatment were assessed and compared. Feeding, body weight, and NPY decreased with the biggest reduction on Day 2 during PPA treatment. Antioxidants, JAK2, pSTAT3, POMC expression, and STAT3/DNA-binding activity increased and were expressed in a pattern opposite to NPY expression. Moreover, cerebral STAT3 knockdown modified PPA-induced anorexia and antioxidants, POMC, and NPY expression. superoxide dismutase immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus increased and the inhibition of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production reversed antioxidants, STAT3, POMC, and NPY expression. It is suggested that hypothalamic JAK2-STAT3 participates in regulating antioxidants-mediated appetite control. This result may further the understanding of ROS-involved appetite control. PMID:24792324

Kuo, Dong-Yih; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

2015-01-01

162

Functional status of STAT3 and MAPK3/1 signaling pathways in granulosa cells during bovine follicular deviation.  

PubMed

Follicle development is coordinated by gonadotropins, steroids, and growth factors, which activate multiple signaling pathways. Phosphorylated-MAPK (pMAPK) level was indicated as an early marker of follicle dominance, whereas phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was increased in granulosa cells of hypophysectomized rats. We hypothesized that MAPK3/1 and STAT3 pathways are regulated in granulosa cells during follicle deviation in cattle. Cyclic beef cows were synchronized and ovariectomized to recover the two largest follicles. Follicular diameter did not differ on Day 2 but was significantly greater in dominant follicles (DFs) than that in subordinate follicles (SFs) on Days 3 and 4 of the follicular wave. The elevated abundance of CYP19A1 mRNA expression in granulosa cells of DFs and cleaved caspase 3 in Day-4 SFs further validated our in vivo model. Before deviation, pMAPK3/1 levels were significantly higher in granulosa cells of the future DF. STAT3 mRNA and total protein (tSTAT3) were higher in granulosa cells of SFs collected on Day 4. Furthermore, levels of pSTAT3 were dramatically increased in granulosa cells of Day-4 SFs. In conclusion, pMAPK3/1 was increased in the future DF, but such differential abundance between the DF and SF was not evident after deviation. The higher abundance of pSTAT3 in granulosa cells of SFs after deviation suggests that this pathway may be involved in granulosa cell death and follicular atresia. PMID:25442017

Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ferreira, Rogério; Ilha, Gustavo F; Bordignon, Vilceu; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Duggavathi, Raj

2015-02-01

163

STAT3 signaling is activated preferentially in tumor-initiating cells in claudin-low models of human breast cancer.  

PubMed

In breast cancer, a subset of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) or "cancer stem cells" are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance, treatment resistance, and disease recurrence. While current breast cancer stem cell markers (e.g., CD44(high) /CD24(low/neg) , ALDH positive) have allowed enrichment for such cells, they are not universally expressed and may actually identify distinct TIC subpopulations in the same tumor. Thus, additional markers of functional stem cells are needed. The STAT3 pathway is a critical regulator of the function of normal stem cells, and evidence is accumulating for its important role in breast cancer stem cells. However, due to the lack of a method for separating live cells based on their level of STAT3 activity, it remains unknown whether STAT3 functions in the cancer stem cells themselves, or in surrounding niche cells, or in both. To approach this question, we constructed a series of lentiviral fluorescent (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) reporters that enabled flow cytometric enrichment of cells differing in STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity, as well as in vivo/in situ localization of STAT3 responsive cells. Using in vivo claudin-low cell line xenograft models of human breast cancer, we found that STAT3 signaling reporter activity (EGFP(+) ) is associated with a subpopulation of cancer cells enriched for mammosphere-forming efficiency, as well as TIC function in limiting dilution transplantation assays compared to negative or unsorted populations. Our results support STAT3 signaling activity as another functional marker for human breast cancer stem cells thus making it an attractive therapeutic target for stem-cell-directed therapy in some breast cancer subtypes. PMID:24891218

Wei, Wei; Tweardy, David J; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Landua, John; Petrovic, Ivana; Bu, Wen; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T

2014-10-01

164

Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3A and EBNA3C proteins both repress RBP-J kappa-EBNA2-activated transcription by inhibiting the binding of RBP-J kappa to DNA.  

PubMed Central

Following infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the production of viral nuclear proteins EBNA1, EBNA2, EBNA3A, and EBNA3C and the viral membrane protein LMP1 is essential for the permanent proliferation of primary B lymphocytes to occur. Among these, the transcription factor EBNA2 is central to the immortalizing process, since it activates not only the transcription of all the EBNA proteins and LMP1, TP1, and TP2 but also certain cellular genes. EBNA2 is targeted to its DNA-responsive elements through direct interaction with the DNA-binding cellular repressor RBP-J kappa. In a transient-expression assay, the EBNA2-activated transcription was found to be downregulated by EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C. However, since it has been reported that EBNA3C, but not EBNA3A, directly contacts RBP-J kappa in vitro, these proteins appear to repress through different mechanisms. Here, we report for the first time that EBNA3A and EBNA3C both stably interact with RBP-J kappa and most probably repress EBNA2-activated transcription by destabilizing the binding of RBP-J kappa to DNA. PMID:8709211

Waltzer, L; Perricaudet, M; Sergeant, A; Manet, E

1996-01-01

165

RKIP phosphorylation and STAT3 activation is inhibited by oxaliplatin and camptothecin and are associated with poor prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background A major obstacle in treating colorectal cancer (CRC) is the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. An important protein in the regulation of cancer cell death and clinical outcome is Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). In contrast, activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a protein that promotes tumor cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and has an important role in cancer progression in many of cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of RKIP and STAT3 after treatment with clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents (camptothecin (CPT) and oxaliplatin (OXP)) and the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCT116 colon cancer cells as well as evaluate the association between RKIP and STAT3 with clinical outcome of Stage II colon cancer patients. Methods HCT-116 colon cancer cells were treated with CPT, OXP, and IL-6 separately or in combination in a time and dose-dependent manner and examined for phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated RKIP and STAT3 via Western blot analysis. STAT3 transcriptional activity was measured via a luciferase reporter assay in HCT116 cells treated with CPT, IL-6 or transfected with JAK 1, 2 separately or in combination. We extended these observations and determined STAT3 and RKIP/ pRKIP in tumor microarrays (TMA) in stage II colon cancer patients. Results We demonstrate IL-6-mediated activation of STAT3 occurs in conjunction with the phosphorylation of RKIP in vitro in human colon cancer cells. OXP and CPT block IL-6 mediated STAT3 activation and RKIP phosphorylation via the inhibition of the interaction of STAT3 with gp130. We determined that STAT3 and nuclear pRKIP are significantly associated with poor patient prognosis in stage II colon cancer patients. Conclusions In the analysis of tumor samples from stage II colon cancer patients and the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116, pRKIP and STAT3, 2 proteins potentially involved in the resistance to conventional treatments were detected. The phosphorylation of pRKIP and STAT3 are induced by the cytokine IL-6 and suppressed by the chemotherapeutic drugs CPT and OXP. Therefore, these results suggest that STAT3 and pRKIP may serve as prognostic biomarkers in stage II colon cancer patients and may improve chemotherapy. PMID:24098947

2013-01-01

166

Deletion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell STAT3 Promotes T Lymphocyte STAT3 Activation and Chronic Colitis Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) Stat3 is required for wound healing following acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury. METHODS Colitis was induced in IEC-specific Stat3 deficient mice (Stat3?IEC) and littermate controls (Stat3Flx/Flx) with 4%DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined. RESULTS Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in Stat3?IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3+ cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in Stat3?IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480+pSTAT3+ macrophages and CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes were increased in Stat3?IEC mice as compared to Stat3Flx/Flx controls. In Stat3?IEC mice, colonic expression of Stat3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3? which mediate epithelial restitution were significantly decreased, while expression of IL-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at Day 28(p<.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Loss of intestinal epithelial Stat3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after one cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3+ lymphocytes and IL-17a expression. PMID:23429443

Willson, Tara A.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Collins, Margaret; Denson, Lee A.

2015-01-01

167

SH2B1? interacts with STAT3 and enhances fibroblast growth factor 1-induced gene expression during neuronal differentiation.  

PubMed

Neurite outgrowth is an essential process during neuronal differentiation as well as neuroregeneration. Thus, understanding the molecular and cellular control of neurite outgrowth will benefit patients with neurological diseases. We have previously shown that overexpression of the signaling adaptor protein SH2B1? promotes fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced neurite outgrowth (W. F. Lin, C. J. Chen, Y. J. Chang, S. L. Chen, I. M. Chiu, and L. Chen, Cell. Signal. 21:1060-1072, 2009). SH2B1? also undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates a subset of neurotrophin-induced genes. Although these findings suggest that SH2B1? regulates gene expression, the nuclear role of SH2B1? was not known. In this study, we show that SH2B1? interacts with the transcription factor, signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in neuronal PC12 cells, cortical neurons, and COS7 fibroblasts. By affecting the subcellular distribution of STAT3, SH2B1? increased serine phosphorylation and the concomitant transcriptional activity of STAT3. As a result, overexpressing SH2B1? enhanced FGF1-induced expression of STAT3 target genes Egr1 and Cdh2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further reveal that, in response to FGF1, overexpression of SH2B1? promotes the in vivo occupancy of STAT3-Sp1 heterodimers at the promoter of Egr1 and Cdh2. These findings establish a central role of SH2B1? in orchestrating signaling events to transcriptional activation through interacting and regulating STAT3-containing complexes during neuronal differentiation. PMID:24396070

Chang, Yu-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chen, Ching-Jen; Lin, Ming-Hsing; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Lee, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Chen, Linyi

2014-03-01

168

SH2B1? Interacts with STAT3 and Enhances Fibroblast Growth Factor 1-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Neurite outgrowth is an essential process during neuronal differentiation as well as neuroregeneration. Thus, understanding the molecular and cellular control of neurite outgrowth will benefit patients with neurological diseases. We have previously shown that overexpression of the signaling adaptor protein SH2B1? promotes fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced neurite outgrowth (W. F. Lin, C. J. Chen, Y. J. Chang, S. L. Chen, I. M. Chiu, and L. Chen, Cell. Signal. 21:1060–1072, 2009). SH2B1? also undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates a subset of neurotrophin-induced genes. Although these findings suggest that SH2B1? regulates gene expression, the nuclear role of SH2B1? was not known. In this study, we show that SH2B1? interacts with the transcription factor, signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in neuronal PC12 cells, cortical neurons, and COS7 fibroblasts. By affecting the subcellular distribution of STAT3, SH2B1? increased serine phosphorylation and the concomitant transcriptional activity of STAT3. As a result, overexpressing SH2B1? enhanced FGF1-induced expression of STAT3 target genes Egr1 and Cdh2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further reveal that, in response to FGF1, overexpression of SH2B1? promotes the in vivo occupancy of STAT3-Sp1 heterodimers at the promoter of Egr1 and Cdh2. These findings establish a central role of SH2B1? in orchestrating signaling events to transcriptional activation through interacting and regulating STAT3-containing complexes during neuronal differentiation. PMID:24396070

Chang, Yu-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chen, Ching-Jen; Lin, Ming-Hsing; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Lee, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Ing-Ming

2014-01-01

169

Nifuroxazide inhibits survival of multiple myeloma cells by directly inhibiting STAT3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive activation of the transcrip- tion factor STAT3 contributes to the patho- genesis of many cancers, including mul- tiple myeloma (MM). Since STAT3 is dispensable in most normal tissue, tar- geted inhibition of STAT3 is an attractive therapy for patients with these cancers. To identify STAT3 inhibitors, we devel- oped a transcriptionally based assay and screened a library of compounds

Erik A. Nelson; Sarah R. Walker; Alicia Kepich; Laurie B. Gashin; Teru Hideshima; Hiroshi Ikeda; Dharminder Chauhan; Kenneth C. Anderson; David A. Frank

2008-01-01

170

The JAK2/STAT3 and mitochondrial pathways are essential for quercetin nanoliposome-induced C6 glioma cell death  

PubMed Central

The formulation of quercetin nanoliposomes (QUE-NLs) has been shown to enhance QUE antitumor activity in C6 glioma cells. At high concentrations, QUE-NLs induce necrotic cell death. In this study, we probed the molecular mechanisms of QUE-NL-induced C6 glioma cell death and examined whether QUE-NL-induced programmed cell death involved Bcl-2 family and mitochondrial pathway through STAT3 signal transduction pathway. Downregulation of Bcl-2 and the overexpression of Bax by QUE-NL supported the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins upstream of C6 glioma cell death. In addition, the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 were altered following exposure to QUE-NLs in C6 glioma cells, suggesting that QUE-NLs downregulated Bcl-2 mRNAs expression and enhanced the expression of mitochondrial mRNAs through STAT3-mediated signaling pathways either via direct or indirect mechanisms. There are several components such as ROS, mitochondrial, and Bcl-2 family shared by the necrotic and apoptotic pathways. Our studies indicate that the signaling cross point of the mitochondrial pathway and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in C6 glioma cell death is modulated by QUE-NLs. In conclusion, regulation of JAK2/STAT3 and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway agonists alone or in combination with treatment by QUE-NLs could be a more effective method of treating chemical-resistant glioma. PMID:23907460

Wang, G; Wang, J J; Chen, X L; Du, S M; Li, D S; Pei, Z J; Lan, H; Wu, L B

2013-01-01

171

RECK controls breast cancer metastasis by modulating a convergent, STAT3-dependent neoangiogenic switch.  

PubMed

Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related death in oncology patients. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cancer cells usurp to promote metastatic dissemination is critical for the development and implementation of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies. Here we show that the membrane protein RECK (Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) controls breast cancer metastasis by modulating a novel, non-canonical and convergent signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3)-dependent angiogenic program. Neoangiogenesis and STAT3 hyperactivation are known to be fundamentally important for metastasis, but the root molecular initiators of these phenotypes are poorly understood. Our study identifies loss of RECK as a critical and previously unknown trigger for these hallmarks of metastasis. Using multiple xenograft mouse models, we comprehensively show that RECK inhibits metastasis, concomitant with a suppression of neoangiogenesis at secondary sites, while leaving primary tumor growth unaffected. Further, with functional genomics and biochemical dissection we demonstrate that RECK controls this angiogenic rheostat through a novel complex with cell surface receptors to regulate STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and the induction of both vascular endothelial growth factor and urokinase plasminogen activator. In accordance with these findings, inhibition of STAT3 can rescue this phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our study uncovers, for the first time, that RECK is a novel regulator of multiple well-established and robust mediators of metastasis; thus, RECK is a keystone protein that may be exploited in a clinical setting to target metastatic disease from multiple angles.Oncogene advance online publication, 16 June 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.175. PMID:24931164

Walsh, L A; Roy, D M; Reyngold, M; Giri, D; Snyder, A; Turcan, S; Badwe, C R; Lyman, J; Bromberg, J; King, T A; Chan, T A

2014-06-16

172

Interleukin-27 inhibits foam cell formation by promoting macrophage ABCA1 expression through JAK2/STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine whether IL-27 regulates macrophage ABCA1 expression, foam cell formation, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that IL-27 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux and increasing ABCA1 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Our study further demonstrated that IL-27 increased ABCA1 level via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of Janus kinase 2, (JAK2)/STAT3 suppressed the stimulatory effects of IL-27 on ABCA1 expression. The present study concluded that IL-27 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cell by upregulating ABCA1 expression via JAK2/STAT3. Therefore, targeting IL-27 may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:25194807

Fu, Hui; Tang, Yan-Yan; Ouyang, Xin-Ping; Tang, Shi-Lin; Su, Hua; Li, Xiaotao; Huang, Li-Ping; He, Miao; Lv, Yun-Cheng; He, Ping-Ping; Yao, Feng; Tan, Yu-Lin; Xie, Wei; Zhang, Min; Wu, Jianfeng; Li, Yuan; Chen, Kong; Liu, Dan; Lan, Gang; Zeng, Meng-Ya; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

2014-10-01

173

Binding Modes of Peptidomimetics Designed to Inhibit STAT3  

PubMed Central

STAT3 is a transcription factor that has been found to be constitutively activated in a number of human cancers. Dimerization of STAT3 via its SH2 domain and the subsequent translocation of the dimer to the nucleus leads to transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. Prevention of the dimerization is thus an attractive strategy for inhibiting the activity of STAT3. Phosphotyrosine-based peptidomimetic inhibitors, which mimic pTyr-Xaa-Yaa-Gln motif and have strong to weak binding affinities, have been previously investigated. It is well-known that structures of protein-inhibitor complexes are important for understanding the binding interactions and designing stronger inhibitors. Experimental structures of inhibitors bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3 are, however, unavailable. In this paper we describe a computational study that combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics to model structures of 12 peptidomimetic inhibitors bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3. A detailed analysis of the modeled structures was performed to evaluate the characteristics of the binding interactions. We also estimated the binding affinities of the inhibitors by combining MMPB/GBSA-based energies and entropic cost of binding. The estimated affinities correlate strongly with the experimentally obtained affinities. Modeling results show binding modes that are consistent with limited previous modeling studies on binding interactions involving the SH2 domain and phosphotyrosine(pTyr)-based inhibitors. We also discovered a stable novel binding mode that involves deformation of two loops of the SH2 domain that subsequently bury the C-terminal end of one of the stronger inhibitors. The novel binding mode could prove useful for developing more potent inhibitors aimed at preventing dimerization of cancer target protein STAT3. PMID:23251591

Dhanik, Ankur; McMurray, John S.; Kavraki, Lydia E.

2012-01-01

174

?-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin, a major xanthone identified in the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of the effects. Methods: Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901 were treated with ?-mangostin. The cell viability was measured with MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The expression of the relevant proteins was detected using Western blot. Results: Treatment with ?-mangostin (3–10 ?g/mL) inhibited the viability of both BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells in dose- and time-manners. Furthermore, ?-mangostin (7 ?g/mL) time-dependently increased the apoptosis index of the cancer cells, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cancer cells, and significantly increased the release of cytochrome c and AIF into cytoplasm. Moreover, the ?-mangostin treatment markedly suppressed the constitutive Stat3 protein activation, and Stat3-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 protein levels in the cancer cells. Conclusion: The anti-tumor effects of ?-mangostin against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro can be partly attributed to blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway. PMID:24976157

Shan, Tao; Cui, Xi-juan; Li, Wei; Lin, Wan-run; Lu, Hong-wei; Li, Yi-ming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Tao

2014-01-01

175

SPARC expression induces cell cycle arrest via STAT3 signaling pathway in medulloblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Dynamic cell interaction with ECM components has profound influence in cancer progression. SPARC is a component of the ECM, impairs the proliferation of different cell types and modulates tumor cell aggressive features. We previously reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of SPARC inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation. MTT assay indicated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell proliferation in adenoviral mediated expression of SPARC full length cDNA (Ad-DsRed-SP) in D425 and UW228 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Ad-DsRed-SP-infected cells accumulate in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SPARC induced G2/M cell cycle arrest was mediated through inhibition of the Cyclin-B-regulated signaling pathway involving p21 and Cdc2 expression. Additionally, expression of SPARC decreased STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr-705; constitutively active STAT3 expression reversed SPARC induced G2/M arrest. Ad-DsRed-SP significantly inhibited the pre-established orthotopic tumor growth and tumor volume in nude-mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor sections from mice treated with Ad-DsRed-SP showed decreased immunoreactivity for pSTAT3 and increased immunoreactivity for p21 compared to tumor section from mice treated with mock and Ad-DsRed. Taken together our studies further reveal that STAT3 plays a key role in SPARC induced G2/M arrest in medulloblastoma cells. These new findings provide a molecular basis for the mechanistic understanding of the effects of SPARC on medulloblastoma tumor cell proliferation. PMID:22206672

Chetty, Chandramu; Dontula, Ranadheer; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Gujrati, Meena; Lakka, Sajani S

2012-01-13

176

Discovery of a small-molecule inhibitor of STAT3 by ligand-based pharmacophore screening.  

PubMed

STAT3 modulates the transcription of a wide variety of regulatory genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and other critical cellular functions. Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been detected in a wide spectrum of human malignancies. A pharmacophore model constructed from a training set of STAT3 inhibitors binding to the SH2 domain was used to screen an in-house database of compounds, from which azepine 1 emerged as a top candidate. Compound 1 inhibited STAT3 DNA-binding activity in vitro and attenuated STAT3-directed transcription in cellulo with comparable potency to the well-known STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201. A fluorescence polarization assay revealed that compound 1 targeted the SH2 domain of STAT3. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in cells without affecting the total expression of STAT3. This study also validates the use of pharmacophore modeling to identify inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25160651

Leung, Ka-Ho; Liu, Li-Juan; Lin, Sheng; Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Susanti, Dewi; Rao, Weidong; Wang, Modi; Che, Weng Ian; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chan, Philip Wai Hong; Ma, Dik-Lung

2015-01-01

177

Bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin obtained from grapefruit juice induces chemosensitization and apoptosis through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway in tumor cells.  

PubMed

Persistent activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been closely related to growth, survival, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of various cancer cells, and thus its inhibition can be considered a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the role of bergamottin (BGM) obtained from grapefruit juice in abrogating the constitutive STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This suppression was mediated through the inhibition of phosphorylation of Janus-activated kinase (JAK) 1/2 and c-Src. Pervanadate reversed the BGM induced down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Furthermore, BGM induced the expression of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and gene silencing of the SHP-1 by small interfering RNA abolished the ability of BGM to inhibit STAT3 activation, suggesting a critical role for SHP-1 in the action of BGM. BGM also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products such as COX-2, VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, IAP-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl in MM cells. This correlated with induction of substantial apoptosis as indicated by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population and caspase-3 induced PARP cleavage. Also, this agent significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of bortezomib and thalidomide in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that BGM is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway thus may have a potential in therapy of MM and other cancers. PMID:25130169

Kim, Sung-Moo; Lee, Jong Hyun; Sethi, Gautam; Kim, Chulwon; Baek, Seung Ho; Nam, Dongwoo; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

2014-11-01

178

Ginsenoside 20(S)?Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Cancer cells prefer to metabolize glucose through aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. It plays a crucial role in proliferation and progression of cancer cells. However, the complete mechanism remains elusive. In recent studies, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling has been discovered to have roles in cancer?associated changes in metabolism. In this study, we find that the ginsenoside 20(S)?Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, inhibits glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells by regulating hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). We also show that 20(S)?Rg3 regulates HK2 through downregulation of p?STAT3 (Tyr705). Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells weakened the suppression of Warburg effect induced by 20(S)?Rg3. Importantly, 20(S)?Rg3 treatment represses HK2 expression in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results show that 20(S)?Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect by targeting STAT3/HK2 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, highlighting the potentiality of 20(S)?Rg3 to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PMID:25405516

Li, Jie; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Le; Chen, Wei; Hou, Huilian; Ye, Zhongxue; Li, Xu

2015-02-01

179

A signal transducer and activator of transcription 3·Nuclear Factor ?B (Stat3·NF?B) complex is necessary for the expression of fascin in metastatic breast cancer cells in response to interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?.  

PubMed

IL-6 mediated activation of Stat3 is a major signaling pathway in the process of breast cancer metastasis. One important mechanism by which the IL-6/Stat3 pathway promotes metastasis is through transcriptional regulation of the actin-bundling protein fascin. In this study, we further analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the fascin gene promoter. We show that in addition to IL-6, TNF-? increases Stat3 and NF?B binding to the fascin promoter to induce its expression. We also show that NF?B is required for Stat3 recruitment to the fascin promoter in response to IL-6. Furthermore, Stat3 and NF?B form a protein complex in response to cytokine stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that an overlapping STAT/NF?B site in a highly conserved 160-bp region of the fascin promoter is sufficient and necessary to induce transcription in response to IL-6 and TNF-?. PMID:25213863

Snyder, Marylynn; Huang, Jianyun; Huang, Xin-Yun; Zhang, J Jillian

2014-10-24

180

Diminished allergic disease in patients with STAT3 mutations reveals a role for STAT3 signaling in mast cell degranulation  

PubMed Central

Background Severe atopic conditions associated with elevated serum IgE are heterogeneous with few known causes. Nearly every patient with autosomal-dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) due to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations has a history of eczematous dermatitis and elevated IgE; however, clinical atopy has never been systematically studied. Objective Understanding of genetic determinants of allergic disease may lead to novel therapies in controlling allergic disease. Methods We conducted clinical evaluation of the rates of food allergies and anaphylaxis in patients with AD-HIES, a cohort of patients with no STAT3 mutation but with similar histories of elevated IgE and atopic dermatitis, and healthy volunteers with no history of atopy. Morphine skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP assays for allergen-specific IgE, and basophil activation were measured. A model of systemic anaphylaxis was studied in transgenic mice carrying an AD-HIES mutation. STAT3 was silenced in LAD2 and primary human mast cells to study the role of STAT3 in signaling and degranulation after IgE cross-linking. Results Food allergies and anaphylaxis were markedly diminished in patients with AD-HIES compared with a cohort of patients with no STAT3 mutation but with similar histories of elevated IgE and atopic dermatitis. Morphine skin prick testing and basophil activation were diminished in patients with AD-HIES, whereas mice carrying an AD-HIES mutation were hyporesponsive to systemic anaphylaxis models. Rapid mast cell STAT3 serine727 phosphorylation was noted after IgE cross-linking, and inhibition of STAT3 signaling in mast cells lead to impaired Fc?RI-mediated proximal and distal signaling, as well as reduced degranulation. Conclusion This study serves as an example for how mutations in specific atopic pathways can lead to discrete allergic phenotypes, encompassing increased risk of some phenotypes but a relative protection from others. PMID:24184145

Siegel, Andrea M.; Stone, Kelly D.; Cruse, Glenn; Lawrence, Monica G.; Olivera, Ana; Jung, Mi-yeon; Barber, John S.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Holland, Steven M.; O’Brien, Michelle; Jones, Nina; Wisch, Laura B.; Kong, Heidi H.; Desai, Avanti; Farber, Orly; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.; Rivera, Juan; Milner, Joshua D.

2013-01-01

181

Critical role for lysine 685 in gene expression mediated by transcription factor unphosphorylated STAT3.  

PubMed

STAT3 is a pleiotropic transcription factor that is activated by the phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 in response to many cytokines and growth factors. STAT3 without Tyr-705 phosphorylation (U-STAT3) is also a potent transcription factor, and its concentration in cells increases greatly in response to STAT3 activation because the STAT3 gene can be driven by phosphorylated STAT3 dimers. We have now searched for post-translational modifications of U-STAT3 that might have a critical role in its function. An analysis by mass spectroscopy indicated that U-STAT3 is acetylated on Lys-685, and the integrity of Lys-685 is required for the expression of most U-STAT3-dependent genes. In contrast, we found only a very minor role for Lys-685 in gene expression induced in response to tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3. U-STAT3 plays an important role in angiotensin II-induced gene expression and in the consequent development of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Mutation of Lys-685 inhibits this function of STAT3, providing new information on the role of U-STAT3 in augmenting the development of heart failure. PMID:25217633

Dasgupta, Maupali; Unal, Hamiyet; Willard, Belinda; Yang, Jinbo; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Stark, George R

2014-10-31

182

Curcumin suppresses invasiveness and vasculogenic mimicry of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

To determine the role of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway in invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HEp-2 cells were treated with 1 or 10 ?mol/L curcumin and AG490 (the inhibitor of JAK-2) for 48 h, the invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of tumor cells were tested with Transwell chamber test and tube formation experiment. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF. Western blot assay was employed to determine the expression of JAK-2, STAT3, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF. Compared to control group?there were less tumor cells permeating membrane and less formed tubes after curcumin or AG490 treatment, RT-PCR showed that the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF at mRNA level were decreased (P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated that the expression of JAK-2, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF at protein levels were decreased (P < 0.01), while that of STAT-3 protein had no difference among each group (P > 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the expression of eNOS was down-regulated (P < 0.01). Curcumin and AG490 significantly inhibits invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, and JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway promotes above processes.

Hu, An; Huang, Jing-Juan; Jin, Xiao-Jie; Li, Ji-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Jia; Huang, Xin-Fang; Cui, Hui-Juan; Xu, Wei-Hua; Sun, Guang-Bin

2015-01-01

183

Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells  

PubMed Central

Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell–dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10– and IL-21–mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21–induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells. PMID:24218138

Deenick, Elissa K.; Avery, Danielle T.; Chan, Anna; Berglund, Lucinda J.; Ives, Megan L.; Moens, Leen; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D.; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Roesler, Joachim; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M.; French, Martyn A.; Fulcher, David A.; Cook, Matthew C.; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Klein, Christoph; Holland, Steven M.; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ma, Cindy S.

2013-01-01

184

Expression of hepcidin at the choroid plexus in normal aging rats is associated with IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence has revealed that brain iron concentrations increase with aging, and the choroid plexus (CP) may be at the basis of iron-mediated toxicity and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging. The mechanism involves not only hepcidin, the key hormone in iron metabolism, but also iron-related proteins and signaling-transduction molecules, such as IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway and hepcidin at the CP in normal aging. Quantitative real time PCR and Western blot were used to determine the alterations in specific mRNA and corresponding protein changes at the CP at ages of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 months in Brown-Norway/Fischer (B-N/F) rats. The results demonstrated that hepcidin mRNA level at the CP kept stable in young rats (from 3 to 18 months), and increased with aging (from 21 to 36 months). The alterations of IL-6/p-Stat3 mRNA and protein expressions in normal aging were in accordance with that of hepcidin mRNA. Our data suggest that IL-6 may regulate hepcidin expression at the CP, upon interaction with the cognate cellular receptor, and through the Stat3 signaling transduction pathway. PMID:25516512

Liu, Chong-Bin; Wang, Rui; Dong, Miao-Wu; Gao, Xi-Ren; Yu, Feng

2014-12-25

185

Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

Conway, Greg

2008-01-01

186

STAT3: A Novel Molecular Mediator of Resistance to Chemoradiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents a standard treatment for many human cancers, frequently combined with radical surgical resection. However, a considerable percentage of primary cancers are at least partially resistant to CRT, which represents a substantial clinical problem, because it exposes cancer patients to the potential side effects of both irradiation and chemotherapy. It is therefore exceedingly important to determine the molecular characteristics underlying CRT-resistance and to identify novel molecular targets that can be manipulated to re-sensitize resistant tumors to CRT. In this review, we highlight much of the recent evidence suggesting that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a prominent role in mediating CRT-resistance, and we outline why inhibition of STAT3 holds great promise for future multimodal treatment concepts in oncology. PMID:25268165

Spitzner, Melanie; Ebner, Reinhard; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Wienands, Jürgen; Grade, Marian

2014-01-01

187

Imaging of STAT3 signaling pathway during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic transcription factor involved in a variety of physiological processes. STAT3 acts as a key transcriptional determinant of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and plays a pivotal function in early mammalian embryogenesis because the development of many organs requires STAT3 activation. However, little is known about the role of STAT3 function during ES cell differentiation. To answer this question, we built a lentiviral construct with 7-repeat STAT3-binding sequence (enhancer) and minimal TA (promoter) driving renilla luciferase and monomeric red fluorescence protein (Rluc-mRFP), followed by a constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter driving green fluorescent protein as a selection marker. The specificity of our custom-designed 7-repeat STAT3 reporter construct was first confirmed by cotransfection with constitutively active version of STAT3 (STAT3C) into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Next, a mouse ES cell line stably transduced with STAT3 reporter construct was isolated. This ES cell line showed a tight response in reporter gene expression with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induction and was chosen as a developmental model for the STAT3 functional study. Using serial noninvasive bioluminescence imaging, we showed that the onset of embryoid body (EB) formation involved inhibition of STAT3 activity. However, during differentiation, STAT3 activity steadily increased from day 5 to 14 and was reduced by day 21. STAT3 activity was also confirmed separately by Western blots. Finally, phosphorylation of STAT3 was also found to correspond with cardiomyocyte differentiation. In summary, this is the first study to monitor real-time STAT3 activity during ES cell differentiation. This genetically modified line can be used to study the biological role of STAT3 during ES cell differentiation into different derivatives. PMID:18576943

Xie, Xiaoyan; Chan, Keith S; Cao, Feng; Huang, Mei; Li, Zongjin; Lee, Andrew; Weissman, Irving L; Wu, Joseph C

2009-03-01

188

Structure-Based Design of Conformationally Constrained, Cell-Permeable STAT3 Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We report herein the structure-based design of a class of conformationally constrained, potent, cell-permeable small-molecule inhibitors to target the SH2 domain in STAT3. Compound 11 (CJ-1383) binds to STAT3 with a Ki value of 0.95 ?M, dose-dependently inhibits cellular STAT3 signaling and cancer cell growth, and induces apoptosis in the MDA-MB-468 cancer cell line with constitutively activated STAT3. PMID:20596242

2010-01-01

189

Mitochondrial Localized STAT3 Is Involved in NGF Induced Neurite Outgrowth  

PubMed Central

Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in neural development and is increasingly recognized as a major mediator of injury response in the nervous system. Cytokines and growth factors are known to phosphorylate STAT3 at tyrosine705 with or without the concomitant phosphorylation at serine727, resulting in the nuclear localization of STAT3 and subsequent transcriptional activation of genes. Recent evidence suggests that STAT3 may control cell function via alternative mechanisms independent of its transcriptional activity. Currently, the involvement of STAT3 mono-phosphorylated at residue serine727 (P-Ser-STAT3) in neurite outgrowth and the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the role of nerve growth factor (NGF) induced P-Ser-STAT3 in mediating neurite outgrowth. NGF induced the phosphorylation of residue serine727 but not tyrosine705 of STAT3 in PC12 and primary cortical neuronal cells. In PC12 cells, serine but not tyrosine dominant negative mutant of STAT3 was found to impair NGF induced neurite outgrowth. Unexpectedly, NGF induced P-Ser-STAT3 was localized to the mitochondria but not in the nucleus. Mitochondrial STAT3 was further found to be intimately involved in NGF induced neurite outgrowth and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conclusion Taken together, the findings herein demonstrated a hitherto unrecognized novel transcription independent mechanism whereby the mitochondria localized P-Ser-STAT3 is involved in NGF induced neurite outgrowth. PMID:21738764

Zhou, Lihan; Too, Heng-Phon

2011-01-01

190

Constitutive Activation of Stat 3 Oncogene Product in Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Stat 3 functions in transducing signals from the cell's surface to its nucleus and activation of gene transcription. Aberrations of Stat 3 in breast cancer have raised the possibility of its contribution to oncogenesis. Our goal was to examine ovarian cancer cell lines to determine whether Stat 3 plays a relevant role in ovarian carcinogenesis.Methods. Protein lysates were extracted

Melinda Huang; Carmen Page; R. Kevin Reynolds; Jiayuh Lin

2000-01-01

191

STAT3? controls inflammatory responses and early tumor onset in skin and colon experimental cancer models  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is a well-recognized pathogenic factor in tumor initiation and progression. Mice lacking the pro-oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 were shown to be protected from both colitis-associated and epidermal cancers induced by the AOM/DSS and DMBA/TPA protocols, respectively. However, these murine models did not distinguish between the two STAT3 isoforms, the full-length STAT3?, believed to exert most pro-oncogenic functions attributed to STAT3, and the shorter STAT3?, often referred to as a dominant-negative, but possessing specific transcriptional activities. Here we assessed the contribution of STAT3? to inflammation-driven tumorigenesis making use of mice lacking this isoform, but still expressing STAT3? (STAT3??/??). We show that the lack of STAT3? leads to exacerbated acute responses to both TPA and DSS, thus confirming its anti-inflammatory role. Enhanced inflammation correlates with earlier tumor onset in both the epidermis and the intestine in STAT3??/?? mice. In contrast, overall tumor development and final tumor burden were unaffected. These results suggest that STAT3?, by limiting inflammation during the initial phases of tumorigenesis, contributes to tissue homeostasis and counteracts malignant transformation and initial tumor growth. Accordingly, the balance between the two STAT3 isoforms, likely determined by the complex signaling networks shaping the tumor microenvironment and driving tumor transformation and progression, is apparently crucial to determine the initial tumor transformation rates in inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:25232490

Marino, Francesca; Orecchia, Valeria; Regis, Gabriella; Musteanu, Monica; Tassone, Beatrice; Jon, Cristina; Forni, Marco; Calautti, Enzo; Chiarle, Roberto; Eferl, Robert; Poli, Valeria

2014-01-01

192

C5a promotes the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation.  

PubMed

The anaphylatoxin C5a is a chemoattractant that can induce various inflammatory responses in vivo via the C5a receptor (C5aR). There is emerging evidence that C5a is generated in the cancer microenvironment. However, the role of C5a in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains largely unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the direct influence of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of C5a stimulation on the proliferation of human NPC cells were studied in vitro, and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)?mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acetylation and its role in regulating the proliferation of NPC cells was subsequently explored. Our results demonstrated that C5a stimulation increased the proliferation of human NPC cells in vitro. STAT3 acetylation was further found to be enhanced in human NPC cells induced by C5a. Moreover, PCAF induction was required for STAT3 acetylation in human NPC cells by exposure to C5a. Functionally, PCAF-mediated STAT3 acetylation contributed to the proliferation of human NPC cells stimulated by C5a. These results illustrate the novel activity of the C5a-C5aR axis that promotes human NPC cell proliferation through PCAF?mediated STAT3 acetylation. This may provide a potential strategy for treating human NPC through inhibition of C5a or its receptors. PMID:25174320

Cai, Kemin; Wan, Yi; Wang, Zhimin; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Xiaojun; Bao, Xueli

2014-11-01

193

Cyclic stretch induced TGF-?1 and fibronectin expression is mediated by ?1 integrin through c-Src- and STAT3- dependent pathways in renal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, especially fibronectin, are critical pathological characteristics of renal fibrosis and contribute to the progression of chronic renal disease. Recent studies showed that ?1 integrin is associated with the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). However, the molecular events responsible for ?1 integrin-mediated signaling, following UUO, have yet to be determined. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which mechanical stretch, an in vitro model for chronic obstructive nephropathy, regulates fibronectin and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) expression in cultured human proximal tubular epithelium (HK-2) cells. Mechanical stretch up-regulated fibronectin and TGF-?1 expression and activated STAT3 in a time-dependent manner. Stretch-induced fibronectin and TGF-?1 were suppressed by a STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201 and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting human STAT3 (STAT3 siRNA). Similarly, fibronectin and TGF-?1 expression and STAT3 activation induced by mechanical stretch was suppressed by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and by transfection of HK-2 cells with a dominant-negative mutant of c-Src (DN-Src), whereas PP3, an inactive analogue of PP2, had no significant effect. Furthermore, mechanical stretch resulted in increased ?1 integrin mRNA and protein levels in HK-2 cells. Further, neutralizing antibody against ?1 integrin and silencing of ?1 integrin expression with siRNA's resulted in decreased c-Src and STAT3 activation and TGF-?1 and fibronectin expression evoked by mechanical stretch. This work demonstrates, for the first time, a role for ?1 integrin in stretch-induced renal fibrosis through the activation of c-Src and STAT3 signaling pathways. PMID:25477471

Hamzeh, Mona T; Sridhara, Rashmi; Alexander, Larry D

2014-12-01

194

IKK\\/NF-?B and STAT3 pathways: central signalling hubs in inflammation-mediated tumour promotion and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that link inflammation and cancer has significantly increased in recent years. Here, we analyse genetic evidence indicating that the transcription factors nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) have a central role in this context by regulating distinct functions in cancer cells and surrounding non-tumorigenic cells. In immune cells,

Julia Bollrath; Florian R. Greten

2009-01-01

195

Serenoa Repens Induces Growth Arrest, Apoptosis and Inactivation of STAT3 Signaling in Human Glioma Cells.  

PubMed

Serenoa repens, the extract of berry in Southeastern United States, is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we found for the first time that Serenoa repens effectively inhibited the growth of human U87 and U251 glioma cells. Flow cytometry assay showed that Serenoa repens induced apoptosis of U87 and U251 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, Serenoa repens increased the expression of cleaved-PARP, Caspase-3 or p27 protein in these two cell lines, respectively. In addition, we found that Serenoa repens down-regulated basal level of phosphorylated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) in both U87 and U251 glioma cells. Furthermore, it was discovered that a Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK) inhibitor AG490 inhibit the growth of human U87 and U251 glioma cells and AG490 enhanced the ability of Serenoa repens to inhibit the growth of U87 and U251 glioma cells as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These results indicate that Serenoa repens reduces the growth, causes apoptosis of Glioma cells and inhibits STAT 3 signaling. In addition, it might also be useful for the treatment of individuals with glioma. PMID:24945373

Zhou, T; Yang, Y; Zhang, H; Che, Y; Wang, W; Lv, H; Li, J; Wang, Y; Hou, S

2014-06-16

196

Novel Lys63-linked ubiquitination of IKK? induces STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

NF?B signaling plays a significant role in human disease, including breast and ovarian carcinoma, insulin resistance, embryonic lethality and liver degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, aging and Multiple Myeloma (MM). Inhibitor of ?B (I?B) kinase ? (IKK?) regulates canonical Nuclear Factor ?B (NF?B) signaling in response to inflammation and cellular stresses. NF?B activation requires Lys63-linked (K63-linked) ubiquitination of upstream proteins such as NEMO or TAK1, forming molecular complexes with membrane-bound receptors. We demonstrate that IKK? itself undergoes K63-linked ubiquitination. Mutations in IKK? at Lys171, identified in Multiple Myeloma and other cancers, lead to a dramatic increase in kinase activation and K63-linked ubiquitination. These mutations also result in persistent activation of STAT3 signaling. Liquid chromatography (LC)-high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis identified Lys147, Lys418, Lys555 and Lys703 as predominant ubiquitination sites in IKK?. Specific inhibition of the UBC13-UEV1A complex responsible for K63-linked ubiquitination establishes Lys147 as the predominant site of K63-ubiquitin conjugation and responsible for STAT3 activation. Thus, IKK? activation leads to ubiquitination within the kinase domain and assemblage of a K63-ubiquitin conjugated signaling platform. These results are discussed with respect to the importance of upregulated NF?B signaling known to occur frequently in MM and other cancers. PMID:25486864

Gallo, Leandro H; Meyer, April N; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Nelson, Katelyn N; Haas, Martin; Donoghue, Daniel J

2014-12-15

197

Arecoline inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts by reducing STAT3 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Areca nut (Areca catechu) is chewed regularly as a medical and psychoactive food by about 10% of the world population, in countries including India, Taiwan and parts of Southern Asia. Areca nut chewing during pregnancy has been associated with both lower birth weight and premature birth. Animals of low birth weights showed retardation of muscle development. Our previous study showed that arecoline, the major areca alkaloid, decreased the number of implanted embryos. Here we sought to determine the effects of arecoline in myogenic differentiation by in vitro assays using C2C12 myoblast cells. The results showed that arecoline higher than 0.4mM significantly increased apoptosis and decreased viability of C2C12 cells. Morphometric measurements of myotube formation and analyses of myogenic markers, myosin heavy chain and myogenin, revealed that myogenic differentiation was inhibited by 0.04-0.08 mM arecoline. Moreover, phosphorylated but not total STAT3 was significantly inhibited by arecoline during myotube formation. These results indicate that arecoline inhibits the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells by reducing the activation of STAT3, an upstream regulator of myogenesis. Improved understanding of the effects of arecoline during myogenic differentiation may help to establish public health policies and to develop potential treatments for such patients. PMID:22847137

Chang, Yung-Fu; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Liu, Shao-Tung; Tseng, Chao-Neng

2012-10-01

198

Inhibition of mTOR reduce Stat3 and PAI related angiogenesis in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a complex biological process, which is involved in tumorigenesis and progression. However, the molecular mechanism of underlying angiogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we accessed the expression of proteins related angiogenesis by immunohistochemical staining of human tissue microarray which contains 72 adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 18 normal salivary gland (NSG) using digital pathological scanner and scoring system. We found that the expression of p-S6S235/236 (a downstream molecule of mTOR), p-Stat3T705, PAI, EGFR, and HIF-1? was significantly increased in AdCC as compared with PMA and (or) NSG (p < 0.05). While, the expression of these proteins was not associated with pathological type of human AdCC (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis of these proteins revealed that p-S6S235/236 up-regulates the expression of EGFR/p-Stat3T705 (p < 0.05) and HIF-1?/PAI (p < 0.05). Moreover, the activation of p-S6S235/236, EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI associated with angiogenesis (CD34) and proliferation (Ki-67). In vitro, Rapamycin suppressed the expression of p-S6S235/236, EGFR, p-Stat3T705, HIF-1? and PAI. Further more, target inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth of SACC-83 cells line nude mice xenograft and decreased the expression of p-S6S235/236, EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI. Taken together, these data revealed that mTOR signaling pathway regulates tumor angiogenesis by EGFR/p-Stat3T705 and HIF-1?/PAI. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin could effectively reduced tumor growth. It is likely that mTOR inhibitors may be a potential candidate for treatment of AdCC. PMID:25520866

Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Yu-Yue; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Lu; Sun, Zhi-Jun

2014-01-01

199

Early methyl donor deficiency may induce persistent brain defects by reducing Stat3 signaling targeted by miR-124  

PubMed Central

The methyl donors folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 are centrepieces of the one-carbon metabolism that has a key role in transmethylation reactions, and thus in epigenetic and epigenomic regulations. Low dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are frequent, especially in pregnant women and in the elderly, and deficiency constitutes a risk factor for various diseases, including neurological and developmental disorders. In this respect, both vitamins are essential for normal brain development, and have a role in neuroplasticity and in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. The consequences of a methyl donor deficiency (MDD) were studied both in vivo in rats exposed in utero, and in vitro in hippocampal progenitors (H19-7 cell line). Deficiency was associated with growth retardation at embryonic day 20 (E20) and postnatally with long-term brain defects in selective areas. mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor Stat3 were found to be decreased in the brains of deprived fetuses and in differentiating progenitors (62 and 48% for total Stat3 protein, respectively), along with a strong reduction in its phosphorylation at both Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Vitamin shortage also affected upstream kinases of Stat3 signaling pathway (phospho-Erk1/2, phospho-Src, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38) as well as downstream target gene products (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), thus promoting apoptosis. Conversely, the expression of the Stat3 regulator miR-124 was upregulated in deficiency conditions (?65%), and its silencing by using siRNA partly restored Stat3 signaling in hippocampal neurons by increasing specifically the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Src kinases. Furthermore, miR-124 siRNA improved the phenotype of deprived cells, with enhanced neurite outgrowth. Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of Stat3 signaling by miR-124 would be a key factor in the deleterious effects of MDD on brain development. PMID:23928694

Kerek, R; Geoffroy, A; Bison, A; Martin, N; Akchiche, N; Pourié, G; Helle, D; Guéant, J-L; Bossenmeyer-Pourié, C; Daval, J-L

2013-01-01

200

The IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation of PML through SENP1 induction  

SciTech Connect

Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) plays an important role in the regulation of different signaling pathways and is involved in the formation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein nuclear bodies following sumoylation of PML. In the present study, we found that IL-6 induces desumoylation of PML and dissociation between PML and SUMO1 in hepatoma cells. We also found that IL-6 induces mRNA expression of SENP1, a member of the SUMO-specific protease family. Furthermore, wild-type SENP1 but not an inactive SENP1 mutant restored the PML-mediated suppression of STAT3 activation. These results indicate that the IL-6 family of cytokines modulates STAT3 activation by desumoylation and inactivation PML through SENP1 induction.

Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Kawakami, Shiho; Muromoto, Ryuta; Togi, Sumihito; Ikeda, Osamu; Kamitani, Shinya; Sekine, Yuichi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Honjoh, Tsutomu [Morinaga Institute of Biological Sciences, Inc., 2-1-16, Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0003 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)], E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

2008-07-11

201

Suppression of autophagy augments the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition on human glioma cells.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy is an essential component of the standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. To increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells is a feasible solution to improve the therapeutic effects. It has been suggested that inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can radiosensitize glioma cells, probably via the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this study, human malignant glioma cells, U251 and A172, were treated with an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, or a short hairpin RNA plasmid targeting STAT3 to suppress the activation of STAT3 signaling. The radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition were confirmed in glioma cells. Intriguingly, combination of ionizing radiation exposure and STAT3 inhibition triggered a pronounced increase of autophagy flux. To explore the role of autophagy, glioma cells were treated with 3-methyladenine or siRNA for autophagy-related gene 5, and it was demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy further strengthened the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition. Accordingly, more apoptotic cells were induced by the dual inhibition of autophagy and STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, our data revealed a protective role of autophagy in the radiosensitizing effects of STAT3 inhibition, and inhibition of both autophagy and STAT3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. PMID:25220423

Yuan, Xiaopeng; Du, Jie; Hua, Song; Zhang, Haowen; Gu, Cheng; Wang, Jie; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jianfeng; Yu, Jiahua; Liu, Fenju

2015-01-15

202

Increased drug resistance in breast cancer by tumor-associated macrophages through IL-10/STAT3/bcl-2 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) appear to be the major component in solid tumor microenvironment, which were reported to play an important role in tumor malignant progression. Recently, TAMs were reported to be associated with drug resistance in some types of solid tumor including breast cancer. However, how TAMs regulate breast tumor resistance remains unknown. In this study, THP-1 cells were stimulated with PMA and IL-4/IL-13 to form M2-like macrophages to study the role of TAMs on chemoresistance. Our results showed that TAMs and its supernatants significantly prevent breast tumor cells from apoptosis caused by paclitaxel. We also found that the high level of IL-10 secreted by TAMS was responsible for drug resistance of breast cancer. The possible TAMs-modulated drug resistance mechanism involved may be associated with elevation of bcl-2 gene expression and up-regulation of STAT3 signaling in tumor cells. Furthermore, the blockage of TAMs-derived IL-10 by neutralizing antibody resulted in attenuation of STAT3 activation and decrease of bcl-2 mRNA expression, consequently enhanced sensitivity of breast cancer cells. Our data suggested that TAMs might induce drug resistance through IL-10/STAT3/bcl-2 signaling pathway, providing possible new targets for breast tumor therapy. PMID:25572805

Yang, Cuixia; He, Linyan; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjuan; He, Yiqing; Du, Yan; Gao, Feng

2015-02-01

203

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

Deng Jianbei [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hua Kunjie [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Caveney, Erica J. [Department of Medicine, CB 7005, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, CB 7525, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Harp, Joyce B. [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)]. E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

2006-01-20

204

Functional graphene oxide as a plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA carrier inhibits mouse malignant melanoma growth in vivo.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intensive interest in the biomedical field in recent years. We investigate whether the use of functional graphene oxide as an efficient delivery system for delivering specific molecular antitumor therapeutics in vivo could achieve a more excellent antitumor effect. Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) promotes survival in a wide spectrum of human cancers. In this paper, we study the in vivo behavior of graphene oxide chemically functionalized with polyethylenimine and polyethylene glycol (GO-PEI-PEG) as a plasmid-based Stat3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrier in mouse malignant melanoma. The in vivo results indicate significant regression in tumor growth and tumor weight after plasmid-based Stat3 siRNA delivered by GO-PEI-PEG treatment. Moreover, there was no significant side effect from GO-PEI-PEG treatment according to histological examination and blood chemistry analysis in mice. Thus, our work is the first success of using GO-PEI-PEG as a promising carrier for plasmid Stat3 siRNA delivery and down-regulation of Stat3 by a polymer-mediated vehicle and suggests the great promise of graphene in biomedical applications such as cancer treatment. PMID:23425941

Yin, Di; Li, Yang; Lin, Hang; Guo, Baofeng; Du, Yanwei; Li, Xin; Jia, Huijie; Zhao, Xuejian; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Ling

2013-03-15

205

Inhibition of Stat3 Activation by Sanguinarine Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Growth and Invasion  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is an oncogenic transcriptional factor that plays a critical role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and is a potential therapeutic target. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived primarily from the bloodroot plant, was identified previously as a novel inhibitor of survivin that selectively kills prostate cancer cells over “normal” prostate epithelial cells. METHODS DU145, C4-2B, and LNCaP cells were treated with sanguinarine. The phosphorylation status of Stat3 and related proteins were measured with Western blots. Activation of transcription by Stat3 was measured with luciferase reporter assay. The effect of sanguinarine on anchorage-independent growth was examined with soft agar assay, and on cell migration and invasion of DU145 cells were measured with scratch assay and invasion assay, respectively. RESULTS In this study, we identified sanguinarine as a potent inhibitor of Stat3 activation which was able to suppress prostate cancer growth, migration, and invasion. Sanguinarine inhibits constitutive as well as IL6-induced phosphorylation of Stat3 at both Tyr705 and Ser727 in prostate cancer cells. The inhibition of Stat3 phosphorylation by sanguinarine correlates with reduction of Janus-activated Kinase 2 (Jak2) and Src phosphorylation. Sanguinarine downregulates the expression of Stat3-mediated genes such as c-myc and survivin and inhibits the Stat3 responsive element luciferase reporter activity. Sanguinarine inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of DU145 and LN-S17 cells expressing constitutively activated Stat3. Migration and invasion abilities of DU145 cells were also inhibited by sanguinarine in a manner similar to the dominant negative form of Stat3. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that sanguinarine is a potent Stat3 inhibitor and it could be developed as a therapeutic agent for prostate cancer with constitutive activation of Stat3. PMID:21538419

Sun, Meng; Liu, Chengfei; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Lou, Wei; Zhu, Yezi; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher P.; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C.

2014-01-01

206

LIGHT, a member of the TNF superfamily, activates Stat3 mediated by NIK pathway  

SciTech Connect

Stat3, a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family, is a key signal transduction protein activated by numerous cytokines, growth factors, and oncoproteins that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, development, survival, and inflammation. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been found frequently in a wide variety of human tumors and induces cellular transformation and tumor formation. In this study, we demonstrated that LIGHT, a member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily, activates Stat3 in cancer cells. LIGHT induces dose-dependent activation of Stat3 by phosphorylation at both the tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. The activation of Stat3 by LIGHT appears to be mediated by NIK phosphorylation. Expression of a kinase-inactive NIK mutant abolished LIGHT induced Stat3 activation. Overexpression of an active NIK induces Stat3 activation by phosphorylation at the both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. Activation of Stat3 by NIK requires NIK kinase activity as showed by kinase assays. In addition, LIGHT increases the expression of Stat3 target genes including cyclin D1, survivin, and Bcl-xL, and stimulates human LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth in vitro which can be blocked by expression of a dominant-negative Stat3 mutant. Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to activating NF-{kappa}B/p52, LIGHT also activates Stat3. Activation of Stat3 together with activating non-canonical NF-{kappa}B/p52 signaling by LIGHT may maximize its effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and inflammation.

Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Chun, Jae Yeon [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Hu, Yan [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Dutt, Smitha [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Lin, Xin [Department of Molecular Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gao, Allen C. [Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)]. E-mail: allen.gao@roswellpark.org

2007-07-27

207

HIC1 interacts with and modulates the activity of STAT3  

PubMed Central

HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene, expression of which is frequently suppressed in human cancers. Very little is known about the molecular basis of HIC1 in antagonizing oncogenic pathways. Here, we report that HIC1 forms complexes with the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and attenuates STAT3-mediated transcription. STAT3 was identified as a HIC1-interacting protein by affinity capture and followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Overexpression or depletion of HIC1 resulted in decreased or increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/oncostatin M (OSM)-induced STAT3-mediated reporter activity and expression of target genes such as VEGF and c-Myc, respectively. Furthermore, HIC1 suppressing the VEGF and c-Myc promoter activity and the colony formation of MDA-MB 231 cells were STAT3-dependent. Further studies showed that HIC1 interacts with the DNA binding domain of STAT3 and suppresses the binding of STAT3 to its target gene promoters. Domain mapping study revealed that HIC1 C-terminal domain binds to STAT3. HIC1 mutant defective in STAT3 interaction reduced its repressive effect on STAT3 DNA binding activity, the reporter activity and gene expression of the VEGF and c-Myc genes, and cell growth in MDA-MB 231 cells. Altogether, our findings not only provide a novel role of HIC1 in antagonizing STAT3-mediated activation of VEGF and c-Myc gene expression and cell growth, but also elucidate a molecular basis underlying the inhibitory effect of HIC1 on STAT3 transcriptional potential. PMID:24067369

Lin, Ying-Mei; Wang, Chia-Mei; Jeng, Jen-Chong; Leprince, Dominique; Shih, Hsiu-Ming

2013-01-01

208

STAT3 Expression, Molecular Features, Inflammation Patterns and Prognosis in a Database of 724 Colorectal Cancers  

PubMed Central

Purpose STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a transcription factor that is constitutively activated in some cancers. STAT3 appears to play crucial roles in cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, tumor-promoting inflammation and suppression of anti-tumor host immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Although the STAT3 signaling pathway is a potential drug target, clinical, pathologic, molecular or prognostic features of STAT3-activated colorectal cancer remain uncertain. Experimental Design Utilizing a database of 724 colon and rectal cancer cases, we evaluated phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute mortality hazard ratio (HR), adjusting for clinical, pathologic and molecular features, including microsatellite instability (MSI), the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), LINE-1 methylation, 18q loss of heterozygosity, TP53 (p53), CTNNB1 (?-catenin), JC virus T-antigen, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results Among the 724 tumors, 131 (18%) showed high-level p-STAT3 expression (p-STAT3-high), 244 (34%) showed low-level expression (p-STAT3-low), and the remaining 349 (48%) were negative for p-STAT3. p-STAT3 overexpression was associated with significantly higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality [log-rank p=0.0020; univariate HR (p-STAT3-high vs. p-STAT3-negative) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–2.63, Ptrend =0.0005; multivariate HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.11–2.34, Ptrend =0.015). p-STAT3 expression was positively associated with peritumoral lymphocytic reaction (multivariate odds ratio 3.23; 95% CI, 1.89–5.53; p<0.0001). p-STAT3 expression was not associated with MSI, CIMP, or LINE-1 hypomethylation. Conclusions STAT3 activation in colorectal cancer is associated with adverse clinical outcome, supporting its potential roles as a prognostic biomarker and a chemoprevention and/or therapeutic target. PMID:21310826

Morikawa, Teppei; Baba, Yoshifumi; Yamauchi, Mai; Kuchiba, Aya; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Shima, Kaori; Tanaka, Noriko; Huttenhower, Curtis; Frank, David A.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

2010-01-01

209

Serenoa repens induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells via inactivation of STAT 3 signaling.  

PubMed

Serenoa repens, a palm species native to the Southeastern United States, is one of the widely used phytotherapeutic agents in benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we found for the first time that Serenoa repens induced growth arrest of a variety of human leukemia cells including U266 and RPMI 8226 multiple myeloma cells as measured by mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. TUNEL assays showed that Serenoa repens induced apoptosis of U266 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Serenoa repens also increased the expression of cleaved-PARP or p27 protein in different human leukemia cell lines. In addition, we found that Serenoa repens down-regulated basal level of phosphorylated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) and Interleukin-6 induced level of phosphorylated form of STAT 3 and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) were also reduced after Serenoa repens treatment in U266 cells. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of STAT 3 signaling by Serenoa repens or Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK) inhibitor of AG490 enhanced the ability of docetaxel to inhibit the growth of U266 and RPMI 8226 cells, as measured by trypan blue exclusion test. These results indicate that Serenoa repens might be useful for the treatment of individuals with multiple myeloma. PMID:19578780

Che, Yuqin; Hou, Shuai; Kang, Zhiwei; Lin, Qiao

2009-08-01

210

Inflammation induced NFATc1-STAT3 Transcription Complex Promotes Pancreatic Cancer initiation by KrasG12D  

PubMed Central

Summary Cancer-associated inflammation is a molecular key feature in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncogenic KRAS in conjunction with persistent inflammation is known to accelerate carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we outline a novel pathway whereby the transcription factors NFATc1 and STAT3 cooperate in pancreatic epithelial cells to promote KrasG12D-driven carcinogenesis. NFATc1 activation is induced by inflammation and itself accelerates inflammation-induced carcinogenesis in KrasG12D mice, whereas genetic or pharmacological ablation of NFATc1 attenuates this effect. Mechanistically, NFATc1 complexes with STAT3 for enhancer-promoter communications at jointly regulated genes involved in oncogenesis, e.g. Cyclin, EGFR and WNT family members. The NFATc1-STAT3 cooperativity is operative in pancreatitis-mediated carcinogenesis as well as in established human pancreatic cancer. Together, these studies unravel new mechanisms of inflammatory driven pancreatic carcinogenesis and suggest beneficial effects of chemopreventive strategies using drugs which are currently available for targeting these factors in clinical trials. PMID:24694735

Baumgart, Sandra; Chen, Nai-ming; Siveke, Jens T.; König, Alexander; Zhang, Jin-San; Singh, Shiv K.; Wolf, Elmar; Bartkuhn, Marek; Esposito, Irene; Heßmann, Elisabeth; Reinecke, Johanna; Nikorowitsch, Julius; Brunner, Marius; Singh, Garima; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Smyrk, Thomas; Bamlet, William R.; Eilers, Martin; Neesse, Albrecht; Gress, Thomas M.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Tuveson, David; Urrutia, Raul; Ellenrieder, Volker

2014-01-01

211

Alcohol Suppresses the Granulopoietic Response to Pulmonary S. Pneumoniae Infection with Enhancement of STAT3 Signaling1  

PubMed Central

Enhanced granulopoietic activity is crucial for host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Alcohol impairs this response. The underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by infected lung tissue plays a key role in stimulating bone marrow granulopoiesis. This study investigated the effects of alcohol on G-CSF signaling in the regulation of marrow myeloid progenitor cell proliferation in mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Chronic alcohol consumption plus acute alcohol intoxication suppressed the increase in blood granulocyte counts following intrapulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae. This suppression was associated with a significant decrease in bone marrow granulopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. Alcohol treatment significantly enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation in bone marrow cells of animals challenged with S. pneumoniae. In vitro experiments showed that G-CSF-induced activation of STAT3-p27Kip1 pathway in murine myeloid progenitor cell line 32D-G-CSFR cells was markedly enhanced by alcohol exposure. Alcohol dose-dependently inhibited G-CSF-stimulated 32D-G-CSFR cell proliferation. This impairment of myeloid progenitor cell proliferation was not attenuated by inhibition of alcohol metabolism through either the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway or the CYP450 system. These data suggest that alcohol enhances G-CSF-associated STAT3-p27Kip1 signaling, which impairs granulopoietic progenitor cell proliferation by inducing cell cycling arrest and facilitating their terminal differentiation during the granulopoietic response to pulmonary infection. PMID:21357267

Siggins, Robert W.; Melvan, John N.; Welsh, David A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

2012-01-01

212

Upregulation of STAT3 Marks Burkitt Lymphoma Cells Refractory to Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle Induction by HDAC Inhibitors?  

PubMed Central

A fundamental problem in studying the latent-to-lytic switch of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the viral lytic cycle itself is the lack of a culture system fully permissive to lytic cycle induction. Strategies to target EBV-positive tumors by inducing the viral lytic cycle with chemical agents are hindered by inefficient responses to stimuli. In vitro, even in the most susceptible cell lines, more than 50% of cells latently infected with EBV are refractory to induction of the lytic cycle. The mechanisms underlying the refractory state are not understood. We separated lytic from refractory Burkitt lymphoma-derived HH514-16 cells after treatment with an HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate. Both refractory- and lytic-cell populations responded to the inducing stimulus by hyperacetylation of histone H3. However, analysis of host cell gene expression showed that specific cellular transcripts Stat3, Fos, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were preferentially upregulated in the refractory-cell population, while IL-6 was upregulated in the lytic population. STAT3 protein levels were also substantially increased in refractory cells relative to untreated or lytic cells. This increase in de novo expression resulted primarily in unphosphorylated STAT3. Examination of single cells revealed that high levels of STAT3 were strongly associated with the refractory state. The refractory state is manifest in a unique subpopulation of cells that exhibits different cellular responses than do lytic cells exposed to the same stimulus. Identifying characteristics of cells refractory to lytic induction relative to cells that undergo lytic activation will be an important step in developing a better understanding of the regulation of the EBV latent to lytic switch. PMID:19889776

Daigle, Derek; Megyola, Cynthia; El-Guindy, Ayman; Gradoville, Lyn; Tuck, David; Miller, George; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

2010-01-01

213

Flavanoids induce expression of the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) gene and suppress IL-6-activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

The atherogenic cytokine IL-6 (interleukin-6) induces pro-inflammatory gene expression in VECs (vascular endothelial cells) by activating the JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signalling pathway, which is normally down-regulated by the STAT3-dependent induction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase component SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3). Novel treatments based on the regulation of SOCS3 protein levels could therefore have value in the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory component, such as atherosclerosis. To this end we carried out a screen of 1031 existing medicinal compounds to identify inducers of SOCS3 gene expression and identified the flavanoids naringenin and flavone as effective inducers of SOCS3 protein, mRNA and promoter activity. This was in contrast with the action of traditional JAK/STAT3 inhibitors and the polyphenol resveratrol, which effectively suppress SOCS3 gene expression. Both naringenin and flavone also effectively suppressed IL-6-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr705) which led to suppression of IL-6-induction of the atherogenic STAT3 target gene MCP1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), suggesting that their ability to induce SOCS3 gene expression is STAT3-independent. Supporting this idea was the observation that the general kinase inhibitor compound C inhibits flavone- and cAMP-dependent, but not JAK-dependent, SOCS3 induction in VECs. Indeed, the ability of flavanoids to induce SOCS3 expression requires activation of the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)-dependent transcription factor SP3, and not STAT3. In the present paper we therefore describe novel molecular actions of flavanoids, which control SOCS3 gene induction and suppression of STAT3 signalling in VECs. These mechanisms could potentially be exploited to develop novel anti-atherogenic therapies. PMID:23782265

Wiejak, Jolanta; Dunlop, Julia; Mackay, Simon P.; Yarwood, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

214

STAT3 activation protects retinal ganglion cell layer neurons in response to stress.  

PubMed

STAT3 is a major signaling molecule for many neurotrophic factors but its direct role in the protection of neurons in response to stress has not been addressed. We have studied the role of STAT3 in protecting retinal neurons from damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and glutamate excitotoxicity by using adenovirus constructs to introduce active, normal or inactive STAT3 into retinal ganglion cells in culture and cells of the ganglion cell layer in the intact retina. Transient ischemia/reperfusion was induced in adult CD1 mice by elevating the intraocular pressure to the equivalent of 120mmHg for 60min, followed by a return to normal pressure. The levels, activation and distribution of STAT3 protein were evaluated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. A transient peak of STAT3 activation was seen at 24h post ischemia and a strong increase in STAT3 protein levels 24h later. The increase in levels of STAT3 was detected in both ganglion cell bodies and processes in the plexiform layers by immunocytochemistry. The time course of STAT3 increase was slower than the time course of ganglion cell death as measured by TUNEL assay. Intravitreal injection of NMDA led to peak increases in activated STAT3 and STAT3 at 12 and 24h post insult respectively. Purified RGCs were infected with recombinant wild-type STAT3, constitutively active and dominant negative forms of STAT3 adenoviruses or control empty virus and then treated with glutamate. Surviving infected cells were counted 24 and 48h later. Infection with constitutively active STAT3 gave substantial protection when compared to the other constructs. Similarly, intravitreal injection of constitutively active STAT3 adenovirus one day before ischemia-reperfusion resulted in a decreased neural cell death in the ganglion cell layer compared with GFP adenovirus control. Our results suggest that persistent activation of STAT3 by neurotrophic factors provides strong neuroprotection and will be an effective strategy in a number of chronic retinal diseases. PMID:18471811

Zhang, Chun; Li, Hong; Liu, Mu-Gen; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Barnstable, Colin J; Shao-Min Zhang, Samuel

2008-06-01

215

Wogonin suppresses human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell A549 migration in inflammatory microenvironment by modulating the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence from various clinical and experimental studies has demonstrated that the inflammatory microenvironment facilitates tumor metastasis. Clinically, it will be a promising choice to suppress tumor metastasis by targeting inflammatory microenvironment. Our previous studies have demonstrated that wogonin (a bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin) possesses the anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory activity, but we have little idea about its efficacy on inflammatory-induced tumor metastasis and the mechanism underlying it. In this study, we focused on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of tumor metastasis, to evaluate the effects of wogonin on tumor metastasis in inflammatory microenvironment. We found that wogonin inhibited THP-1 conditioned-medium- (CM-) and IL-6-induced EMT by inactivating STAT3 signal. And in wogonin-treated A549 cells which pretreated with THP-1 CM or IL-6, the expression level of E-cadherin, an EMT negative biomarker, increased while that of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and EMT-related transcription factors including Snail and Twist decreased. Moreover, wogonin inhibited IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, prevented p-STAT3 dimer translocation into the nucleus, and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of p-STAT3. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in the tumor xenografts mice, including downregulation of p-STAT3, N-cadherin, and Vimentin while up-regulation of E-cadherin. Wogonin also inhibit the metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. Taken all data together, we concluded that wogonin suppresses tumor cells migration in inflammatory microenvironment by inactivating STAT3 signal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24976450

Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jing; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Yi; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long; Lu, Na

2014-06-29

216

Metformin enhances the anti-adipogenic effects of atorvastatin via modulation of STAT3 and TGF-?/Smad3 signaling.  

PubMed

Adipocyte accumulation is associated with the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Interactions of master transcription factors and signaling cascades are required for adipogenesis. Regulation of excessive adipogenic processes may be an attractive therapeutic for treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study, we found that atorvastatin exerts an anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, and that this activity is elevated in combination with metformin. Expression of the adipogenic master regulators PPAR? and C/EBP?, and their target gene aP2, was suppressed by atorvastatin. Furthermore, atorvastatin treatment resulted in increased activation of the key master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, AMPK. These biological activities of atorvastatin were elevated in combination with metformin. These anti-adipogenic activities were associated with regulation of the STAT3 and TGF-? signaling cascades, resulting in the regulation of the expression of STAT3 target genes, such as KLF5, p53, and cyclin D1, and TGF-? signaling inhibitory genes, such as SMAD7. Our results suggest that combination therapy with atorvastatin and metformin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases caused by excessive adipogenesis. PMID:25462562

Kim, Byung-Hak; Han, Songhee; Lee, Haeri; Park, Chi Hye; Chung, Young Mee; Shin, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Ye, Sang-Kyu

2015-01-01

217

Expression profiling in transgenic FVB\\/N embryonic stem cells overexpressing STAT3  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor STAT3 is a downstream target of the LIF signalling cascade. LIF signalling or activation is sufficient to maintain embryonic stem (ES) cells in an undifferentiated and pluripotent state. To further investigate the importance of STAT3 in the establishment of ES cells we have in a first step derived stable pluripotent embryonic stem cells from transgenic FVB

Paolo Cinelli; Elisa A Casanova; Syndi Uhlig; Priska Lochmatter; Takahiko Matsuda; Takashi Yokota; Thomas Rülicke; Birgit Ledermann; Kurt Bürki

2008-01-01

218

JAK2/STAT3 Inhibition Attenuates Noise-Induced Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a stress responsive transcription factor that plays a key role in oxidative stress-mediated tissue injury. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a known source of damage to tissues of the inner ear following loud sound exposure, we examined the role of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling pathway in noise induce hearing loss using the pathway specific inhibitor, JSI-124. Mice were exposed to a moderately damaging level of loud sound revealing the phosphorylation of STAT3 tyrosine 705 residues and nuclear localization in many cell types in the inner ear including the marginal cells of the stria vascularis, type II, III, and IV fibrocytes, spiral ganglion cells, and in the inner hair cells. Treatment of the mice with the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor before noise exposure reduced levels of phosphorylated STAT3 Y705. We performed auditory brain stem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements and found increased recovery of hearing sensitivity at two weeks after noise exposure with JAK2/STAT3 inhibition. Performance of cytocochleograms revealed improved outer hair cell survival in JSI-124 treated mice relative to control. Finally, JAK2/STAT3 inhibition reduced levels of ROS detected in outer hair cells at two hours post noise exposure. Together, these findings demonstrate that inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is protective against noise-induced cochlear tissue damage and loss of hearing sensitivity. PMID:25275304

Wilson, Teresa; Omelchenko, Irina; Foster, Sarah; Zhang, Yuan; Shi, Xiaorui; Nuttall, Alfred L.

2014-01-01

219

Shikonin suppresses IL-17-induced VEGF expression via blockage of JAK2/STAT3 pathway.  

PubMed

IL-17 signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in psoriasis, which is a benign, chronic skin disease characterized by keratinocytes hyperproliferation and increased dermal vascularity. Shikonin, isolated from the traditional medical herbs Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has long been found to possess different medicinal properties such as antibacterial, improving wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the effects and mechanisms of shikonin on VEGF expression in keratinocytes mediated by IL-17 signaling, are still not fully clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects and regulatory mechanisms of shikonin on VEGF expression in keratinocytes induced by IL-17 by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited IL-17-induced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in HaCaT cells and the secretion of VEGF by HaCaT cells, inhibited IL-17-induced IL-17R, pJAK2 and pSTAT3 expression, while up-regulated the expression of SOCS1 in HaCaT cells. Additionally, shikonin effectively suppressed VEGF expression in the skin of IL-17 stimulated mice. Furthermore, shikonin suppressed VEGF-induced tube formation of HUVECs and CD34 expression in the skin of IL-17 stimulated mice. These results imply that shikonin suppresses IL-17-induced VEGF expression in vitro and in vivo and the mechanisms may be related to its effect in blockage of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. These data deepen our understanding of shikonin in the inhibition of angiogenesis in inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:24521871

Xu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xuegang; Gao, Xinghua; Chen, Hongduo; Geng, Long

2014-04-01

220

Stem cell-specific expression of Dax1 is conferred by STAT3 and Oct3/4 in embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts. An orphan nuclear receptor, Dax1, is specifically expressed in undifferentiated ES cells and plays an important role in their self-renewal. The regulatory mechanism of Dax1 expression in ES cells, however, remains unknown. In this study, we found that STAT3 and Oct3/4, essential transcription factors for ES cell self-renewal, are involved in the regulation of Dax1 expression. Suppression of either STAT3 or Oct3/4 resulted in down-regulation of Dax1. Reporter assay identified putative binding sites for these factors in the promoter/enhancer region of the Dax1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested the in vivo association of STAT3 and Oct3/4 with the putative sites. Furthermore, gel shift assay indicated that these transcription factors directly bind to their putative binding sites. These results suggest that STAT3 and Oct3/4 control the expression of Dax1 to maintain the self-renewal of ES cells.

Sun Chuanhai [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Nakatake, Yuhki [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ura, Hiroki; Akagi, Tadayuki [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Niwa, Hitoshi [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Koide, Hiroshi [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan)], E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Yokota, Takashi [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan)

2008-07-18

221

Thermodynamic analysis of the CSL x Notch interaction: distribution of binding energy of the Notch RAM region to the CSL beta-trefoil domain and the mode of competition with the viral transactivator EBNA2.  

PubMed

The Notch signaling pathway is a cell-cell communication network giving rise to cell differentiation during metazoan development. Activation of the pathway releases the intracellular portion of the Notch receptor to translocate to the nucleus, where it is able to interact with the effector transcription factor CSL, converting CSL from a transcriptional repressor to an activator. This conversion is dependent upon the high affinity binding of the RAM region of the Notch receptor to the beta-trefoil domain (BTD) of CSL. Here we probe the energetics of binding to BTD of each conserved residue of RAM through the use of isothermal titration calorimetry and single residue substitution. We find that although the highly conserved PhiW PhiP motif is the largest determinant of binding, energetically significant interactions are contributed by N-terminal residues, including a conserved Arg/Lys-rich region. Additionally, we present a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between the Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA2 with BTD and explore the extent to which the EBNA2- and RAM-binding sites on BTD are nonoverlapping, as proposed by Fuchs et al. (Fuchs, K. P., Bommer, G., Dumont, E., Christoph, B., Vidal, M., Kremmer, E., and Kempkes, B. (2001) Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 4639-4646). Combining these results with displacement isothermal titration calorimetry, we propose a mechanism by which the PhiW PhiP motif of RAM and EBNA2 compete with one another for binding at the hydrophobic pocket of BTD using overlapping but specific interactions that are unique to each BTD ligand. PMID:20028974

Johnson, Scott E; Ilagan, M Xenia G; Kopan, Raphael; Barrick, Doug

2010-02-26

222

Identification of Sites of STAT3 Action in the Female Reproductive Tract through Conditional Gene Deletion  

PubMed Central

The STAT3 transcription factor is a pleiotropic transducer of signalling by hormones, growth factors and cytokines that has been identified in the female reproductive tract from oocytes and granulosa cells of the ovary to uterine epithelial and stromal cells. In the present study we used transgenic models to investigate the importance of STAT3 for reproductive performance in these different tissues. The Cre-LoxP system was used to delete STAT3 in oocytes by crossing Stat3fl/fl with Zp3-cre+ mice, or in ovarian granulosa cells and uterine stroma by crossing with Amhr2-Cre+ mice. Surprisingly, deletion of STAT3 in oocytes had no effect on fertility indicating that the abundance of STAT3 protein in maturing oocytes and fertilized zygotes is not essential to these developmental stages. In Stat3fl/fl;Amhr2-cre+ females impaired fertility was observed through significantly fewer litters and smaller litter size. Ovulation rate, oocyte fertilization and development to blastocyst were unaffected in this line; however, poor recombination efficiency in granulosa cells had yielded no net change in STAT3 protein abundance. In contrast, uteri from these mice showed STAT3 protein depletion selectively from the stomal compartment. A significant reduction in number of viable fetuses on gestational day 18, increased fetal resorptions and disrupted placental morphology were evident causes of the reduced fertility. In conclusion, this study defines an important role for STAT3 in uterine stromal cells during embryo implantation and the development of a functional placenta. PMID:24983622

Robker, Rebecca L.; Watson, Laura N.; Robertson, Sarah A.; Dunning, Kylie R.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Russell, Darryl L.

2014-01-01

223

Carbon monoxide induces heme oxygenase-1 to modulate STAT3 activation in endothelial cells via S-glutathionylation.  

PubMed

IL-6/STAT3 pathway is involved in a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. In our present study, we found that CO releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transactivity in endothelial cells (ECs). CO is a byproduct of heme degradation mediated by heme oxygenase (HO-1). However, CORMs can induce HO-1 expression and then inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation. CO has been found to increase a low level ROS and which may induce protein glutathionylation. We hypothesized that CORMs increases protein glutathionylation and inhibits STAT3 activation. We found that CORMs increase the intracellular GSSG level and induce the glutathionylation of multiple proteins including STAT3. GSSG can inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and increase STAT3 glutathionylation whereas the antioxidant enzyme catalase can suppress the glutathionylation. Furthermore, catalase blocks the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by CORMs treatment. The inhibition of glutathione synthesis by BSO was also found to attenuate STAT3 glutathionylation and its inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. We further found that HO-1 increases STAT3 glutathionylation and that HO-1 siRNA attenuates CORM-induced STAT3 glutathionylation. Hence, the inhibition of STAT3 activation is likely to occur via a CO-mediated increase in the GSSG level, which augments protein glutathionylation, and CO-induced HO-1 expression, which may enhance and maintain its effects in IL-6-treated ECs. PMID:25072782

Yang, Yan-Chang; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Yang, Po-Min; Wung, Being-Sun

2014-01-01

224

hsa-miR-4516 mediated downregulation of STAT3/CDK6/UBE2N plays a role in PUVA induced apoptosis in keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder mediated by cross-talk occurring between epidermal keratinocytes, dermal vascular cells and immunocytes. Literature reveals that Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a protein involved in transmitting extracellular signals to the nucleus, is a possible important link between keratinocytes and immunocytes and is crucial to the development of psoriasis. Although photochemotherapy using UV in combination with 8 methoxypsoralen is one of the most effective therapy for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Herein, we studied the change in miRNA profiles of cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) before and after in vitro PUVA treatment by 8 methoxypsoralen and found significant up regulation of hsa-miR-4516. We for the first time demonstrate that ectopic expression of hsa-miR-4516 directly targets STAT3 protein by binding to its 3'UTR in HaCaT cells as confirmed by Luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analysis. We further show that overexpression of hsa-miR-4516 downregulates STAT3, p-STAT3, CDK6, and UBE2N proteins that are consistently upregulated in psoriasis and induces apoptosis in HaCaT cells. We also observed that anti-miR-4516 treatment was able to partially inhibit PUVA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that miR-4516 is involved in PUVA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results not only indicate the mechanistic involvement of hsa-miR-4516 in PUVA mediated effects by down-regulating STAT3 in HaCaT keratinocytes, but also highlight the potential of hsa-miR-4516 in development of novel therapeutic strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1630-1638, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24610393

Chowdhari, Shruti; Saini, Neeru

2014-11-01

225

Neuroprotection by leptin in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia: effects on STAT3 phosphorylation in discrete cells of the brain  

PubMed Central

In addition to its effects in the hypothalamus to control body weight, leptin is involved in the regulation of neuronal function, development and survival. Recent findings have highlighted the neuroprotective effects of leptin against ischemic brain injury; however, to date, little is known about the role performed by the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, a major mediator of leptin receptor transduction pathway in the brain, in the beneficial effects of the hormone. Our data demonstrate that systemic acute administration of leptin produces neuroprotection in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), as revealed by a significant reduction of the brain infarct volume and neurological deficit up to 7 days after the induction of ischemia. By combining a subcellular fractionation approach with immunohistofluorescence, we observe that neuroprotection is associated with a cell type-specific modulation of STAT3 phosphorylation in the ischemic cortex. The early enhancement of nuclear phospho-STAT3 induced by leptin in the astrocytes of the ischemic penumbra may contribute to a beneficial effect of these cells on the evolution of tissue damage. In addition, the elevation of phospho-STAT3 induced by leptin in the neurons after 24?h MCAo is associated with an increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 in the cortex, suggesting its possible involvement to the neuroprotection produced by the adipokine. PMID:22158477

Amantea, D; Tassorelli, C; Russo, R; Petrelli, F; Morrone, L A; Bagetta, G; Corasaniti, M T

2011-01-01

226

HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by suppressing the JAK2-STAT3-Mcl-1 signal transduction pathway in colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but in some cases, certain cancer cells are resistant to this ligand. In this study, we explored the ability of representative HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibitor NVP-AUY922 to overcome TRAIL resistance by increasing apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The combination of TRAIL and NVP-AUY922 induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The treatment of NVP-AUY922 dephosphorylated JAK2 and STAT3 and decreased Mcl-1, which resulted in facilitating cytochrome c release. NVP-AUY922-mediated inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling and down-regulation of their target gene, Mcl-1, occurred in a dose and time-dependent manner. Knock down of Mcl-1, STAT3 inhibitor or JAK2 inhibitor synergistically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of the JAK2-STAT3-Mcl-1 signal transduction pathway in response to NVP-AUY922 treatment, which may play a key role in NVP-AUY922-mediated sensitization to TRAIL. By contrast, the effect of the combination treatments in non-transformed colon cells was minimal. We provide a clinical rationale that combining HSP90 inhibitor with TRAIL enhances therapeutic efficacy without increasing normal tissue toxicity in CRC patients. PMID:25446253

Lee, Dae-Hee; Sung, Ki Sa; Bartlett, David L; Kwon, Yong Tae; Lee, Yong J

2015-02-01

227

Activating transcription factor 4 mediates a multidrug resistance phenotype of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through transactivation of STAT3 expression.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge to the clinical treatment of esophageal cancer. The stress response gene activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, relatively little is known about the expression and function of ATF4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) MDR. In this study, we investigate the potential role and mechanisms of ATF4 in ESCC MDR. We demonstrated that overexpression of ATF4 promotes the MDR phenotype in ESCC cells, while depletion of ATF4 in the MDR ESCC cell line induces drug re-sensitization. We also demonstrated that ATF4 transactivates STAT3 expression by directly binding to the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) promoter, resulting in MDR in ESCC cells. Significantly, inhibition of STAT3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a selective inhibitor (JSI-124) reintroduces therapeutic sensitivity. In addition, increased Bcl-2, survivin, and MRP1 expression levels were observed in ATF4-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, ATF4 may promote MDR in ESCC cells through the up-regulation of STAT3 expression, and thus is an attractive therapeutic target to combat therapeutic resistance in ESCC. PMID:25130172

Zhu, Hongwu; Chen, Xiong; Chen, Bin; Chen, Bei; Fan, Jianyong; Song, Weibing; Xie, Ziying; Jiang, Dan; Li, Qiuqiong; Zhou, Meihua; Sun, Dayong; Zhao, Yagang

2014-11-01

228

Induction of Murine Macrophage M2 Polarization by Cigarette Smoke Extract via the JAK2/STAT3 Pathway  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is a major pathogenic factor in lung cancer. Macrophages play an important role in host defense and adaptive immunity. These cells display diverse phenotypes for performing different functions. M2 type macrophages usually exhibit immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting characteristics. Although macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype has been observed in the lungs of cigarette smokers, the molecular basis of the process remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the possible mechanisms for the polarization of mouse macrophages that are induced by cigarette smoking (CS) or cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The results showed that exposure to CSE suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and down-regulated the phagocytic ability of Ana-1 cells. The CD163 expressions on the surface of macrophages from different sources were significantly increased in in vivo and in vitro studies. The M1 macrophage cytokines TNF-?, IL-12p40 and enzyme iNOS decreased in the culture supernatant, and their mRNA levels decreased depending on the time and concentration of CSE. In contrast, the M2 phenotype macrophage cytokines IL-10, IL-6, TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 were up-regulated. Moreover, phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 was observed after the Ana-1 cells were treated with CSE. In addition, pretreating the Ana-1 cells with the STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor WP1066 inhibited the CSE-induced CD163 expression, increased the mRNA level of IL-10 and significantly decreased the mRNA level of IL-12. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the M2 polarization of macrophages induced by CS could be mediated through JAK2/STAT3 pathway activation. PMID:25198511

Shi, Hengfei; Chen, Guopu; Dong, Ping; Zhang, Weiyun

2014-01-01

229

HO-3867, a Safe STAT3 Inhibitor, Is Selectively Cytotoxic to Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

STAT3 is well corroborated preclinically as a cancer therapeutic target, but tractable translational strategies for its blockade by small molecule inhibitors have remained elusive. In this study, we report the development of a novel class of bifunctional STAT3 inhibitors, based on conjugation of a diarylidenyl-piperidone (DAP) backbone to an N-hydroxypyrroline (?NOH) group, which exhibits minimal toxicity against normal cells and good oral bioavailability. Molecular modeling studies of this class suggested direct interaction with the STAT3 DNA binding domain. In particular, the DAP compound HO-3867 selectively inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, transcription, and DNA binding without affecting the expression of other active STATs. HO-3867 exhibited minimal toxicity toward noncancerous cells and tissues but induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Pharmacologic analysis revealed greater bioabsorption and bioavailability of the active (cytotoxic) metabolites in cancer cells compared with normal cells. The selective cytotoxicity of HO-3867 seemed to be multifaceted, eliciting differential activation of the Akt pathway in normal versus cancer cells. RNAi attenuation experiments confirmed the requirement of STAT3 for HO-3867–mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. In vivo testing showed that HO-3867 could block xenograft tumor growth without toxic side effects. Furthermore, in primary human ovarian cancer cells isolated from patient ascites, HO-3867 inhibited cell migration/invasion and survival. Our results offer preclinical proof-of-concept for HO-3867 as a selective STAT3 inhibitor to treat ovarian cancer and other solid tumors where STAT3 is widely upregulated. PMID:24590057

Rath, Kellie S.; Naidu, Shan K.; Lata, Pushpa; Bid, Hemant K.; Rivera, Brian K.; McCann, Georgia A.; Tierney, Brent J.; ElNaggar, Adam C.; Bravo, Veronica; Leone, Gustavo; Houghton, Peter; Hideg, Kálmán; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Cohn, David E.; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

2014-01-01

230

Activation of Stat3 Transcription Factor by Herpesvirus Saimiri STP-A Oncoprotein  

PubMed Central

The saimiri transforming protein (STP) oncogene of Herpesvirus saimiri subgroup A strain 11 (STP-A11) is not required for viral replication but is required for lymphoid cell immortalization in culture and lymphoma induction in primates. We previously showed that STP-A11 interacts with cellular Src kinase through its SH2 binding motif and that this interaction elicits Src signal transduction. Here we demonstrate that STP-A11 interacts with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) independently of Src association and that the amino-terminal short proline-rich motif of STP-A11 and the central linker region of Stat3 are necessary for their interaction. STP-A11 formed a triple complex with Src kinase and Stat3 where Src kinase phosphorylated Stat3, resulting in the nuclear localization and transcriptional activation of Stat3. Consequently, the constitutively active Stat3 induced by STP-A11 elicited cellular signal transduction, which ultimately induced cell survival and proliferation upon serum deprivation. Furthermore, this activity was strongly correlated with the induction of Fos, cyclin D1, and Bcl-XL expression. These results demonstrate that STP-A11 independently targets two important cellular signaling molecules, Src and Stat3, and that these proteins cooperate efficiently to induce STP-A11-mediated transformation. PMID:15163742

Chung, Young-Hwa; Cho, Nam-hyuk; Garcia, Maria Ines; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Feng, Pinghui; Jung, Jae U.

2004-01-01

231

Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations.  

PubMed

Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:25359994

Milner, Joshua D; Vogel, Tiphanie P; Forbes, Lisa; Ma, Chi A; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Niemela, Julie E; Lyons, Jonathan J; Engelhardt, Karin R; Zhang, Yu; Topcagic, Nermina; Roberson, Elisha D O; Matthews, Helen; Verbsky, James W; Dasu, Trivikram; Vargas-Hernandez, Alexander; Varghese, Nidhy; McClain, Kenneth L; Karam, Lina B; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Mace, Emily M; Sorte, Hanne S; Perminow, Gøri; Rao, V Koneti; O'Connell, Michael P; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C; Butrick, Morgan; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D; Willet, Joseph; Swan, David; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Slowik, Voytek; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Ciaccio, Christina E; Saunders, Carol J; Septer, Seth; Kingsmore, Stephen F; White, Andrew J; Cant, Andrew J; Hambleton, Sophie; Cooper, Megan A

2015-01-22

232

T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV.  

PubMed

STAT3 is a critical transcription factor activated downstream of cytokine signaling and is integral for the function of multiple immune cell types. Human mutations in STAT3 cause primary immunodeficiency resulting in impaired control of a variety of infections, including reactivation of latent viruses. In this study, we investigate how T-cell functions of STAT3 contribute to responses to viral infection by inducing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice lacking STAT3 specifically in T cells. Although mice with conditional disruption of STAT3 in T cells were able to mount early responses to viral infection similar to control animals, including expansion of effector T cells, we found generation of T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells to be impaired. As a result, STAT3 T cell deficient mice produced attenuated germinal center reactions, and did not accumulate bone marrow virus specific IgG-secreting cells, resulting in failure to maintain levels of virus-specific IgG or mount neutralizing responses to LCMV in the serum. These effects were associated with reduced control of viral replication and prolonged infection. Our results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 in T cells for the generation of functional long-term humoral immunity to viral infections. PMID:25393615

McIlwain, David R; Grusdat, Melanie; Pozdeev, Vitaly I; Xu, Haifeng C; Shinde, Prashant; Reardon, Colin; Hao, Zhenyue; Beyer, Marc; Bergthaler, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Nolan, Garry P; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A

2015-02-01

233

Constitutive Stat3 activation alters behavior of hair follicle stem and progenitor cell populations.  

PubMed

STATs play crucial roles in a wide variety of biological functions, including development, proliferation, differentiation and migration as well as in cancer development. In the present study, we examined the impact of constitutive activation of Stat3 on behavior of keratinocytes, including keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) in vivo. BK5.Stat3C transgenic (Tg) mice, which express a constitutively active form of Stat3 (Stat3C) in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the bulge region KSCs exhibited a significantly reduced number of CD34+/?6 integrin+ cells compared to non-transgenic (NTg) littermates. There was a concomitant increase in the Lgr-6, Lrig-1, and Sca-1 populations in the Tg mice in contrast to the CD34 and Keratin-15 positive population. In addition, increased expression of c-myc, ?-catenin, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as well as decreased expression of ?6-integrin was observed in the hair follicles of Tg mice. Notably, Sca-1 was found to be a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in keratinocytes. The current data suggest that elevated Stat3 activity leads to depletion of hair follicle KSCs along with a concomitant increase of stem/progenitor cells above the bulge region. Overall, the current data indicate that Stat3 plays an important role in keratinocyte stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24038534

Rao, Dharanija; Macias, Everardo; Carbajal, Steve; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

2015-02-01

234

Critical role of STAT3 in melanoma metastasis through anoikis resistance  

PubMed Central

Anoikis is an anchorage-independent cell death. Resistance to anoikis is one of the key features of metastatic cells. Here, we analyzed the role of STAT3 in anoikis resistance in melanoma cells leading to metastasis. When grown under anchorage-independent conditions, significant proportion of cells resisted anoikis and these resistant cells had higher rate of migration and invasion as compared to the cells grown under anchorage-dependent conditions. The anoikis resistant cells also had significantly higher expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 than the cells that were attached to the basement membrane. STAT3 inhibitors, AG 490 and piplartine (PL) induced anoikis in a concentration-dependent manner in anoikis resistant cells. Over-expression of STAT3 or treatment with IL-6 not only increased anoikis resistance, but also protected the cancer cells from PL-induced anoikis. On the other hand, silencing STAT3 decreased the potential of cancer cells to resist anoikis and to migrate. STAT3 knock-down cells and PL treated cells did not form tumors as well as failed to metastasize in SCID-NSG mice as compared to untreated anchorage-independent cells, which formed big tumors and extensively metastasized. In summary, our results for the first time establish STAT3 as a critical player that renders anoikis resistance to melanoma cells and enhance their metastatic potential. PMID:25216522

Fofaria, Neel M.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

2014-01-01

235

STAT3 Modulation to Enhance Motor Neuron Differentiation in Human Neural Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis damages spinal motor neurons and forms a glial scar, which prevents neural regeneration. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a critical role in astrogliogenesis and scar formation, and thus a fine modulation of STAT3 signaling may help to control the excessive gliogenic environment and enhance neural repair. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of STAT3 inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, Stattic and Niclosamide, enhanced motor neuron differentiation only in FGF2-primed hNSCs, as shown by increased homeobox gene Hb9 mRNA levels as well as HB9+ and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)+ co-labeled cells. The increased motor neuron differentiation was accompanied by a decrease in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Interestingly, Stattic and Niclosamide did not affect the level of STAT3 phosphorylation; rather, they perturbed the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3. In summary, we demonstrate that FGF2 is required for motor neuron differentiation from hNSCs and that inhibition of STAT3 further increases motor neuron differentiation at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Our study thus suggests a potential benefit of targeting the STAT3 pathway for neurotrauma or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24945434

Natarajan, Rajalaxmi; Singal, Vinamrata; Benes, Richard; Gao, Junling; Chan, Hoi; Chen, Haijun; Yu, Yongjia; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Ping

2014-01-01

236

Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Arctigenin is a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Bardanae fructus, Arctium lappa L, Saussureamedusa, Torreya nucifera, and Ipomea cairica. It has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is mainly mediated through its inhibitory effect on nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-?B). But the role of arctigenin in JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways is still unclear. In present study, we investigated the effect of arctigenin on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluated whether suppression of STAT3 activity by arctigenin could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Our results show that arctigenin significantly suppressed both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be achieved through suppression of Src, JAK1, and JAK2, while suppression of STAT3 serine phosphorylation was mediated by inhibition of ERK activation. Pervanadate reversed the arctigenin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, arctigenin can obviously induce the expression of the PTP SHP-2. Furthermore, the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Arctigenin dramatically promoted cisplatin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that arctigenin enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations suggest a novel anticancer function of arctigenin and a potential therapeutic strategy of using arctigenin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. PMID:21608020

Yao, Xiangyang; Zhu, Fenfen; Zhao, Zhihui; Liu, Chang; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

2011-10-01

237

STAT3 promotes corticospinal remodelling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

If and how neurons remodel their connections after CNS injury critically influences recovery of function. Here, we investigate the role of the growth-initiating transcription factor STAT3 during remodelling of the injured corticospinal tract (CST). Endogenous STAT3 expression in lesioned cortical projection neurons is transient but can be sustained by viral gene transfer. Sustained activation of STAT3 enhances remodelling of lesioned CST fibres and induces de novo formation of collaterals from unlesioned CST fibres. In a unilateral pyramidotomy paradigm, this recruitment of unlesioned fibres leads to the formation of midline crossing circuits that establish ipsilateral forelimb activation and functional recovery. PMID:23928811

Lang, Claudia; Bradley, Peter M; Jacobi, Anne; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Bareyre, Florence M

2013-01-01

238

NF-?B and STAT3 in glioblastoma: therapeutic targets coming of age.  

PubMed

Since we last addressed the roles of NF-?B and JAK/STAT3 signaling in glioblastoma (GBM) 5 years ago, tremendous strides have been made in the understanding of these two pathways in glioma biology. Contributing to prosurvival mechanisms, cancer stem cell maintenance and treatment resistance, both NF-?B and STAT3 have been characterized as major drivers of GBM. In this review, we address general improvements in the molecular understanding of GBM, the structure of NF-?B and STAT3 signaling, the ways in which these pathways contribute to GBM and advances in preclinical and clinical targeting of these two signaling cascades. PMID:25262780

Gray, G Kenneth; McFarland, Braden C; Nozell, Susan E; Benveniste, Etty N

2014-11-01

239

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Nasal-type natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma is an infrequent aggressive malignant disease with very poor prognosis. We aimed to explore the possible role of the transcription factor STAT3 in the pathophysiology of this malignancy, as it was involved in oncogenesis and chemoresistance. For this, we established and characterized a continuous interleukin 2-dependent NK cell line (MEC04) from a patient with a fatal nasal-type NK cell lymphoma. Cells harbored poor cytotoxic activity against K562 cells, and spontaneously secreted interferon-?, IL-10 and vascular-endothelium growth factor in vitro. STAT3 was phosphorylated in Y705 dimerization residue in MEC04 cells and restricted to the nucleus. Y705 STAT3 phosphorylation involved JAK2, since exposure of cells to AG490 inhibitor inhibited Y705 STAT3 phosphorylation. By using recombinant transducible TAT-STAT3? (?isoform), TAT-STAT3Y705F (a STAT3 protein mutated on Y705 residue which prevents STAT3 dimerization), and peptides inhibiting specifically STAT3 dimerization, we inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and cell growth, with cell death induction. Finally, STAT3 was phosphorylated in Y705 residue in the nuclei of lymphoma cells in 8/9 patients with nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma and in YT, another NK cell line. Our results suggest that STAT3 protein has a major role in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell lymphomas, and may represent a promising therapeutical target. PMID:19421230

Coppo, Paul; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Huang, Yenlin; Bouhlal, Hicham; Bouamar, Hakim; Bouchet, Sandrine; Perrot, Christine; Vieillard, Vincent; Dartigues, Peggy; Gaulard, Philippe; Agbalika, Félix; Douay, Luc; Lassoued, Kaiss; Gorin, Norbert-Claude

2009-01-01

240

MITOCHONDRIAL-TARGETED SIGNAL TRANSDUCER AND ACTIVATOR OF TRANSCRIPTION 3 (STAT3) PROTECTS AGAINST ISCHEMIA-INDUCED CHANGES IN  

E-print Network

of mitochondrial function during ischemia. Under conditions of ischemia heart mitochondria expressing MLS-STAT3E species. Recent studies indicate that a pool of STAT3 resides in the mitochondria where it is necessary whether mitochondrial STAT3 modulates cardiac function under conditions of stress. Transgenic mice

241

Curcumin Inhibits STAT3 Signaling in the Colon of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-treated Mice  

PubMed Central

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has a long history of use in medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. One of the major constituents of turmeric is curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is responsible for its characteristic yellow color. In the present study, we have examined the chemoprotective effects of curcuminon dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. For this purpose, we pre-treated male ICR mice with curcumin (0.1 or 0.25 mmol/kg in 0.05% carboxymethyl cellulose) by gavage for a week and then co-treated the animals with curcumin by gavage and 3% DSS in drinking water for another 7 days. Our study revealed that administration of curcumin significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis and STAT3 signaling in mouse colon. The levels of the cell cycle regulators CDK4 and cylinD1 were significantly reduced by curcumin administration. Moreover, the expression of p53, which is an upstream regulator of the CDK4-cylinD1 complex, was inhibited by curcumin treatment. PMID:25337545

Yang, Joon-Yeop; Zhong, Xiancai; Yum, Hye-Won; Lee, Hyung-Jun; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

2013-01-01

242

Ponicidin Induces Apoptosis via JAK2 and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ponicidin has a variety of biological effects such as immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory functions as well as anti-viral functions especially in the upper respiratory tract infection. This study was aimed to elucidate the antitumor effect of ponicidin in gastric carcinoma MKN28 cells and the possible molecular mechanism involved. Cell viability was measured by the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK8). Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry as well as cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. Western blot analysis was used to detect the active form of caspase-3 as well as Bax and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expressions after cells were treated with different concentrations of ponicidin. The results revealed that ponicidin could inhibit the growth of MKN28 cells significantly in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle was blocked and ROS generation was increased after the cells were treated with ponicidin. Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated remarkably while Bax expression and the active form of caspase-3 were increased after apoptosis occurred. We therefore conclude that ponicidin exhibited significant growth inhibition of gastric carcinoma cell line MKN28 and induced apoptosis of MKN28 cells via the signaling pathway regulated by Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Ponicidin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for gastric carcinoma. PMID:25588213

Liu, Yuan-Fei; Lu, Yun-Min; Qu, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Xiong; Liao, Xiao-Hong; Kong, Wu-Ming

2015-01-01

243

Inhibitory effect of ent-Sauchinone on amyloidogenesis via inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-?B activation in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Background ent-Sauchinone is a polyphenolic compound found in plants belonging to the lignan family. ent-Sauchinone has been shown to modulate the expression of inflammatory factors through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway. It is well known that neuroinflammation is associated with amyloidogenesis. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether ent-Sauchinone could have anti-amyloidogenic effects through the inhibition of NF-?B pathways via its anti-inflammatory property. Methods To investigate the potential effect of ent-Sauchinone on anti-neuroinflammation and anti-amyloidogenesis in in vitro studies, we used microglial BV-2 cells and cultured astrocytes treated with ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 24 hours. For the detection of anti-neuro-inflammatory responses, reative oxygen species (ROS) and Nitric oxide (NO) generation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were measured with assay kits and western blotting. ?-secretase and ?-secretase activities and ?-amyloid levels were determined for measuring the anti-amyloidogenic effects of ent-Sauchinone by enzyme assay kits. NF-?B and STAT3 signals were detected with electromobility shift assay (EMSA) to study the related signaling pathways. The binding of ent-Sauchinone to STAT3 was evaluated by a pull-down assay and by a docking model using Autodock VINA software (Hoover’s Inc., Texas, United states). Results ent-Sauchinone (1, 5, and 10 ?M) effectively decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-(1 ?g/ml) induced inflammatory responses through the reduction of ROS and NO generations and iNOS and COX-2 expressions in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. ent-Sauchinone also inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of ?-secretase and ?-secretase activity. NF- ?B amyloid and STAT3, critical transcriptional factors regulating not only inflammation but also amyloidogenesis, were also inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by ent-Sauchinone by blocking the phosphorylation of I ?B and STAT3 in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. The docking model approach showed that ent-Sauchinone binds to STAT3, and the employment of a STAT3 inhibitor and siRNA reversed ent-Sauchinone-induced inhibition NF-?B activation and A? generation. Conclusions These results indicated that ent-Sauchinone inhibited neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis through the inhibition of STAT3-mediated NF-?B activity, and thus could be applied in the treatment of neuro-inflammatory diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24985096

2014-01-01

244

NVP-BKM120, a novel PI3K inhibitor, shows synergism with a STAT3 inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells harboring KRAS mutations  

PubMed Central

Aberrations of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are frequently observed in many types of cancer, promoting its emergence as a promising target for cancer treatment. PI3K can become activated by various pathways, one of which includes RAS. RAS can not only directly activate the PI3K/AKT pathway via binding to p110 of PI3K, but also regulates mTOR via ERK or RSK independently of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, actively mutated RAS can constitutively activate PI3K signaling. Additionally, in RAS tumorigenic transformation, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been known also to be required. In this study, we examined the efficacy of NVP-BKM120, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells and hypothesized that the combined inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 would be synergistic in KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells. NVP-BKM120 demonstrated anti-proliferative activity in 11 human gastric cancer cell lines by decreasing mTOR downstream signaling. But NVP-BKM120 treatment increased p-AKT by subsequent abrogation of feedback inhibition by stabilizing insulin receptor substrate-1. In KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells, either p-ERK or p-STAT3 was also increased upon treatment of NVP-BKM120. The synergistic efficacy study demonstrated that dual PI3K and STAT3 blockade showed a synergism in cells harboring mutated KRAS by inducing apoptosis. The synergistic effect was not seen in KRAS wild-type cells. Together, these findings suggest for the first time that the dual inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant gastric cancer patients. PMID:22159814

PARK, EUNJU; PARK, JINAH; HAN, SAE-WON; IM, SEOCK-AH; KIM, TAE-YOU; OH, DO-YOUN; BANG, YUNG-JUE

2012-01-01

245

Novel synthetic derivatives of the natural product berbamine inhibit Jak2/Stat3 signaling and induce apoptosis of human melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Persistent Jak/Stat3 signal transduction plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and immune development. Activated Jak/Stat3 signaling has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapeutics discovery and development. Berbamine (BBM), a natural bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was identified from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Berberis amurensis used for treatment of cancer patients. While BBM has been shown to have potent antitumor activities with low toxicity in various cancer types, the molecular mechanism of action of BBM remains largely unknown. Here, we determine the antitumor activities of 13 synthetic berbamine derivatives (BBMDs) against human solid tumor cells. BBMD3, which is the most potent in this series of novel BBMDs, exhibits over 6-fold increase in biological activity compared to natural BBM. Moreover, BBMD3, directly inhibits Jak2 autophosphorylation kinase activity in vitro with IC(50)0.69 ?M. Autophosphorylation of Jak2 kinase at Tyr1007/1008 sites also was strongly inhibited in the range of 15 ?M of BBMD3 in human melanoma cells at 4h after treatment. Following inhibition of autophosphorylation of Jak2, BBMD3 blocked constitutive activation of downstream Stat3 signaling in melanoma cells. BBMD3 also down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1and Bcl-x(L), associated with induction of apoptosis. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the novel berbamine derivative BBMD3 is an inhibitor of the Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, providing evidence for a molecular mechanism whereby BBMD3 exerts at least in part the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. In addition, BBMD3 represents a promising lead compound for development of new therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:22717603

Nam, Sangkil; Xie, Jun; Perkins, Angela; Ma, Yuelong; Yang, Fan; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Rong-Zhen; Huang, Wendong; Horne, David A; Jove, Richard

2012-10-01

246

ATP stimulates PGE(2)/cyclin D1-dependent VSMCs proliferation via STAT3 activation: role of PKCs-dependent NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.  

PubMed

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that function as synthetic units play important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors implicated in various inflammatory diseases, we hypothesized that extracellular nucleotides contribute to vascular diseases via up-regulation of inflammatory proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in VSMCs. However, the mechanisms of ATP-induced cPLA2 and COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis remain largely unclear. We showed that pretreatment with the inhibitors of STAT3 (CBE), NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or apocynin (APO)], ROS [N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC)], and PKC (Ro-318220, Gö6983, or Rottlerin) or transfection with siRNAs of STAT3 and p47(phox) markedly inhibited ATP?S-induced cPLA2 and COX-2 mRNA/protein expression and promoter activity and PGE2 secretion. ATP?S further stimulated PKC, p47(phox), and STAT3 translocation. Moreover, ATP?S-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and translocation was inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitors of PKC, NADPH oxidase, and ROS. ATP?S enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation in VSMCs, which were reduced by pretreatment with Ro-318220, Gö6983, or Rottlerin. Finally, we found that ATP?S significantly induced cyclin D1 expression and VSMCs proliferation, which were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, APO, DPI, Ro-318220, Gö6983, Rottlerin, or CBE or transfection with siRNAs of COX-2 and cyclin D1. We also demonstrated that ATP?S induced cyclin D1 expression via a PGE2-dependent pathway. These results suggested that ATP?S-induced cPLA2/COX-2 expression and PGE2 secretion is mediated through a PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/STAT3-dependent pathway in VSMCs. PMID:23318226

Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Wang, Chao-Hung; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2013-04-01

247

Novel synthetic derivatives of the natural product berbamine inhibit Jak2/Stat3 signaling and induce apoptosis of human melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Persistent Jak/Stat3 signal transduction plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and immune development. Activated Jak/Stat3 signaling has been validated as a promising molecular target for cancer therapeutics discovery and development. Berbamine (BBM), a natural bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was identified from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Berberis amurensis used for treatment of cancer patients. While BBM has been shown to have potent antitumor activities with low toxicity in various cancer types, the molecular mechanism of action of BBM remains largely unknown. Here, we determine the antitumor activities of thirteen synthetic berbamine derivatives (BBMDs) against human solid tumor cells. BBMD3, which is the most potent in this series of novel BBMDs, exhibits over 6-fold increase in biological activity compared to natural BBM. Moreover, BBMD3, directly inhibits Jak2 autophosphorylation kinase activity in vitro with IC50 = 0.69 ?M. Autophosphorylation of Jak2 kinase at Tyr1007/1008 sites also was strongly inhibited in the range of 1 ?M to 5 ?M of BBMD3 in human melanoma cells at 4 h after treatment. Following inhibition of autophosphorylation of Jak2, BBMD3 blocked constitutive activation of downstream Stat3 signaling in melanoma cells. BBMD3 also down-regulated expression of the Stat3 target proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, associated with induction of apoptosis. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the novel berbamine derivative BBMD3 is an inhibitor of the Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, providing evidence for a molecular mechanism whereby BBMD3 exerts at least in part the apoptosis of human melanoma cells. In addition, BBMD3 represents a promising lead compound for development of new therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:22717603

Nam, Sangkil; Xie, Jun; Perkins, Angela; Ma, Yuelong; Yang, Fan; Wu, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Rong-zhen; Huang, Wendong; Horne, David A.; Jove, Richard

2012-01-01

248

Ghrelin Inhibits the Differentiation of T Helper 17 Cells through mTOR/STAT3 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Enhanced activity of interleukin 17 (IL-17) producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Significant loss of body weight and appetite is associated with chronic inflammation and immune activation, suggesting the cross talk between immune and neuroendocrine systems. Ghrelin has been shown to regulate the organism immune function. However, the effects of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells remain elusive. In the present study, we observed the enhanced differentiation of Th17 cells in spleens of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a)-/- mice. Treatment of ghrelin repressed Th17 cell differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased in the spleens of GHSR1a-/- mice. Activation of mTOR signaling by injection of Cre-expressiong adenovirus into tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) loxp/loxp mice increased the differentiation of Th17 cells in spleen, which was associated with an increment in the phosphorylation of STAT3. Activation of mTOR signaling by leucine or overexpression of p70 ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1) activated mTOR signaling in isolated T cells, while reversed the ghrelin-induced inhibition of iTh17 cell differentiation. In conclusion, mTOR mediates the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells by interacting with STAT3. PMID:25658305

Xu, Yanhui; Li, Ziru; Yin, Yue; Lan, He; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Feng, Juan; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

2015-01-01

249

Exosomal Hsp70 mediates immunosuppressive activity of the myeloid-derived suppressor cells via phosphorylation of Stat3.  

PubMed

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), one of the main cell populations, are responsible for regulating the immune response, which accumulates in tumor-bearing mice and humans contributing to cancer development. Exosomes produced by tumor cells have been involved in tumor-associated immune suppression. However, the role of exosomes is unclear in the activation of MDSCs. Here, we have purified tumor-derived exosomes from the supernatants of Renca cell cultures. Transmission electron microscopy was used to confirm their morphology, and Western blot analysis showed that Hsp70 was rich in these isolated exosomes compared with the whole-cell lysates of Renca cells. Then, we demonstrated that there was a more powerful activity of exosomal Hsp70-mediated induction of proinflammation cytokines, tumor growth factors of MDSCs and tumor progression than exosomes pre-incubated with anti-Hsp70 antibody. Furthermore, we show that an interactive exosomal HSP70 and MDSCs determine the suppressive activity of the MDSCs via phosphorylation of Stat3 (p-Stat3). Finally, we show that exosomal Hsp70 triggers p-Stat3 in MDSCs in a TLR2-MyD88-dependent manner. Meanwhile, we also find that there is a more significant increase in the percentage of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in the mice, which are treated with exosomal Hsp70 than that exosomes pre-incubated with anti-Hsp70 antibody. Hence, we believe that the signaling pathway activation by exosomal Hsp70 within MDSCs may be a significant target in future treatment of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25603952

Diao, Jianjun; Yang, Xue; Song, Xuedong; Chen, Shiyou; He, Yunfeng; Wang, Qingsong; Chen, Gang; Luo, Chunli; Wu, Xiaohou; Zhang, Yao

2015-02-01

250

Suppression of EGFR-STAT3 signaling inhibits tumorigenesis in a lung cancer cell line  

PubMed Central

Overactive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling often underlies the rapid expansion of cancerous tissue. EGFR signaling is mediated by transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, or STAT3. This study sought to investigate the effects of altered EGFR/STAT3 signal transduction on lung cancer cells in vitro. Lung cancer cells from the cell line A549 were divided into test and control groups. Test group cells were treated with an EGFR monoclonal antibody, Nimotuzumab, while control cells received no treatment. EGFR and STAT3 protein expression, cell apoptosis rate, cell proliferation, cell invasion, and cell division were analyzed and compared. Compared to cells in the control group, lung cancer cells treated with Nimotuzumab showed slowed proliferation rates, accelerated apoptosis, decreased invasion, and arrested cell division (P < 0.05). In conclusion, altered EGFR/STAT3 signaling results in significant changes in the biology of lung cancer cells. PMID:25232393

Jiang, Yong-Qian; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Ji, You-Lin

2014-01-01

251

Stat3 and Gap Junctions in Normal and Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions are channels linking the interiors of neighboring cells. A reduction in gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) correlates with high cell proliferation, while oncogene products such as Src suppress GJIC, through the Ras/Raf/Erk and other effector pathways. High Src activity was found to correlate with high levels of the Src effector, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3) in its tyrosine-705 phosphorylated, i.e., transcriptionally activated form, in the majority of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer lines examined. However, Stat3 inhibition did not restore GJIC in lines with high Src activity. In the contrary, Stat3 inhibition in normal cells or in lines with low Src activity and high GJIC eliminated gap junctional communication. Therefore, despite the fact that Stat3 is growth promoting and in an activated form acts like an oncogene, it is actually required for junctional permeability. PMID:24670366

Guy, Stephanie; Geletu, Mulu; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Raptis, Leda

2014-01-01

252

p-Stat3 and bcr/abl gene expression in chronic myeloid leukemia and their relation to imatinib therapy.  

PubMed

Flowcytometry analysis was carried out to evaluate the expression of the p-Stat3 in 50 CML patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. p-Stat3 expression was increased in advanced stages of CML. Imatinib treatment was found to suppress the expression of p-Stat3 in bone marrow cells. The level of p-Stat3 was found to be higher in resistant cases than in responsive cases, which suggest the beneficial use of p-Stat3 as an indicator to follow the clinical course and the treatment response. PMID:24374144

Sayed, Douaa; Badrawy, Hosny; Gaber, Noha; Khalaf, Muhammed R

2014-02-01

253

Aberrant sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and STAT3 activation in papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

The sonic hedgehog (SHH) and STAT3 signaling pathways play important roles during carcinogenesis with possible interaction. To determine the association of the activation of SHH signaling pathway and STAT3 pathway in carcinogenesis of human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we examined the expression of SHH signaling pathway molecules including SHH, Patched (PTCH), Smoothened (SMO) and GLI1 (glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1), as well as p-STAT3 (phosphorylation at Tyr705) by immunohistochemistry in 164 cases of PTC. In PTC, 70.12%, 64.02%, 68.90%, 64.02%, and 56.71% and in the adjacent normal thyroid tissues, 18.29%, 18.90%, 26.83%, 14.63%, and 10.98% of the specimens stained positive for SHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, and p-STAT3, respectively. Significant difference were found for the positive rate of SHH, PTCH, SMO, and GLI1 as well as p-STAT3 expression between PTC and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. There was a high accordance rate between SHH, PTCH, SMO, and GLI1 expression and all of them positively correlated with larger tumor size, the presence of ETE and LNM, and higher TNM stage. P-STAT3 expression positively correlated with the presence of ETE and LNM, and higher TNM stage but not age, gender, tumor size of the PTC patients. Signifi cant positive correlation between p-STAT3 and SHH, PTCH, SMO and GLI expression was found in PTC. These findings suggest that the SHH and STAT3 signaling pathways are frequently activated in PTC, interact with each other and may therefore be indicators for prognosis or potential targets for therapy against PTC. PMID:25126181

Dong, Wenwu; Cui, Junshuai; Tian, Xinshuai; He, Liang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Hao

2014-01-01

254

Expression of Stat3 in Feline Mammary Gland Tumours and its Relation to Histological Grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in normal and neoplastic feline mammary gland\\u000a tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 72 cats. The samples included 3 normal nonlactating mammary tissues, 17 hyperplastic\\u000a lesions (11 lobular and 6 fibroepithelial) and 52 neoplasms (5 benign and 47 malignant). For immunohistochemistry, tissue\\u000a sections were incubated with anti-Stat3 monoclonal antibody

C. Petterino; A. Ratto; E. Arcicasa; G. Podestà; M. Drigo; C. Pellegrino

2006-01-01

255

Stable expression of constitutively-activated STAT3 in benign prostatic epithelial cells changes their phenotype to that resembling malignant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are involved in growth regulation of cells. They are usually activated by phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues. In neoplastic cells, constitutive activation of STATs accompanies growth dysregulation and resistance to apoptosis through changes in gene expression, such as enhanced anti-apoptotic gene expression or reduced pro-apoptotic gene expression. Activated STAT3 is thought to

Hosea F Huang; Thomas F Murphy; Ping Shu; Arnold B Barton; Beverly E Barton

2005-01-01

256

Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN) treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. Methods To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS). Results To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), geldanamycin (17-AAG), doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. Conclusion We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6 induced Stat3 activity and the expression of pro-apoptotic genes. However, this shift alone is not sufficient to alter apoptosis sensitivity in MM cells, suggesting that Stat1 independent pathways are operative in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization. PMID:22838736

2012-01-01

257

Role of STAT3 in angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac remodeling revealed by mice lacking STAT3 serine 727 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

STAT3 is involved in protection of the heart provided by ischemic preconditioning. However, the role of this transcription factor in the heart in chronic stresses such as hypertension has not been defined. We assessed whether STAT3 is important in hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling using mice with reduced STAT3 activity due to a S727A mutation (SA/SA). Wild type (WT) and SA/SA mice received angiotensin (ANG) II or saline for 17 days. ANG II increased mean arterial and systolic pressure in SA/SA and WT mice, but cardiac levels of cytokines associated with heart failure were increased less in SA/SA mice. Unlike WT mice, hearts of SA/SA mice showed signs of developing systolic dysfunction as evidenced by reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In the left ventricle of both WT and SA/SA mice, ANG II induced fibrosis. However, fibrosis in SA/SA mice appeared more extensive and was associated with loss of myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy as indexed by heart to body weight ratio and left ventricular anterior wall dimension during diastole was greater in WT mice. In WT+ANG II mice there was an increase in the mass of individual myofibrils. In contrast, cardiac myocytes of SA/SA+ANG II mice showed a loss in myofibrils and myofibrillar mass density was decreased during ANG II infusion. Our findings reveal that STAT3 transcriptional activity is important for normal cardiac myocyte myofibril morphology. Loss of STAT3 may impair cardiac function in the hypertensive heart due to defective myofibrillar structure and remodeling that may lead to heart failure. PMID:23364341

Zouein, Fouad A; Zgheib, Carlos; Hamza, Shereen; Fuseler, John W; Hall, John E; Soljancic, Andrea; Lopez-Ruiz, Arnaldo; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W

2013-06-01

258

STAT3-dependent VEGF production from keratinocytes abrogates dendritic cell activation and migration by arsenic: A plausible regional mechanism of immunosuppression in arsenical cancers.  

PubMed

Arsenic remains an important environmental hazard that causes several human cancers. Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD), a skin carcinoma in situ, is the most common arsenical cancer. While great strides have been made in our understanding of arsenic carcinogenesis, how host immunity contributes to this process remains unknown. Patients with As-BD have an impaired contact hypersensitivity response. Although impaired T cell activation has been well-documented in arsenical cancers, how dendritic cell (DC), the key cell regulating innate immunity, regulates the immune response in arsenical cancers remains unclear. Using myeloid derived DC (MDDC) from patients with As-BD and normal controls as well as bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) from mice fed with or without arsenic, we measured the migration of DC. As-BD patients showed an impaired CCL21-mediated MDDC migration in vitro. Arsenic-fed mice had defective DC migration toward popliteal lymph nodes when injected with allogenic BMDCs via foot pad. Using skin from As-BD and normal controls, we found an increased expression of STAT3, a transcriptional factor contributing to impaired DC activation. Arsenic induced STAT3 activation and the production of VEGF in keratinocytes. The increase in VEGF was blocked by inhibiting STAT3 with RNA interference or pharmaceutically with JSI-124. While VEGF by itself minimally induced the expression of CD86 and MHC-II in MDDC, arsenic induced-MDDC activation was abolished by VEGF pretreatment. We concluded that the STAT3-VEGF axis in keratinocytes inhibits DC migration in the microenvironment of As-BD, indicating that cellular interactions play an important role in regulating the disease course of arsenical cancers. PMID:25559853

Hong, Chien-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Chang, Kee-Lung; Yu, Hsin-Su

2015-02-01

259

Antitumor progression potential of morusin suppressing STAT3 and NF?B in human hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells.  

PubMed

Morusin is a prenylated flavonoid that has been isolated from the root bark of the mulberry tree (Morus species, Moraceae), a Chinese traditional medicine. It has been synthesized by our laboratory from commercially available phloroglucinol, and has demonstrated to possess antitumor effects of cell lines including A549, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. In this study, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, morusin altered invasive morphology and suppressed cell-matrix adhesion, cell motility and cell invasion in SK-Hep1 cells. Morusin also increased the expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial cell junction protein, decreased the expression of vimentin, a mesecnchymal marker, and ?2-, ?6-, ?1- integrin, which regulated cancer attachment and migration. In addition, morusin reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), which were involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and promoting cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, morusin suppressed the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) signaling pathways, which modulate the protein expression involved in the invasion process. Finally, morusin decreased the lung colonization of the SK-Hep1 cells in the nude mice. These results indicate morusin possesses antitumor progression potential through suppressing STAT3 and NF?B. PMID:25476160

Lin, Wea-Lung; Lai, Deng-Yu; Lee, Yean-Jang; Chen, Nai-Fang; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa

2015-01-22

260

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces M2 polarization of human macrophages via STAT3 activation.  

PubMed

It is known that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the small intestine and regulates glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is now used for the treatment of diabetes because of its beneficial role against insulin resistance. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed on many cell types, including macrophages, and GLP-1 suppresses the development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting macrophage function. However, there have so far been few studies that have investigated the significance of GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling in macrophage activation. In the present study, we examined the effect of GLP-1 and exenatide, a GLP-1R agonist, on human monocyte-derived macrophage (HMDM) activation. We found that GLP-1 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. Silencing of GLP-1R suppressed the GLP-1-induced STAT3 activation. In addition, alternatively activated (M2) macrophage-related molecules, such as IL-10, CD163, and CD204 in HMDM, were significantly upregulated by GLP-1. Furthermore, the co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with GLP-1-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages increased the secretion of adiponectin compared to co-culture of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes with untreated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrate that GLP-1 induces macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype, which may contribute to the protective effects of GLP-1 against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22842565

Shiraishi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro

2012-08-24

261

Leukemia cell–targeted STAT3 silencing and TLR9 triggering generate systemic antitumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogene and immune checkpoint commonly activated in cancer cells and in tumor-associated immune cells. We previously developed an immunostimulatory strategy based on targeted Stat3 silencing in Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-positive hematopoietic cells using CpG-small interfering RNA (siRNA) conjugates. Here, we assessed the therapeutic effect of systemic STAT3 blocking/TLR9 triggering in disseminated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We used mouse Cbfb-MYH11/Mpl-induced leukemia model, which mimics human inv(16) AML. Our results demonstrate that intravenously delivered CpG-Stat3 siRNA, but not control oligonucleotides, can eradicate established AML and impair leukemia-initiating potential. These antitumor effects require host’s effector T cells but not TLR9-positive antigen-presenting cells. Instead, CpG-Stat3 siRNA has direct immunogenic effect on AML cells in vivo upregulating major histocompatibility complex class-II, costimulatory and proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-12, while downregulating coinhibitory PD-L1 molecule. Systemic injections of CpG-Stat3 siRNA generate potent tumor antigen–specific immune responses, increase the ratio of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells to regulatory T cells in various organs, and result in CD8+ T-cell–dependent regression of leukemia. Our findings underscore the potential of using targeted STAT3 inhibition/TLR9 triggering to break tumor tolerance and induce immunity against AML and potentially other TLR9-positive blood cancers. PMID:24169824

Hossain, Dewan Md Sakib; Dos Santos, Cedric; Zhang, Qifang; Kozlowska, Anna; Liu, Hongjun; Gao, Chan; Moreira, Dayson; Swiderski, Piotr; Jozwiak, Agnieszka; Kline, Justin; Forman, Stephen; Bhatia, Ravi; Kuo, Ya-Huei

2014-01-01

262

Prevention of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock-Mediated Liver Apoptosis by Activation of Stat3?  

PubMed Central

Trauma is a major cause of mortality in the United States. Death among those surviving the initial insult is caused by multiple organ failure (MOF) with the liver among the organs most frequently affected. We previously demonstrated in rodents that trauma complicated by hemorrhagic shock (trauma/HS) results in liver injury that can be prevented by IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation; however, the contribution of the severity of HS to the extent of liver injury, whether or not resuscitation is required and the mechanism for the IL-6 protective effect have not been reported. In the experiments reported here, we demonstrated that the extent of liver apoptosis induced by trauma/HS depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. We established that IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation is capable of completely reversing liver apoptosis and is associated with increased Stat3 activation. Microarray analysis of the livers showed that the main effect of IL-6 was to normalize the trauma/HS-induced apoptosis transcriptome. Pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity within the liver blocked the ability of IL-6 to prevent liver apoptosis and to normalize the trauma/HS- induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. Genetic deletion of a Stat3?, a naturally occurring, dominant-negative isoform of the Stat3, attenuated trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis, confirming a role for Stat3, especially Stat3?, in preventing trauma/HS-mediated liver apoptosis. Thus, trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis depends on the duration of hypotension and requires resuscitation. IL-6 administration at the start of resuscitation reverses HS-induced liver apoptosis, through activation of Stat3?, which normalizes the trauma/HS-induced liver apoptosis transcriptome. PMID:18997875

Moran, Ana; Akcan Arikan, Ayse; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A.; Wu, Yong; Yu, Bi; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J.

2008-01-01

263

Effects of lentivirus mediated STAT3 silencing on human chronic myeloid leukemia cells and leukemia mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effects of lentivirus mediated STAT3 silencing on human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562) and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia mice as well as to explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: Unbtreated K562 cells (CON), blank lentivirus transfected K562 cells (NC) and K562 cells expressing STAT3 siRNA (STAT3 siRNA) were injected into SCID mice to establish the chronic myeloid leukemia model in mice. The growth, peripheral white blood cell count and spleen index in these mice were determined. Results: In vitro experiment showed, when compared with control group, the interference efficiency of STAT3 expression was as high as 97.5% in K562 cells. Western blot assay revealed that the expression of c-Myc, Bcl-xL and Cyclin D1 reduced by 17.01%, 7.3% and 6.82%, respectively, showing significant difference when compared with control group (P < 0.01). These findings were consistent with those from fluorescence quantitative PCR. In vivo experiment showed the body weight of mice reduced progressively and the peripheral white blood cell count increased gradually in control group, accompanied by dragging hind limbs and progressive enlargement of the spleen. The body weight remained unchanged, peripheral white blood cell count reduced gradually and the spleen did not enlarge in mice treated with STAT3 siRNA expressing cells. Conclusion: Lentivirus mediated STAT3 silencing may inhibit the expression of its downstream genes (c-Myc, Bcl-xL and Cyclin D1) related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and cycle to suppress the malignant biological behaviors, and STAT3 silencing also inhibit the leukemogenic potency of K562 cells in mice.

Jia, Xinyan; Yang, Wenzhong; Han, Jia; Xiong, Hong

2014-01-01

264

EGFL7 is expressed in bone microenvironment and promotes angiogenesis via ERK, STAT3, and integrin signaling cascades.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in bone formation, remodeling, and fracture healing. The regulation of angiogenesis in the bone microenvironment is highly complex and orchestrated by intercellular communication between bone cells and endothelial cells. Here, we report that EGF-like domain 7 (EGFL7), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat protein superfamily is expressed in both the osteoclast and osteoblast lineages, and promotes endothelial cell activities. Addition of exogenous recombinant EGFL7 potentiates SVEC (simian virus 40-transformed mouse microvascular endothelial cell line) cell migration and tube-like structure formation in vitro. Moreover, recombinant EGFL7 promotes angiogenesis featuring web-like structures in ex vivo fetal mouse metatarsal angiogenesis assay. We show that recombinant EGFL7 induces phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in SVEC cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and STAT3 signaling impairs EGFL7-induced endothelial cell migration, and angiogenesis in fetal mouse metatarsal explants. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that EGFL7 contains a conserved RGD/QGD motif and EGFL7-induced endothelial cell migration is significantly reduced in the presence of RGD peptides. Moreover, EGFL7 gene expression is significantly upregulated during growth plate injury repair. Together, these results demonstrate that EGFL7 expressed by bone cells regulates endothelial cell activities through integrin-mediated signaling. This study highlights the important role that EGFL7, like EGFL6, expressed in bone microenvironment plays in the regulation of angiogenesis in bone. PMID:24909139

Chim, Shek Man; Kuek, Vincent; Chow, Siu To; Lim, Bay Sie; Tickner, Jennifer; Zhao, Jinmin; Chung, Rosa; Su, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Ge; Erber, Wendy; Xian, Cory J; Rosen, Vicki; Xu, Jiake

2015-01-01

265

Feedback activation of STAT3 mediates trastuzumab resistance via upregulation of MUC1 and MUC4 expression  

PubMed Central

Although HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab confers a substantial benefit for patients with HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer, overcoming trastuzumab resistance remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a STAT3-centered positive feedback loop that mediates the resistance of trastuzumab. Mechanistically, chronic exposure of trastuzumab causes the upregulation of fibronection (FN), EGF and IL-6 in parental trastuzumab-sensitive breast and gastric cells and convergently leads to STAT3 hyperactivation. Activated STAT3 enhances the expression of FN, EGF and IL-6, thus constituting a positive feedback loop which amplifies and maintains the STAT3 signal; furthermore, hyperactivated STAT3 signal promotes the expression of MUC1 and MUC4, consequently mediating trastuzumab resistance via maintenance of persistent HER2 activation and masking of trastuzumab binding to HER2 respectively. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 disrupted STAT3-dependent positive feedback loop and recovered the trastuzumab sensitivity partially due to increased apoptosis induction. Combined trastuzumab with STAT3 inhibition synergistically suppressed the growth of the trastuzumab-resistant tumor xenografts in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that feedback activation of STAT3 constitutes a key node mediating trastuzumab resistance. Combinatorial targeting on both HER2 and STAT3 may enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab or other HER2-targeting agents in HER2-positive breast and gastric cancer. PMID:25327561

Li, Wei; Fan, Kexing; Qian, Weizhu; Hou, Sheng; Wang, Hao; Dai, Jianxin; Wei, Huafeng; Guo, Yajun

2014-01-01

266

STAT3alpha is oncogenic for endometrial carcinoma cells and mediates the oncogenic effects of autocrine human growth hormone.  

PubMed

We herein demonstrate an oncogenic role for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3alpha (the full length STAT3 isoform), which also mediates autocrine human GH (hGH)-stimulated oncogenicity, in human endometrial carcinoma (EC) cells. Autocrine hGH stimulated Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity in a SRC and Janus-2 Kinase dependent manner in human EC cell lines. Forced expression of a constitutively active variant of STAT3alpha increased proliferation, anchorage-independent, three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel, and xenograft growth and promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion of EC cells. Conversely, the oncogenic capacity of EC cells was significantly impaired by treatment with JSI-124, an inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation and activity, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of STAT3alpha, or a dominant-negative variant of STAT3alpha. Furthermore, the enhanced EC cell oncogenicity stimulated by autocrine hGH, was also abrogated by functional inhibition or small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of STAT3alpha. STAT3alpha may therefore be a common mediator of oncogenic signaling pathways stimulating progression of EC. PMID:20668024

Tang, Jian-Zhong; Kong, Xiang-Jun; Banerjee, Arindam; Muniraj, Nethaji; Pandey, Vijay; Steiner, Michael; Perry, Jo K; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E

2010-09-01

267

Hydrazinocurcumin Encapsuled nanoparticles "re-educate" tumor-associated macrophages and exhibit anti-tumor effects on breast cancer following STAT3 suppression.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential cellular components within tumor microenvironment (TME). TAMs are educated by TME to transform to M2 polarized population, showing a M2-like phenotype, IL-10(high), IL-12(low), TGF-?(high). STAT3 signaling triggers crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs, and is crucial for the regulation of malignant progression. In our study, legumain-targeting liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating HC were employed to suppress STAT3 activity and "re-educate" TAMs, and to investigate the effects of suppression of tumor progression in vivo. The results showed that TAMs treated by HC encapsuled NPs could switch to M1-like phenotype, IL-10(low), IL-12(high), TGF-?(low), and the "re-educated" macrophages (M1-like macrophages) considerably demonstrated opposite effect of M2-like macrophages, especially the induction of 4T1 cells migration and invasion in vitro, and suppression of tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. These data indicated that inhibition of STAT3 activity of TAMs by HC-NPs was able to reverse their phenotype and could regulate their crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs in order to suppress tumor progression. PMID:23825527

Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Wenxia; Cai, Xiaozhong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dang, Weiqi; Tang, Hao; Cao, Hong; Wang, Lin; Chen, Tingmei

2013-01-01

268

Hydrazinocurcumin Encapsuled Nanoparticles “Re-Educate” Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Exhibit Anti-Tumor Effects on Breast Cancer Following STAT3 Suppression  

PubMed Central

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are essential cellular components within tumor microenvironment (TME). TAMs are educated by TME to transform to M2 polarized population, showing a M2-like phenotype, IL-10high, IL-12low, TGF-?high. STAT3 signaling triggers crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs, and is crucial for the regulation of malignant progression. In our study, legumain-targeting liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating HC were employed to suppress STAT3 activity and “re-educate” TAMs, and to investigate the effects of suppression of tumor progression in vivo. The results showed that TAMs treated by HC encapsuled NPs could switch to M1-like phenotype, IL-10low, IL-12high, TGF-?low, and the “re-educated” macrophages (M1-like macrophages) considerably demonstrated opposite effect of M2-like macrophages, especially the induction of 4T1 cells migration and invasion in vitro, and suppression of tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo. These data indicated that inhibition of STAT3 activity of TAMs by HC-NPs was able to reverse their phenotype and could regulate their crosstalk between tumor cells and TAMs in order to suppress tumor progression. PMID:23825527

Tian, Wenxia; Cai, Xiaozhong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dang, Weiqi; Tang, Hao; Cao, Hong; Wang, Lin

2013-01-01

269

Involvement of fish signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in nodavirus infection induced cell death.  

PubMed

The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is an important signaling pathway activated by interferons in response to virus infection. Fish STAT3 has been demonstrated to be involved in Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection and virus induced paraptosis, but its effects on the replication of other fish viruses still remained uncertain. Here, the roles of grouper STAT3 (Ec-STAT3) in red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection were investigated. The present data showed that the distribution of phosphorylated Ec-STAT3 was altered in RGNNV infected fish cells, and the promoter activity of STAT3 was significantly increased during virus infection, suggesting that STAT3 activation was involved in RGNNV infection. Using STAT3 specific inhibitor, we found that inhibition of Ec-STAT3 in vitro did not affect the transcription and protein synthesis of RGNNV coat protein (CP), however, the severity of RGNNV induced vacuolation and autophagy was significantly increased. Meanwhile, at the late stage of virus infection, RGNNV induced necrotic cell death was significantly decreased after inhibition of Ec-STAT3. Further studies indicated that Ec-STAT3 inhibition significantly increased the transcript level of autophagy related genes, including UNC-51-like kinase 2 (ULK2) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) induced by RGNNV infection. Moreover, the expression of several pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF?, IL-1? and IL-8 were mediated by Ec-STAT3 during RGNNV infection. Together, our results not only firstly revealed that STAT3 exerted novel roles in response to fish virus infection, but also provided new insights into understanding the roles of STAT3 in different forms of programmed cell death. PMID:25555814

Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Yang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Yu, Yepin; Qin, Qiwei

2015-03-01

270

Overexpression of B7-H3 augments anti-apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells by Jak2-STAT3  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of the overexpression of B7-H3 in apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: SW620 cells that highly overexpressed B7-H3 (SW620-B7-H3-EGFP) and HCT8 cells stably transfected with B7-H3 shRNA (HCT8-shB7-H3) were previously constructed in our laboratory. Cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP were used as negative controls (SW620-NC and HCT8-NC). Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of the apoptosis regulator proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Bax. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the survival rate and drug sensitivity of the cells. The effect of drug resistance was detected by a cell cycle assay. Active caspase-3 western blotting was used to reflect the anti-apoptotic ability of cells. Western blotting was also performed to determine the expression of proteins associated with the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway and the apoptosis regulator proteins after the treatment with AG490, a Jak2 specific inhibitor, in B7-H3 overexpressing cells. The data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 using a non-paired t-test. RESULTS: Whether by overexpression in SW620 cells or downregulation in HCT8, B7-H3 significantly affected the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins, at both the transcriptional and translational levels, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). A cell proliferation assay revealed that B7-H3 overexpression increased the drug resistance of cells and resulted in a higher survival rate (P < 0.05). In addition, the results of cell cycle and active caspase-3 western blotting proved that B7-H3 overexpression inhibited apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines (P < 0.05). B7-H3 overexpression improved Jak2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and, in turn, increased the expression of the downstream anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-xl, based on western blotting (P < 0.05). After treating B7-H3 overexpressing cells with the Jak2-specific inhibitor AG490, the phosphorylation of Jak2 and STAT3, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, decreased accordingly (P < 0.05). This finding suggested that the Jak2-STAT3 pathway is involved in the mechanism mediating the anti-apoptotic ability of B7-H3. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of B7-H3 induces resistance to apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines by upregulating the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway, potentially providing new approaches to the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Bo; Zou, Shi-Tao; Liu, Fen; Hua, Dong

2015-01-01

271

ATP Mediates NADPH Oxidase/ROS Generation and COX-2/PGE2 Expression in A549 Cells: Role of P2 Receptor-Dependent STAT3 Activation  

PubMed Central

Background Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors, leading to COX-2 expression in various inflammatory diseases, such as lung inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying ATP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release remain unclear. Principal Findings Here, we showed that ATP?S induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells revealed by western blot and real-time PCR. Pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor (PPADS and suramin), PKC (Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, and Rottlerin), ROS (Edaravone), NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin], Jak2 (AG490), and STAT3 [cucurbitacin E (CBE)] and transfection with siRNAs of PKC?, PKC?, PKC?, p47phox, Jak2, STAT3, and cPLA2 markedly reduced ATP?S-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. In addition, pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor attenuated PKCs translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in response to ATP?S. Moreover, ATP?S-induced ROS generation and p47phox translocation was also reduced by pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor, PKC, and NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, ATP?S stimulated Jak2 and STAT3 activation which were inhibited by pretreatment with PPADS, suramin, Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, GF109203X, Rottlerin, Edaravone, DPI, and apocynin in A549 cells. Significance Taken together, these results showed that ATP?S induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via a P2 receptor/PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/Jak2/STAT3/cPLA2 signaling pathway in A549 cells. Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underlying COX-2 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutic strategies. PMID:23326583

Cheng, Shin-Ei; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

2013-01-01

272

SIAH2 antagonizes TYK2-STAT3 signaling in lung carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The Janus tyrosine kinases JAK1-3 and tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) are frequently hyperactivated in tumors. In lung cancers JAK1 and JAK2 induce oncogenic signaling through STAT3. A putative role of TYK2 in these tumors has not been reported. Here, we show a previously not recognized TYK2-STAT3 signaling node in lung cancer cells. We reveal that the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia-2 (SIAH2) accelerates the proteasomal degradation of TYK2. This mechanism consequently suppresses the activation of STAT3. In agreement with these data the analysis of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples from three patient cohorts revealed that compared to lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) show significantly higher levels of SIAH2 and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation levels. Thus, SIAH2 is a novel molecular marker for SCC. We further demonstrate that an activation of the oncologically relevant transcription factor p53 in lung cancer cells induces SIAH2, depletes TYK2, and abrogates the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. This mechanism appears to be different from the inhibition of phosphorylated JAKs through the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. Our study may help to identify molecular mechanisms affecting lung carcinogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24833526

Müller, Sylvia; Chen, Yuan; Ginter, Torsten; Schäfer, Claudia; Buchwald, Marc; Schmitz, Lienhard M.; Klitzsch, Jana; Schütz, Alexander; Haitel, Andrea; Schmid, Katharina; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Haan, Claude; Petersen, Iver; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H.

2014-01-01

273

Sorafenib Enhances Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal human malignancies. Lack of efficient therapy for advanced HCC is a pressing problem worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of combined sorafenib and radiation therapy treatment for HCC. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Huh-7, Sk-Hep1, and Hep3B) were treated with sorafenib, radiation, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: All 4 HCC cell lines showed resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis; however, this resistance could be reversed in the presence of sorafenib. Inhibition of phospho-STAT3 was found in cells treated with sorafenib or sorafenib plus radiation and subsequently reduced the expression levels of STAT3-related proteins, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, and survivin. Silencing STAT3 by RNA interference overcame apoptotic resistance to radiation in HCC cells, and the ectopic expression of STAT3 in HCC cells abolished the radiosensitizing effect of sorafenib. Moreover, sorafenib plus radiation significantly suppressed PLC5 xenograft tumor growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that sorafenib sensitizes resistant HCC cells to radiation-induced apoptosis via downregulating phosphorylation of STAT3 in vitro and in vivo.

Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chen-Si [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien; Hsieh, Chi-Ying [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-07-01

274

Loss of androgen receptor expression promotes a stem-like cell phenotype in prostate cancer through STAT3 signaling.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is important for prostate cancer progression. However, androgen-deprivation and/or AR targeting-based therapies often lead to resistance. Here, we demonstrate that loss of AR expression results in STAT3 activation in prostate cancer cells. AR downregulation further leads to development of prostate cancer stem-like cells (CSC), which requires STAT3. In human prostate tumor tissues, elevated cancer stem-like cell markers coincide with those cells exhibiting high STAT3 activity and low AR expression. AR downregulation-induced STAT3 activation is mediated through increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression. Treating mice with soluble IL-6 receptor fusion protein or silencing STAT3 in tumor cells significantly reduced prostate tumor growth and CSCs. Together, these findings indicate an opposing role of AR and STAT3 in prostate CSC development. PMID:24177177

Schroeder, Anne; Herrmann, Andreas; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Kowolik, Claudia; Buettner, Ralf; Pal, Sumanta; Yu, Hua; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Jove, Richard

2014-02-15

275

Biologic activity of the novel small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL12 against canine osteosarcoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background STAT3 [1] has been shown to be dysregulated in nearly every major cancer, including osteosarcoma (OS). Constitutive activation of STAT3, via aberrant phosphorylation, leads to proliferation, cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of a novel allosteric STAT3 inhibitor, LLL12, in canine OS cell lines. Results We evaluated the effects of LLL12 treatment on 4 canine OS cell lines and found that LLL12 inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, reduced STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreased the expression of several transcriptional targets of STAT3 in these cells. Lastly, LLL12 exhibited synergistic anti-proliferative activity with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin in the OS lines. Conclusion LLL12 exhibits biologic activity against canine OS cell lines through inhibition of STAT3 related cellular functions supporting its potential use as a novel therapy for OS. PMID:23244668

2012-01-01

276

STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease. PMID:24639502

Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

2014-01-01

277

Herbal remedy magnolol suppresses IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and gene expression in endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Magnolol (Mag), an active constituent isolated from the Chinese herb Hou p'u (Magnolia officinalis) has long been used to suppress inflammatory processes. Chronic inflammation is well known to be involved in vascular injuries such as atherosclerosis in which interleukin (IL)-6 may participate. Signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor involved in inflammation and the cell cycle, is activated by IL-6. In this study, we evaluated whether Mag can serve as an anti-inflammatory agent during endothelial injuries. The effects of Mag on IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and downstream target gene induction in endothelial cells (ECs) were examined. Pretreatment of ECs with Mag dose dependently inhibited IL-6-induced Tyr705 and Ser727 phosphorylation in STAT3 without affecting the phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2, and ERK1/2. Mag pretreatment of these ECs dose dependently suppressed IL-6-induced promoter activity of intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 that contains functional IL-6 response elements (IREs). An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that Mag treatment significantly reduced STAT3 binding to the IRE region. Consistently, Mag treatment markedly inhibited ICAM-1 expression on the endothelial surface. As a result, reduced monocyte adhesion to IL-6-activated ECs was observed. Furthermore, Mag suppressed IL-6-induced promoter activity of cyclin D1 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 for which STAT3 activation plays a role. In conclusion, our results indicate that Mag inhibits IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and subsequently results in the suppression of downstream target gene expression in ECs. These results provide a therapeutic basis for the development of Mag as an anti-inflammatory agent for vascular disorders including atherosclerosis. PMID:16520748

Chen, Shih-Chung; Chang, Ying-Ling; Wang, Danny Ling; Cheng, Jing-Jy

2006-01-01

278

Induction of innate lymphoid cell-derived interleukin-22 by the transcription factor STAT3 mediates protection against intestinal infection.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of the transcription factor STAT3 target STAT3-dependent tumorigenesis but patients often develop diarrhea from unknown mechanisms. Here we showed that STAT3 deficiency increased morbidity and mortality after Citrobacter rodentium infection with decreased secretion of cytokines including IL-17 and IL-22 associated with the transcription factor ROR?t. Administration of the cytokine IL-22 was sufficient to rescue STAT3-deficient mice from lethal infection. Although STAT3 was required for IL-22 production in both innate and adaptive arms, by using conditional gene-deficient mice, we observed that STAT3 expression in ROR?t(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), but not T cells, was essential for the protection. However, STAT3 was required for ROR?t expression in T helper cells, but not in ILC3s. Activated STAT3 could directly bind to the Il22 locus. Thus, cancer therapies that utilize STAT3 inhibitors increase the risk for pathogen-mediated diarrhea through direct suppression of IL-22 from gut ILCs. PMID:24412612

Guo, Xiaohuan; Qiu, Ju; Tu, Tony; Yang, Xuanming; Deng, Liufu; Anders, Robert A; Zhou, Liang; Fu, Yang-Xin

2014-01-16

279

Oncostatin M promotes STAT3 activation, VEGF production, and invasion in osteosarcoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously demonstrated that both canine and human OSA cell lines, as well as 8 fresh canine OSA tumor samples, exhibit constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3, and that this correlates with enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). While multiple signal transduction pathways can result in phosphorylation of STAT3, stimulation of the cytokine receptor gp130 through either IL-6 or Oncostatin M (OSM) is the most common mechanism through which STAT3 is activated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 and OSM stimulation on both canine and human OSA cell lines to begin to determine the role of these cytokines in the biology of OSA. Methods RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to interrogate the consequences of OSM and IL-6 stimulation of OSA cell lines. OSA cells were stimulated with OSM and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the effects on MMP2 activity (gel zymography), proliferation (CyQUANT), invasion (Matrigel transwell assay), and VEGF production (Western blotting, ELISA) were assessed. The small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3 was used to investigate the impact of STAT3 inhibition following OSM stimulation of OSA cells. Results Our data demonstrate that the OSM receptor (OSMR), but not IL-6 or its receptor, is expressed by all human and canine OSA cell lines and canine OSA tumor samples; additionally, OSM expression was noted in all tumor samples. Treatment of OSA cell lines with OSM induced phosphorylation of STAT3, Src, and JAK2. OSM stimulation also resulted in a dose dependent increase in MMP2 activity and VEGF expression that was markedly reduced following treatment with the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor LLL3. Lastly, OSM stimulation of OSA cell lines enhanced invasion through Matrigel, particularly in the presence of rhHGF. In contrast, both OSM and HGF stimulation of OSA cell lines did not alter their proliferative capacity. Conclusions These data indicate OSM stimulation of human and canine OSA cells induces STAT3 activation, thereby enhancing the expression/activation of MMP2 and VEGF, ultimately promoting invasive behavior and tumor angiogenesis. As such, OSM and its receptor may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in OSA. PMID:21481226

2011-01-01

280

15-PGJ2, but not thiazolidinediones, inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis, and causes downregulation of Stat3 in human oral SCCa cells.  

PubMed

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been linked to induction of differentiation, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in several types of human cancer. However, the possible effects of PPARgamma agonists on human oral squamous cell carcinoma have not yet been reported. In this study, treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15-PGJ(2)), a natural PPARgamma ligand, induced a significant reduction of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell growth, which was mainly attributed to upregulation of apoptosis. Interestingly, rosiglitazone and ciglitazone, two members of the thiazolidinedione family of PPARgamma activators, did not exert a growth inhibitory effect. Given the critical role that the oncogene signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) plays in head and neck carcinogenesis, its potential regulation by PPARgamma ligands was also examined. Treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells with 15-PGJ(2) induced an initial reduction and eventual elimination of both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated Stat3 protein levels. In contrast, other PPARgamma did not induce similar effects. Our results provide the first evidence of significant antineoplastic effects of 15-PGJ(2) on human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, which may be related to downmodulation of Stat3 and are at least partly mediated through PPARgamma-independent events. PMID:12454768

Nikitakis, N G; Siavash, H; Hebert, C; Reynolds, M A; Hamburger, A W; Sauk, J J

2002-12-01

281

Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway  

SciTech Connect

Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

2012-08-01

282

Topical N-Acetylcysteine Accelerates Wound Healing in Vitro and in Vivo via the PKC/Stat3 Pathway  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylcysteine (Nac) is an antioxidant administered in both oral and injectable forms. In this study, we used Nac topically to treat burn wounds in vitro and in vivo to investigate mechanisms of action. In vitro, we monitored glutathione levels, cell proliferation, migration, scratch-wound healing activities and the epithelialization-related proteins, matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and proteins involved in regulating the expression of MMP-1 in CCD-966SK cells treated with Nac. Various Nac concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) increased glutathione levels, cell viability, scratch-wound healing activities and migration abilities of CCD-966SK cells in a dose-dependent manner. The MMP-1 expression of CCD-966SK cells treated with 1.0 mM Nac for 24 h was significantly increased. Levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), janus kinase 1 (Jak1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), c-Fos and Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), were also significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the controls. In addition, Nac induced collagenous expression of MMP-1 via the PKC/Stat3 signaling pathway. In vivo, a burn wound healing rat model was applied to assess the stimulation activity and histopathological effects of Nac, with 3.0% Nac-treated wounds being found to show better characteristics on re-epithelialization. Our results demonstrated that Nac can potentially promote wound healing activity, and may be a promising drug to accelerate burn wound healing. PMID:24798751

Tsai, Min-Ling; Huang, Hui-Pei; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Lai, Yung-Rung; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chang, Horng-Rong

2014-01-01

283

Boswellic Acid Blocks STAT3 Signaling, Proliferation, and Survival of Multiple Myeloma via the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1  

PubMed Central

Activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-3 factors has been linked with survival, proliferation, chemoresistance and angiogenesis of tumor cells, including human multiple myeloma (MM). Thus agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential as cancer therapeutics. In our search for such agents, we identified acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA), originally isolated from Boswellia serrata. Our results show that AKBA inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation in human MM cells. AKBA suppressed IL-6-induced STAT3 activation, and the inhibition was reversible. The phosphorylation of both Jak 2 and Src, constituents of the STAT3 pathway, was inhibited by AKBA. Interestingly, treatment of cells with pervanadate suppressed AKBA’s effect to inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT3, thus suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. We found that AKBA induced Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), which may account for its role in dephosphorylation of STAT3. Moreover, deletion of SHP-1 gene by SiRNA abolished the ability of AKBA to inhibit STAT3 activation. The inhibition of STAT3 activation by AKBA led to the suppression of gene products involved in proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), and angiogenesis (VEGF). This affect correlated with the inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the AKBA induced apoptosis. Overall, our results suggest that AKBA is a novel inhibitor of STAT3 activation and has potential in the treatment of cancer. PMID:19147543

Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Nair, Asha S.; Sung, Bokyung; Pandey, Manoj K.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2009-01-01

284

Autoimmunity, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphoproliferation, and mycobacterial disease in patients with activating mutations in STAT3  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors orchestrate hematopoietic cell differentiation. Recently, mutations in STAT1, STAT5B, and STAT3 have been linked to development of immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked–like syndrome. Here, we immunologically characterized 3 patients with de novo activating mutations in the DNA binding or dimerization domains of STAT3 (p.K392R, p.M394T, and p.K658N, respectively). The patients displayed multiorgan autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and delayed-onset mycobacterial disease. Immunologically, we noted hypogammaglobulinemia with terminal B-cell maturation arrest, dendritic cell deficiency, peripheral eosinopenia, increased double-negative (CD4?CD8?) T cells, and decreased natural killer, T helper 17, and regulatory T-cell numbers. Notably, the patient harboring the K392R mutation developed T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia at age 14 years. Our results broaden the spectrum of phenotypes caused by activating STAT3 mutations, highlight the role of STAT3 in the development and differentiation of multiple immune cell lineages, and strengthen the link between the STAT family of transcription factors and autoimmunity. PMID:25349174

Haapaniemi, Emma M.; Kaustio, Meri; Rajala, Hanna L. M.; van Adrichem, Arjan J.; Kainulainen, Leena; Glumoff, Virpi; Doffinger, Rainer; Kuusanmäki, Heikki; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Trotta, Luca; Chiang, Samuel; Kulmala, Petri; Eldfors, Samuli; Katainen, Riku; Siitonen, Sanna; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kovanen, Panu E.; Otonkoski, Timo; Porkka, Kimmo; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Hänninen, Arno; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Saarela, Janna; Seppänen, Mikko; Kere, Juha

2015-01-01

285

Metformin promotes autophagy and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by downregulating Stat3 signaling  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic drug metformin exerts chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects in many types of malignancies. However, the mechanisms responsible for metformin actions appear diverse and may differ in different types of cancer. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms specific for different cancers is important to optimize strategy for metformin treatment in different cancer types. Here, we investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Metformin selectively inhibited cell growth in ESCC tumor cells but not immortalized noncancerous esophageal epithelial cells. In addition to apoptosis, metformin triggered autophagy. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy sensitized ESCC cells to metformin-induced apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and its downstream target Bcl-2 was inactivated by metformin treatment. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated Stat3 knockdown enhanced metformin-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and concomitantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability. Similarly, the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene, an inhibitor of both apoptosis and autophagy, was repressed by metformin. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 protected cells from metformin-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. In vivo, metformin downregulated Stat3 activity and Bcl-2 expression, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibited tumor growth. Together, inactivation of Stat3-Bcl-2 pathway contributes to metformin-induced growth inhibition of ESCC by facilitating crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24577086

Feng, Y; Ke, C; Tang, Q; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Lin, W; Ke, J; Huang, J; Yeung, S-CJ; Zhang, H

2014-01-01

286

Leukemia. Author manuscript STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in  

E-print Network

and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma Coppo Paul 1 2 3 * , Gouilleux-Gruart Val rieé 4 , Huang Yenlin 8 results suggest that STAT3 protein has a major role in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Development of new N-Arylbenzamides as STAT3 Dimerization Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The O-tosylsalicylamide S3I-201 (10) was used as a starting point for design and synthesis of novel STAT-3 dimerization inhibitors with improved drug-like qualities. The phosphonic acid 12d and salicylic acids 13f, 13g with a shorter amide linker lacking the O-tosyl group had improved STAT-3 inhibitory activity. The equivalent potencies observed by the replacement of phosphonic acid moiety of 12d with 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid group as in 13f further validates 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid as a phosphotyrosine mimic. The salicylic acid 13f displayed improved whole cell activity. The focused library of salicylic acids 13 with benzamide linker indicated that hydrophobic heptyl and cyclohexyl are the best tolerated R groups and a biphenyl ether (as the Ar group) significantly contributes to STAT3 inhibitory activity. Our docking studies indicated that the acidic groups of 12d, 13f and 13g interact in the p-Tyr-705 binding site in a broadly similar manner, while the phenoxybenzoyl group and the cyclohexylbenzyl group occupying pY+1 and pY-X hydrophobic pockets respectively. The in vitro and cell based potency of 13f warrants further development of this scaffold as STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:24073326

Urlam, Murali K.; Pireddu, Roberta; Ge, Yiyu; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Ying; Lawrence, Harshani R.; Guida, Wayne C.; Sebti, Saïd M.; Lawrence, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

288

Activation of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium in an effort to determine the role of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 in 25 human middle ear cholesteatoma samples and 15 normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium specimens. We also analyzed the relation of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression levels to the degree of bone destruction in cholesteatoma. We found that the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 were significantly higher in cholesteatoma epithelium than in normal EAC epithelium (p<0.05). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p<0.05). However, no significant relationships were observed between the degree of bone destruction and the levels of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p>0.05). To conclude, our results support the concept that IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is active and may play an important role in the mechanisms of epithelial hyper-proliferation responsible for cholesteatoma. PMID:24551293

Liu, Wei; Xie, Shumin; Chen, Xing; Rao, Xingwang; Ren, Hongmiao; Hu, Bing; Yin, Tuanfang; Xiang, Yuyan; Ren, Jihao

2014-01-01

289

Alantolactone selectively suppresses STAT3 activation and exhibits potent anticancer activity in MDA-MB-231 cells.  

PubMed

The important goal of cancer drug discovery is to develop therapeutic agents that are effective, safe, and affordable. In the present study, we demonstrated that alantolactone, which is a sesquiterpene lactone, has potential activity against triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Alantolactone effectively suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation at tyrosine 705. Alantolactone decreased STAT3 translocation to the nucleus, its DNA-binding, and STAT3 target gene expression. Alantolactone significantly inhibits STAT3 activation with a marginal effect on MAPKs and on NF-?B transcription; however, this effect is not mediated by inhibiting STAT3 upstream kinases. Although SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, which are protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), were not affected by alantolactone, the treatment with a PTP inhibitor reversed the alantolactone-induced suppression of STAT3 activation, indicating that PTP plays an important role in the action of alantolactone. Finally, alantolactone treatment resulted in the inhibition of migration, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation. The in vivo administration of alantolactone inhibited the growth of human breast xenograft tumors. These results provide preclinical evidence to continue the development of alantolactone as a STAT3 inhibitor and as a potential therapeutic agent against breast cancer. PMID:25434800

Chun, Jaemoo; Li, Rui-Juan; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Kim, Yeong Shik

2015-02-01

290

Cancer-Associated Adipose Tissue Promotes Breast Cancer Progression by Paracrine Oncostatin M and Jak/STAT3 Signaling.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence supports the critical roles played by adipose tissue in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that breast cancer-associated adipose tissue from freshly isolated tumors promotes F-actin remodeling, cellular scattering, invasiveness, and spheroid reorganization of cultured breast cancer cells. A combination of techniques, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and kinomics enabled us to identify paracrine secretion of oncostatin M (OSM) by cancer-associated adipose tissue. Specifically, OSM, expressed by CD45(+) leucocytes in the stromal vascular fraction, induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3-) Y705 and S727 in breast cancer cells and transcription of several STAT3-dependent genes, including S100 family members S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9. Autocrine activation of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells ectopically expressing OSM-induced cellular scattering and peritumoral neovascularization of orthotopic xenografts. Conversely, selective inhibition of OSM by neutralizing antibody and Jak family kinases by tofacitinib inhibited STAT3 signaling, peritumoral angiogenesis, and cellular scattering. Importantly, nuclear staining of pSTAT3-Y705 identified at the tumor invasion front in ductal breast carcinomas correlates with increased lymphovascular invasion. Our work reveals the potential of novel therapeutic strategies targeting the OSM and STAT3 axis in patients with breast cancer harboring nuclear pSTAT3-Y705. Cancer Res; 74(23); 6806-19. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25252914

Lapeire, Lore; Hendrix, An; Lambein, Kathleen; Van Bockstal, Mieke; Braems, Geert; Van Den Broecke, Rudy; Limame, Ridha; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Vanhove, Christian; Maynard, Dawn; Lehuédé, Camille; Muller, Catherine; Valet, Philippe; Gespach, Christian P; Bracke, Marc; Cocquyt, Veronique; Denys, Hannelore; De Wever, Olivier

2014-12-01

291

Activation of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in human middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium in an effort to determine the role of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 in 25 human middle ear cholesteatoma samples and 15 normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium specimens. We also analyzed the relation of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression levels to the degree of bone destruction in cholesteatoma. We found that the expression of IL-6 and p-STAT3 were significantly higher in cholesteatoma epithelium than in normal EAC epithelium (p<0.05). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p<0.05). However, no significant relationships were observed between the degree of bone destruction and the levels of IL-6 and p-STAT3 expression (p>0.05). To conclude, our results support the concept that IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway is active and may play an important role in the mechanisms of epithelial hyper-proliferation responsible for cholesteatoma. PMID:24551293

Liu, Wei; Xie, Shumin; Chen, Xing; Rao, Xingwang; Ren, Hongmiao; Hu, Bing; Yin, Tuanfang; Xiang, Yuyan; Ren, Jihao

2014-01-01

292

Interleukin-6 enhances porcine parthenote development in vitro, through the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a central role in interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated cell proliferation by inhibiting apoptosis in a variety of cell types. The Stat3 pathway is essential for embryonic development. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant IL-6 on the viability and development of porcine diploid parthenotes cultured in vitro. Four-cell parthenotes, derived in vitro, were cultured to the blastocyst stage, with or without recombinant IL-6. The addition of 10 or 100 ng/ml of recombinant swine IL-6 into PZM3 medium increased the development rate of parthenotes to the blastocyst stage (P<0.05). When supplemented with 10 ng/ml of recombinant swine IL-6, the number of parthenotes at the blastocyst stage increased (P<0.05) and apoptosis decreased (P<0.05). Real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that the addition of recombinant swine IL-6 decreased the mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Caspase3 (P<0.01) but increased the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl2l1 and Survivin. IL-6 receptors and Stat3 mRNA expression were upregulated after treatment with 10 ng/ml recombinant swine IL-6. Immunoblots and fluorescence labeling experiments showed that the levels of phosphorylated Stat3 were upregulated. These results suggest that recombinant swine IL-6 prevents apoptosis of porcine parthenotes and enhances porcine embryo viability through the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway in vitro. PMID:22522232

Shen, Xing-Hui; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

2012-01-01

293

Interleukin-6 Knockout Prevents Angiotensin II Hypertension: Role of Renal Vasoconstriction and JAK2/STAT3 Activation  

PubMed Central

Chronic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion stimulates IL-6 release, and we and others have shown that preventing the increase in IL-6 significantly attenuates AngII hypertension. This study measured renal blood flow (RBF) chronically, using Transonic flow probes in wildtype (WT) and IL-6 knockout (KO) mice, to determine the role of renal blood flow regulation in that response. AngII infusion at 200, 800, and 3600 ng/kg/min caused a dose-dependent decrease in renal blood flow in WT mice, and the response at 800 ng/kg/min was compared between WT and IL-6 KO mice. AngII infusion increased plasma IL-6 concentration in WT mice and increased MAP (19 hrs/day; DSI telemetry) from 113±4 to 149±4 mmHg (? 36 mmHg) over the 7-day infusion period, and that effect was blocked in IL-6 KO mice (119±7 to 126±7 mmHg). RBF decreased to an average of 61±8% of control over the 7-day period (control = 0.86±0.02 ml/min) in the WT mice; however, the average decrease to 72±6% of control (control = 0.88±0.02 ml/min) in the KO mice was not significantly different. There also was no difference in afferent arteriolar constriction by AngII in blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephrons in WT vs. KO mice. Phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in renal cortex homogenates increased significantly in AngII-infused WT mice, and that effect was prevented completely in AngII-infused IL-6 KO mice. These data suggest that IL-6-dependent activation of the renal JAK2/STAT3 pathway plays a role in AngII hypertension, but not by mediating the effect of AngII to decrease total renal blood flow. PMID:20921429

Brands, Michael W.; Banes-Berceli, Amy K.L.; Inscho, Edward W.; Al-Azawi, Hind; Allen, Ashlyn J.; Labazi, Hicham

2012-01-01

294

Requirement of Stat3 but not Stat1 activation for epidermal growth factor receptor- mediated cell growth In vitro.  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by ligand(s) leads to activation of signaling molecules including Stat1 and Stat3, two members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family. Activation of Stat1 and Stat3 was constitutive in transformed squamous epithelial cells, which produce elevated levels of TGF-alpha, and was enhanced by the addition of exogenous TGF-alpha. Targeting of Stat3 using antisense oligonucleotides directed against the translation initiation site, resulted in significant growth inhibition. In addition, cells stably transfected with dominant negative mutant Stat3 constructs failed to proliferate in vitro. In contrast, targeting of Stat1 using either antisense or dominant-negative strategies had no effect on cell growth. Thus, TGF-alpha/EGFR-mediated autocrine growth of transformed epithelial cells is dependent on activation of Stat3 but not Stat1. PMID:9769331

Grandis, J R; Drenning, S D; Chakraborty, A; Zhou, M Y; Zeng, Q; Pitt, A S; Tweardy, D J

1998-01-01

295

Overexpression of miR -155 Promotes Proliferation and Invasion of Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Targeting SOCS1 and STAT3  

PubMed Central

MicroRNA155 plays an important role in many solid malignancies. Expression and function of miR-155 in laryngeal carcinoma have not been fully understood. This study aims to investigate the expression and function of miR-155 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), the relationship between miR-155 and its downstream target suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)-STAT3 pathway, and the related clinicopathological factors. Sixty-three samples of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and twenty-one samples of control mucosa obtained from total laryngectomy cases were analyzed using Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Hep-2 cells were cultured and transfected with miR-155 mimic and ASO. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays were used to determine the role of miR-155 in regulation of LSCC growth, migration, and invasion, respectively. The expression levels of miR-155 in LSCC were significantly higher than those in the control mucosa tissues. Downregulation of SOCS1 expression and elevated expression of STAT3 were also observed in LSCC. The relevance of the three factors were statistically significant. Moreover, knockdown of miR-155 elevated SOCS1expression level, suppressed STAT3 expression, and inhibited hep-2 cells growth, migration and invasion. Whereas overexpression of miR-155 inhibited SOCS1expression, elevated STAT3 expression, and promoted hep-2 cells growth, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the miR-155 levels in T3 T4 stages, and poor/moderate cell differentiation were significantly higher than those in T2 stage and higher degree of cell differentiation. The STAT3 protein in poor/moderate cell differentiation was significantly higher than those in higher degree of cell differentiation. We firstly demonstrated the aberrant expression and function of miR-155 and itsdownstream targets in LSCC. The current findings suggest that miR-155 play promotingrole during the development of LSCC, and miR-155 may be a useful marker for the prognosis and assessment of therapeutic effects. PMID:23437123

Zhao, Xu-dong; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Hong-jun; Ji, Wen-yue

2013-01-01

296

Caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of STAT3alpha in ES cells, in mammary glands undergoing forced involution and in breast cancer cell lines  

E-print Network

number of breast cancer cell lines. STAT3? status was also analysed in vivo in wild type murine mammary glands undergoing controlled, forced involution. Results Immunoblotting for STAT3? in HM-1 ES cell extracts detected amino and carboxy...

Matthews, James R; Watson, Susan M R; Tevendale, Maxine C L; Watson, Christine J; Clarke, Alan R

2007-02-12

297

n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) maintains stem cell pluripotency by activating Jak2/Stat3 pathway and increases the efficiency of iPS cells generation.  

PubMed

In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent-leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency. PMID:22970157

Liu, Shih-Ping; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

2012-01-01

298

n-Butylidenephthalide (BP) Maintains Stem Cell Pluripotency by Activating Jak2/Stat3 Pathway and Increases the Efficiency of iPS Cells Generation  

PubMed Central

In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent–leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency. PMID:22970157

Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chien, Ying-Jiun; Chang, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

2012-01-01

299

CD147 promotes Src-dependent activation of Rac1 signaling through STAT3/DOCK8 during the motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Metastasis is considered a dynamic process in tumor development that is related to abnormal migration and invasion. Tumor cells can move as individual cells in two interconvertible modes: mesenchymal-type and amoeboid. Previously, we reported that the interaction between CD147 and Annexin II can inhibit the amoeboid movement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the mechanism of CD147 involved in mesenchymal movement is still unclear. Notably, our results show overexpression of CD147 led to mesenchymal-type movement in HCC cells. Evidence indicated that the mesenchymal-type cell movement induced by CD147 was Src dependent, as observed by confocal microscopy and Rac1 activity assay. The phosphorylation of Src (pY416-Src) can be up-regulated by CD147, and this regulation is mediated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Next, we identified DOCK8 as a GEF for Rac1, a key molecule driving mesenchymal-type movement. We also found that Src promotes STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 facilitates DOCK8 transcription, thus enhancing DOCK8 expression and Rac1 activation. This study provides a novel mechanism of CD147 regulating mesenchymal-type movement in HCC cells. PMID:25428919

Wang, Shi-Jie; Cui, Hong-Yong; Liu, Yan-Mei; Zhao, Pu; Zhang, Yang; Fu, Zhi-Guang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

2015-01-01

300

ISL-1 is overexpressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and promotes lymphoma cell proliferation by forming a p-STAT3/p-c-Jun/ISL-1 complex  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for the heart, motor neuron and pancreas development. Recently, ISL-1 has been found in some types of human cancers. However, how ISL-1 exerts the role in tumor development is not clear. Methods and results The expression of ISL-1 was assessed in 211 human lymphoma samples and 23 normal lymph node samples. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated a markedly higher expression of ISL-1 in 75% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) samples compared with that in normal lymph nodes or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) samples. CCK-8 analysis, cell cycle assay and xenograft model were performed to characterize the association between ISL-1 expression level and biological functions in NHL. The results showed that ISL-1 overexpression obviously promoted NHL cells proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution in vitro and significantly enhanced xenografted lymphoma development in vivo. Real-time PCR, Western blot, luciferase assay and ChIP assay were used to explore the potential regulatory targets of ISL-1 and the results demonstrated that ISL-1 activated the c-Myc expression in NHL by direct binding to a conserved binding site on the c-Myc enhancer. Further results revealed that ISL-1 could be positively regulated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. Both the JNK and JAK/STAT signaling inhibitors could significantly suppressed the growth of NHL cells through the down-regulation of ISL-1 as demonstrated by CCK-8 and Western blot assays. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assay exhibited that ISL-1 was a novel target of p-STAT3 and p-c-jun. ChIP, Co-IP and ChIP-re-IP analysis revealed that ISL-1 could participate with p-STAT3 and p-c-Jun to form a p-STAT3/p-c-Jun/ISL-1 transcriptional complex that binds directly on the ISL-1 promoter, demonstrating a positive feedback regulatory mechanism for ISL-1 expression in NHL. Conclusions Our results provide the first evidence that ISL-1 is tightly linked to NHL proliferation and development by promoting c-Myc transcription, and its aberrant expression was regulated by p-STAT3/p-c-Jun/ISL-1 complex activation. PMID:25070240

2014-01-01

301

STAT3 activation in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell traits.  

PubMed

Clinically, HER2 proto-oncogene amplification is found in about 25-30% of human breast cancers, where it is correlated to a poor prognosis. Constitutive STAT3 activation is found in about 50-60% of the breast tumors and associated with tumorigenesis and drug resistance. In this study, we showed that STAT3 was phosphorylated in HER2-overexpressing, ER-positive human breast tumors and, furthermore, phosphorylated STAT3 promoted the stem-like cell phenotype. We examined the dysregulation of the stem cell markers (Oct-4, Sox-2 and CD44) and the tumorsphere formation in HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that the STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic, treatment abolished the cancer stem cell phenotype in HER2-positive breast cancers. Combined treatment of Herceptin and Stattic showed the synergistic effect on the cancer cell growth in vitro. In addition, when the STAT3 gene was knocked down, the expression of the stem cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2 and CD44 were downregulated and tumorsphere formation was abolished. HER2-elicited STAT3 signaling may provide a potential model for drug resistance induced by stem-like cell characteristics. This mechanism may be responsible for acquiring resistance to Herceptin in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast tumors. Based on our findings, targeting pSTAT3 could overcome Herceptin-induced resistance in HER2-overexpressing breast tumors. PMID:24297508

Chung, Seyung S; Giehl, Nolan; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

2014-02-01

302

Association of pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway with peritumoral edema in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: an immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that peritumoral edema is vasogenic cerebral edema in malignant glioma, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (pSTAT3) strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma. However, there is no study with regard to the correlation between pSTAT3 or VEGF and peritumoral edema. Such evidence may contribute to providing new targets for the management of peritumoral cerebral. In this study, newly diagnosed glioblastoma tissues from 84 patients were collected to investigate pSTAT3 and VEGF expression by immunohistochemistry, and peritumoral edema was detected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. We found that a significantly positive correlation emerged between VEGF and pSTAT3 expression (P = 0.000) in glioblastoma tissues, but they were not related to patient gender and age (P > 0.05); the expression of pSTAT3 and VEGF were associated with peritumoral edema extent (P = 0.005), but not with edema shape (P > 0.05). Therefore, the pSTAT3-VEGF signaling pathway, which is correlated with peritumoral edema extent, might be a regulatory mechanism in the course of peritumoral edema formation during glioblastoma tumorigenesis and progression, thereby suggesting that STAT3 inhibition might be helpful for alleviation of peritumoral cerebral edema. PMID:25337261

Wang, Xing-Fu; Lin, Guo-Shi; Lin, Zhi-Xiong; Chen, Yu-Peng; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Tan, Wen-Long

2014-01-01

303

GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

Boku, Shuken, E-mail: shuboku@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nakagawa, Shin [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takamura, Naoki [Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Akiko [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takebayashi, Minoru [Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure (Japan)] [Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure (Japan); Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue [Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

2013-05-17

304

Berberine suppresses tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation induced by tumor associated fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Cortidis rhizoma (Huanglian) and its major therapeutic component, berberine, have drawn extensive attention in recent years for their anti-cancer properties. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine on multiple types of human cancer cells have been reported. Berberine inhibits invasion, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory property of berberine, involving inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, has also been documented. Methods In this study, we have examined the effects of berberine on tumorigenicity and growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and their relationship to STAT3 signaling using both in vivo and in vitro models. Results Berberine effectively inhibited the tumorigenicity and growth of an EBV-positive NPC cell line (C666-1) in athymic nude mice. Inhibition of tumorigenic growth of NPC cells in vivo was correlated with effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells inside the tumor xenografts grown in nude mice. In vitro, berberine inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by berberine induced growth inhibition and apoptotic response in NPC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts were found to secret IL-6 and the conditioned medium harvested from the fibroblasts also induced STAT3 activation in NPC cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activation by conditioned medium of tumor-associated fibroblasts could be blocked by berberine or antibodies against IL-6 and IL-6R. Conclusions Our observation that berberine effectively inhibited activation of STAT3 induced by tumor-associated fibroblasts suggests a role of berberine in modulating the effects of tumor stroma on the growth of NPC cells. The effective inhibition of STAT3 activation in NPC cells by berberine supports its potential use in the treatment of NPC. PMID:24380387

2013-01-01

305

Inhibition of STAT3 signaling targets both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Despite of tremendous research efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with disease progression remain partially elusive. In this study we show that the STAT3 small molecule inhibitor Stattic caused S-phase accumulation at low-dose levels and led to massive apoptosis at a relatively high-dose level in prostate cancer cells. STAT3 knockdown led to the disruption of the microvascular niche which tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and non-tumor initiating cells (non-TICs)depend on. Primary human prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer cell line contained high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhigh) subpopulations with stem cell-like characteristics, which expressed higher levels of the active phosphorylated form of STAT3 (pSTAT3) than that of non-ALDHhigh subpopulations. Stattic could singnificantly decreas the population of ALDHhigh prostate cancer cells even at low-dose levels. IL-6 can convert non-ALDHhigh cells to ALDHhigh cells in prostate cancer cell line as well as from cells derived from human prostate tumors, the conversion mediated by IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor or upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 knockdown significantly impaired the ability of prostate cancer cells to initiate development of prostate adenocarcinoma. Moreover, blockade of STAT3 signaling was significantly effective in eradicating the tumor-initiating and bulk tumor cancer cell populations in both prostate cancer cell-line xenograft model and patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models. This data suggests that targeting both tumor initiating and differentiated cell populations by STAT3 inhibition is predicted to have greater efficacy for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25261365

Ma, Liang; Chen, Lijuan; Xiao, Min; Huang, Liang; Cao, Yang; Bai, Jian; Ma, Ding; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hong, Zhenya

2014-01-01

306

Prediction and Experimental Validation of Novel STAT3 Target Genes in Human Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comprehensive identification of functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) is an important step in understanding complex transcriptional regulatory networks. This study presents a motif-based comparative approach, STAT-Finder, for identifying functional DNA binding sites of STAT3 transcription factor. STAT-Finder combines STAT-Scanner, which was designed to predict functional STAT TFBSs with improved sensitivity, and a motif-based alignment to minimize false positive

Young Min Oh; Jong Kyoung Kim; Yongwook Choi; Seungjin Choi; Joo-Yeon Yoo; Sridhar Hannenhalli

2009-01-01

307

Constitutive Activation of Stat3 Signaling Confers Resistance to Apoptosis in Human U266 Myeloma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express

Robyn Catlett-Falcone; Terry H Landowski; Marc M Oshiro; James Turkson; Alexander Levitzki; Rocco Savino; Gennaro Ciliberto; Lynn Moscinski; Jose Luis Fernández-Luna; Gabriel Nuñez; William S Dalton; Richard Jove

1999-01-01

308

Cerebrospinal fluid stimulates leptomeningeal and meningioma cell proliferation and activation of STAT3.  

PubMed

The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the pathogenesis of meningiomas is unknown. Cell cultures from three human leptomeninges, five WHO grade I and seven grade II meningiomas were treated with remnant CSF from 22 patients with no central nervous system disease and normal cell indices. Cells were evaluated by CyQUANT for DNA synthesis/cell proliferation and by western blots for phosphorylation/activation of growth regulatory pathways activated in meningiomas including JAK1-STAT3, MEK1-p44/42MAPK, Akt-mTOR and Rb. Analysis of Caspase 3 activation and survivin was also performed. Finally, the effects of PDGF neutralizing antibody and cucurbitacin, a STAT3 inhibitor on CSF stimulation were tested. Compared to controls and the mitogen PDGF-BB, various CSF samples significantly stimulated DNA synthesis/cell proliferation in 20 and 22 week leptomeningeal cultures and all of the grade I and II meningioma cells tested. Collectively CSF samples, from multiple different patients, stimulated DNA synthesis in tests of 23 of 32 grade I and 18 of 28 grade II meningioma cells. CSF stimulated phosphorylation/activation of STAT3 and reduced p44/42 MAPK in the leptomeningeal, all three grade I and 1 of three grade II meningioma cells. CSF did not affect Caspase 3 activity or survivin levels. PDGF neutralizing antibody had no effect on CSF stimulation but cucurbitacin blocked PDGF and CSF stimulation. While there are limitations to the CSF available since they were not from "normal" volunteers, the studies suggest that, in some settings, CSF is potentially mitogenic to leptomeningeal and meningioma cells and may act, in part, via activation of STAT3. PMID:21971737

Johnson, Mahlon D; O'Connell, Mary; Facik, Michael; Maurer, Paul; Jahromi, Babak; Pilcher, Webster

2012-03-01

309

Oxidized LDL activates STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors: possible involvement of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

The effect of cupric ion-oxidized low density lipoprotein (Cu-LDL) or endothelial cell-oxidized LDL (E-LDL) on STAT1 and STAT3 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) DNA binding activity was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in human endothelial cells. Both oxidized LDL enhanced STAT1 and STAT3 binding to their respective consensus binding sites. Furthermore, the activation of STATs was proportional to the oxidation degree of LDL in that the highly oxidized Cu-LDL exhibited a more marked effect than E-LDL. Oxidized LDL induced an intracellular oxidative stress, as shown by the increase in the intracellular level of lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and in the level of reactive oxygen species, measured by the fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The binding activity of STAT1 and STAT3 paralleled these two parameters, which suggests that it is dependent upon the redox state of the cell. The activation of STATs by oxidized LDL was almost completely inhibited by the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E, and partially antagonized by the hydrophilic thiol-containing compound N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that the oxidative stress induced by oxidized LDL is involved in the observed phenomenon. Furthermore, the lipid extract of Cu-LDL also activated STAT1 and STAT3. Since the STAT pathway plays a key role in cytokine and growth factor signal transduction, the activation of STATs by oxidized LDL might be related to their proinflammatory and fibroproliferative effect in the atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:10217408

Mazière, C; Alimardani, G; Dantin, F; Dubois, F; Conte, M A; Mazière, J C

1999-04-01

310

B7-H3 silencing increases paclitaxel sensitivity by abrogating Jak2/Stat3 phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

In many types of cancer, the expression of the immunoregulatory protein B7-H3 has been associated with poor prognosis. Previously, we observed a link between B7-H3 and tumor cell migration and invasion, and in present work we have investigated the role of B7-H3 in chemoresistance in breast cancer. We observed that silencing of B7-H3, via stable shRNA or transient siRNA transfection, increased the sensitivity of multiple human breast cancer cell lines to paclitaxel as a result of enhanced drug-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of B7-H3 made the cancer cells more resistant to the drug. Next, we investigated the mechanisms behind B7-H3 mediated paclitaxel resistance, and found that the level of Stat3 Tyr705 phosphorylation was decreased in B7-H3 knockdown cells, along with the expression of its direct downstream targets Mcl-1 and Survivin. The phosphorylation of Jak2, an upstream molecule of Stat3, was also significantly decreased. In contrast, reexpression of B7-H3 in B7-H3 knockdown and low B7-H3- expressing cells increased the phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3. In vivo animal experiments showed that B7-H3 knock down tumors displayed a slower growth rate than the control xenografts. Importantly, paclitaxel treatment showed a strong anti-tumor activity in the mice with B7-H3 knockdown tumors, but only a marginal effect in the control group. Taken together, our data demonstrate that in breast cancer cells B7-H3 induces paclitaxel resistance, at least partially by interfering with Jak2/Stat3 pathway. These results provide novel insight into the function of B7-H3 and encourage the design and testing of approaches targeting this protein and its partners. PMID:21518725

Liu, Hao; Tekle, Christina; Chen, Yih-Wen; Kristian, Alexandr; Zhao, Yuhua; Zhou, Ming; Liu, Zixing; Ding, Yan; Wang, Bin; Mælandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Nesland, Jahn Marthin; Fodstad, Oystein; Tan, Ming

2012-01-01

311

T-Cell Growth Transformation by Herpesvirus Saimiri Is Independent of STAT3 Activation  

PubMed Central

Herpesvirus saimiri (saimirine herpesvirus 2) (HVS), a T-lymphotropic tumor virus, induces lymphoproliferative disease in several species of New World primates. In addition, strains of HVS subgroup C are able to transform T cells of Old World primates, including humans, to permanently growing T-cell lines. In concert with the Stp oncoprotein, the tyrosine kinase-interacting protein (Tip) of HVS C488 is required for T-cell transformation in vitro and lymphoma induction in vivo. Tip was previously shown to interact with the protein tyrosine kinase Lck. Constitutive activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) has been associated with oncogenesis and has also been detected in HVS-transformed T-cell lines. Furthermore, Tip contains a putative consensus YXPQ binding motif for the SH2 (src homology 2) domains of STAT1 and STAT3. Tip tyrosine phosphorylation at this site was required for binding of STATs and induction of STAT-dependent transcription. Here we sought to address the relevance of STAT activation for transformation of human T cells by introducing a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation in the YXPQ motif of Tip of HVS C488. Unexpectedly, the recombinant virus was still able to transform human T lymphocytes, but it had lost its capability to activate STAT3 as well as STAT1. This demonstrates that growth transformation by HVS is independent of STAT3 activation. PMID:15827186

Heck, Elke; Lengenfelder, Doris; Schmidt, Monika; Müller-Fleckenstein, Ingrid; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Biesinger, Brigitte; Ensser, Armin

2005-01-01

312

T-cell growth transformation by herpesvirus saimiri is independent of STAT3 activation.  

PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri (saimirine herpesvirus 2) (HVS), a T-lymphotropic tumor virus, induces lymphoproliferative disease in several species of New World primates. In addition, strains of HVS subgroup C are able to transform T cells of Old World primates, including humans, to permanently growing T-cell lines. In concert with the Stp oncoprotein, the tyrosine kinase-interacting protein (Tip) of HVS C488 is required for T-cell transformation in vitro and lymphoma induction in vivo. Tip was previously shown to interact with the protein tyrosine kinase Lck. Constitutive activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) has been associated with oncogenesis and has also been detected in HVS-transformed T-cell lines. Furthermore, Tip contains a putative consensus YXPQ binding motif for the SH2 (src homology 2) domains of STAT1 and STAT3. Tip tyrosine phosphorylation at this site was required for binding of STATs and induction of STAT-dependent transcription. Here we sought to address the relevance of STAT activation for transformation of human T cells by introducing a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation in the YXPQ motif of Tip of HVS C488. Unexpectedly, the recombinant virus was still able to transform human T lymphocytes, but it had lost its capability to activate STAT3 as well as STAT1. This demonstrates that growth transformation by HVS is independent of STAT3 activation. PMID:15827186

Heck, Elke; Lengenfelder, Doris; Schmidt, Monika; Müller-Fleckenstein, Ingrid; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Biesinger, Brigitte; Ensser, Armin

2005-05-01

313

Loss of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPRD leads to aberrant STAT3 activation and promotes gliomagenesis  

PubMed Central

PTPRD, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-?, is one of the most frequently inactivated genes across human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). PTPRD undergoes both deletion and mutation in cancers, with copy number loss comprising the primary mode of inactivation in GBM. However, it is unknown whether loss of PTPRD promotes tumorigenesis in vivo, and the mechanistic basis of PTPRD function in tumors is unclear. Here, using genomic analysis and a glioma mouse model, we demonstrate that loss of Ptprd accelerates tumor formation and define the oncogenic context in which Ptprd loss acts. Specifically, we show that in human GBMs, heterozygous loss of PTPRD is the predominant type of lesion and that loss of PTPRD and the CDKN2A/p16INK4A tumor suppressor frequently co-occur. Accordingly, heterozygous loss of Ptprd cooperates with p16 deletion to drive gliomagenesis in mice. Moreover, loss of the Ptprd phosphatase resulted in phospho-Stat3 accumulation and constitutive activation of Stat3-driven genetic programs. Surprisingly, the consequences of Ptprd loss are maximal in the heterozygous state, demonstrating a tight dependence on gene dosage. Ptprd loss did not increase cell proliferation but rather altered pathways governing the macrophage response. In total, we reveal that PTPRD is a bona fide tumor suppressor, pinpoint PTPRD loss as a cause of aberrant STAT3 activation in gliomas, and establish PTPRD loss, in the setting of CDKN2A/p16INK4A deletion, as a driver of glioma progression. PMID:24843164

Ortiz, Berenice; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Wu, Wei H.; Pedraza, Alicia; Brennan, Cameron W.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.; Huse, Jason T.; Holland, Eric C.; Chan, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

314

Inhibition of the Interleukin-11-STAT3 Axis Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Migration and Invasion in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Although interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been reported to be elevated in hypoxic tumors and has been associated with a poor prognosis in various cancers, little is known about its precise role in promoting metastasis in hypoxic tumors. In the present study, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IL-11 on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells migration and invasion in relation to metastasis under hypoxic conditions has been defined. Inhibition of IL-11 expression or function using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a neutralizing antibody attenuated hypoxic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and invasion through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related gene expression. In addition, hypoxia-induced IL-11 increased STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 knockdown suppressed hypoxic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion due to reduced MMP levels and reprogrammed EMT-related gene expression. These results suggest that one of the hypoxic metastasis pathways and the regulation of this pathway could be a potential target for novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:25352758

2014-01-01

315

Celecoxib Suppresses the Phosphorylation of STAT3 Protein and Can Enhance the Radiosensitivity of Medulloblastoma-Derived Cancer Stem-Like Cells  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DPs) exhibit cancer stem-like cell (CSC)-like properties that may contribute to chemoradioresistance, tumorigenesis and recurrence. In various tumors, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) upregulation including MB which can regulate the expression of Nestin. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to potentially reduce STAT3 phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of celecoxib in enhancing the effects of ionizing radiotherapy (IR) on MB-DP. MB-DPs and MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-negative cells (MB-DNs) were isolated from medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. Then, both of them were treated with celecoxib in different concentrations, and cell viability was assessed. The assays of cell survival, sphere formation, radiosensitivity, colony formation, apoptotic activity and mouse xenografting experiments in MB-DPs and MB-DNs treated with celecoxib alone, radiation alone, or celecoxib combined with radiation were further evaluated. We isolated MB-DPs from MB cell line Daoy, which exhibited typical CSC-like characteristics. Microarray analysis and Western blotting both indicated the upregulation of Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT cascade and STAT3 phosphorylation. Incubation with celecoxib dose-dependently suppressed the CSC-like properties and enhanced the IR effect on the induction of apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL assay and staining for Caspase 3 and Annexin V. Finally, celecoxib also enhanced the IR effect to suppress tumorigenesis and synergistically improve the recipient survival in orthotopic MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DP cells) bearing mice. PMID:24945311

Yang, Meng-Yin; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chen, Chien-Min; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Ma, Hsin-I

2014-01-01

316

Forced Dimerization of gp130 Leads to Constitutive STAT3 Activation, Cytokine-independent Growth, and Blockade of Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The mode of activation of glycoprotein 130 kDa (gp130) and the transmission of the activation status through the plasma membrane are incompletely understood. In particular, the molecular function of the three juxtamembrane fibronectin III-like domains of gp130 in signal transmission remains unclear. To ask whether forced dimerization of gp130 is sufficient for receptor activation, we replaced the entire extracellular portion of gp130 with the c-jun leucine zipper region in the chimeric receptor protein L-gp130. On expression in cells, L-gp130 stimulates ligand-independent signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. gp130 activation could be abrogated by the addition of a competing peptide comprising the leucine zipper region of c-fos. When stably expressed in the interleukin-3–dependent Ba/F3 murine pre-B-cells, these cells showed constitutive STAT3 activation and cytokine-independent growth over several months. Because gp130 stimulation completely suppressed differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells in vitro, we also stably expressed L-gp130 in these cells, which completely blocked their differentiation in the absence of cytokine stimulation and was consistent with high constitutive expression levels of the stem cell factor OCT-4. Thus, L-gp130 can be used in vitro and in vivo to mimic constitutive and ligand-independent activation of gp130 and STAT3, the latter of which is frequently observed in neoplastic diseases. PMID:16624864

Stuhlmann-Laeisz, Christiane; Lang, Sigrid; Chalaris, Athena; Krzysztof, Paliga; Enge, Sudarman; Eichler, Jutta; Klingmüller, Ursula; Samuel, Michael; Ernst, Matthias; Scheller, Jürgen

2006-01-01

317

Anti-cancer effect of bee venom toxin and melittin in ovarian cancer cells through induction of death receptors and inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway  

SciTech Connect

We investigated whether bee venom and melittin, a major component of bee venom, inhibit cell growth through enhancement of death receptor expressions in the human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3 and PA-1. Bee venom (1–5 ?g/ml) and melittin (0.5–2 ?g/ml) inhibited the growth of SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of death receptor (DR) 3 and DR6 was increased in both cancer cells, but expression of DR4 was increased only in PA-1 cells. Expression of DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, 8, and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 cells. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in SKOV3, but cleaved caspase-8 was increased in PA-1 cells. Moreover, deletion of DR3, DR4, and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed bee venom and melittin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 by bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cell. These results suggest that bee venom and melittin induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancer cells through enhancement of DR3, DR4, and DR6 expression and inhibition of STAT3 pathway. -- Highlights: ? Some studies have showed that bee venom and/or melittin have anti-cancer effects. ? We found that bee venom and melittin inhibited cell growth in ovarian cancer cells. ? Bee venom and melittin induce apoptosis in SKOV3 and PA-1.

Jo, Miran; Park, Mi Hee; Kollipara, Pushpa Saranya [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 48, Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 48, Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); An, Byeong Jun; Song, Ho Sueb [College of Oriental Medicine, Kyungwon University, San 65, Bokjeong-dong, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggii 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Oriental Medicine, Kyungwon University, San 65, Bokjeong-dong, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggii 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Bae [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 48, Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 48, Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Heub [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505, Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505, Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min Jong, E-mail: bitsugar@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505, Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jin Tae, E-mail: jinthong@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 48, Gaeshin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-01

318

Celecoxib suppresses the phosphorylation of STAT3 protein and can enhance the radiosensitivity of medulloblastoma-derived cancer stem-like cells.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DPs) exhibit cancer stem-like cell (CSC)-like properties that may contribute to chemoradioresistance, tumorigenesis and recurrence. In various tumors, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) upregulation including MB which can regulate the expression of Nestin. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to potentially reduce STAT3 phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of celecoxib in enhancing the effects of ionizing radiotherapy (IR) on MB-DP. MB-DPs and MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-negative cells (MB-DNs) were isolated from medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. Then, both of them were treated with celecoxib in different concentrations, and cell viability was assessed. The assays of cell survival, sphere formation, radiosensitivity, colony formation, apoptotic activity and mouse xenografting experiments in MB-DPs and MB-DNs treated with celecoxib alone, radiation alone, or celecoxib combined with radiation were further evaluated. We isolated MB-DPs from MB cell line Daoy, which exhibited typical CSC-like characteristics. Microarray analysis and Western blotting both indicated the upregulation of Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT cascade and STAT3 phosphorylation. Incubation with celecoxib dose-dependently suppressed the CSC-like properties and enhanced the IR effect on the induction of apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL assay and staining for Caspase 3 and Annexin V. Finally, celecoxib also enhanced the IR effect to suppress tumorigenesis and synergistically improve the recipient survival in orthotopic MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DP cells) bearing mice. PMID:24945311

Yang, Meng-Yin; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chen, Chien-Min; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Ma, Hsin-I

2014-01-01

319

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma  

E-print Network

STAT3 transcription factor is constitutively activated and is oncogenic in nasal-type NK in the oncogenic process of nasal-type NK cell lymphomas, and may represent a promising therapeutical target. 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Therapeutic Targeting of STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3) Pathway Inhibits Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice with targeted deletion of STAT3 in CD4+ T-cells do not develop experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in part, because they cannot generate pathogenic Th17 cells. In this study, we have used ORLL-NIH001, a small synthetic compound that inhibits transcriptional activity of STAT3, to ameliorate EAU, an animal model of human posterior uveitis. We show that

Cheng-Rong Yu; Yun Sang Lee; Rashid M. Mahdi; Narayanan Surendran; Charles E. Egwuagu

2012-01-01

321

JAK\\/STAT3 signalling is sufficient and dominant over antagonistic cues for the establishment of naive pluripotency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced pluripotency depends on cooperativity between expression of defined factors and the culture environment. The latter also determines the pluripotent cell state, that is, naïve or primed. LIF-JAK\\/STAT3 signalling was recently shown to be a limiting factor for reprogramming to naïve pluripotency. Here we show that sufficient activation of JAK\\/STAT3 overcomes the reprogramming block of cell intermediates and enables somatic

A. L. a b Van Oosten; Y. a Costa; A. a b Smith; J. C. R. a b Silva

2012-01-01

322

WP1066 Sensitizes Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells to Cisplatin by Targeting STAT3/miR-21 axis  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence reveals that activation of STAT3 and miR-21 contributes to chemoresistance in multiple tumors. We examined the expression of STAT3 and miR-21 in 43 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumors and classified them into cisplatin sensitive or resistant group. Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cells were treated with cisplatin (DDP), WP1066 (STAT3 inhibitor) or in combination. MTT, colony formation, wound healing, 3-D culture, and transwell chamber assays were used to evaluate the malignant phenotype of OSCC cells. We evaluated the effect of WP1066 on the expression of STAT3 and miR-21. A Tca8113/DDP OSCC xenograft tumor model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effect of WP1066 in combination with DDP. The expression of STAT3/miR-21 was significantly increased in DDP-resistant OSCC samples and Tca8113/DDP cells compared to its parental cell. Treatment of DDP combined with WP1066 efficiently inhibited Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cell proliferation, migration and invasion. STAT3 mediated OSCC cell survival and DDP resistance through upregulating the expression of miR-21 and downregulating miR-21 downstream targets, including PTEN, TIMP3 and PDCD4. WP1066 plus DDP treatment could inhibit Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cell growth by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and miR-21 expression. These results indicated that STAT3/miR-21 axis could be a candidate therapeutic target for OSCC chemoresistance. PMID:25514838

Zhou, Xuan; Ren, Yu; Liu, Aiqin; Jin, Rui; Jiang, Qingping; Huang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Lingping; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Lun

2014-01-01

323

STAT3 Activation in Pressure-Overloaded Feline Myocardium: Role for Integrins and the Tyrosine Kinase BMX  

PubMed Central

Growth, survival and cytoskeletal rearrangement of cardiomyocytes are critical for cardiac hypertrophy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation is an important cardioprotective fac