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Sample records for ebt film dosimetry

  1. Radiochromic film dosimetry: considerations on precision and accuracy for EBT2 and EBT3 type films.

    PubMed

    Dreindl, Ralf; Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Gafchromic® EBT2 film is a widely used dosimetric tool for quality assurance in radiation therapy. In 2012 EBT3 was presented as a replacement for EBT2 films. The symmetric structure of EBT3 films to reduce face-up/down dependency as well as the inclusion of a matte film surface to frustrate Newton Ring artifacts present the most prominent improvements of EBT3 films. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of EBT3 films, to benchmark the films against the known EBT2-features and to evaluate the dosimetric behavior over a time period greater than 6 months. All films were irradiated to clinical photon beams (6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV) on an Elekta Synergy Linac equipped with a Beam Modulator MLC in solid water phantom slabs. Film digitalization was done with a flatbed transparency scanner (Type Epson Expression 1680 Pro). MATLAB® was used for further statistical calculations and image processing. The investigations on post-irradiation darkening, film orientation, film uniformity and energy dependency resulted in negligible differences between EBT2 and EBT3 film. A minimal improvement in face-up/down dependence was found for EBT3. The matte film surface of EBT3 films turned out to be a practical feature as Newton rings could be eliminated completely. Considering long-term behavior (> 6 months) a shift of the calibration curve for EBT2 and EBT3 films due to changes in the dynamic response of the active component was observed. In conclusion, the new EBT3 film yields comparable results to its predecessor EBT2. The general advantages of radiochromic film dosimeters are completed by high film homogeneity, low energy dependence for the observed energy range and a minimized face-up/down dependence. EBT2 dosimetry-protocols can also be used for EBT3 films, but the inclusion of periodical recalibration-interval (e.g. once a quarter) is recommended for protocols of both film generations. PMID:24055395

  2. Investigation of absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film's components and their impact on UVR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    2016-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the EBT2 film's components were investigated in conjunction with its use for UVA dosimetry. The polyester (topside) and adhesive layers of the EBT2 film have been gently removed. Gafchromic™ EBT2 films with and without the protected layers (polyester and adhesive) were exposed to UVR of 365 nm for different durations. Thereafter, the UV-visible spectra were measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Model Spectro Dual Split Beam, UVS-2700). Films were digitized using a Nikon CanoScan 9000F Mark II flatbed scanner. The dosimetric characteristics including film's uniformity, reproducibility and post-irradiation development were investigated. The color development of EBT2 and new modified EBT2 (EBT2-M) films irradiated with UVA was relatively stable (less than 1%) immediately after exposure. Based on this study, the sensitivity of EBT2 to UVR with wavelength between ~350 nm and ~390 nm can significantly be enhanced if the adhesive layer (~25 μm) is removed. The polyester layer plays almost no part on absorbing UVR with wavelength between ~320 nm and ~390 nm. Furthermore, various sensitivities for the EBT2-M film has been established depending on the wavelength of analysis.

  3. Dosimetric characterization of GafChromic EBT film and its implication on film dosimetry quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, Martina; Sturtewagen, Eva; DeWagter, Carlos; Georg, Dietmar

    2007-07-01

    The suitability of radiochromic EBT film was studied for high-precision clinical quality assurance (QA) by identifying the dose response for a wide range of irradiation parameters typically modified in highly-conformal treatment techniques. In addition, uncertainties associated with varying irradiation conditions were determined. EBT can be used for dose assessment of absorbed dose levels as well as relative dosimetry when compared to absolute absorbed dose calibrated using ionization chamber results. For comparison, a silver halide film (Kodak EDR-2) representing the current standard in film dosimetry was included. As an initial step a measurement protocol yielding accurate and precise results was established for a flatbed transparency scanner (Epson Expression 1680 Pro) that was utilized as a film reading instrument. The light transmission measured by the scanner was found to depend on the position of the film on the scanner plate. For three film pieces irradiated with doses of 0 Gy, ~1 Gy and ~7 Gy, the pixel values measured in portrait or landscape mode differed by 4.7%, 6.2% and 10.0%, respectively. A study of 200 film pieces revealed an excellent sheet-to-sheet uniformity. On a long time scale, the optical development of irradiated EBT film consisted of a slow but steady increase of absorbance which was not observed to cease during 4 months. Sensitometric curves of EBT films obtained under reference conditions (SSD = 95 cm, FS = 5 × 5 cm2, d = 5 cm) for 6, 10 and 25 MV photon beams did not show any energy dependence. The average separation between all curves was only 0.7%. The variation of the depth d (range 2-25 cm) in the phantom did not affect the dose response of EBT film. Also the influence of the radiation field size (range 3 × 3-40 × 40 cm2) on the sensitometric curve was not significant. For EDR-2 films maximum differences between the calibration curves reached 7-8% for X6MV and X25MV. Radiochromic EBT film, in combination with a flatbed scanner

  4. Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC[reg] film

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Bart D.; Kozelka, Jakub; Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-12-15

    In this study, we present three significant artifacts that have the potential to negatively impact the accuracy and precision of film dosimetry measurements made using GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT radiochromic film when read out with CCD flatbed scanners. Films were scanned using three commonly employed instruments: a Macbeth TD932 spot densitometer, an Epson Expression 1680 CCD array scanner, and a Microtek ScanMaker i900 CCD array scanner. For the two scanners we assessed the variation in optical density (OD) of GAFCHROMIC EBT film with scanning bed position, angular rotation of the film with respect to the scan line direction, and temperature inside the scanner due to repeated scanning. Scanning uniform radiochromic films demonstrated a distinct bowing effect in profiles in the direction of the CCD array with a nonuniformity of up to 17%. Profiles along a direction orthogonal to the CCD array demonstrated a 7% variation. A strong angular dependence was found in measurements made with the flatbed scanners; the effect could not be reproduced with the spot densitometer. An IMRT quality assurance film was scanned twice rotating the film 90 deg. between the scans. For films scanned on the Epson scanner, up to 12% variation was observed in unirradiated EBT films rotated between 0 deg. and 90 deg. , which decreased to approximately 8% for EBT films irradiated to 300 cGy. Variations of up to 80% were observed for films scanned with the Microtek scanner. The scanners were found to significantly increase the film temperature with repeated scanning. Film temperature between 18 and 33 deg. C caused OD changes of approximately 7%. Considering these effects, we recommend adherence to a strict scanning protocol that includes: maintaining the orientation of films scanned on flatbed scanners, limiting scanning to the central portion of the scanner bed, and limiting the number of consecutive scans to minimize changes in OD caused by film heating.

  5. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, I.; Hartman, V.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose:A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. Methods: In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. Results: No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma

  6. Quality assurance of alpha-particle dosimetry using peeled-off Gafchromic EBTfilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Chun, S. L.; Yu, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    A novel alpha-particle dosimetry technique using Gafchromic EBT3 film has recently been proposed for calibrating the activity of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. In the present paper, we outlined four measures which could further help assure the quality of the method. First, we suggested an alternative method in fabricating the peeled-off EBT3 film. Films with a chosen size were cut from the original films and all the edges were sealed with silicone. These were immersed into deionized water for 19 d and the polyester covers of the EBT3 films could then be easily peeled off. The active layers in these peeled-off EBT3 films remained intact, and these films could be prepared reproducibly with ease. Second, we proposed a check on the integrity of the peeled-off film by comparing the responses of the pristine and peeled-off EBT3 films to the same X-ray irradiation. Third, we highlighted the importance of scanning directions of the films. The "landscape" and "portrait" scanning directions were defined as the scanning directions perpendicular and parallel to the long edge of the original EBT3 films, respectively. Our results showed that the responses were different for different scanning directions. As such, the same scanning direction should be used every time. Finally, we cautioned the need to confirm the uniformity of the alpha-particle source used for calibration. Radiochromic films are well known for their capability of providing two-dimensional dosimetric information. As such, EBT3 films could also be conveniently used to check the uniformity of the alpha-particle source.

  7. Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams - energy dependence and improved film read-out.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Petri; Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in 60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)-simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read-out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose-dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ± 50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read-out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scan-ner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read-out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k = 2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC-simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV-16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read-out procedure established

  8. Evaluation of GAFCHROMIC registered EBT film for CyberKnife registered dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Ellen E.; Daskalov, George M.

    2007-06-15

    External beam therapy (EBT) GAFCHROMIC registered film is evaluated for dosimetry and characterization of the CyberKnife registered radiation beams. Percentage depth doses, lateral beam profiles, and output factors are measured in solid water using EBT GAFCHROMIC registered film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ) for the 6 MV radiation beams of diameter 5 to 60 mm produced by the CyberKnife registered (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). The data are compared to those measured with the PTW 60008 diode and the Wellhofer CC01 ion chamber in water. For the small radiation field sizes used in stereotactic radiosurgery, lateral electronic disequilibrium and steep dose gradients exist in a large portion of these fields, requiring the use of high-resolution measurement techniques. For small beams, the detector size approaches the dimensions of the beam and adversely affects measurement accuracy in regions where the gradient varies across the detector. When film is the detector, the scanning system is usually the resolution-limiting component. Radiographic films based upon silver halide (AgH) emulsions are widely used for relative dosimetry of external radiation treatment beams in the megavoltage energy range, because of their good spatial resolution and capability to provide integrated dosimetry over two dimensions. Film dosimetry, however, has drawbacks due to its steep energy dependence at low photon energies as well as film processor and densitometer artifacts. EBT radiochromic film, introduced in 2004 specifically for IMRT dosimetry, may be a detector of choice for the characterization of small radiosurgical beams, because of its near-tissue equivalence, radiation beam energy independence, high spatial resolution, and self developing properties. For radiation beam sizes greater than 10 mm, the film measurements were identical to those of the diode and ion chamber. For the smaller beam diameters of 7.5 and 5 mm, however, there were differences in the data measured with

  9. A method for multichannel dosimetry with EBT3 radiochromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Azorín, Jose Fernando

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: An improved method for multichannel dosimetry is presented. This method explicitly takes into account the information provided by the unexposed image of the film. Methods: The method calculates the dose by applying a couple of perturbations to the scanned dose, one dependent and the other independent on the color channel. The method has been compared with previous multichannel and two single channel methods (red and green) against measurements using two different tests: first, five percentage depth dose profiles covering a wide range of doses; second, the dose map perpendicular to the beam axis for a 15 × 15cm{sup 2} square field. Finally, the results of 30 IMRT quality assurances tests are presented. All tests have been evaluated using the gamma analysis. Results: The coefficient of variation was found to be similar for all methods in a wide range of doses. The results of the proposed method are more in agreement with the experimental measurements and with the treatment planning system. Furthermore, the differences in the mean gamma pass rates are statistically significant. Conclusions: The improved multichannel dosimetric method is able to remove many of the common disturbances usually present in radiochromic films and improves the gamma analysis results compared with the other three methods.

  10. SU-E-T-637: Age and Batch Dependence of Gafchromic EBT Films in Photon and Proton Beam Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Das, I; Akino, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Gafchrmoic films have undergone significant changes in characteristic over time reflected by HS, EBT, EBT2, EBT3 name. Interand intra- EBT film variability have been studied and found to be significant. However, age and lot/batch type have not been studied in various radiation beams that are investigated in this study. Methods: Thirteen sets of films; 2 EBT, 6 EBT2 and 5 EBT3 films with different lot number and expiration date were acquired. Films were cut longitudinally in 3 cm width and sandwiched between two solid water slabs that were placed in a water phantom to eliminate air gap. Each set of films were irradiated longitudinally at dmax with 6 and 15 MV photon beams as well as in reference condition (16 cm range, 10 cm SOBP) in our uniform scanning proton beam. Films were scanned using an Epson flatbed scanner (ES-10000G) after 48 hours to achieve full polymerization. The profiles were compared with the depth-dose measured with ionization chamber and net optical density (net OD) were calculated. Results: The net OD versus dose for EBT, EBT2 and EBT3 films of different age showed similar trend but with different slope. Even after calibration, differences are clearly visible in net OD in proton and photon beams. A net OD difference of nearly 0.5 is observed in photon but this was limited to 0.2–0.3 in proton beam. This relates to 20% and 15% dosimetric difference in photon and proton beam respectively over age and type of film. Conclusion: Net OD related to dose is dependent on the age and lot of the film in both photon and proton beams. It is concluded that before any set of film is used, a calibration film should be used for a meaningful dosimetry. The expired films showed larger OD variation compared to unexpired films.

  11. EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hasan A.; Ay, Mohammadreza; Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran

    2013-07-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose

  12. A protocol for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using reflection scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos Hegyi, Gyorgy; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system using reflection measurements and to suggest a calibration protocol for precise and accurate reflection film dosimetry. Methods: A set of 14 Gafchromic EBT3 film pieces were irradiated to various doses ranging from 0 to 8 Gy and subsequently scanned using both the reflection and transmission mode. Scanning resolution varied from 50 to 508 dpi (0.5–0.05 mm/pixel). Both the red and green color channels of scanned images were used to relate the film response to the dose. A sensitivity, uncertainty, and accuracy analysis was performed for all scanning modes and color channels. The total uncertainty, along with the fitting and experimental uncertainty components, was identified and analyzed. A microscope resolution target was used to evaluate possible resolution losses under reflection scanning. The calibration range was optimized for reflection scanning in the low (<2 Gy) and high (>2 Gy) dose regions based on the reported results. Results: Reflection scanning using the red channel exhibited the highest sensitivity among all modes, being up to 150% higher than transmission mode in the red channel for the lowest dose level. Furthermore, there was no apparent loss in resolution between the two modes. However, higher uncertainties and reduced accuracy were observed for the red channel under reflection mode, especially at dose levels higher than 2 Gy. These uncertainties were mainly attributed to saturation effects which were translated in poor fitting results. By restricting the calibration to the 0–2 Gy dose range, the situation is reversed and the red reflection mode was superior to the transmission mode. For higher doses, the green channel in reflection mode presented comparable results to the red transmission. Conclusions: A two-color reflection scanning protocol can be suggested for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using the red channel for doses less than 2 Gy and the green

  13. Evaluation of the Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} EBT2 film for the dosimetry of radiosurgical beams

    SciTech Connect

    Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.; Garcia-Hernandez, Diana; Garcia-Garduno, Olivia A.; Galvan de la Cruz, Olga O.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, Paola; Esparza-Moreno, Karina P.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Radiosurgery uses small fields and high-radiation doses to treat intra- and extracranial lesions in a single session. The lack of a lateral electronic equilibrium and the presence of high-dose gradients in these fields are challenges for adequate measurements. The availability of radiation detectors with the high spatial resolution required is restricted to only a few. Stereotactic diodes and EBT radiochromic films have been demonstrated to be good detectors for small-beam dosimetry. Because the stereotactic diode is the standard measurement for the dosimetry of radiosurgical beams, the goal of this work was to perform measurements with the radiochromic film Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} EBT2 and compare its results with a stereotactic diode. Methods: Total scatter factors, tissue maximum, and off-axis ratios from a 6 MV small photon beams were measured using EBT2 radiochromic film in a water phantom. The film-measured data were evaluated by comparing it with the data measured with a stereotactic field diode (IBA-Dosimetry). Results: The film and diode measurements had excellent agreement. The differences between the detectors were less than or equal to 2.0% for the tissue maximum and the off-axis ratios. However, for the total scatter factors, there were significant differences, up to 4.9% (relative to the reference field), for field sizes less than 1.0 cm. Conclusions: This work found that the Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} EBT2 film is adequate for small photon beam measurements, particularly for tissue maximum and off-axis ratios. However, careful attention must be taken when measuring output factors of small beams below 1.0 cm due to the film's energy dependence. The measurement differences may be attributable to the film's active layer composition because EBT2 incorporates higher Z elements (i.e., bromide and potassium), hence revealing a potential energy dependence for the dosimetry of small photon beams.

  14. Evaluation and optimization of the new EBT2 radiochromic film dosimetry system for patient dose verification in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richley, L.; John, A. C.; Coomber, H.; Fletcher, S.

    2010-05-01

    A new radiochromic film, the yellow Gafchromic EBT2, has been marketed as a drop-in replacement for the discontinued blue EBT film. In order to verify the manufacturer's claims prior to clinical use, EBT2 was characterized in transmission, and the less commonly used, reflection modes with an Epson Expression 10000XL A3 flatbed scanner. The red channel was confirmed to provide the greatest sensitivity and was used for all measurements. The post-irradiation darkening of the film was investigated, and the relative response was found to be dose dependent with higher doses stabilizing earlier than lower doses. After 13 h all dose levels had stabilized to within 1% of their value at 24 h. Uniformity of irradiated EBT2 films was within 0.8% and 1.2% (2SD of signal), in reflection and transmission modes, respectively. The light scattering effect, arising from the structure and thickness of EBT2, was found to give rise to an apparent scanner non-uniformity of up to 5.5% in signal. In reflection mode, differences of up to 1.2% were found between the signal obtained from a small film fragment (5 × 5 cm2) and the signal obtained from the same fragment bordered by extra film. Further work is needed to determine the origin of this effect, as there will be implications for reflection dosimetry of intensity modulated fields; reflection mode cannot yet be regarded as a viable alternative to transmission mode. Our results suggest that EBT2 film is a valid alternative, rather than a direct replacement for EBT film.

  15. Photon beam dosimetry in the superficial buildup region using radiochromic EBT film stack.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Chan, Maria F

    2009-06-01

    It has been a challenge to perform accurate 2D or 3D dosimetry in the surface region with steep dose gradient for megavoltage photon beams. We developed a dosimetry method in the superficial buildup region for the 6 and 15 MV photon beams using a radiochromic EBT film stack. Eight radiochromic EBT film strips (3 x 20 x 0.024 cm3) stacked together formed a 3D dosimeter. The film stack was positioned above a polystyrene phantom and surrounded by Solid Water slabs (0.2 cm) with the top film layer at 100 cm SSD. A 10 x 10 cm2 open field was used to irradiate the film stack with 1000 MU. All films were scanned using Epson 4870 flatbed scanner with transmission mode, 48 bit color, and 150 dpi (0.017 cm pixel resolution). The pixel values were converted to doses using an established calibration curve. This method allowed dose measurement for depths from 0.012 to 0.18 cm with fine spatial resolution (0.017 cm horizontally and 0.024 cm vertically). For each energy modality, we obtained both the central axis percent depth doses and the beam profiles along the central line covering the primary field and peripheral region at each depth. The primary field doses varied steeply with depth, while those in the peripheral region were weakly dependent on depth. For the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, (1) the central axis percent depth doses in the eight film layers ranged from 22% to 66% and from 15% to 44%, respectively; (2) the extrapolated percent depth doses at d = 0 were 15% and 14%, respectively. Agreement with the previously reported central axis percent depth doses in this region using parallel plate thin window ion chamber and ultrathin TLD was observed. The percent depth doses and beam profiles data can be incorporated in the treatment planning system for more accurate assessment of the doses to skin and shallow tumors to accomplish more accurate calculation results in the clinical usage. PMID:19610296

  16. Comparison of EBT and EBT3 RadioChromic Film Usage in Parotid Cancer Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Khorshidi, F.; Ghorbani, M.; Mohamadian, N.; Davenport, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background EBT and EBT3 radioChromic films have been used in radiotherapy dosimetry for years. Objective The aim of the current study is to compare EBT and EBT3 radioChromic films in dosimetry of radiotherapy fields for treatment of parotid cancer. Methods Calibrations of EBT and EBT3 films were performed with identical setups using a 6 MV photon beam of a Siemens Primus linac. Skin dose was measured at different points in the right anterior oblique (RAO) and right posterior oblique (RPO) fields by EBT and EBT3 films on a RANDO phantom. Results While dosimetry was performed with the same conditions for the two film types for calibration and in phantom in parotid cancer radiotherapy, the measured net optical density (NOD) in EBT film was found to be higher than that from EBT3 film. The minimum difference between these two films under calibration conditions was about 2.9% (for 0.2 Gy) with a maximum difference of 35.5% (for 0.5 Gy). In the therapeutic fields of parotid cancer radiotherapy at different points, the measured dose from EBT film was higher than the EBT3 film. In these fields the minimum and maximum measured dose differences were 16.0% and 25.5%, respectively. Conclusion EBT film demonstrates higher NOD than EBT3 film. This effect may be related to the higher sensitivity of EBT film over EBT3 film. However, the obtained dose differences between these two films in low dose range can be due to the differences in fitting functions applied following the calibration process. PMID:27026949

  17. Application of a color scanner for 60Co high dose rate brachytherapy dosimetry with EBT radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Roodi, Shahram Bayani; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a color scanner as a radiochromic film reader in two dimensional dosimetry around a high dose rate brachytherapy source. Materials and methods A Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL film scanner was utilized for the measurement of dose distribution around a high dose rate GZP6 60Co brachytherapy source with GafChromic® EBT radiochromic films. In these investigations, the non-uniformity of the film and scanner response, combined, as well as the films sensitivity to scanner’s light source was evaluated using multiple samples of films, prior to the source dosimetry. The results of these measurements were compared with the Monte Carlo simulated data using MCNPX code. In addition, isodose curves acquired by radiochromic films and Monte Carlo simulation were compared with those provided by the GZP6 treatment planning system. Results Scanning of samples of uniformly irradiated films demonstrated approximately 2.85% and 4.97% nonuniformity of the response, respectively in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the film. Our findings have also indicated that the film response is not affected by the exposure to the scanner’s light source, particularly in multiple scanning of film. The results of radiochromic film measurements are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations (4%) and the corresponding dose values presented by the GZP6 treatment planning system (5%). Conclusions The results of these investigations indicate that the Microtek ScanMaker 1000XL color scanner in conjunction with GafChromic EBT film is a reliable system for dosimetric evaluation of a high dose rate brachytherapy source. PMID:23411947

  18. GafChromic EBT film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanner: A novel background correction method and full dose uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, Sigrun; Frengen, Jomar

    2008-07-15

    Film dosimetry using radiochromic EBT film in combination with a flatbed charge coupled device scanner is a useful method both for two-dimensional verification of intensity-modulated radiation treatment plans and for general quality assurance of treatment planning systems and linear accelerators. Unfortunately, the response over the scanner area is nonuniform, and when not corrected for, this results in a systematic error in the measured dose which is both dose and position dependent. In this study a novel method for background correction is presented. The method is based on the subtraction of a correction matrix, a matrix that is based on scans of films that are irradiated to nine dose levels in the range 0.08-2.93 Gy. Because the response of the film is dependent on the film's orientation with respect to the scanner, correction matrices for both landscape oriented and portrait oriented scans were made. In addition to the background correction method, a full dose uncertainty analysis of the film dosimetry procedure was performed. This analysis takes into account the fit uncertainty of the calibration curve, the variation in response for different film sheets, the nonuniformity after background correction, and the noise in the scanned films. The film analysis was performed for film pieces of size 16x16 cm, all with the same lot number, and all irradiations were done perpendicular onto the films. The results show that the 2-sigma dose uncertainty at 2 Gy is about 5% and 3.5% for landscape and portrait scans, respectively. The uncertainty gradually increases as the dose decreases, but at 1 Gy the 2-sigma dose uncertainty is still as good as 6% and 4% for landscape and portrait scans, respectively. The study shows that film dosimetry using GafChromic EBT film, an Epson Expression 1680 Professional scanner and a dedicated background correction technique gives precise and accurate results. For the purpose of dosimetric verification, the calculated dose distribution can

  19. The use of new GAFCHROMIC EBT film for {sup 125}I seed dosimetry in Solid Water phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Medich, David; Munro, John III

    2008-08-15

    Radiochromic film dosimetry has been extensively used for intravascular brachytherapy applications for near field within 1 cm from the sources. With the recent introduction of new model of radiochromic films, GAFCHROMIC EBT, with higher sensitivity than earlier models, it is promising to extend the distances out to 5 cm for low dose rate (LDR) source dosimetry. In this study, the use of new model GAFCHROMIC EBT film for {sup 125}I seed dosimetry in Solid Water was evaluated for radial distances from 0.06 cm out to 5 cm. A multiple film technique was employed for four {sup 125}I seeds (Implant Sciences model 3500) with NIST traceable air kerma strengths. Each experimental film was positioned in contact with a {sup 125}I seed in a Solid Water phantom. The products of the air kerma strength and exposure time ranged from 8 to 3158 U-h, with the initial air kerma strength of 6 U in a series of 25 experiments. A set of 25 calibration films each was sequentially exposed to one {sup 125}I seed at about 0.58 cm distance for doses from 0.1 to 33 Gy. A CCD camera based microdensitometer, with interchangeable green (520 nm) and red (665 nm) light boxes, was used to scan all the films with 0.2 mm pixel resolution. The dose to each {sup 125}I calibration film center was calculated using the air kerma strength of the seed (incorporating decay), exposure time, distance from seed center to film center, and TG43U1S1 recommended dosimetric parameters. Based on the established calibration curve, dose conversion from net optical density was achieved for each light source. The dose rate constant was determined as 0.991 cGy U{sup -1} h{sup -1} ({+-}6.9%) and 1.014 cGy U{sup -1} h{sup -1} ({+-}6.8%) from films scanned using green and red light sources, respectively. The difference between these two values was within the uncertainty of the measurement. Radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function were also determined. The results obtained using the two light sources corroborated each

  20. In vivo dosimetry and shielding disk alignment verification by EBT3 GAFCHROMIC film in breast IOERT treatment.

    PubMed

    Severgnini, Mara; de Denaro, Mario; Bortul, Marina; Vidali, Cristiana; Beorchia, Aulo

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) cannot usually benefit, as conventional external radiotherapy, from software systems of treatment planning based on computed tomography and from common dose verify procedures. For this reason, in vivo film dosimetry (IVFD) proves to be an effective methodology to evaluate the actual radiation dose delivered to the target. A practical method for IVFD during breast IOERT was carried out to improve information on the dose actually delivered to the tumor target and on the alignment of the shielding disk with respect to the electron beam. Two EBT3 GAFCHROMIC films have been positioned on the two sides of the shielding disk in order to obtain the dose maps at the target and beyond the disk. Moreover the postprocessing analysis of the dose distribution measured on the films provides a quantitative estimate of the misalignment between the collimator and the disk. EBT3 radiochromic films have been demonstrated to be suitable dosimeters for IVD due to their linear dose-optical density response in a narrow range around the prescribed dose, as well as their capability to be fixed to the shielding disk without giving any distortion in the dose distribution. Off-line analysis of the radiochromic film allowed absolute dose measurements and this is indeed a very important verification of the correct exposure to the target organ, as well as an estimate of the dose to the healthy tissue underlying the shielding. These dose maps allow surgeons and radiation oncologists to take advantage of qualitative and quantitative feedback for setting more accurate treatment strategies and further optimized procedures. The proper alignment using elastic bands has improved the absolute dose accuracy and the collimator disk alignment by more than 50%. PMID:25679150

  1. Evaluation of Gafchromic EBT-XD film, with comparison to EBT3 film, and application in high dose radiotherapy verification.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Antony L; Dimitriadis, Alexis; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H

    2015-11-21

    There is renewed interest in film dosimetry for the verification of dose delivery of complex treatments, particularly small fields, compared to treatment planning system calculations. A new radiochromic film, Gafchromic EBT-XD, is available for high-dose treatment verification and we present the first published evaluation of its use. We evaluate the new film for MV photon dosimetry, including calibration curves, performance with single- and triple-channel dosimetry, and comparison to existing EBT3 film. In the verification of a typical 25 Gy stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS) treatment, compared to TPS planned dose distribution, excellent agreement was seen with EBT-XD using triple-channel dosimetry, in isodose overlay, maximum 1.0 mm difference over 200-2400 cGy, and gamma evaluation, mean passing rate 97% at 3% locally-normalised, 1.5 mm criteria. In comparison to EBT3, EBT-XD gave improved evaluation results for the SRS-plan, had improved calibration curve gradients at high doses, and had reduced lateral scanner effect. The dimensions of the two films are identical. The optical density of EBT-XD is lower than EBT3 for the same dose. The effective atomic number for both may be considered water-equivalent in MV radiotherapy. We have validated the use of EBT-XD for high-dose, small-field radiotherapy, for routine QC and a forthcoming multi-centre SRS dosimetry intercomparison. PMID:26512917

  2. Evaluation of Gafchromic EBT-XD film, with comparison to EBT3 film, and application in high dose radiotherapy verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Antony L.; Dimitriadis, Alexis; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H.

    2015-11-01

    There is renewed interest in film dosimetry for the verification of dose delivery of complex treatments, particularly small fields, compared to treatment planning system calculations. A new radiochromic film, Gafchromic EBT-XD, is available for high-dose treatment verification and we present the first published evaluation of its use. We evaluate the new film for MV photon dosimetry, including calibration curves, performance with single- and triple-channel dosimetry, and comparison to existing EBT3 film. In the verification of a typical 25 Gy stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS) treatment, compared to TPS planned dose distribution, excellent agreement was seen with EBT-XD using triple-channel dosimetry, in isodose overlay, maximum 1.0 mm difference over 200-2400 cGy, and gamma evaluation, mean passing rate 97% at 3% locally-normalised, 1.5 mm criteria. In comparison to EBT3, EBT-XD gave improved evaluation results for the SRS-plan, had improved calibration curve gradients at high doses, and had reduced lateral scanner effect. The dimensions of the two films are identical. The optical density of EBT-XD is lower than EBT3 for the same dose. The effective atomic number for both may be considered water-equivalent in MV radiotherapy. We have validated the use of EBT-XD for high-dose, small-field radiotherapy, for routine QC and a forthcoming multi-centre SRS dosimetry intercomparison.

  3. Technical Note: Homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Bernadette; Martisikova, Maria; Jaekel, Oliver

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The self-developing Gafchromic EBT film is a radiochromic film, widely used for relative photon dosimetry. Recently, the manufacturer has replaced the well-investigated EBT film by the new Gafchromic EBT2 film. It has the same sensitive component and, in addition, it contains a yellow marker dye in order to protect the film against ambient light exposure and to serve as a base for corrections of small differences in film response. Furthermore, the configuration of the film layers as well as the binder material have been changed in comparison to the EBT film. When investigating the properties of EBT2 film, all characteristics were found to be similar to those of EBT film, except for the film response homogeneity. Thus, in this article special focus was put on examining the homogeneity of EBT2 film. Methods: A scan protocol established for EBT film and published previously was used. The uniformity of the film coloration was investigated for unirradiated and irradiated EBT2 film sheets. The dose response of EBT2 film was measured and the influence of film inhomogeneities on dose determination was evaluated. Results: Inhomogeneities in pixel values of up to {+-}3.7% within one film were detected. The relative inhomogeneities were found to be approximately independent of the dose. Nonuniformities of the film response lead to uncertainties in dose determination of {+-}8.7% at 1 Gy. When using net optical densities for dose calibration, uncertainties in dose determination amount to more than {+-}6%. Conclusions: EBT2 films from the lot investigated in this study show response inhomogeneities, which lead to uncertainties in dose determination exceeding the commonly accepted tolerance levels. It is important to test further EBT2 lots regarding homogeneity before using the film in clinical routine.

  4. Measurement of absorbed dose to water around an electronic brachytherapy source. Comparison of two dosimetry systems: lithium formate EPR dosimeters and radiochromic EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfsson, Emelie; White, Shane; Landry, Guillaume; Lund, Eva; Gustafsson, Håkan; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2015-05-01

    Interest in high dose rate (HDR) electronic brachytherapy operating at 50 kV is increasing. For quality assurance it is important to identify dosimetry systems that can measure the absorbed doses in absolute terms which is difficult in this energy region. In this work a comparison is made between two dosimetry systems, EPR lithium formate dosimeters and radiochromic EBT2 film. Both types of dosimeters were irradiated simultaneously in a PMMA phantom using the Axxent EBS. Absorbed dose to water was determined at distances of 10 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm from the EBS. Results were traceable to different primary standards as regards to absorbed dose to water (EPR) and air kerma (EBT2). Monte Carlo simulations were used in absolute terms as a third estimate of absorbed dose to water. Agreement within the estimated expanded (k = 2) uncertainties (5% (EPR), 7% (EBT2)) was found between the results at 30 mm and 50 mm from the x-ray source. The same result was obtained in 4 repetitions of irradiation, indicating high precision in the measurements with both systems. At all distances, agreement between EPR and Monte Carlo simulations was shown as was also the case for the film measurements at 30mm and 50mm. At 10mm the geometry for the film measurements caused too large uncertainty in measured values depending on the exact position (within sub-mm distances) of the EBS and the 10 mm film results were exculded from comparison. This work has demonstrated good performance of the lithium formate EPR dosimetry system in accordance with earlier experiments at higher photon energies (192Ir HDR brachytherapy). It was also highlighted that there might be issues regarding the energy dependence and intrinsic efficiency of the EBT2 film that need to be considered for measurements using low energy sources.

  5. Multidimensional dosimetry of {sup 106}Ru eye plaques using EBT3 films and its impact on treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Heilemann, G. Kostiukhina, N.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish a method to perform multidimensional radiochromic film measurements of {sup 106}Ru plaques and to benchmark the resulting dose distributions against Monte Carlo simulations (MC), microdiamond, and diode measurements. Methods: Absolute dose rates and relative dose distributions in multiple planes were determined for three different plaque models (CCB, CCA, and COB), and three different plaques per model, using EBT3 films in an in-house developed polystyrene phantom and the MCNP6 MC code. Dose difference maps were generated to analyze interplaque variations for a specific type, and for comparing measurements against MC simulations. Furthermore, dose distributions were validated against values specified by the manufacturer (BEBIG) and microdiamond and diode measurements in a water scanning phantom. Radial profiles were assessed and used to estimate dosimetric margins for a given combination of representative tumor geometry and plaque size. Results: Absolute dose rates at a reference depth of 2 mm on the central axis of the plaque show an agreement better than 5% (10%) when comparing film measurements (MCNP6) to the manufacturer’s data. The reproducibility of depth-dose profile measurements was <7% (2 SD) for all investigated detectors and plaque types. Dose difference maps revealed minor interplaque deviations for a specific plaque type due to inhomogeneities of the active layer. The evaluation of dosimetric margins showed that for a majority of the investigated cases, the tumor was not completely covered by the 100% isodose prescribed to the tumor apex if the difference between geometrical plaque size and tumor base ≤4 mm. Conclusions: EBT3 film dosimetry in an in-house developed phantom was successfully used to characterize the dosimetric properties of different {sup 106}Ru plaque models. The film measurements were validated against MC calculations and other experimental methods and showed a good agreement with

  6. SU-E-T-121: Dosimetric Characterization of Gafchromic Film EBT3 Using Vidar DosimetryPro Advantage RED and EPSON Expression 10000XL Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, L; Adrada, A; Filipuzzi, M; Garrigo, E; Venencia, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize EBT3 using two types of scanner, analyzing the factors of influence of each dosimetry system. Methods: The film used in this study was GAFCHROMIC EBT3, the films were exposed at a dose range between 0Gy a 9Gy in a solid water phantom, SSD=100cm, 5cm depth and perpendicularly to the 6MV photon beam generated by a Novalis TX linear accelerator equipped with an HDMLC. A Farmer type ion chamber TN30013 (PTW) was used to determine the dose delivered to the film. The films were digitized with a scanner EPSON expression 10000XL and the VIDAR DosimetryPro Adventage RED. Software RIT113v6.1 was used for construction of the calibration curve and analysis. The film characteristics investigated were: response at different dose levels, sensitivity to orientation and side and resolution through the results of the spatial response function by analyzing a step pattern. Additionally, 20 IMRT treatment fields were measured with both scanner and compared with calculated dose using gamma index analysis (3%-3mm). Results: The OD obtained for dose level 2Gy in the orientation portrait of the film on the scanner EPSON is (0,222±0,19) and for Vidar RED (0,252±0,10) and landscape is for EPSON (0,211±0,25) and for Vidar RED (0,250±0,11) . The orientation dependence with respect to film side is about 0,09% for EPSON and about 0.03% for VIDAR. The spatial response function increase in response to the Gaussian function FWHM EPSON scanner (0.18mm) compared with VIDAR scanner function (less than 0.06mm) was observed. We analyzed 20 total plan dose distributions the number of pixels with gamma>1 (3%-3mm) was 0.7%±1.2 [0.1%; 2.82%] for EBT3-VIDAR y 2%±2.9 [0.2%; 3.5%] for EBT3-EPSON. Conclusion: VIDAR scanner shows better sensitivity. EBT3 film shows a different response between portrait and landscape orientation. Step pattern is better reproduce by VIDAR scanner.

  7. Accurate dosimetry with GafChromic EBT film of a 6 MV photon beam in water: What level is achievable?

    SciTech Connect

    Battum, L. J. van; Hoffmans, D.; Piersma, H.; Heukelom, S.

    2008-02-15

    This paper focuses on the accuracy, in absolute dose measurements, with GafChromic EBT film achievable in water for a 6 MV photon beam up to a dose of 2.3 Gy. Motivation is to get an absolute dose detection system to measure up dose distributions in a (water) phantom, to check dose calculations. An Epson 1680 color (red green blue) transmission flatbed scanner has been used as film scanning system, where the response in the red color channel has been extracted and used for the analyses. The influence of the flatbed film scanner on the film based dose detection process was investigated. The scan procedure has been optimized; i.e. for instance a lateral correction curve was derived to correct the scan value, up to 10%, as a function of optical density and lateral position. Sensitometric curves of different film batches were evaluated in portrait and landscape scan mode. Between various batches important variations in sensitometric curve were observed. Energy dependence of the film is negligible, while a slight variation in dose response is observed for very large angles between film surface and incident photon beam. Improved accuracy in absolute dose detection can be obtained by repetition of a film measurement to tackle at least the inherent presence of film inhomogeneous construction. We state that the overall uncertainty is random in absolute EBT film dose detection and of the order of 1.3% (1 SD) under the condition that the film is scanned in a limited centered area on the scanner and at least two films have been applied. At last we advise to check a new film batch on its characteristics compared to available information, before using that batch for absolute dose measurements.

  8. Comparison of vidar dosimetry advantage pro and epson perfection V700 scanner in densitometry of radiochomic EBT2 film in measurement of high dose gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bura, W.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Damrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays the radiochromic film is widely used to obtain dose distribution in two dimensions with high spatial resolution, less energy dependence and near tissue equivalent. It can be a commissioning tool to verify high dose gradient of dose distribution for IMRT and VMAT techniques. However, the film scanner could affect the accuracy of dose distribution if lack of precaution. In this study, the comparison between Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage (RED) is evaluated in terms of the capability to verify the 2D dose distribution for conventional and VMAT techniques. The Gafchromic® EBT2 films were read from two types of scanners (Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage) for volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT) dosimetry. The software for analyzing the results of Epson perfection V700 and Vidar Dosimetry Pro Advantage are SNC Patient software and Omnipro’ IMRT software, respectively. Comparisons between measured and calculated dose distributions are reported as %passing rate and the gamma index for tolerance parameters of 3% and 3mm. The study found that the %passing rate obtained from Vidar scanner and Epson V700 scanner compared with Eclipse treatment planning system is more than 98% with the criteria of (3%/3mm).

  9. Improving the energy response of external beam therapy (EBT) GafChromic{sup TM} dosimetry films at low energies (≤100 keV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bekerat, H. Devic, S.; DeBlois, F.; Singh, K.; Sarfehnia, A.; Seuntjens, J.; Shih, Shelley; Yu, Xiang; Lewis, D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of varying the active layer composition of external beam therapy (EBT) GafChromic{sup TM} films on the energy dependence of the film, as well as try to develop a new prototype with more uniform energy response at low photon energies (⩽100 keV). Methods: First, the overall energy response (S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q)) of different commercial EBT type film models that represent the three different generations produced to date, i.e., EBT, EBT2, and EBT3, was investigated. Pieces of each film model were irradiated to a fixed dose of 2 Gy to water for a wide range of beam qualities and the corresponding S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) was measured using a flatbed document scanner. Furthermore, the DOSRZnrc Monte Carlo code was used to determine the absorbed dose to water energy dependence of the film, f(Q). Moreover, the intrinsic energy dependence, k{sub bq}(Q), for each film model was evaluated using the corresponding S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) and f(Q). In the second part of this study, the authors investigated the effects of changing the chemical composition of the active layer on S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q). Finally, based on these results, the film manufacturer fabricated several film prototypes and the authors evaluated their S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q). Results: The commercial EBT film model shows an under response at all energies below 100 keV reaching 39% ± 4% at about 20 keV. The commercial EBT2 and EBT3 film models show an under response of about 27% ± 4% at 20 keV and an over response of about 16% ± 4% at 40 keV.S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) of the three commercial film models at low energies show strong correlation with the corresponding f{sup −1}(Q) curves. The commercial EBT3 model with 4% Cl in the active layer shows under response of 22% ± 4% at 20 keV and 6% ± 4% at about 40 keV. However, increasing the mass percent of chlorine makes the film more hygroscopic which may affect the stability of the film's readout. The

  10. Evaluation of two-dimensional bolus effect of immobilization/support devices on skin doses: A radiochromic EBT film dosimetry study in phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Chan, Maria F.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors have quantified the two-dimensional (2D) perspective of skin dose increase using EBT film dosimetry in phantom in the presence of patient immobilization devices during conventional and IMRT treatments. Methods: For 6 MV conventional photon field, the authors evaluated and quantified the 2D bolus effect on skin doses for six different common patient immobilization/support devices, including carbon fiber grid with Mylar sheet, Orfit carbon fiber base plate, balsa wood board, Styrofoam, perforated AquaPlast sheet, and alpha-cradle. For 6 and 15 MV IMRT fields, a stack of two film layers positioned above a solid phantom was exposed at the air interface or in the presence of a patient alpha-cradle. All the films were scanned and the pixel values were converted to doses based on an established calibration curve. The authors determined the 2D skin dose distributions, isodose curves, and cross-sectional profiles at the surface layers with or without the immobilization/support device. The authors also generated and compared the dose area histograms (DAHs) and dose area products from the 2D skin dose distributions. Results: In contrast with 20% relative dose [(RD) dose relative to d{sub max} on central axis] at 0.0153 cm in the film layer for 6 MV 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field, the average RDs at the same depth in the film layer were 71%, 69%, 55%, and 57% for Orfit, balsa wood, Styrofoam, and alpha-cradle, respectively. At the same depth, the RDs were 54% under a strut and 26% between neighboring struts of a carbon fiber grid with Mylar sheet, and between 34% and 56% for stretched perforated AquaPlast sheet. In the presence of the alpha-cradle for the 6 MV (15 MV) IMRT fields, the hot spot doses at the effective measurement depths of 0.0153 and 0.0459 cm were 140% and 150% (83% and 89%), respectively, of the isocenter dose. The enhancement factor was defined as the ratio of a given DAH parameter (minimum dose received in a given area) with

  11. Gafchromic EBT2 dosimetry via robust optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Victor G. L.; Cardoso, Simone C.; da Silva, Ademir X.

    2013-07-01

    An 'in house' software was developed with MATLAB in order to perform optimized dose calculations in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to demonstrate an improvement on the Multichannel method using robust optimization that deals with optimization problems where robustness is sought against uncertainty. An optimization framework was developed in order to compare remaining error from optimization process of robust methods against the conventional triple-channel method. The proposed robust method minimizes the dose difference over all channels compared to the original triple-channel method, mainly over clinical dose range. Even if a Gafchromic EBT2 film irradiated by composite IMRT fields is analyzed, more consistent values than the ones obtained by the triple-channel method are found and Newton Rings patterns are minimized. When robust methods are applied, the difference between blue and red channel doses was found to be very small, about 104 times less than obtained by triple-channel optimization. It is well known that one outlier may cause a large error in a least squares estimator. The blue channel correction of non-uniformities may have best performance when robust optimization is used. A variety of anomalies (artifacts, Newton rings and other disturbances) behave differently from natural Gaussian random noise such as variations of the thickness. The use of robust optimization methods might be more realistic since this approach uses fatter tail distributions as the Laplace and could mitigate the Newton's Rings Pattern.

  12. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal

  13. MAGAT gel and EBT2 film-based dosimetry for evaluating source plugging-based treatment plan in Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Subbiah, Vivekanandhan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Rath, Goura Kishor; Senthilkumaran, S; Thulkar, Sanjay; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Laviraj, M A; Bisht, Raj Kishor; Mahapatra, A K

    2012-01-01

    This work illustrates a procedure to assess the overall accuracy associated with Gamma Knife treatment planning using plugging. The main role of source plugging or blocking is to create dose falloff in the junction between a target and a critical structure. We report the use of MAGAT gel dosimeter for verification of an experimental treatment plan based on plugging. The polymer gel contained in a head-sized glass container simulated all major aspects of the treatment process of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The 3D dose distribution recorded in the gel dosimeter was read using a 1.5T MRI scanner. Scanning protocol was: CPMG pulse sequence with 8 equidistant echoes, TR = 7 s, echo step = 14 ms, pixel size = 0.5mm × 0.5mm, and slice thickness of 2 mm. Using a calibration relationship between absorbed dose and spin-spin relaxation rate (R2), we converted R2 images to dose images. Volumetric dose comparison between treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurement was accomplished using an in-house MATLAB-based program. The isodose overlay of the measured and computed dose distribution on axial planes was in close agreement. Gamma index analysis of 3D data showed more than 94% voxel pass rate for different tolerance criteria of 3%/2 mm, 3%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm. Film dosimetry with GAFCHROMIC EBT 2 film was also performed to compare the results with the calculated TPS dose. Gamma index analysis of film measurement for the same tolerance criteria used for gel measurement evaluation showed more than 95% voxel pass rate. Verification of gamma plan calculated dose on account of shield is not part of acceptance testing of Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK). Through this study we accomplished a volumetric comparison of dose distributions measured with a polymer gel dosimeter and Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) calculations for plans using plugging. We propose gel dosimeter as a quality assurance (QA) tool for verification of plug-based planning. PMID:23149780

  14. Solar ultraviolet radiation response of EBT2 Gafchromic, radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Butson, Ethan T; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important aspect of dosimetry for the improved knowledge of UV exposure and its associated health related issues. EBT2 Gafchromic film has been designed by its manufacturers as an improved tool for ionizing radiation dosimetry. The film is stated as exhibiting a significant reduction in UV response. However, results have shown that when exposed to UV from the 'bottom side' i.e. from the thick laminate side, the film exhibits a sensitivity to solar UV radiation which is both measurable and accurate for UV dosimetry. Films were irradiated in this position to known solar UV exposures and results are quantified showing a reproducibility of measurement to within ±7% (1 SD) when compared to calibrated UV meters. With an exposure of 20 J cm(-2) broad spectrum solar UV, the films net OD change was found to be 0.248 OD ± 0.021 OD when analysing the results using the red channel region of an Epson V700 desktop scanner. This was compared to 0.0294 OD ± 0.0053 OD change with exposure to the same UV exposure from the top side. This means that solar UV dosimetry can be performed using EBT2 Gafchromic film utilizing the underside of the film for dosimetry. The main advantages of this film type for measurement of UV exposure is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner as well as its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. PMID:24113466

  15. Measuring solar UV radiation with EBT radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Butson, Ethan T; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2010-10-21

    Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry has been performed with the use of a radiochromic film dosimeter called Gafchromic EBT for solar radiation exposure. The film changes from a clear colour to blue colour when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and results have shown that the colour change is reproducible within ±10% at 5 kJ m(-2) UV exposure under various conditions of solar radiation. Parameters tested included changes in season (summer versus winter exposure), time of day, as well as sky conditions such as cloudy skies versus clear skies. As the radiochromic films' permanent colour change occurs in the visible wavelengths the film can be analysed with a desktop scanner with the most sensitive channel for analysis being the red component of the signal. Results showed that an exposure of 5 kJ m(-2) (approximately 1 h exposure in full sun during summer) produced an approximate 0.28 change in the net OD when analysed in reflection mode on the desktop scanner which is significant darkening. The main advantages of this film type, and thus the new EBT2 film which has replaced EBT for measurement of UV exposure, is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner, its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. PMID:20858922

  16. SU-E-T-76: Comparing Homogeneity Between Gafchromic Film EBT2 and EBT3

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, H; Sumida, I; Ogawa, K; Tanaka, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We found out that homogeneity of EBT2 was different among lot numbers in previous study. Variation in local homogeneity of EBT3 among several lot numbers has not been reported. In this study, we investigated film homogeneity of Gafcrhomic EBT3 films compared with EBT2 films. Methods: All sheets from five lots were cut into 12 pieces to investigate film homogeneity, and were irradiated at 0.5, 2, and 3 Gy. To investigate intra- and inter-sheet uniformity, five sheets from five lots were exposed to 2 Gy: intra-sheet uniformity was evaluated by the coefficient of variation of homogeneity for all pieces of a single sheet, and inter-sheet uniformity was evaluated by the coefficient of variation of homogeneity among the same piece numbers in the five sheets. To investigate the difference of ADC value in various doses, a single sheet from each of five lots was irradiated at 0.5 Gy and 3 Gy in addition to 2 Gy. A scan resolution of 72 dots per inch (dpi) and color depth of 48-bit RGB were used. Films were analyzed by the inhouse software; Average of ADC value in center ROI and profile X and Y axis were measured. Results and Conclusion: Intra-sheet uniformity of non-irradiated EBT2 films were ranged from 0.1% to 0.4%, however that of irradiated EBT2 films were ranged from 0.2% to 1.5%. On the other hand, intra-sheet uniformity of irradiated and non-irradiated EBT3 films were from 0.2% to 0.6%. Inter-sheet uniformity of all films were less than 0.5%. It was interesting point that homogeneity of EBT3 between no-irradiated and irradiated films were similar value, whereas EBT2 had dose dependence of homogeneity in ADC value evaluation. These results suggested that EBT3 homogeneity was corrected by this feature.

  17. Validation of GEANT4 simulations for percentage depth dose calculations in heterogeneous media by using small photon beams from the 6-MV Cyberknife: Comparison with photon beam dosimetry with EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung Il; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Shin, Jae Won; Hong, Seung-Woo; Suh, Tae Suk; Min, Kyung Joo; Lee, Sang Deok; Chung, Su Mi; Jung, Jae-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Percentage depth dose (PDD) distributions in heterogeneous phantoms with lung and soft bone equivalent media are studied by using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. For lung equivalent media, Balsa wood is used, and for soft bone equivalent media, a compound material with epoxy resin, hardener and calcium carbonate is used. Polystyrene slabs put together with these materials are used as a heterogeneous phantom. Dose measurements are performed with Gafchromic EBT2 film by using photon beams from the 6-MV CyberKnife at the Seoul Uridul Hospital. The cone sizes of the photon beams are varied from 5 to 10 to 30 mm. When the Balsa wood is inserted in the phantom, the dose measured with EBT2 film is found to be significantly different from the dose without the EBT2 film in and the dose beyond the Balsa wood region, particularly for small field sizes. On the other hand, when the soft bone equivalent material is inserted in the phantom, the discrepancy between the dose measured with EBT2 film and the dose without EBT2 film can be seen only in the region of the soft bone equivalent material. GEANT4 simulations are done with and without the EBT2 film to compare the simulation results with measurements. The GEANT4 simulations including EBT2 film are found to agree well with the measurements for all the cases within an error of 2.2%. The results of the present study show that GEANT4 gives reasonable results for the PDD calculations in heterogeneous media when using photon beams produced by the 6-MV CyberKnife

  18. Comparison of Kodak EDR2 and Gafchromic EBT film for intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose distribution verification

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, A. . E-mail: asankar_phy@yahoo.co.in; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Nehru, R. Mothilal; Gopalakrishna Kurup, P.G.; Murali, V.; Enke, Charles A.; Velmurugan, J.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative dose validation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans require 2-dimensional (2D) high-resolution dosimetry systems with uniform response over its sensitive region. The present work deals with clinical use of commercially available self-developing Radio Chromic Film, Gafchromic EBT film, for IMRT dose verification. Dose response curves were generated for the films using a VXR-16 film scanner. The results obtained with EBT films were compared with the results of Kodak extended dose range 2 (EDR2) films. The EBT film had a linear response between the dose range of 0 to 600 cGy. The dose-related characteristics of the EBT film, such as post irradiation color growth with time, film uniformity, and effect of scanning orientation, were studied. There was up to 8.6% increase in the color density between 2 to 40 hours after irradiation. There was a considerable variation, up to 8.5%, in the film uniformity over its sensitive region. The quantitative differences between calculated and measured dose distributions were analyzed using DTA and Gamma index with the tolerance of 3% dose difference and 3-mm distance agreement. The EDR2 films showed consistent results with the calculated dose distributions, whereas the results obtained using EBT were inconsistent. The variation in the film uniformity limits the use of EBT film for conventional large-field IMRT verification. For IMRT of smaller field sizes (4.5 x 4.5 cm), the results obtained with EBT were comparable with results of EDR2 films.

  19. Dose-response curve of EBT, EBT2, and EBT3 radiochromic films to synchrotron-produced monochromatic x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas A. D.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Alvarez, Diane; Matthews, Kenneth L. II; Ham, Kyungmin; Dugas, Joseph P.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This work investigates the dose-response curves of GAFCHROMIC{sup Registered-Sign} EBT, EBT2, and EBT3 radiochromic films using synchrotron-produced monochromatic x-ray beams. EBT2 film is being utilized for dose verification in photoactivated Auger electron therapy at the Louisiana State University Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) synchrotron facility. Methods: Monochromatic beams of 25, 30, and 35 keV were generated on the tomography beamline at CAMD. Ion chamber depth-dose measurements were used to determine the dose delivered to films irradiated at depths from 0.7 to 8.5 cm in a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 Multiplication-Sign 10-cm{sup 3} polymethylmethacrylate phantom. AAPM TG-61 protocol was applied to convert measured ionization into dose. Films were digitized using an Epson 1680 Professional flatbed scanner and analyzed using the net optical density (NOD) derived from the red channel. A dose-response curve was obtained at 35 keV for EBT film, and at 25, 30, and 35 keV for EBT2 and EBT3 films. Calibrations of films for 4 MV x-rays were obtained for comparison using a radiotherapy accelerator at Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center. Results: The sensitivity (NOD per unit dose) of EBT film at 35 keV relative to that for 4-MV x-rays was 0.73 and 0.76 for doses 50 and 100 cGy, respectively. The sensitivity of EBT2 film at 25, 30, and 35 keV relative to that for 4-MV x-rays varied from 1.09-1.07, 1.23-1.17, and 1.27-1.19 for doses 50-200 cGy, respectively. For EBT3 film the relative sensitivity was within 3% of unity for all three monochromatic x-ray beams. Conclusions: EBT and EBT2 film sensitivity showed strong energy dependence over an energy range of 25 keV-4 MV, although this dependence becomes weaker for larger doses. EBT3 film shows weak energy dependence, indicating that it would be a better dosimeter for kV x-ray beams where beam hardening effects can result in large changes in the effective energy.

  20. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: Validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Poder, Joel; Corde, Stéphanie

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC{sup ®} was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution.Methods: Using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC{sup ®}.Results: The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC{sup ®} to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC{sup ®} was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T= 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was accurately

  1. Changes of the optical characteristics of radiochromic films in the transition from EBT3 to EBT-XD films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Wieker, Soeren; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Bjoern

    2016-07-01

    A new type of radiochromic film, the EBT-XD film, has been introduced with the aim to reduce the orientation effect and the lateral response artifact occurring in the use of radiochromic films together with flatbed scanners. The task of the present study is to quantify the changes of optical characteristics involved with the transition from the well-known EBT3 films to the new EBT-XD films, using the optical bench arrangement already applied by Schoenfeld et al (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 3575–97). Largely reduced polarization effects and the almost complete loss of the anisotropy of the scattered light produced in a radiation-exposed film have been observed. The Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory is used to understand these optical changes as arising from the reduced length-to-width ratio of the LiPCDA polymer crystals in the active layer of the EBT-XD film. The effect of these changes on the flatbed scanning artifacts will be shortly addressed, but treated in more detail in a further paper.

  2. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film. PMID:26689962

  3. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  4. Alternate calibration method of radiochromic EBT3 film for quality assurance verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Koo, Taeryool; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me Yeon; Bae, Hoonsik; Kim, Kyoung Ju

    2016-07-01

    EBT3 film is utilized as a dosimetry quality assurance tool for the verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. In this work, we suggest a percentage-depth-dose (PDD) calibration method that can calibrate several EBT3 film pieces together at different dose levels because photon beams provide different dose levels at different depths along the axis of the beam. We investigated the feasibility of the film PDD calibration method based on PDD data and compared the results those from the traditional film calibration method. Photon beams at 6 MV were delivered to EBT3 film pieces for both calibration methods. For the PDD-based calibration, the film pieces were placed on solid phantoms at the depth of maximum dose (dmax) and at depths of 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, and 22 cm, and a photon beam was delivered twice, at 100 cGy and 400 cGy, to extend the calibration dose range under the same conditions. Fourteen film pieces, to maintain their consistency, were irradiated at doses ranging from approximately 30 to 400 cGy for both film calibrations. The film pieces were located at the center position on the scan bed of an Epson 1680 flatbed scanner in the parallel direction. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were created, and their dose distributions were delivered to the film. The dose distributions for the traditional method and those for the PDD-based calibration method were evaluated using a Gamma analysis. The PDD dose values using a CC13 ion chamber and those obtained by using a FC65-G Farmer chamber and measured at the depth of interest produced very similar results. With the objective test criterion of a 1% dosage agreement at 1 mm, the passing rates for the four cases of the three IMRT plans were essentially identical. The traditional and the PDD-based calibrations provided similar plan verification results. We also describe another alternative for calibrating EBT3 films, i.e., a PDD-based calibration method that provides an easy and time-saving approach

  5. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  6. Extraction of electron beam dose parameters from EBT2 film data scored in a mini phantom.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Dedri; Smit, Cobus J L; du Plessis, Freek C P

    2013-09-01

    Quality assurance of medical linear accelerators includes dosimetric parameter measurement of therapeutic electron beams e.g. relative dose at a depth of 80% (R₈₀). This parameter must be within a tolerance of 0.2 cm of the declared value. Cumbersome water tank measurements can be regarded as a benchmark to measure electron depth dose curves. A mini-phantom was designed and built, in which a strip of GAFCHROMIC® EBT2 film could be encased tightly for electron beam depth dose measurement. Depth dose data were measured for an ELEKTA Sl25 MLC, ELEKTA Precise, and ELEKTA Synergy (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) machines. The electron beam energy range was between 4 and 22 MeV among the machines. A 10 × 10 cm² electron applicator with 95 cm source-surface-distance was used on all the machines. 24 h after irradiation, the EBT2 film strips were scanned on Canon CanoScan N670U scanner. Afterwards, the data were analysed with in-house developed software that entailed optical density to dose conversion, and optimal fitting of the PDD data to de-noise the raw data. From the PDD data R₈₀ values were solved for and compared with acceptance values. A series of tests were also carried out to validate the use of the scanner for film Dosimetry. These tests are presented in this study. It was found that this method of R₈₀ evaluation was reliable with good agreement with benchmark water tank measurements using a commercial parallel plate ionization chamber as the radiation detector. The EBT2 film data yielded R₈₀ values that were on average 0.06 cm different from benchmark water tank measured R₈₀ values. PMID:23794059

  7. Evaluation of gafchromic EBT film for intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distribution verification

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, A.; Kurup, P. G. Goplakrishna; Murali, V.; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Nehru, R. Mothilal; Velmurugan, J.

    2006-01-01

    This work was undertaken with the intention of investigating the possibility of clinical use of commercially available self-developing radiochromic film – Gafchromic EBT film – for IMRT dose verification. The dose response curves were generated for the films using VXR-16 film scanner. The results obtained with EBT films were compared with the results of Kodak EDR2 films. It was found that the EBT film has a linear response between the dose ranges of 0 and 600 cGy. The dose-related characteristics of the EBT film, like post-irradiation color growth with time, film uniformity and effect of scanning orientation, were studied. There is up to 8.6% increase in the color density between 2 and 40 h after irradiation. There was a considerable variation, up to 8.5%, in the film uniformity over its sensitive region. The quantitative difference between calculated and measured dose distributions was analyzed using Gamma index with the tolerance of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance agreement. EDR2 films showed good and consistent results with the calculated dose distribution, whereas the results obtained using EBT were inconsistent. The variation in the film uniformity limits the use of EBT film for conventional large field IMRT verification. For IMRT of smaller field size (4.5 × 4.5 cm), the results obtained with EBT were comparable with results of EDR2 films. PMID:21206669

  8. Thermophysical investigation of Gafchromic EBT2 films using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, A.; Abdallah, S.; Towairqi, M. Al

    2014-07-01

    The thermophysical properties of EBT2 films exposed to different doses of x-ray were investigated. The doses ranged from 2 to 818 cGy. The films were irradiated by a Varian linear accelerator using a 6 MV photon beam. The thermal conductivity (k) was obtained by measuring the thermal diffusivity (α) and thermal effusivity (e) using the photoacoustic (PA) technique. The α, e, and k values clearly indicated their dependence on the dose from 0 to 818 cGy. The results demonstrate that the PA technique can detect variations in the thermal diffusivity at doses as low as approximately 3 cGy. The thermal conductivity for the film exposed to 818 cGy of radiation increased by a factor of approximately 3.70 compared to the non-exposed film. The PA spectroscopic technique displayed good reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%.

  9. On multichannel film dosimetry with channel-independent perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez, I. Peterlin, P.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Different multichannel methods for film dosimetry have been proposed in the literature. Two of them are the weighted mean method and the method put forth byMicke et al. [“Multichannel film dosimetry with nonuniformity correction,” Med. Phys. 38, 2523–2534 (2011)] and Mayer et al. [“Enhanced dosimetry procedures and assessment for EBT2 radiochromic film,” Med. Phys. 39, 2147–2155 (2012)]. The purpose of this work was to compare their results and to develop a generalized channel-independent perturbations framework in which both methods enter as special cases. Methods: Four models of channel-independent perturbations were compared: weighted mean, Micke–Mayer method, uniform distribution, and truncated normal distribution. A closed-form formula to calculate film doses and the associated type B uncertainty for all four models was deduced. To evaluate the models, film dose distributions were compared with planned and measured dose distributions. At the same time, several elements of the dosimetry process were compared: film type EBT2 versus EBT3, different waiting-time windows, reflection mode versus transmission mode scanning, and planned versus measured dose distribution for film calibration and for γ-index analysis. The methods and the models described in this study are publicly accessible through IRISEU. Alpha 1.1 ( http://www.iriseu.com ). IRISEU. is a cloud computing web application for calibration and dosimetry of radiochromic films. Results: The truncated normal distribution model provided the best agreement between film and reference doses, both for calibration and γ-index verification, and proved itself superior to both the weighted mean model, which neglects correlations between the channels, and the Micke–Mayer model, whose accuracy depends on the properties of the sensitometric curves. With respect to the selection of dosimetry protocol, no significant differences were found between transmission and reflection mode scanning

  10. Technical Note: Initial characterization of the new EBT-XD Gafchromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Grams, Michael P. Gustafson, Jon M.; Long, Kenneth M.; Fong de los Santos, Luis E.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric accuracy and energy dependence of the new EBT-eXtended Dose (XD) Gafchromic film and to compare the lateral response artifact (LRA) between EBT-XD and EBT3 film. Methods: EBT3 and EBT-XD calibration curves were created by exposing films to known doses from 0 to 3000 cGy using a 6 MV beam. To assess the accuracy and dynamic range of EBT-XD, a 60° enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) was used to deliver a dose range of approximately 200–2900 cGy. Comparison to treatment planning system (TPS) calculation was made using a gamma analysis with 2%/2 mm passing criteria. To assess and compare the LRA between EBT3 and EBT-XD, 21 × 21 cm{sup 2} open fields delivered doses of 1000, 2000, and 3000 cGy to both types of film. Films were placed at the center of the scanner, and ratios of measured to TPS predicted doses were calculated at 50 and 80 mm lateral from the scanner center in order to quantitatively assess the LRA. To evaluate the energy dependence of EBT-XD film, seven known doses ranging from 400 to 3000 cGy were delivered using both 6 and 18 MV beams and the resulting optical densities (ODs) compared. Results: The gamma passing rate was 99.1% for the 6 MV EDW delivery. EBT-XD film exhibited minimal LRA (<1%) up to 3000 cGy. In contrast, EBT3 demonstrated an under-response of 11.3% and 22.7% at lateral positions of 50 and 80 mm, respectively, for the 3000 cGy exposure. Differences between ODs of the EBT-XD films exposed to known doses from 6 to 18 MV beams were <0.8% suggesting minimal energy dependence throughout this energy range. Conclusions: The LRA of EBT-XD is greatly reduced when compared to EBT3. This in combination with its accuracy from 0 to 3000 cGy and minimal energy dependence from 6 to 18 MV makes EBT-XD film well suited for dosimetric measurements in high dose SRS/SBRT applications.

  11. NOTE: Absorption spectra variations of EBT radiochromic film from radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butson, M. J.; Cheung, T.; Yu, P. K. N.

    2005-07-01

    Gafchromic EBT radiochromic film is one of the newest radiation-induced auto-developing x-ray analysis films available for therapeutic radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy applications. The spectral absorption properties in the visible wavelengths have been investigated and results show two main peaks in absorption located at 636 nm and 585 nm. These absorption peaks are different to many other radiochromic film products such as Gafchromic MD-55 and HS film where two peaks were located at 676 nm and 617 nm respectively. The general shape of the absorption spectra is similar to older designs. A much higher sensitivity is found at high-energy x-rays with an average 0.6 OD per Gy variation in OD seen within the first Gy measured at 636 nm using 6 MV x-rays. This is compared to approximately 0.09 OD units for the first Gy at the 676 nm absorption peak for HS film at 6 MV x-ray energy. The film's blue colour is visually different from older varieties of Gafchromic film with a higher intensity of mid-range blue within the film. The film provides adequate relative absorbed dose measurement for clinical radiotherapy x-ray assessment in the 1 2 Gy dose range which with further investigation may be useful for fractionated radiotherapy dose assessment.

  12. Variations in dose distribution and optical properties of Gafchromic{sup TM} EBT2 film according to scanning mode

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Soah; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Han, Taejin; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, KyoungJu; Bae, Hoonsik; Su Kim, Hyeong; Han Kim, Jung; Jae Oh, Seung; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The authors aim was to investigate the effects of using transmission and reflection scanning modes, the film orientation during scanning, and ambient room light on a dosimetry system based on the Gafchromic{sup TM} EBT2 film model. Methods: For calibration, the films were cut to 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} and irradiated from 20 to 700 cGy at the depth of maximum dose using 6 and 10 MV photon beams in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Absolute dose calibration of the linear accelerator was done according to the TRS398 protocol. An FG65-G ionization chamber was used to monitor the dose while irradiating the films in solid water. The film pieces were scanned with an EPSON Expression 1680 Pro flatbed scanner in transmission and reflection modes. Authors investigated the effect of orientation on films and examined the optical properties of EBT2 film using an ellipsometer and an ultraviolet (UV)/visible spectrometer to explain the dosimetric dependence of the film on orientation during the scanning process. To investigate the effect of ambient room light, films were preirradiated in 6 and 10 MV photon beams with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) plans, and then exposed to room light, either directly for 2 days in a workroom or for 2 months in a film box. Gamma index pass criteria of (3%, 3 mm) were used. Results: The dose response curves based on net optical density (NOD) indicated that the reflection scanning mode can provide a better dose sensitivity than the transmission scanning mode, whereas the standard deviation of the dose is greater in reflection mode than in transmission mode. When the film was rotated 90 deg. from the portrait orientation, the average dose of the EBT2 film decreased by 11.5-19.6% in transmission mode and by 1.5-2.3% in reflection mode. Using an ellipsometer, variation of the refractive index of EBT2 film--the birefringence property--was found to be the largest between 45 deg. (1.72 and 1.71) and 135 deg. (1.8 and 1

  13. Energy dependence and dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film over a wide range of photon, electron, and proton beam energies

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Prado, Karl; Vicic, Milos

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Since the Gafchromic film EBT has been recently replaced by the newer model EBT2, its characterization, especially energy dependence, has become critically important. The energy dependence of the dose response of Gafchromic EBT2 film is evaluated for a broad range of energies from different radiation sources used in radiation therapy. Methods: The beams used for this study comprised of kilovoltage x rays (75, 125, and 250 kVp), {sup 137}Cs gamma (662 KeV), {sup 60}Co gamma (1.17-1.33 MeV), megavoltage x rays (6 and 18 MV), electron beams (6 and 20 MeV), and proton beams (100 and 250 MeV). The film's response to each of the above energies was measured over the dose range of 0.4-10 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.74 for the film reader used. Results: The energy dependence of EBT2 was found to be relatively small within measurement uncertainties (1{sigma}={+-}4.5%) for all energies and modalities. Conclusion: For relative and absolute dosimetry of radiation therapy beams, the weak energy dependence of the EBT2 makes it most suitable for clinical use compared to other films.

  14. Extension of Radiochromic Film Dosimetry to Three Dimensions: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, S.; Skorska, M.

    2007-11-26

    The feasibility of measuring dose distributions in three-dimensions using Gafchromic EBT film was studied. A stack of film was used as tomographic dosimeter. The response of film (4x4 cm{sup 2}) placed between a stack of Gafchromic EBT films and slabs of polystyrene phantom was tested. Differences in film response for two different photon beam qualities, 6 MV and 25 MV, were observed. Measurements with 6 MV beam quality revealed that for different field sizes and depths there were no changes in response of EBT Gafchromic film when placed between polystyrene plates or sandwiched between other films. However, in the case of 25 MV beam quality, a statistically significant over-response was found for film placed in stack. We conclude that stacked-film dosimetry is feasible at 6 MV. For 25 MV photon beam quality the stack of films showed different properties than the polystyrene slabs of the same height.

  15. Optimizing the dynamic range extension of a radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Soares, Christopher G.; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2009-02-15

    The authors present a radiochromic film dosimetry protocol for a multicolor channel radiochromic film dosimetry system consisting of the external beam therapy (EBT) model GAFCHROMIC film and the Epson Expression 1680 flat-bed document scanner. Instead of extracting only the red color channel, the authors are using all three color channels in the absorption spectrum of the EBT film to extend the dynamic dose range of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. By optimizing the dose range for each color channel, they obtained a system that has both precision and accuracy below 1.5%, and the optimized ranges are 0-4 Gy for the red channel, 4-50 Gy for the green channel, and above 50 Gy for the blue channel.

  16. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  17. Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film.

    PubMed

    Sonier, Marcus; Wronski, Matt; Yeboah, Collins

    2015-01-01

    Lens dose is a concern during the treatment of facial lesions with anterior electron beams. Lead shielding is routinely employed to reduce lens dose and minimize late complications. The purpose of this work is twofold: 1) to measure dose pro-files under large-area lead shielding at the lens depth for clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and 2) to assess the accuracy of the Pinnacle treatment plan-ning system in calculating doses under lead shields. First, to simulate the clinical geometry, EBT3 film and 4 cm wide lead shields were incorporated into a Solid Water phantom. With the lead shield inside the phantom, the film was positioned at a depth of 0.7 cm below the lead, while a variable thickness of solid water, simulating bolus, was placed on top. This geometry was reproduced in Pinnacle to calculate dose profiles using the pencil beam electron algorithm. The measured and calculated dose profiles were normalized to the central-axis dose maximum in a homogeneous phantom with no lead shielding. The resulting measured profiles, functions of bolus thickness and incident electron energy, can be used to estimate the lens dose under various clinical scenarios. These profiles showed a minimum lead margin of 0.5 cm beyond the lens boundary is required to shield the lens to ≤ 10% of the dose maximum. Comparisons with Pinnacle showed a consistent overestimation of dose under the lead shield with discrepancies of ~ 25% occur-ring near the shield edge. This discrepancy was found to increase with electron energy and bolus thickness and decrease with distance from the lead edge. Thus, the Pinnacle electron algorithm is not recommended for estimating lens dose in this situation. The film measurements, however, allow for a reasonable estimate of lens dose from electron beams and for clinicians to assess the lead margin required to reduce the lens dose to an acceptable level. PMID:27074448

  18. Comparison of dosimeter response: ionization chamber, TLD, and Gafchromic EBT2 film in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT techniques for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriandini, A.; Wibowo, W. E.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    This research was conducted by measuring point dose in the target area (lungs), heart, and spine using four dosimeters (PTW N30013, Exradin A16, TLD, and the Gafchromic EBT2 film). The measurement was performed in CIRS 002LFC thorax phantom. The main objective of this study was to compare the dosimetry of those different systems. Dose measurements performed only in a single fraction of irradiation. The measurements result shown that TLD has the least accuracy and precision. As the effect of volume averaging, ionization chamber reaches the discrepancy value up to -13.30% in the target area. EBT2 film has discrepancy value of <1% in the 3D-CRT and IMRT techniques. This dosimeter is proposed to be an appropriate alternative dosimeter to be used at point dose verification.

  19. Technical Note: Influence of the phantom material on the absorbed-dose energy dependence of the EBT3 radiochromic film for photons in the energy range 3 keV–18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hermida-López, M.; Lüdemann, L.; Flühs, A.; Brualla, L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Water is the reference medium for radiation therapy dosimetry, but for film dosimetry it is more practical to use a solid phantom. As the composition of solid phantoms differs from that of water, the energy dependence of film exposed within solid phantoms may also differ. The energy dependence of a radiochromic film for a given beam quality Q (energy for monoenergetic beams) has two components: the intrinsic energy dependence and the absorbed-dose energy dependence f(Q), the latter of which can be calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the phantom material on the f(Q) of the EBT3 radiochromic film (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Wayne, NJ) for photon beams with energies between 3 keV and 18 MeV. Methods: All simulations were carried out with the general-purpose Monte Carlo code PENELOPE 2011. The geometrical model consisted of a cylindrical phantom, with the film positioned at different depths depending on the initial photon energy. The authors simulated monoenergetic parallel photon beams and x-ray beams from a superficial therapy system. To validate their choice of simulation parameters, they also calculated f(Q) for older film models, EBT and EBT2, comparing with published results. In addition to water, they calculated f(Q) of the EBT3 film for solid phantom materials commonly used for film dosimetry: RW1 and RW3 (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany), Solid Water (Gammex-RMI, Madison, WI), and PMMA. Finally, they combined their calculated f(Q) with published overall energy response data to obtain the intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film in water. Results: The calculated f(Q) for EBT and EBT2 films was statistically compatible with previously published data. Between 10 keV and 18 MeV, the variation found in f(Q) of the EBT3 film for water was within 2.3%, with a standard statistical uncertainty less than 1%. If the quantity dose-to-water in the phantom is

  20. Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film

    SciTech Connect

    Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film.

  1. Dose rate dependence for different dosimeters and detectors: TLD, OSL, EBT films, and diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Karsch, L.; Beyreuther, E.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Zeil, K.; Pawelke, J.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The use of laser accelerators in radiation therapy can perhaps increase the low number of proton and ion therapy facilities in some years due to the low investment costs and small size. The laser-based acceleration technology leads to a very high peak dose rate of about 10{sup 11} Gy/s. A first dosimetric task is the evaluation of dose rate dependence of clinical dosimeters and other detectors. Methods: The measurements were done at ELBE, a superconductive linear electron accelerator which generates electron pulses with 5 ps length at 20 MeV. The different dose rates are reached by adjusting the number of electrons in one beam pulse. Three clinical dosimeters (TLD, OSL, and EBT radiochromic films) were irradiated with four different dose rates and nearly the same dose. A faraday cup, an integrating current transformer, and an ionization chamber were used to control the particle flux on the dosimeters. Furthermore two diamond detectors were tested. Results: The dosimeters are dose rate independent up to 410{sup 9} Gy/s within 2% (OSL and TLD) and up to 1510{sup 9} Gy/s within 5% (EBT films). The diamond detectors show strong dose rate dependence. Conclusions: TLD, OSL dosimeters, and EBT films are suitable for pulsed beams with a very high pulse dose rate like laser accelerated particle beams.

  2. Comparison of the Epson Expression 1680 flatbed and the Vidar VXR-16 Dosimetry PRO trade mark sign film scanners for use in IMRT dosimetry using Gafchromic and radiographic film

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Ellen; Daskalov, George; Nedialkova, Lucy

    2007-01-15

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification is often done using Kodak EDR2 film and a Vidar Dosimetry PRO trade mark sign film digitizer. However, since many hospitals are moving towards a filmless environment, access to a film processor may not be available. Therefore, we have investigated a newly available Gafchromic[reg] EBT film for IMRT dosimetry. Planar IMRT dose distributions are delivered to both EBT and EDR2 film and scanned with the Vidar VXR-16 as well as an Epson Expression 1680 flatbed scanner. The measured dose distributions are then compared to those calculated with a Pinnacle treatment planning system. The IMRT treatments consisted of 7-9 6 MV beams for treatment of prostate, head and neck, and a few other sites. The films were analyzed using FilmQA trade mark sign (3cognition LLC) software. Comparisons between measured and calculated dose distributions are reported as dose difference (DD) (pixels within {+-}5%), distance to agreement (DTA) (3 mm), as well as gamma values ({gamma}) (dose={+-}3%, dist.=2 mm). Using EDR2 with the Vidar scanner is an established technique and agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions was better than 90% in all indices (DD, DTA, and {gamma}). However, agreement with calculations deteriorated reaching the lower 80% for EBT film scans with the Vidar scanner in logarithmic mode. The EBT Vidar scans obtained in linear mode showed an improved agreement to the upper 80% range, but artifacts were still observed across the scan. These artifacts were very distinct in all EBT scans and can be attributed to the way the film is transported through the scanner. In the Epson scanner both films are rigidly immobilized and the light source scans over the film. It was found that the Epson scanner performed equally well with both types of film giving agreement to better than 90% in all indices.

  3. SU-E-T-176: Examination of Surface Dose Enhancement Using Radiochromic EBT3-Films in a Cylindrical Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Failing, T; Chofor, N; Poppinga, D; Schoenfeld, A; Poppe, B; Willborn, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to optimize the measurement techniques with radiochromic EBT3 films to offer accurate surface dose measurements and at the same time high resolution depth dose curves of the backscattering from high Z materials. Methods: Radiochromic EBT3 films (Ashland ISP, Wayne, USA) were wrapped around a PET hollow cylinder with a diameter of 41.5 mm and fixed upon the surface of a lead block. The setup was immersed in water and exposed to a dose of 2 Gy at 6MV acceleration voltage using a Siemens Primus linear accelerator. Water reference measurements were undertaken under equal conditions. An Epson Expression 10000 XL flatbed scanner (Epson, Suwa, Japan) with a preset resolution of 72 dpi was used for digitization. Results: The dose enhancement could be measured with a high resolution of measurement points along the axis normal to the lead surface. A dose enhancement of 70 % was measured at a distance of 134 μm from the lead surface. The data has been compared with results presented by Das et al (Med. Phys. 16(3) (1989)) and is consistent within the uncertainty of the measurements. The results are in consistence with the results from time-tested EBT3 setups, i.e. normal-to-beam EBT3 film stacks and parallel to beam EBT3-films. Conclusion: The cylindrical film setup offers a powerful tool for surface measurements. The advantages of a stacked film setup and a parallel to beam setup could be combined.

  4. Study of the penumbra for high-energy photon beams with Gafchromic™ EBT2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Se An; Kang, Min Kyu; Yea, Ji Woon; Kim, Sung Kyu; Oh, Young Kee

    2012-06-01

    The penumbra has a major impact on obtaining uniformity of isodose distributions in radiation therapy. The penumbra phenomena of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques using multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) has an impact on the dose distributions in the border of the target volumes and the MLC. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of high photon energy (6 MV, 10 MV) on the penumbra for various depths and field sizes by using the Pencil Beam Convolution algorithms (eclipse 8.6) and self-developing Gafchromic™ EBT2 film. For dose calculations and EBT2 measurements, we used an acryl phantom with dimensions 20 × 20 × 20 cm3. The 200 cGy dose was delivered to the central depth (10 cm) of the acryl phantom. The result of this study was that increased energy, field size and depth are rise to an increased penumbra (20% ˜ 80%) width. For a 6 MV photon energy, the penumbra widths (20%-80%) at 1.5 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm depths were 4.2 mm, 4.4 mm, and 5.7 mm for the eclipse calculations and 2.9 mm, 4.1 mm, and 4.2 mm for the EBT2 film measurements for 10 × 10 cm2 field sizes, respectively. For a 10 MV photon energy, the penumbra widths were 4.5 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm for eclipse calculations and 4.1 mm, 4.6 mm, and 4.9 mm for EBT2 film measurements, respectively. As the field size was changed to 3 cm, 5 cm, 7 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm, the penumbra widths changed to 5.1 mm, 5.3 mm, 5.6 mm, 5.9 mm, and 6.1 mm for eclipse calculations and 2.9 mm, 3.3 mm, 3.6 mm, 4.2 mm, and 5.1 mm for EBT2 measurements, respectively, for 10 cm depths for 6 MV photon energies. In this study, compared to the 10 MV photon energy, the 6 MV photon energy was preferred in treatments such as the 3D conformal radiation therapy and the IMRT for critical organs near the target volume.

  5. Characterizing the marker-dye correction for Gafchromic EBT2 film: A comparison of three analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, Travis J.; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic EBT2 film has a yellow marker dye incorporated into the active layer of the film that can be used to correct the film response for small variations in thickness. This work characterizes the effect of the marker-dye correction on the uniformity and uncertainty of dose measurements with EBT2 film. The effect of variations in time postexposure on the uniformity of EBT2 is also investigated. Methods: EBT2 films were used to measure the flatness of a {sup 60}Co field to provide a high-spatial resolution evaluation of the film uniformity. As a reference, the flatness of the {sup 60}Co field was also measured with Kodak EDR2 films. The EBT2 films were digitized with a flatbed document scanner 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure, and the images were analyzed using three methods: (1) the manufacturer-recommended marker-dye correction, (2) an in-house marker-dye correction, and (3) a net optical density (OD) measurement in the red color channel. The field flatness was calculated from orthogonal profiles through the center of the field using each analysis method, and the results were compared with the EDR2 measurements. Uncertainty was propagated through a dose calculation for each analysis method. The change in the measured field flatness for increasing times postexposure was also determined. Results: Both marker-dye correction methods improved the field flatness measured with EBT2 film relative to the net OD method, with a maximum improvement of 1% using the manufacturer-recommended correction. However, the manufacturer-recommended correction also resulted in a dose uncertainty an order of magnitude greater than the other two methods. The in-house marker-dye correction lowered the dose uncertainty relative to the net OD method. The measured field flatness did not exhibit any unidirectional change with increasing time postexposure and showed a maximum change of 0.3%. Conclusions: The marker dye in EBT2 can be used to improve the response uniformity of the film

  6. SU-E-T-322: The Evaluation of the Gafchromic EBT3 Film in Low Dose 6 MV X-Ray Beams with Different Scanning Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H; Sung, J; Yoon, M; Kim, D; Chung, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We have evaluated the response of the Gafchromic EBT3 film in low dose for 6 MV x-ray beams with two scanning modes, the reflection scanning mode and the transmission scanning mode. Methods: We irradiated the Gafcromic EBT3 film using a 60 degree enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) with 6 MV x-ray beams from Clinac iX Linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The irradiated Gafchromic EBT3 film was scanned with different scanning modes, the reflection scanning mode and the transmission scanning mode. The scanned Gafchromic EBT3 film was analyzed with MATLAB. Results: When 7.2 cGy was irradiated to the Gafchromic EBT3 film, the uncertainty was 0.54 cGy with reflection scanning mode and was 0.88 cGy with transmission scanning mode. When 24 cGy was irradiated to the Gafchromic EBT3 film, the uncertainty was similar to the case of 7.2 cGy irradiation showing 0.51 cGy of uncertainty with reflection scanning mode and 0.87 cGy of uncertainty with transmission scanning mode. The result suggests that the reflection mode should be used in Gafchromic EBT3 film for low irradiation. Conclusion: The result suggests that the reflection mode should be used in Gafchromic EBT3 film for low irradiation.

  7. Effect of correction methods of radiochromic EBT2 films on the accuracy of IMRT QA.

    PubMed

    García-Garduño, O A; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J M; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M; Martínez-Dávalos, A; Rivera-Montalvo, T

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic films are dosimeters with more favorable characteristics than other two-dimensional (2D) radiation detectors. Transmission film scanners using a linear charge-coupled device (CCD) array have a drawback of variation in response along the detector array, which may result in a nonuniform transmission of signal over the scanned image. This study uses 2D gamma index analysis to compare two methods for correcting the nonuniform response of EBT2: the first method was based on the new red:blue method proposed by the manufacturer (to compensate for small nonuniformities in the film coating) and the second method, proposed by Menegotti et al. (2008), was based on dose-dependent matrix correction factors. The gamma index analysis shows that both the methods are comparably accurate for all the criteria values used for evaluation (1 mm/1%, 2 mm/2%, 3 mm/3%). Centers around the world use both the methods to correct EBT2 local heterogeneities, but it is important to note that the former method has several advantages such as less time consumption and easy implementation. PMID:26492322

  8. An investigation of backscatter factors for kilovoltage x-rays: a comparison between Monte Carlo simulations and Gafchromic EBT film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Hill, R.; Claridge Mackonis, E.; Kuncic, Z.

    2010-02-01

    Backscatter factors are important parameters in the determination of dose for kilovoltage x-ray beams. However, backscatter factors are difficult to measure experimentally, and tabulated values are based largely on Monte Carlo calculations. In this study we have determined new backscatter factors by both experimental and Monte Carlo methods, and compared them with existing backscatter factors published in the AAPM TG-61 protocol. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to evaluate the overall effectiveness of using Gafchromic EBT film for backscatter factor measurements and (2) to determine whether existing Monte Carlo-calculated backscatter factors need to be updated. We measured backscatter factors using Gafchromic EBT film for three field sizes (2, 4 and 6 cm diameter cones) and three kilovoltage beam qualities, including 280 kVp for which similar measurements have not previously been reported. We also present new Monte Carlo-calculated backscatter factors obtained using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code system to simulate the Pantak kilovoltage x-ray unit used in our measurements. The results were compared with backscatter factors tabulated in the AAPM TG-61 protocol for kilovoltage x-ray dosimetry. The largest difference between our measured and calculated backscatter factors and the AAPM TG-61 values was found to be 2.5%. This agreement is remarkably good, considering that the AAPM TG-61 values consist of a combination of experimental and Monte Carlo calculations obtained over 20 years ago using different measurement techniques, as well as older Monte Carlo code and cross-section data. Furthermore, our Monte Carlo-calculated backscatter factors agree within 1% with the AAPM TG-61 values for all beam qualities and field sizes. Our Gafchromic film measurements had slightly larger differences with the AAPM TG-61 backscatter factors, up to approximately 2% for the 6 cm diameter cone at a beam quality of 50 kVp. The largest difference in backscatter factors, of 2.5%, was

  9. A feasibility study using radiochromic films for fast neutron 2D passive dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Samuel L; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Howell, Calvin R; Crowell, Alexander S; Fallin, Brent; Tonchev, Anton P; Dewhirst, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is threefold: (1) to establish sensitivity of XRQA and EBT radiochromic films to fast neutron exposure; (2) to develop a film response to radiation dose calibration curve and (3) to investigate a two-dimensional (2D) film dosimetry technique for use in establishing an experimental setup for a radiobiological irradiation of mice and to assess the dose to the mice in this setup. The films were exposed to a 10 MeV neutron beam via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. The XRQA film response was a factor of 1.39 greater than EBT film response to the 10 MeV neutron beam when exposed to a neutron dose of 165 cGy. A film response-to-soft tissue dose calibration function was established over a range of 0–10 Gy and had a goodness of fit of 0.9926 with the calibration data. The 2D film dosimetry technique estimated the neutron dose to the mice by measuring the dose using a mouse phantom and by placing a piece of film on the exterior of the experimental mouse setup. The film results were benchmarked using Monte Carlo and aluminum (Al) foil activation measurements. The radiochromic film, Monte Carlo and Al foil dose measurements were strongly correlated, and the film within the mouse phantom agreed to better than 7% of the externally mounted films. These results demonstrated the potential application of radiochromic films for passive 2D neutron dosimetry. PMID:20693612

  10. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-08-15

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D{sub max} were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm ({+-}0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D{sub max} was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams.

  11. Optical imaging analysis of microscopic radiation dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film using a digital microscope.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian M; Peressotti, Chris; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-01

    By providing superior localization and immobilization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is capable of delivering millimeter spheres of dose to intracranial targets with submillimeter precision. Several authors have proposed new SRS solutions to dramatically reduce beam penumbra to hundreds of microns. These solutions require new quality assurance methods capable of penumbra measurement at the micron scale. This article examines the capability of a digital microscope, with translation stage and associated software, to resolve dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film at this level. To produce very steep penumbra, films were irradiated in phantom beneath pinhole collimators using lower energy x rays (100 kVp, 300 kVp, and Iridium-192) and minimal geometric penumbra contribution. For film analysis, a method was developed which improved the signal to noise ratio by finding the center of the irradiation spot, generating several radial dose profiles and averaging these to obtain the final off-axis dose profile. Optical density was converted to dose using a calibration curve. The experimentally determined off-axis dose profiles were compared with MCNP Monte Carlo simulations which replicated the irradiation geometry and served to validate our measured data. The measured 80%-20% penumbral widths were 46 microm +/- 26 microm (100 kVp, 2 mm field size), 69 microm +/- m 27 microm (300 kVp, 2 mm field size), and 241 microm +/-31 microm (Ir-192, 1 mm field size). These penumbral widths agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within experimental uncertainty. Our findings suggest that reading Gafchromic EBT films using a digital microscope with translation stage is suitable for the quality assurance of very sharp penumbra able to resolve gradients to within at least 30 microm. PMID:18777933

  12. Optical imaging analysis of microscopic radiation dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film using a digital microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Peressotti, Chris; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-15

    By providing superior localization and immobilization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is capable of delivering millimeter spheres of dose to intracranial targets with submillimeter precision. Several authors have proposed new SRS solutions to dramatically reduce beam penumbra to hundreds of microns. These solutions require new quality assurance methods capable of penumbra measurement at the micron scale. This article examines the capability of a digital microscope, with translation stage and associated software, to resolve dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film at this level. To produce very steep penumbra, films were irradiated in phantom beneath pinhole collimators using lower energy x rays (100 kVp, 300 kVp, and Iridium-192) and minimal geometric penumbra contribution. For film analysis, a method was developed which improved the signal to noise ratio by finding the center of the irradiation spot, generating several radial dose profiles and averaging these to obtain the final off-axis dose profile. Optical density was converted to dose using a calibration curve. The experimentally determined off-axis dose profiles were compared with MCNP Monte Carlo simulations which replicated the irradiation geometry and served to validate our measured data. The measured 80%-20% penumbral widths were 46 {mu}m{+-}26 {mu}m (100 kVp, 2 mm field size), 69 {mu}m{+-}27 {mu}m (300 kVp, 2 mm field size), and 241 {mu}m{+-}31 {mu}m (Ir-192, 1 mm field size). These penumbral widths agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within experimental uncertainty. Our findings suggest that reading Gafchromic EBT films using a digital microscope with translation stage is suitable for the quality assurance of very sharp penumbra able to resolve gradients to within at least 30 {mu}m.

  13. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. PMID:25500756

  14. Characterization of the effect of MRI on Gafchromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Reyhan, Meral L; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of Gafchromic film causes perturbation to absolute dosimetry measurements; the purpose of this work was to characterize the perturbation and develop a correction method for it. Three sets of Gafchromic EBT2 film were compared: radiation (control), radiation followed by MR imaging (RAD + B), and MR imaging followed by radiation (B + RAD). The T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging was performed using a 1.5T scanner with the films wedged between two chicken legs. Doses from 0 to 800 cGy were delivered with a 6MV linac. The time interval between radiation and MR imaging was less than 10 min. Film calibration was generated from the red channel. Microscopic imaging was performed on two pieces of film. The effect of specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined by exposing another three sets of films to low, medium, and high levels of SAR through a series of pulse sequences. No discernible preferential alignment was detected on the microscopic images of the irradiated film exposed to MRI. No imaging artifacts were introduced by Gafchromic film on any MR images. On average, 4% dose difference was observed between B + RAD or RAD + B and the control, using the same calibration curve. The pixel values between the B + RAD or RAD + B and the control films were found to follow a linear relationship pixel(Control) = 1.02 × pixel(B + RAD or RAD + B). By applying this correction, the average dose error was reduced to approximately 2%. The SAR experiment revealed a dose overestimation with increasing SAR even when the correction was applied. It was concluded that MR imaging introduces perturbation on Gafchromic film dose measurements by 4% on average, compared to calibrating the film without the presence of MRI. This perturbation can be corrected by applying a linear correction to the pixel values. Additionally, Gafchromic film did not introduce any imaging artifacts in any of the MR images acquired. PMID:26699587

  15. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. N.; Gauthier, M.; Bazalova-Carter, M.; Bolanos, S.; Glenzer, S.; Riquier, R.; Revet, G.; Antici, P.; Morabito, A.; Propp, A.; Starodubtsev, M.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-07-01

    Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSON V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ˜2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters.

  16. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Gauthier, M; Bazalova-Carter, M; Bolanos, S; Glenzer, S; Riquier, R; Revet, G; Antici, P; Morabito, A; Propp, A; Starodubtsev, M; Fuchs, J

    2016-07-01

    Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSON V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ∼2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters. PMID:27475550

  17. Note: Calibration of EBT3 radiochromic film for measuring solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, S. L.; Yu, P. K. N.

    2014-10-01

    Solar (UVA + UVB) exposure was assessed using the Gafchromic EBT3 film. The coloration change was represented by the net reflective optical density (Net ROD). Through calibrations against a UV-tube lamp, operational relationships were obtained between Net ROD and the (UVA + UVB) exposures (in J cm⁻²p or J m⁻²). The useful range was from ~0.2 to ~30 J cm⁻². The uniformity of UV irradiation was crucial for an accurate calibration. For solar exposures ranging from 2 to 11 J cm⁻², the predicted Net ROD agreed with the recorded values within 9%, while the predicted exposures agreed with the recorded values within 15%.

  18. On the use of Gafchromic EBT3 films for validating a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, EuJin; Lydon, Jenny; Kron, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of oblique incidence, small field size and inhomogeneous media on the electron dose distribution, and to compare calculated (Elekta/CMS XiO) and measured results. All comparisons were done in terms of absolute dose. A new measuring method was developed for high resolution, absolute dose measurement of non-standard beams using Gafchromic® EBT3 film. A portable U-shaped holder was designed and constructed to hold EBT3 films vertically in a reproducible setup submerged in a water phantom. The experimental film method was verified with ionisation chamber measurements and agreed to within 2% or 1 mm. Agreement between XiO electron Monte Carlo (eMC) and EBT3 was within 2% or 2 mm for most standard fields and 3% or 3 mm for the non-standard fields. Larger differences were seen in the build-up region where XiO eMC overestimates dose by up to 10% for obliquely incident fields and underestimates the dose for small circular fields by up to 5% when compared to measurement. Calculations with inhomogeneous media mimicking ribs, lung and skull tissue placed at the side of the film in water agreed with measurement to within 3% or 3 mm. Gafchromic film in water proved to be a convenient high spatial resolution method to verify dose distributions from electrons in non-standard conditions including irradiation in inhomogeneous media.

  19. Comparison of Gafchromic EBT2 and EBT3 for patient-specific quality assurance: Cranial stereotactic radiosurgery using volumetric modulated arc therapy with multiple noncoplanar arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Fiandra, Christian; Fusella, Marco; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Ragona, Riccardo; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Mantovani, Cristina

    2013-08-15

    the mean difference between calculated and measured isodoses (20% and 80%) were found not to be significant (p= 0.074, p= 0.185, and p= 0.57).Conclusions: Excellent performances in terms of dose homogeneity were obtained using a new blue channel method for marker-dye correction on both EBT2 and EBT3 Gafchromic{sup TM} films. In comparison with TLD, the passing rates for the EBT2 film were higher than for EBT3; a good agreement with estimated data by Monte Carlo algorithm was found for both films, with some statistically significant differences again in favor of EBT2. These results suggest that the use of Gafchromic{sup TM} EBT2 and EBT3 films is appropriate for dose verification measurements in VMAT stereotactic radiosurgery; taking into account the uncertainty associated with Gafchromic film dosimetry, the use of adequate action levels is strongly advised, in particular, for EBT3.

  20. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subiel, A.; Moskvin, V.; Welsh, G. H.; Cipiccia, S.; Reboredo, D.; Evans, P.; Partridge, M.; DesRosiers, C.; Anania, M. P.; Cianchi, A.; Mostacci, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Giovenale, D.; Villa, F.; Pompili, R.; Ferrario, M.; Belleveglia, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Gatti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.; Seitz, B.; Isaac, R. C.; Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Ersfeld, B.; Islam, M. R.; Mendonca, M. S.; Sorensen, A.; Boyd, M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10-5 neutrons cm-2 per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE.

  1. Dosimetry of very high energy electrons (VHEE) for radiotherapy applications: using radiochromic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Subiel, A; Moskvin, V; Welsh, G H; Cipiccia, S; Reboredo, D; Evans, P; Partridge, M; DesRosiers, C; Anania, M P; Cianchi, A; Mostacci, A; Chiadroni, E; Di Giovenale, D; Villa, F; Pompili, R; Ferrario, M; Belleveglia, M; Di Pirro, G; Gatti, G; Vaccarezza, C; Seitz, B; Isaac, R C; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Mendonca, M S; Sorensen, A; Boyd, M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy electrons (VHEE) in the range from 100-250 MeV have the potential of becoming an alternative modality in radiotherapy because of their improved dosimetry properties compared with MV photons from contemporary medical linear accelerators. Due to the need for accurate dosimetry of small field size VHEE beams we have performed dose measurements using EBT2 Gafchromic® film. Calibration of the film has been carried out for beams of two different energy ranges: 20 MeV and 165 MeV from conventional radio frequency linear accelerators. In addition, EBT2 film has been used for dose measurements with 135 MeV electron beams produced by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. The dose response measurements and percentage depth dose profiles have been compared with calculations carried out using the general-purpose FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code. The impact of induced radioactivity on film response for VHEEs has been evaluated using the MC simulations. A neutron yield of the order of 10(-5) neutrons cm(-2) per incident electron has been estimated and induced activity due to radionuclide production is found to have a negligible effect on total dose deposition and film response. Neutron and proton contribution to the equivalent doses are negligible for VHEE. The study demonstrates that EBT2 Gafchromic film is a reliable dosimeter that can be used for dosimetry of VHEE. The results indicate an energy-independent response of the dosimeter for 20 MeV and 165 MeV electron beams and has been found to be suitable for dosimetry of VHEE. PMID:25207591

  2. Comparison of methods for the measurement of radiation dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: Ge-doped optical fiber, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} radiochromic plastic

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A. L.; Di Pietro, P.; Alobaidli, S.; Issa, F.; Doran, S.; Bradley, D.; Nisbet, A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distribution measurement in clinical high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is challenging, because of the high dose gradients, large dose variations, and small scale, but it is essential to verify accurate treatment planning and treatment equipment performance. The authors compare and evaluate three dosimetry systems for potential use in brachytherapy dose distribution measurement: Ge-doped optical fibers, EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis, and the radiochromic material PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout. Methods: Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibers with 6 {mu}m active core and 5.0 mm length were sensitivity-batched and their thermoluminescent properties used via conventional heating and annealing cycles. EBT3 Gafchromic film of 30 {mu}m active thickness was calibrated in three color channels using a nominal 6 MV linear accelerator. A 48-bit transmission scanner and advanced multichannel analysis method were utilized to derive dose measurements. Samples of the solid radiochromic polymer PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, 60 mm diameter and 100 mm height, were analyzed with a parallel beam optical CT scanner. Each dosimetry system was used to measure the dose as a function of radial distance from a Co-60 HDR source, with results compared to Monte Carlo TG-43 model data. Each system was then used to measure the dose distribution along one or more lines through typical clinical dose distributions for cervix brachytherapy, with results compared to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Purpose-designed test objects constructed of Solid Water and held within a full-scatter water tank were utilized. Results: All three dosimetry systems reproduced the general shape of the isolated source radial dose function and the TPS dose distribution. However, the dynamic range of EBT3 exceeded those of doped optical fibers and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and the latter two suffered from unacceptable noise and artifact. For the experimental

  3. Correcting scan-to-scan response variability for a radiochromic film-based reference dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, David; Devic, Slobodan

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: In radiochromic film dosimetry systems, measurements are usually obtained from film images acquired on a CCD-based flatbed scanner. The authors investigated factors affecting scan-to-scan response variability leading to increased dose measurement uncertainty. Methods: The authors used flatbed document scanners to repetitively scan EBT3 radiochromic films exposed to doses 0–1000 cGy, together with three neutral density filters and three blue optical filters. Scanning was performed under two conditions: scanner lid closed and scanner lid opened/closed between scans. The authors also placed a scanner in a cold room at 9 °C and later in a room at 22 °C and scanned EBT3 films to explore temperature effects. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of altering the distance between the film and the scanner’s light source. Results: Using a measurement protocol to isolate the contribution of the CCD and electronic circuitry of the scanners, the authors found that the standard deviation of response measurements for the EBT3 film model was about 0.17% for one scanner and 0.09% for the second. When the lid of the first scanner was opened and closed between scans, the average scan-to-scan difference of responses increased from 0.12% to 0.27%. Increasing the sample temperature during scanning changed the RGB response values by about −0.17, −0.14, and −0.05%/°C, respectively. Reducing the film-to-light source distance increased the RBG response values about 1.1, 1.3, and 1.4%/mm, respectively. The authors observed that films and film samples were often not flat with some areas up to 8 mm away from the scanner’s glass window. Conclusions: In the absence of measures to deal with the response irregularities, each factor the authors investigated could lead to dose uncertainty >2%. Those factors related to the film-to-light source distance could be particularly impactful since the authors observed many instances where the curl of film samples had the

  4. A prototype, glassless densitometer traceable to primary optical standards for quantitative radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, B. S. Hammer, C. G.; Kunugi, K. A.; DeWerd, L. A.; Soares, C. G.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a prototype densitometer traceable to primary optical standards and compare its performance to an EPSON Expression{sup ®} 10000XL flatbed scanner (the Epson) for quantitative radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry. Methods: A prototype traceable laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed to mitigate common film scanning artifacts, such as positional scan dependence and high noise in low-dose regions, by performing point-based measurements of RCF suspended in free-space using coherent light. The LDS and the Epson optical absorbance scales were calibrated up to 3 AU, using reference materials calibrated at a primary standards laboratory and a scanner calibration factor (SCF). Calibrated optical density (OD) was determined for 96 Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT3 film segments before and after irradiation to one of 16 dose levels between 0 and 10 Gy, exposed to {sup 60}Co in a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The sensitivity was determined at each dose level and at two rotationally orthogonal readout orientations to obtain the sensitometric response of each RCF dosimetry system. LDS rotational scanning dependence was measured at nine angles between 0°and 180°, due to the expected interference between coherent light and polarizing EBT3 material. The response curves were fit to the analytic functions predicted by two physical response models: the two-parameter single-hit model and the four-parameter percolation model. Results: The LDS and the Epson absorbance measurements were linear to primary optical standards to within 0.2% and 0.3% up to 2 and 1 AU, respectively. At higher densities, the LDS had an over-response (2.5% at 3 AU) and the Epson an under-response (3.1% and 9.8% at 2 and 3 AU, respectively). The LDS and the Epson SCF over the applicable range were 0.968% ± 0.2% and 1.561% ± 0.3%, respectively. The positional scan dependence was evaluated on each digitizer and shown to be mitigated on the LDS, as compared to the Epson. Maximum EBT3

  5. Characterization of the proton beam from an IBA Cyclone 18/9 with radiochromic film EBT2

    SciTech Connect

    Sansaloni, F.; Lagares, J. I.; Arce, P.; Llop, J.; Perez, J. M.

    2012-12-19

    The use of radiochromic films is widespread in different areas of medical physics like radiotherapy and hadrontherapy; however, radiochromic films have been scarcely used in the characterization of proton or deuteron beams generated in biomedical cyclotrons. In this paper the radiochromic film EBT2 was used to study the beam size and the proton beam energy of an IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron. The results indicate that the beam size can be easily measured at a very low expense; however, an accurate determination of the beam energy might require the implementation of certain experimental improvements.

  6. SU-E-T-37: An Optical Investigation Into the Polarization and Scattering Effects Underlying the Artifacts of Radiochromic Film Dosimetry with Commercial Flatbed Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, A; Poppinga, D; Poppe, B; Harder, D; Doerner, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the optical properties of radiochromic EBT3 films on exposure to polarized incident light. Methods: An optical table setup was used to investigate the properties of exposed and unexposed EBT3 films. The films were placed with their long side horizontally and illuminated with polarized incident white light. The polarization of light with the electrical vector pointing vertically is referred to as 0°, accordingly horizontal orientation corresponds to 90°. The light transmission was measured depending on the polarization angle of the incident light and the polarization of a polarizer in front of the detector. Secondly, the scattering properties of exposed and unexposed films were measured by placing a plane convex lens behind the films and a screen in its focal plane. Thereby, the distribution of the scattering angles appears as an intensity map on the screen. The distributions of scattering angles caused by EBT3 films and by neutral density filters were compared. Results: EBT3 films show a strong dependence of the light transmission on the polarization of the incident light. With both polarizers parallel, a peak transmission was found at 90° orientation of the polarizers. With the rear polarizer at right angles with the front polarizer, peak transmissions were found at front polarizer orientations 45° and 135°. The scattering appears to be anisotropic with a preference direction parallel to the long side of the film. The portion of scattered light and the half value scattering angle both increase with the dose on the film. Conclusion: EBT3 films show dose dependent changes in polarized light transmission and anisotropic light scattering. These effects impair the light absorption measurements on exposed films performed with commercial flatbed scanners and are causing the well-known artifacts of radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed scanners, the “orientation effect” and the “parabola effect”.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 26: Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film

    SciTech Connect

    Sanier, M; Wronski, M; Yeboah, C

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this work is twofold: 1) to measure dose profiles under lead shielding at the level of the lens for a range of clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and, 2) to assess the validity of the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) in calculating the penumbral doses under lead shielding with the heterogeneous electron algorithm. First, a film calibration curve that spanned the electron energies of interest, 6–18MeV, was created. Next, EBT3 film and lead shielding were incorporated into a solid water phantom with the film positioned 7mm below the lead and a variable thickness of bolus on top. This geometry was reproduced in the Pinnacle TPS and used to calculate dose profiles using the heterogeneous electron algorithm. The measured vs. calculated dose profiles were normalized to d{sub max} in a homogeneous phantom with no lead shielding and compared. Pinnacle consistently overestimated the dose distal to the lead shielding with significant discrepancies occurring near the edge of the lead shield reaching 25% at the edge and 35% in the open field region. The film measurements showed that a minimum lead margin of 5mm extending beyond the diameter of the lens is required to adequately shield the lens to ≤10% of the dose at d{sub max}. These measurements allow for a reasonable estimate of the dose to the lens from anterior electron beams. They also allow for clinicians to assess the extent of the lead margin required to reduce the lens dose to an acceptable amount prior to radiotherapy treatment.

  8. Dosimetry of Strontium eye applicator: Comparison of Monte Carlo calculations and radiochromic film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoues, M.; Khelifi, R.; Moussa, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Strontium-90 eye applicators are a beta-ray emitter with a relatively high-energy (maximum energy about 2.28 MeV and average energy about 0.9 MeV). These applicators come in different shapes and dimensions; they are used for the treatment of eye diseases. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The main aim of our study is to simulate the dosimetry of the SIA.20 eye applicator with Monte Carlo GATE 6.1 platform and to compare the calculated results with those measured with EBT2 films. This means that GATE and EBT2 were used to quantify the surface and depths dose- rate, the relative dose profile and the dosimetric parameters in according to international recommendations. Calculated and measured results are in good agreement and they are consistent with the ICRU and NCS recommendations.

  9. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d{sub max.}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}, 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6 Degree-Sign C (85-105 Degree-Sign F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  10. A dosimetric study of small photon fields using polymer gel and Gafchromic EBT films

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, Hossein; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hassan; Shirani, Kaveh

    2014-04-01

    The use of small field sizes is increasingly becoming important in radiotherapy particularly since the introduction of stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques. The reliable measurement of delivered dose from such fields with conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chambers, is a challenging task. In this work, methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper polymer gel dosimeters are employed to measure dose in 3 dimensions. Field sizes of 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}, 10 × 10 mm{sup 2}, 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2} are investigated for a 6-MV x-rays. The results show an agreement with Gafchromic film, with some variation in measured doses near the edge of the fields, where the film data decrease more rapidly than the other methods. Dose penumbra widths obtained with gel dosimeters and Gafchormic film were generally in agreement with each other. The results of this work indicate that polymer gel dosimetry could be invaluable for the quantification of the 3-dimensional dose distribution in small field size.

  11. Model selection for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, I.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate model for radiochromic film dosimetry by comparing different channel independent perturbation models. A model selection approach based on (algorithmic) information theory was followed, and the results were validated using gamma-index analysis on a set of benchmark test cases. Several questions were addressed: (a) whether incorporating the information of the non-irradiated film, by scanning prior to irradiation, improves the results; (b) whether lateral corrections are necessary when using multichannel models; (c) whether multichannel dosimetry produces better results than single-channel dosimetry; (d) which multichannel perturbation model provides more accurate film doses. It was found that scanning prior to irradiation and applying lateral corrections improved the accuracy of the results. For some perturbation models, increasing the number of color channels did not result in more accurate film doses. Employing Truncated Normal perturbations was found to provide better results than using Micke-Mayer perturbation models. Among the models being compared, the triple-channel model with Truncated Normal perturbations, net optical density as the response and subject to the application of lateral corrections was found to be the most accurate model. The scope of this study was circumscribed by the limits under which the models were tested. In this study, the films were irradiated with megavoltage radiotherapy beams, with doses from about 20-600 cGy, entire (8 inch  × 10 inch) films were scanned, the functional form of the sensitometric curves was a polynomial and the different lots were calibrated using the plane-based method.

  12. TG-69: radiographic film for megavoltage beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sujatha; Das, Indra J; Dempsey, James F; Lam, Kwok L; Losasso, Thomas J; Olch, Arthur J; Palta, Jatinder R; Reinstein, Lawrence E; Ritt, Dan; Wilcox, Ellen E

    2007-06-01

    TG-69 is a task group report of the AAPM on the use of radiographic film for dosimetry. Radiographic films have been used for radiation dosimetry since the discovery of x-rays and have become an integral part of dose verification for both routine quality assurance and for complex treatments such as soft wedges (dynamic and virtual), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and small field dosimetry like stereotactic radiosurgery. Film is convenient to use, spatially accurate, and provides a permanent record of the integrated two dimensional dose distributions. However, there are several challenges to obtaining high quality dosimetric results with film, namely, the dependence of optical density on photon energy, field size, depth, film batch sensitivity differences, film orientation, processing conditions, and scanner performance. Prior to the clinical implementation of a film dosimetry program, the film, processor, and scanner need to be tested to characterize them with respect to these variables. Also, the physicist must understand the basic characteristics of all components of film dosimetry systems. The primary mission of this task group report is to provide guidelines for film selection, irradiation, processing, scanning, and interpretation to allow the physicist to accurately and precisely measure dose with film. Additionally, we present the basic principles and characteristics of film, processors, and scanners. Procedural recommendations are made for each of the steps required for film dosimetry and guidance is given regarding expected levels of accuracy. Finally, some clinical applications of film dosimetry are discussed. PMID:17654924

  13. SU-E-T-30: Absorbed Doses Determined by Texture Analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 Films Using Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S; Kim, H; Ye, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The texture analysis method is useful to estimate structural features of images as color, size, and shape. The study aims to determine a dose-response curve by texture analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 film images using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: The uncoated Gafchromic EBT3 films were prepared to directly scan over the active surface layer of EBT3 film using SEM. The EBT3 films were exposed at a dose range of 0 to 10 Gy using a 6 MV photon beam. The exposed film samples were SEM-scanned at 100X, 1000X, and 3000X magnifications. The four texture features (Homogeneity, Correlation, Contrast, and Energy) were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) derived from the SEM images at each dose. To validate a correlation between delivered doses and texture features, an R-squared value in linear regression was tested. Results: The results showed that the Correlation index was more suitable as dose indices than the other three texture features due to higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. Further the Correlation index of 3000X magnified SEM images with 9 pixel offsets had an R-squared value of 0.964. The differences between the delivered doses and the doses measured by this method were 0.9, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 Gy at 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: It seems to be feasible to convert micro-scale structural features of {sub χ}t{sub χχχ}he EBT3 films to absorbed doses using the texture analysis method.

  14. Advanced radiochromic film methodologies for quantitative dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Benjamin S.

    Radiotherapy treatments with small and nonstandard fields are increasing in use as collimation and targeting become more advanced, which spare normal tissues while increasing tumor dose. However, dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields is more difficult than that of conventional fields due to loss of lateral charged-particle equilibrium, tight measurement setup requirements, source occlusion, and the volume-averaging effect of conventional dosimeters. This work aims to create new small and nonstandard field dosimetry protocols using radiochromic film (RCF) in conjunction with novel readout and analysis methodologies. It also is the intent of this work to develop an improved understanding of RCF structure and mechanics for its quantitative use in general applications. Conventional digitization techniques employ white-light, flatbed document scanners or scanning-laser densitometers which are not optimized for RCF dosimetry. A point-by-point precision laser densitometry system (LDS) was developed for this work to overcome the film-scanning artifacts associated with the use of conventional digitizers, such as positional scan dependence, off-axis light scatter, glass bed interference, and low signal-to-noise ratios. The LDS was shown to be optically traceable to national standards and to provide highly reproducible density measurements. Use of the LDS resulted in increased agreement between RCF dose measurements and the single-hit detector model of film response, facilitating traceable RCF calibrations based on calibrated physical quantities. GafchromicRTM EBT3 energy response to a variety of reference x-ray and gamma-ray beam qualities was also investigated. Conventional Monte Carlo methods are not capable of predicting film intrinsic energy response to arbitrary particle spectra. Therefore, a microdosimetric model was developed to simulate the underlying physics of the radiochromic mechanism and was shown to correctly predict the intrinsic response relative to a

  15. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  16. Dosimetry of biological irradiations using radiochromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldelaijan, S.; Nobah, A.; Alsbeih, G.; Moftah, B.; Aldahlawi, I.; Alzahrany, A.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.

    2013-05-01

    Delivering accurate radiation dose to blood specimens during biological irradiations is essential in quantifying damage of ionizing radiation. To estimate dose to blood samples as accurately as possible, pieces of EBT2 model GAFCHROMIC™ film were placed within an approximately 10 mm finely ground rice layer that was used to simulate test specimens inside 40 mL plastic flasks. Irradiations of flasks were carried out using an X-RAD 320 irradiator with a beam quality of 320 kVp and a measured half value layer of 1.12 mm Cu, in air and in a full scattering setup which consisted of either rice or Solid Water™ (SW) surrounding flasks, filled to the same level at top of the flasks, together with a 5 cm thick SW slab beneath them. Outputs, per cent depth doses and beam profiles at different depths were measured and compared between setups. For the same setting, the dose delivered to the middle flask under the full scattering setup is 22% larger than with the in-air setup at the depth of the specimen and 9.2% more homogeneous across the specimen thickness of 10 mm (2.3% variation in comparison to the surface). Rice showed a fairly similar performance to SW within 1% at the same depth of 10 mm. Experimental setup based on full scattering conditions was shown to provide faster, more homogenous and fairly uniform dose delivery to biological specimens in comparison to conventionally used in-air setups.

  17. TH-C-19A-04: Commissioning and Validation of EBT3 Gafchromic Films for Measurements of Dose Profiles and Integrals of Dose in Small Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dufreneix, S; Bordy, J; Delaunay, F; Daures, J; Gouriou, J; Le, Roy M; Ostrowsky, A; Rapp, B; Sommier, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The use of a primary dosimeter larger than the radiation field gives access to the integral of dose over a specified surface normal to the beam. If a relative dose profile of the beam is well known, it is then possible to calculate the distribution of the absorbed dose at any point on the considered surface. This study aims at validating the use of EBT3 gafchromic films for the measurement of 2D dose distribution and integrals of dose in small fields for such use. Methods: New EBT3 films have been fully characterized: the response versus energy, dose-rate and dose has been investigated. Profiles measured in circular field with a diameter of 20 mm have been compared to the ones measured with a diamond detector developed at CEA/LIST/LCD. The ratio of dose area products measured with EBT3 on a 6 mm and 30 mm diameter surface has been compared to the ratio measured with primary dosimeters (calorimeters) and calculated with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: There was no significant difference between the dose-calibration curves in a 6 MV and a 60Co beam. Deviation was within uncertainty bars when the dose rate inside a pulse was divided by a factor of 80 in the 6 MV photon beam. Profiles in small fields are in good agreement with the diamond profiles. Dose area product ratios obtained with EBT3, calorimeters and simulations are within 1%. Conclusion: EBT3 films are good candidates for the measurement of relative dose distribution in small fields as long as the average of several films is considered. They can be used in association with primary measurements to determinate dosimetric references in small fields and to transfer them to the end user.

  18. Correcting lateral response artifacts from flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, David; Chan, Maria F.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A known factor affecting the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry is the lateral response artifact (LRA) induced by nonuniform response of a flatbed scanner in the direction perpendicular to the scan direction. This work reports a practical solution to eliminate such artifacts for all forms of dose QA. Methods: EBT3 films from a single production lot (02181401) cut into rectangular 4 × 5 cm{sup 2} pieces, with the long dimension parallel to the long dimension of the original 20.3 × 25.4 cm{sup 2} sheets, were exposed at a depth of 5 cm on a Varian Trilogy at the center of a 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} open field at seven doses between 50 and 1600 cGy using 6 MV photons. These films together with an unexposed film from the same production lot were lined one next to the other on an Epson 10000XL or 11000XL scanner in portrait orientation with their long dimension parallel to the scan direction. Scanned images were then obtained with the line of films positioned at seven discrete lateral locations perpendicular to the scan direction. The process was repeated in landscape orientation and on three other Epson scanners. Data were also collected for three additional production lots of EBT3 film (11051302, 03031401, and 03171403). From measurements at the various lateral positions, the scanner response was determined as a function of the lateral position of the scanned film. For a given color channel X, the response at any lateral position L is related to the response at the center, C, of the scanner by Response(C, D, X) = A{sub L,X} + B{sub L,X}⋅Response(L, D, X), where D is dose and the coefficients A{sub L,X} and B{sub L,X} are determined from the film measurements at the center of the scanner and six other discrete lateral positions. The values at intermediate lateral positions were obtained by linear interpolation. The coefficients were determined for the red, green, and blue color channels, preserving the ability to apply triple-channel dosimetry once

  19. Development of the optimal radiochromic film dosimetry system for measurement of IMRT radiation beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jameson Todd

    The complex dose patterns that result in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy make the typical QA of a second calculation insufficient for ensuring safe treatment of patients. Many facilities choose to deliver the treatment to film inserted in a phantom and calculate the dose delivered as an additional check of the treatment plan. Radiochromic films allow for measurements without the use of a processor in the current digital age. International Specialty Products developed Gafchromic EBT film, which is a radiochromic film having a useful range of 1 -- 800 cGy. EBT film properties are fully analyzed including studies of uniformity, spectral absorption, exposure sensitivity, energy dependence and post exposure density growth. Dosimetric performance on commercially available digitizers is studied with specific attention on the shortcomings. Finally, a custom designed scanner is built specifically for EBT film and its unique properties. Performance of the EBT digitizer is analyzed and compared against currently available scanners.

  20. Development and characterization of a three-dimensional radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, Travis J. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Methods: A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated by 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. Results: The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the

  1. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Celis, M.; Lárraga, J.

    2004-09-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields.

  2. A new correction method serving to eliminate the parabola effect of flatbed scanners used in radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Poppinga, D. Schoenfeld, A. A.; Poppe, B.; Doerner, K. J.; Blanck, O.; Harder, D.

    2014-02-15

    scanner bed with 2D dose distributions of an open square photon field and an IMRT distribution. Conclusions: The algorithm presented in this study quantifies and corrects the parabola effect of EBT3 films scanned in commonly used commercial flatbed scanners at doses up to 5.2 Gy. It is easy to implement, and no additional work steps are necessary in daily routine film dosimetry.

  3. Dosimetry of biological irradiations using radiochromic films.

    PubMed

    Aldelaijan, S; Nobah, A; Alsbeih, G; Moftah, B; Aldahlawi, I; Alzahrany, A; Tomic, N; Devic, S

    2013-05-21

    Delivering accurate radiation dose to blood specimens during biological irradiations is essential in quantifying damage of ionizing radiation. To estimate dose to blood samples as accurately as possible, pieces of EBT2 model GAFCHROMIC™ film were placed within an approximately 10 mm finely ground rice layer that was used to simulate test specimens inside 40 mL plastic flasks. Irradiations of flasks were carried out using an X-RAD 320 irradiator with a beam quality of 320 kVp and a measured half value layer of 1.12 mm Cu, in air and in a full scattering setup which consisted of either rice or Solid Water™ (SW) surrounding flasks, filled to the same level at top of the flasks, together with a 5 cm thick SW slab beneath them. Outputs, per cent depth doses and beam profiles at different depths were measured and compared between setups. For the same setting, the dose delivered to the middle flask under the full scattering setup is 22% larger than with the in-air setup at the depth of the specimen and 9.2% more homogeneous across the specimen thickness of 10 mm (2.3% variation in comparison to the surface). Rice showed a fairly similar performance to SW within 1% at the same depth of 10 mm. Experimental setup based on full scattering conditions was shown to provide faster, more homogenous and fairly uniform dose delivery to biological specimens in comparison to conventionally used in-air setups. PMID:23603810

  4. SU-E-T-276: Radiochromic Film Dosimetry: Solving the Lateral Response Puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D; Chan, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A known factor affecting the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry is the lateral response artifact induced by off-center placement of film on flatbed scanners. This work reports a practical solution to eliminate such artifacts for IMRT dose QA. Methods: EBT3 film calibration strips (3.5×32cm{sup 2}) were exposed at a depth of 5cm on a Varian Trilogy to a 40×40cm{sup 2} open field at six doses between 120 and 900cGy using 6MV photons. A sheet of film was similarly exposed with a large IMRT field. Together with a strip of unexposed film from the same lot the films were digitized at different lateral positions on an Epson 10000XL scanner. The calibration strips covered nearly the full width of the scanner window. Calibration and response data were used to generate the IMRT dose map using multi-channel dosimetry. The scanner response was determined as a function of lateral position of the scanned film. The response at any lateral position L is related to the response at the center, C, of the scanner by Response(C,D) = aL+bL*Response(L,D) where D is dose and the coefficients aL and bL are constant for each lateral location. The coefficients aL and bL were determined by measuring films exposed to different doses at the center of the scanner and various lateral positions. Results: Applying this relationship to raw calibration responses, the values at any lateral position can be corrected to an equivalent response as if that film was located centrally. Our study found that calibration curves at the different lateral positions are correlated by a simple two-point re-scaling and thereby the correction could be made. Conclusion: The work reported elaborates on the process and demonstrates improvements in radiochromic film dosimetry using this simple procedure to eliminate the lateral response artifact. Acknowledgements: Supported in part by a grant from Ashland Inc. D Lewis is an employee of Ashland Inc., the manufacturer of radiochromic film; M Chan is

  5. Dose calculation of megavoltage IMRT using convolution kernels extracted from GafChromic EBT film-measured pencil beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Mehul S.

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a 3D conformal radiation therapy technique that utilizes either a multileaf intensity-modulating collimator (MIMiC used with the NOMOS Peacock system) or a multileaf collimator (MLC) on a conventional linear accelerator for beam intensity modulation to afford increased conformity in dose distributions. Due to the high-dose gradient regions that are effectively created, particular emphasis should be placed in the accurate determination of pencil beam kernels that are utilized by pencil beam convolution algorithms employed by a number of commercial IMRT treatment planning systems (TPS). These kernels are determined from relatively large field dose profiles that are typically collected using an ion chamber during commissioning of the TPS, while recent studies have demonstrated improvements in dose calculation accuracy when incorporating film data into the commissioning measurements. For this study, it has been proposed that the shape of high-resolution dose kernels can be extracted directly from single pencil beam (beamlet) profile measurements acquired using high-precision dosimetric film in order to accurately compute dose distributions, specifically for small fields and the penumbra regions of the larger fields. The effectiveness of GafChromic EBT film as an appropriate dosimeter to acquire the necessary measurements was evaluated and compared to the conventional silver-halide Kodak EDR2 film. Using the NOMOS Peacock system, similar dose kernels were extracted through deconvolution of the elementary pencil beam profiles using the two different types of films. Independent convolution-based calculations were performed using these kernels, resulting in better agreement with the measured relative dose profiles, as compared to those determined by CORVUS TPS' finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm. Preliminary evaluation of the proposed method in performing kernel extraction for an MLC-based IMRT system also showed

  6. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccolini, E.; Rocchi, F.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Tartari, A.; Mariotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 μm brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  7. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.; Mariotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {mu}m brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  8. Quantitative analysis of dose distribution to determine optimal width of respiratory gating window using Gafchromic EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Kum Bae; Kim, Mi-Sook; Yoo, Hyung-Jun; Park, Seungwoo; Jung, Haijo; Ji, Young Hoon; Yi, Chul-Young

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dependence of the dose distribution on the width of the respiratory gating window by using radiochromic Gafchromic EBT2 film. An in-house three-dimensional breathing simulator was used with a 4-s cycle and a 3-cm movement. The gamma index and the 50, 95, and 20-80% dose distributions were individually analyzed with regard to static, 100 (full motion), 60, 40, 30, 20, and 15% respiratory gating windows. In addition, dose differences based on the different extents of exposure were compared and analyzed along with total beam delivery time. Dose distributions became increasingly similar to the static value with decreasing respiratory gating window width. The extent differences from the static case for the low-dose region were not significant; neither were the extent differences for the high-dose region and 30, 20, and 15% gating windows (P = 0.388, 0.275, respectively). However, the 40% gating window showed a significant difference (P = 0.001). Moreover, the treatment time for the 30% gating window was reduced by more than half compared to that for the 15% gating window. Thus, the 30% window would be a reasonable choice for maximizing the range of the gating window while markedly decreasing the dose difference and the treatment time.

  9. A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F.

    2008-02-15

    We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg. and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed

  10. SU-D-304-03: Small Field Proton Dosimetry Using MicroDiamond and Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, A; Das, I; Coutinho, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Certain dosimetric characteristics continue to make proton beam therapy an appealing modality for cancer treatment. The proton Bragg peak allows for conformal radiation dose delivery to the target while reducing dose to normal tissue and organs. As field sizes become very small the benefit of the Bragg peak is diminished due to loss of transverse equilibrium along the central beam axis. Furthermore, aperture scattering contributes additional dose along the central axis. These factors warrant the need for accurate small field dosimetry. In this study small field dosimetry was performed using two different methods. Methods: Small field dosimetry measurements were performed using a PTW microdiamond detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film for aperture sizes ranging from 0.5cm to 10cm and a proton range in water of 10cm to 27cm. The measurements were analyzed and then compared to each other and to reference dosimetry data acquired with a Markus chamber. Results: A decrease in normalized output is observed at small field sizes and at larger ranges in water using both measurement methods. Also, a large variation is observed between the output measurements by microdiamond and film at very small field sizes. At the smallest aperture, normalized output ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 and the percent difference between both measurement methods ranged from 36% to 70% depending on proton range. At field sizes above 5cm the film and microdiamond agree within 3%. Conclusion: Although both measurement methods exhibit a general decrease in output factor at small field sizes, dosimetric measurements for small fields using these two methods can vary significantly. Dosimetry under standard conditions is not sufficient to correctly model the dose distributions and outputs factors for small field sizes, additional small field measurements should be performed.

  11. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  12. Feasibility of EBT Gafchromic films for comparison exercises among standard beta radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Benavente, J A; Meira-Belo, L C; Reynaldo, S R; da Silva, T A

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using radiochromic films to verify the metrological coherence among standard beta radiation fields was evaluated. Exercises were done between two Brazilian metrology laboratories in beta fields from (90)Sr/(90)Y, (85)Kr and (147)Pm radiation sources. Results showed that the radiochromic film was useful for field mapping aiming uniformity and alignment verification and it was not reliable for absorbed dose measurements only for (147)Pm beta field. PMID:22917942

  13. Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and its Applications in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Matthew; Metcalfe, Peter

    2011-05-05

    Radiochromic film can be a fast and inexpensive means for performing accurate quantitative radiation dosimetry. The development of new radiochromic compositions that have greater dose sensitivity and fewer environmental dependencies has led to an ever increasing use of the film in radiotherapy applications. In this report the various physical and dosimetric properties of radiochromic film are presented and the strategies to adequately manage these properties when using radiochromic film for radiotherapy applications are discussed.

  14. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiationsensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  15. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  16. SU-E-T-44: Angular Dependence of Surface Dose Enhancement Measured On Several Inhomogeneities Using Radiochromic EBT3 Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, A; Schoenfeld, A; Poppinga, D; Chofor, N; Poppe, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quantification of the relative surface dose enhancement in dependence on the angle of incidence and the atomic number Z of the surface material. Methods: Experiments were performed with slabs made of aluminum, titanium, copper, silver, dental gold and lead. The metal slabs with equal sizes of 1.0×8.0×8.8mm{sup 3} were embedded in an Octavius 4D phantom (PTW Freiburg, Germany). Radiochromic EBT3 films were used to measure the surface dose for angles of incidence ranging from 0° to 90°. The setup with the metals slabs at the isocenter was irradiated with acceleration voltages of 6MV and 10MV. Water reference measurements were taken under equal conditions. Results: The surface dose enhancement is highest for angles of incidence below 30° and drops significantly for higher. The surface dose enhancement produced by lead and dental gold at 6MV showed a peak of 65%. At 90°, the surface dose enhancement dropped to 15% for both materials. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 32%, 22% and 12% at 0°, respectively. At an angle of incidence of 80°, the values dropped to 22%, 18%, 12% und 6%. The values for 10MV were very similar. Lead and dental gold showed peaks of 65% und 60%. Their values dropped to 18% at an angle of 90°. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 30%, 20% and 8% at 0°. At 80° the values dropped to 30%, 20%, 12% and 5%. A dependence of the magnitude of the surface dose enhancement on the atomic number of the surface material can be seen, which is in consistence with literature. Conclusion: The results show that the surface dose enhancements near implant materials with high Z-values should be taken into consideration in radio therapy, even when the angle of incidence is flat.

  17. Reference radiochromic film dosimetry: Review of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Lewis, David

    2016-04-01

    For decades, film was used as a powerful two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry tool for radiotherapy treatment verification and quality assurance. Unlike the old silver-halide based radiographic films, radiochromic films change its color upon irradiation without the need for chemical development. Radiation dose deposited within a sensitive layer of the radiochromic film initiates polymerization of the active component, the degree of which depends on the amount of energy deposited. Response of the film to radiation is commonly expressed in terms of optical density change, which can be easily measured by any photometric device. However, a number of factors may have an impact on the signal detected by the measuring device. This review summarizes technical aspects associated with the establishment of reference radiochromic film dosimetry and its subsequent use for either clinical or research applications. PMID:27020097

  18. Sensitivity of linear CCD array based film scanners used for film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Wang Yizhen; Tomic, Nada; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    2006-11-15

    Film dosimetry is commonly performed by using linear CCD array transmission optical densitometers. However, these devices suffer from a variation in response along the detector array. If not properly corrected for, this nonuniformity may lead to significant overestimations of the measured dose as one approaches regions close to the edges of the scanning region. In this note, we present measurements of the spatial response of an AGFA Arcus II document scanner used for radiochromic film dosimetry. Results and methods presented in this work can be generalized to other CCD based transmission scanners used for film dosimetry employing either radiochromic or radiographic films.

  19. Sensitivity of linear CCD array based film scanners used for film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Wang, Yi-Zhen; Tomic, Nada; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-11-01

    Film dosimetry is commonly performed by using linear CCD array transmission optical densitometers. However, these devices suffer from a variation in response along the detector array. If not properly corrected for, this nonuniformity may lead to significant overestimations of the measured dose as one approaches regions close to the edges of the scanning region. In this note, we present measurements of the spatial response of an AGFA Arcus II document scanner used for radiochromic film dosimetry. Results and methods presented in this work can be generalized to other CCD based transmission scanners used for film dosimetry employing either radiochromic or radiographic films. PMID:17153378

  20. SU-E-T-269: Quality Assurance of Spine Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Flattening Filter Free Beams Using Gafchromic EBT3 Films

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Y; Cho, B; Kwak, J; Ahn, S; Choi, E; Kim, J; Song, S; Yoon, S; Kim, Y; Kim, S; Park, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We implemented the Gafchromic film-based patient specific QA of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with flattening-filter free (FFF) beams for spine metastases and validated the accuracy of fast arc delivery. Methods: EBT3 films and a homemade cylindrical QA phantom were employed for dosimetric verification of VMATs. For 14 FFF VMAT plans (10 with 10-MV FFF beams and 4 with 6-MV FFF beams), the doses were recalculated on the phantom and delivered by a TrueBeam STx accelerator equipped with a high-definition 120 leaf MLC. The EBT3 films were scanned using an Epson 10000XL scanner through the FilmQA Pro software. All the irradiated film images were converted to dose map using a calibration response curve. The resulting dose map of film measurement was compared with treatment plan and evaluated using gamma analysis with dose tolerance of 2% within 2 mm. In addition, the point-dose measurement in the phantom using an ion chamber was evaluated as a reference in a ratio of measured and planned doses. Results: The gamma pass rates averaged over all FFF plans for composite-field measurements were 96.0 ± 3.6% (88.9%–99.5%). When adopting a tolerance level of 3% - 3 mm, the gamma pass rates were improved with the ranges from 98% to 100%. In addition, dose profiles and dose distributions showed that spinal cord was protected by the rapid dose fall-off and by delivering the treatment with high precision. In point-dose measurements, the average differences between the measured and planned doses were 0.5% ± 1.0% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: We demonstrated that Gafchromic EBT3 film would be an effective patient-specific QA tool, especially for VMAT of spine SBRT with treatment of small fields and highly gradient dose distributions. The results of film QA verified that the dosimetric accuracy of spine SBRT utilizing RapidArc with FFF beams in our institution is reliable.

  1. Calibration of EBT2 film using a red-channel PDD method in combination with a modified three-channel technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Chen, Pang-Yu

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Ashland Inc. EBT2 and EBT3 films are widely used in quality assurance for radiation therapy; however, there remains a relatively high degree of uncertainty [B. Hartmann, M. Martisikova, and O. Jakel, “Homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film,” Med. Phys. 37, 1753–1756 (2010)]. Micke et al. (2011) recently improved the spatial homogeneity using all color channels of a flatbed scanner; however, van Hoof et al. (2012) pointed out that the corrected nonuniformity still requires further investigation for larger fields. To reduce the calibration errors and the uncertainty, the authors propose a new red-channel percentage-depth-dose method in combination with a modified three-channel technique. Methods: For the ease of comparison, the EBT2 film image used in the authors’ previous study (2012) was reanalyzed using different approaches. Photon beams of 6-MV were delivered to two different films at two different beam on times, resulting in the absorption doses of ranging from approximately 30 to 300 cGy at the vertical midline of the film, which was set to be coincident with the central axis of the beam. The film was tightly sandwiched in a 30{sup 3}-cm{sup 3} polystyrene phantom, and the pixel values for red, green, and blue channels were extracted from 234 points on the central axis of the beam and compared with the corresponding depth doses. The film was first calibrated using the multichannel method proposed by Micke et al. (2010), accounting for nonuniformities in the scanner. After eliminating the scanner and dose-independent nonuniformities, the film was recalibrated via the dose-dependent optical density of the red channel and fitted to a power function. This calibration was verified via comparisons of the dose profiles extracted from the films, where three were exposed to a 60° physical wedge field and three were exposed to composite fields, and all of which were measured in a water phantom. A correction for optical attenuation was implemented, and

  2. Evaluation of MVCT imaging dose levels during helical IGRT: comparison between ion chamber, TLD, and EBT3 films.

    PubMed

    Mege, Jean-Pierre; Wenzhao, Sun; Veres, Attila; Auzac, Guillaume; Diallo, Ibrahima; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the dose on megavoltage CT (MVCT) images required for tomotherapy. As imaging possibilities are often used before each treatment and usually used several times before the session, we tried to evaluate the dose delivered during the procedure. For each scanning mode (fine, normal, and coarse), we first established the relative variation of these doses according to different technical parameters (explored length, patient setup). These dose variations measured with the TomoPhant, also known as Cheese phantom, showed the expected variations (due to the variation of scattered radiation) of 15% according to the explored length and ± 5% according to the phantom setup (due to the variation of the point of measurement in the bore). In order to estimate patient doses, an anthropomorphic phantom was used for thermoluminescent and film dosimetry. The degree of agreement between the two methods was very satisfactory (the differences correspond to 5 mGy per imaging session) for the three sites studied (head & neck, thorax, and abdomen). These measurements allowed us to estimate the delivered dose of between 1 cGy and 4 cGy according to the site and imaging mode. Finally, we attempted to investigate a way to calculate this delivered dose in our patients from the study conducted on a cylindrical phantom and by taking into account data from the initial kV-CT scan. The results we obtained were close to our measurements, with discrepancies below 5 mGy per MVCT. PMID:26894346

  3. SU-E-J-194: Dynamic Tumor Tracking End-To-End Testing Using a 4D Thorax Phantom and EBT3 Films

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Z; Wu, J; Li, Z; Mamalui-Hunter, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the Vero linac dosimetric accuracy of the tumor dynamic tracking treatment using EBT3 film embedded in a 4D thorax phantom. Methods: A dynamic thorax phantom with tissue equivalent materials and a film insert were used in this study. The thorax phantom was scanned in 4DCT mode with a viscoil embedded in its film insert composed of lung equivalent material. Dynamic tracking planning was performed using the 50% phase CT set with 5 conformal beams at gantry angles of 330, 15, 60, 105 and 150 degrees. Each field is a 3cm by 3cm square centered at viscoil since there was no solid mass target. Total 3 different 1–2cos4 motion profiles were used with varied motion magnitude and cycle frequency. Before treatment plan irradiation, a 4D motion model of the target was established using a series of acquired fluoroscopic images and infrared markers motion positions. During irradiation, fluoroscopic image monitoring viscoil motion was performed to verify model validity. The irradiated films were scanned and the dose maps were compared to the planned Monte Carlo dose distributions. Gamma analyses using 3%–3mm, 2%–3mm, 3%–2mm, 2%–2mm criteria were performed and presented. Results: For each motion pattern, a 4D motion model was built successfully and the target tracking performance was verified with fluoroscopic monitoring of the viscoil motion and its model predicted locations. The film gamma analysis showed the average pass rates among the 3 motion profiles are 98.14%, 96.2%, 91.3% and 85.61% for 3%–3mm, 2%–3mm, 3%–2mm, 2%–2mm criteria. Conclusion: Target dynamic tracking was performed using patient-like breathing patterns in a 4D thorax phantom with EBT3 film insert and a viscoil. There was excellent agreement between acquired and planned dose distributions for all three target motion patterns. This study performed end-to-end testing and verified the treatment accuracy of tumor dynamic tracking.

  4. Film dosimetry for fluoroscopic procedures: potential errors.

    PubMed

    Morrell, R E; Rogers, A T

    2005-01-01

    Kodak EDR 2 film was calibrated across the range of beam qualities and exposure rates typically used in our cardiac catheterisation laboratory. Its dose-response curve was successfully modelled up to its saturation point of 1 Gy. The consistency of the film's response with film batch, time between exposure and processing processor and day-to-day variations in performance, was investigated. The effects of field size, exposure rate, beam quality and use of the dynamic wedge filter were quantified. The overall uncertainty in dose was estimated to be between -20% and +40%, at 160 mGy. This uncertainty increases as the film approaches its saturation point. In addition, some unusual artefacts were observed. PMID:15933097

  5. Precise radiochromic film dosimetry using a flat-bed document scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Seuntjens, Jan; Sham, Edwin; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Kirov, Assen S.; Soares, Christopher G.

    2005-07-15

    In this study, a measurement protocol is presented that improves the precision of dose measurements using a flat-bed document scanner in conjunction with two new GafChromic registered film models, HS and Prototype A EBT exposed to 6 MV photon beams. We established two sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by measurement and calibration curve fit parameters contributions. We have quantitatively assessed the influence of different steps in the protocol on the overall dose measurement uncertainty. Applying the protocol described in this paper on the Agfa Arcus II flat-bed document scanner, the overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty for an uniform field amounts to 2% or less for doses above around 0.4 Gy in the case of the EBT (Prototype A), and for doses above 5 Gy in the case of the HS model GafChromic registered film using a region of interest 2x2 mm{sup 2} in size.

  6. Precise radiochromic film dosimetry using a flat-bed document scanner.

    PubMed

    Devic, Slobodan; Seuntjens, Jan; Sham, Edwin; Podgorsak, Ervin B; Schmidtlein, C Ross; Kirov, Assen S; Soares, Christopher G

    2005-07-01

    In this study, a measurement protocol is presented that improves the precision of dose measurements using a flat-bed document scanner in conjunction with two new GafChromic film models, HS and Prototype A EBT exposed to 6 MV photon beams. We established two sources of uncertainties in dose measurements, governed by measurement and calibration curve fit parameters contributions. We have quantitatively assessed the influence of different steps in the protocol on the overall dose measurement uncertainty. Applying the protocol described in this paper on the Agfa Arcus II flat-bed document scanner, the overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty for an uniform field amounts to 2% or less for doses above around 0.4 Gy in the case of the EBT (Prototype A), and for doses above 5 Gy in the case of the HS model GafChromic film using a region of interest 2 X 2 mm2 in size. PMID:16121579

  7. SU-E-T-205: Improving Quality Assurance of HDR Brachytherapy: Verifying Agreement Between Planned and Delivered Dose Distributions Using DICOM RTDose and Advanced Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A L; Bradley, D A; Nisbet, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy is undergoing significant development, and quality assurance (QA) checks must keep pace. Current recommendations do not adequately verify delivered against planned dose distributions: This is particularly relevant for new treatment planning system (TPS) calculation algorithms (non TG-43 based), and an era of significant patient-specific plan optimisation. Full system checks are desirable in modern QA recommendations, complementary to device-centric individual tests. We present a QA system incorporating TPS calculation, dose distribution export, HDR unit performance, and dose distribution measurement. Such an approach, more common in external beam radiotherapy, has not previously been reported in the literature for brachytherapy. Methods: Our QA method was tested at 24 UK brachytherapy centres. As a novel approach, we used the TPS DICOM RTDose file export to compare planned dose distribution with that measured using Gafchromic EBT3 films placed around clinical brachytherapy treatment applicators. Gamma analysis was used to compare the dose distributions. Dose difference and distance to agreement were determined at prescription Point A. Accurate film dosimetry was achieved using a glass compression plate at scanning to ensure physically-flat films, simultaneous scanning of known dose films with measurement films, and triple-channel dosimetric analysis. Results: The mean gamma pass rate of RTDose compared to film-measured dose distributions was 98.1% at 3%(local), 2 mm criteria. The mean dose difference, measured to planned, at Point A was -0.5% for plastic treatment applicators and -2.4% for metal applicators, due to shielding not accounted for in TPS. The mean distance to agreement was 0.6 mm. Conclusion: It is recommended to develop brachytherapy QA to include full-system verification of agreement between planned and delivered dose distributions. This is a novel approach for HDR brachytherapy QA. A methodology using advanced film

  8. Radiochromic films for dental CT dosimetry: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Rampado, O; Bianchi, S D; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Rossetti, V; Ropolo, R

    2014-02-01

    Dental CT dose evaluations are commonly performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) inside anthropomorphic phantoms. Radiochromic films with good sensitivity in the X-ray diagnostic field have recently been developed and are commercially available as GAFCHROMIC XR-QA. There are potential advantages in the use of radiochromic films such as a more comprehensive dosimetry thanks to the adjustable size of the film samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using radiochromic films for dental CT dose evaluations. Film samples were cut with a width of 5mm and a length of 25 mm (strips), the same size as the Alderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom holes used in this study. Dental CT dose measurements were performed using simultaneously both TLD and radiochromic strips in the same phantom sites. Two equipment types were considered for dental CT examinations: a 16 slice CT and a cone beam CT. Organ equivalent doses were then obtained averaging the measurements from the sites of the same organ and effective doses were calculated using ICRP 103 weighting factors. The entire procedure was repeated four times for each CT in order to compare also the repeatability of the two dosimeter types. A linear correlation was found between the absorbed dose evaluated with radiochromic films and with TLD, with slopes of 0.930 and 0.944 (correlation r>0.99). The maximum difference between the two dosimeter's measurements was 25%, whereas the average difference was 7%. The measurement repeatability was comparable for the two dosimeters at cumulative doses above 15 mGy (estimated uncertainty at 1 sigma level of about 5%), whereas below this threshold radiochromic films show a greater dispersion of data, of about 10% at 1 sigma level. We obtained, using respectively Gafchromic and TLD measurements, effective dose values of 107 μSv and 117 μSv (i.e. difference of 8.6%) for the cone beam CT and of 523 μSv and 562 μSv (i.e. difference of 7%) for the

  9. The artefacts of radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed scanners and their causation by light scattering from radiation-induced polymers.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Doerner, Karl-Joachim; Poppe, Bjoern

    2014-07-01

    Optical experiments and theoretical considerations have been undertaken in order to understand the causes of the 'orientation effect' and the 'parabola effect', the artefacts impairing the desired light absorption measurement on radiochromic EBT3 films with flatbed scanners. EBT3 films exposed to doses up to 20.9 Gy were scanned with an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner in landscape and portrait orientation. The horizontally and vertically polarized light components of the scanner were determined, and another Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was disassembled to examine its optical components. The optical properties of exposed and unexposed EBT3 films were studied with incident polarized and unpolarized white light, and the transmitted red light was investigated for its polarization and scattering properties including the distribution of the scattering angles. Neutral density filters were studied for comparison. Guidance was sought from the theory of light scattering from rod-like macromolecular structures. The drastic dose-dependent variation of the transmitted total light current as function of the orientation of front and rear polarizers, interpreted by light scattering theory, shows that the radiation-induced polymerization of the monomers of EBT3 films produces light scattering oscillators preferably polarized at right angles with the coating direction of the film. The directional distribution of the scattered light is partly anisotropic, with a preferred scattering plane at right angles with the coating direction, indicating light scattering from stacks of coherently vibrating oscillators piled up along the monomer crystals. The polyester carrier film also participates in these effects. The 'orientation' and 'parabola' artefacts due to flatbed scanning of radiochromic films can be explained by the interaction of the polarization-dependent and anisotropic light scattering from exposed and unexposed EBT3 films with the quantitative difference

  10. The performance of an optical cone-beam CT scanner adapted for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Babic, Steven; Jordan, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate commercial optical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners as devices for reading EBT2 radiochromic film. A secondary objective was to implement a spatial correction for stray light present within optical CBCT systems. Square (12.7 × 12.7 cm²) EBT2 films were positioned vertically in the middle of a small water-filled tank, co-linear with the central beam axis of a 12 MeV electron beam. A total dose of 4.0 Gy was delivered at depth of 3.0 cm. Films were imaged prior to irradiation and 24 hours post-irradiation. Two different models of scanners, Vista15™ and Vista10™, were used to read out the irradiated films. In the Vista15™ scanner, residual light scatter was corrected for using: 1) a single vertical slot array and 2) a slot pair array that produced a vertical fan beam of light. Vista10™ was modified to have a smaller acceptance angle of scattered light and further corrections for residual scatter were made using a multiple slot array. With these different geometries, composite 'open field' and 'shadow field' images were generated and processed to create 'glare-free' pre and post-irradiation film images respectively, from which the net optical density (OD) was calculated. Results were compared against the open light field measurement in which no correction for stray light was made. Using the above scanners, EBT2 films were additionally read out to obtain 12 MeV electron and 6 MV photon percentage depth doses. By correcting for stray light it was found that the central-axis change in the net OD increased particularly in the 12 MeV electron build-up region and at the depth of maximum dose (d(max) = 3.0 cm) where light transmission is lowest. In the open light field measurement acquired with the Vista15™ scanner the net OD was 0.87 +/-0.02. Using single vertical slot array geometry to correct for stray light, the net OD was 0.94 +/-0.02, while with the slot pair array the net OD was 0.99 +/-0

  11. Measurement of relative output factors for the 8 and 4 mm collimators of Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion by film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Josef Jr.; Bhatnagar, Jagdish P.; Quader, Mubina A.; Bednarz, Greg; Lunsford, L. Dade; Huq, M. Saiful

    2009-05-15

    Three types of films, Kodak EDR2, Gafchromic EBT, and Gafchromic MD-V2-55, were used to measure relative output factors of 4 and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The optical density to dose calibration curve for each of the film types was obtained by exposing the films to a range of known doses. Ten data points were acquired for each of the calibration curves in the dose ranges from 0 to 4 Gy, 0 to 8 Gy, and 0 to 80 Gy for Kodak EDR2, Gafchromic EBT, and Gafchromic MD-V2-55 films, respectively. For the measurement of relative output factors, five films of each film type were exposed to a known dose. All films were scanned using EPSON EXPRESSION 10000 XL scanner with 200 dpi resolution in 16 bit gray scale for EDR2 film and 48 bit color scale for Gafchromic films. The scanned images were imported in the red channel for both Gafchromic films. The background corrections from an unexposed film were applied to all films. The output factors obtained from film measurements were in a close agreement both with the Monte Carlo calculated values of 0.924 and 0.805 for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively. These values are provided by the vendor and used as default values in the vendor's treatment planning system. The largest differences were noted for the Kodak EDR 2 films (-2.1% and -4.5% for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively). The best agreement observed was for EBT Gafchromic film (-0.8% and +0.6% differences for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively). Based on the present values, no changes in the default relative output factor values were made in the treatment planning system.

  12. SU-E-T-123: Dosimetric Comparison Between Portrait and Landscape Orientations in Radiochromic Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kakinohana, Y; Toita, T; Kasuya, G; Ariga, T; Heianna, J; Murayama, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric properties of radiochromic films with different orientation. Methods: A sheet of EBT3 film was cut into eight pieces with the following sizes: 15×15 cm2 (one piece), 5x15 cm{sup 2} (two) and 4×5 cm{sup 2} (five). A set of two EBT3 sheets was used at each dose level. Two sets were used changing the delivered doses (1 and 2 Gy). The 5×15 cm{sup 2} pieces were rotated by 90 degrees in relation to each other, such that one had landscape orientation and the other had portrait orientation. All 5×15 cm2 pieces were irradiated with their long side aligned with the x-axis of the radiation field. The 15×15 cm{sup 2} pieces were irradiated rotated at 90 degrees to each other. Five pieces, (a total of ten from two sheets) were used to obtain a calibration curve. The irradiated films were scanned using an Epson ES-2200 scanner and were analyzed using ImageJ software. In this study, no correction was applied for the nonuniform scanner signal that is evident in the direction of the scanner lamp. Each film piece was scanned both in portrait and landscape orientations. Dosimetric comparisons of the beam profiles were made in terms of the film orientations (portrait and landscape) and scanner bed directions (perpendicular and parallel to the scanner movement). Results: In general, portrait orientation exhibited higher noise than landscape and was adversely affected to a great extent by the nonuniformity in the direction of the scanner lamp. A significant difference in the measured field widths between the perpendicular and parallel directions was found for both orientations. Conclusion: Without correction for the nonuniform scanner signal in the direction of the scanner lamp, a landscape orientation is preferable. A more detailed investigation is planned to evaluate quantitatively the effect of orientation on the dosimetric properties of a film.

  13. A preliminary study on using the radiochromic film for 2D beam profile QC/QA at the THOR BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ming-Chen; Chen, Wei-Lin; Tsai, Pi-En; Huang, Chun-Kai; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-12-01

    The GAFCHROMIC(®) EBT2 dosimetry film has been studied as a rapid QC/QA tool for 2D dose profile mapping in the BNCT beam at THOR. The pixel values of the EBT2 film image were converted to the 2D dose profile using a dose calibration curve obtained by 6-MV X-ray. The reproducibility of the 2D dose profile measured using the EBT2 film in the PMMA phantom was preliminarily found to be acceptable with uncertainties within about ±2 to ±3.5%. It is found that the EBT2 measured dose profile consisted of both gamma-ray components and neutron contributions. Therefore, the dose profile measured using the EBT2 film is significantly different from the neutron flux profile measured using the indirect neutron radiography method. Further study of the influence of neutrons to the response of the EBT2 film is indispensible for the absolute dose profile determination in a BNCT beam. PMID:21570854

  14. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required

  15. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  16. Evaluation of GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification

    SciTech Connect

    Todorovic, M.; Fischer, M.; Cremers, F.; Thom, E.; Schmidt, R.

    2006-05-15

    The capability of the new GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification is investigated in this paper. First the general characteristics of this film (dose response, postirradiation coloration, influence of calibration field size) were derived using a flat-bed scanner. In the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy, the sensitivity of the EBT prototype B film is ten times higher than the response of the GafChromic HS, which so far was the GafChromic film with the highest sensitivity. Compared with the Kodak EDR2 film, the response of the EBT is higher by a factor of 3 in the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy. The GafChromic EBT almost does not show a temporal growth of the optical density and there is no influence of the chosen calibration field size on the dose response curve obtained from this data. A MatLab program was written to evaluate the two-dimensional dose distributions from treatment planning systems and GafChromic EBT film measurements. Verification of external beam therapy (SRT, IMRT) using the above-mentioned approach resulted in very small differences between the planned and the applied dose. The GafChromic EBT prototype B together with the flat-bed scanner and MatLab is a successful approach for making the advantages of the GafChromic films applicable for verification of external beam therapy.

  17. Discrepancies between film and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) readings at an operating power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The results of exposure measurements using film badges and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) were compared at an operating nuclear power reactor. The film badge overresponded to the high-energy Nitrogen-16 gamma rays produced under power, while the TLD did not. Discussions of charged-particle equilibrium and energy dependence are included. The cause of the overresponse was determined to be the excess pair production electrons created because of the high atomic number in the lead energy-compensating shield surrounding the film and in the film itself.

  18. Radiographic film dosimetry for IMRT fields in the nearsurface buildup region.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Peter L; Moran, Jean M; Kulasekere, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    Radiographic film dosimetry provides fast, convenient 2-D dose distributions, but is challenged by the dependence of film response on scatter conditions (i.e., energy dependence). Verification of delivered dose in the surface buildup region is important for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) when volumes of interest encroach on these regions (e.g., head/neck, breast). The current work demonstrates that film dosimetry can accurately predict the dose in the buildup region for IMRT, since 1) film dosimetry can be performed with sufficient accuracy for small fields and 2) IMRT is delivered by a series of "small" segments (step and shoot IMRT). This work evaluates the accuracy of X-OMAT V (XV) and Extended Dose Range (EDR) film for measurements from 2 mm to 15 mm depths for small fields and clinical IMRT beams. Film measurements have been compared to single point measurements made with a stereotactic diode and parallel plate ionization chamber (P11) and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at various depths for square (diode, P11) and IMRT (diode, TLD) fields. Film calibration was performed using an 8-field step exposure on a single film at 5 cm depth, which has been corrected to represent either small field or large field depth dependent film calibration techniques. Up to 10% correction for film response variation as a function of depth was required for measurements in the buildup region. A depth-dependent calibration can sufficiently improve the accuracy for IMRT calculation verification (i.e., < or = 5% uncertainty). A small field film calibration technique was most appropriate for IMRT field measurements. Improved buildup region dose measurements for clinical IMRT fields promotes improved dose estimation performance for (inverse) treatment planning and allows more quantitative treatment delivery validation. PMID:19020480

  19. EPR dosimetry of radiotherapy photon beams in inhomogeneous media using alanine films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Olaug Hole, Eli; Rune Olsen, Dag; Malinen, Eirik

    2006-12-01

    In the current work, EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) dosimetry using alanine films (134 µm thick) was utilized for dose measurements in inhomogeneous phantoms irradiated with radiotherapy photon beams. The main phantom material was PMMA, while either Styrofoam or aluminium was introduced as an inhomogeneity. The phantoms were irradiated to a maximum dose of about 30 Gy with 6 or 15 MV photons. The performance of the alanine film dosimeters was investigated and compared to results from ion chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo simulations and radiotherapy treatment planning calculations. It was found that the alanine film dosimeters had a linear dose response above approximately 5 Gy, while a background signal obscured the response at lower dose levels. For doses between 5 and 60 Gy, the standard deviation of single alanine film dose estimates was about 2%. The alanine film dose estimates yielded results comparable to those from the Monte Carlo simulations and the ion chamber measurements, with absolute differences between estimates in the order of 1 15%. The treatment planning calculations exhibited limited applicability. The current work shows that alanine film dosimetry is a method suitable for estimating radiotherapeutical doses and for dose measurements in inhomogeneous media.

  20. Pencil beam approach for correcting the energy dependence artifact in film dosimetry for IMRT verification

    SciTech Connect

    Kirov, Assen S.; Caravelli, Gregory; Palm, Aasa; Chui, Chen; LoSasso, Thomas

    2006-10-15

    The higher sensitivity to low-energy scattered photons of radiographic film compared to water can lead to significant dosimetric error when the beam quality varies significantly within a field. Correcting for this artifact will provide greater accuracy for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification dosimetry. A procedure is developed for correction of the film energy-dependent response by creating a pencil beam kernel within our treatment planning system to model the film response specifically. Film kernels are obtained from EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations of the dose distribution from a 1 mm diameter narrow beam in a model of the film placed at six depths from 1.5 to 40 cm in polystyrene and solid water phantoms. Kernels for different area phantoms (50x50 cm{sup 2} and 25x25 cm{sup 2} polystyrene and 30x30 cm{sup 2} solid water) are produced. The Monte Carlo calculated kernel is experimentally verified with film, ion chamber and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements in polystyrene irradiated by a narrow beam. The kernel is then used in convolution calculations to predict the film response in open and IMRT fields. A 6 MV photon beam and Kodak XV2 film in a polystyrene phantom are selected to test the method as they are often used in practice and can result in large energy-dependent artifacts. The difference in dose distributions calculated with the film kernel and the water kernel is subtracted from film measurements to obtain a practically film artifact free IMRT dose distribution for the Kodak XV2 film. For the points with dose exceeding 5 cGy (11% of the peak dose) in a large modulated field and a film measurement inside a large polystyrene phantom at depth of 10 cm, the correction reduces the fraction of pixels for which the film dose deviates from dose to water by more than 5% of the mean film dose from 44% to 6%.

  1. Pencil beam approach for correcting the energy dependence artifact in film dosimetry for IMRT verification.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Assen S; Caravelli, Gregory; Palm, Asa; Chui, Chen; LoSasso, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    The higher sensitivity to low-energy scattered photons of radiographic film compared to water can lead to significant dosimetric error when the beam quality varies significantly within a field. Correcting for this artifact will provide greater accuracy for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification dosimetry. A procedure is developed for correction of the film energy-dependent response by creating a pencil beam kernel within our treatment planning system to model the film response specifically. Film kernels are obtained from EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations of the dose distribution from a 1 mm diameter narrow beam in a model of the film placed at six depths from 1.5 to 40 cm in polystyrene and solid water phantoms. Kernels for different area phantoms (50 x 50 cm2 and 25 x 25 cm2 polystyrene and 30 x 30 cm2 solid water) are produced. The Monte Carlo calculated kernel is experimentally verified with film, ion chamber and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements in polystyrene irradiated by a narrow beam. The kernel is then used in convolution calculations to, predict the film response in open and IMRT fields. A 6 MV photon beam and Kodak XV2 film in a polystyrene phantom are selected to test the method as they are often used in practice and can result in large energy-dependent artifacts. The difference in dose distributions calculated with the film kernel and the water kernel is subtracted from film measurements to obtain a practically film artifact free IMRT dose distribution for the Kodak XV2 film. For the points with dose exceeding 5 cGy (11% of the peak dose) in a large modulated field and a film measurement inside a large polystyrene phantom at depth of 10 cm, the correction reduces the fraction of pixels for which the film dose deviates from dose to water by more than 5% of the mean film dose from 44% to 6%. PMID:17089835

  2. Energy dependence of response of new high sensitivity radiochromic films for megavoltage and kilovoltage radiation energies.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Ho, Yunsil; Shankar, Ravi; Wang, Lin; Harrison, Louis B

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the energy dependence of the response of two new high sensitivity models of radiochromic films EBT and XR-QA. We determined the dose response curves of these films for four different radiation sources, namely, 6 MV photon beams (6 MVX), Ir-192, I-125, and Pd-103. The first type (EBT) is designed for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry, and the second type (XR-QA) is designed for kilovoltage dosimetry. All films were scanned using red (665 nm) and green (520 nm) light sources in a charge-coupled device-based densitometer. The dose response curves [net optical density (NOD) versus dose] were plotted and compared for different radiation energies and light sources. Contrary to the early GAFCHROMIC film types (such as models XR, HS, MD55-2, and HD810), the net optical densities of both EBT and XR-QA were higher with a green (520 nm) than those with a red (665 nm) light source due to the different absorption spectrum of the new radiochromic emulsion. Both film types yield measurable optical densities for doses below 2 Gy. EBT film response is nearly independent of radiation energy, within the uncertainty of measurement. The NOD values of EBT film at 1 and 2 Gy are 0.13 and 0.25 for green, and 0.1 and 0.17 for red, respectively. In contrast, the XR-QA film sensitivity varies with radiation energy. The doses required to produce NOD of 0.5 are 6.9, 5.4, 0.7, and 0.9 Gy with green light and 19, 13, 1.7, and 1.5 Gy with red light, for 6 MVX, Ir-192, I -125, and Pd-103, respectively. EBT film was found to have minimal photon energy dependence of response for the energies tested and is suitable for dosimetry of radiation with a wide energy spectrum, including primary and scattered radiation. XR-QA film is promising for kilovoltage sources with a narrow energy spectra. The new high sensitivity radiochromic films are promising tools in radiation dosimetry. PMID:16370422

  3. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. J.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-11

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region.

  4. SU-E-T-188: Film Dosimetry Verification of Monte Carlo Generated Electron Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, S; Asprinio, A; Lu, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions from film measurements to Monte Carlo generated electron treatment plans. Irradiation with electrons offers the advantages of dose uniformity in the target volume and of minimizing the dose to deeper healthy tissue. Using the Monte Carlo algorithm will improve dose accuracy in regions with heterogeneities and irregular surfaces. Methods: Dose distributions from GafChromic{sup ™} EBT3 films were compared to dose distributions from the Electron Monte Carlo algorithm in the Eclipse{sup ™} radiotherapy treatment planning system. These measurements were obtained for 6MeV, 9MeV and 12MeV electrons at two depths. All phantoms studied were imported into Eclipse by CT scan. A 1 cm thick solid water template with holes for bonelike and lung-like plugs was used. Different configurations were used with the different plugs inserted into the holes. Configurations with solid-water plugs stacked on top of one another were also used to create an irregular surface. Results: The dose distributions measured from the film agreed with those from the Electron Monte Carlo treatment plan. Accuracy of Electron Monte Carlo algorithm was also compared to that of Pencil Beam. Dose distributions from Monte Carlo had much higher pass rates than distributions from Pencil Beam when compared to the film. The pass rate for Monte Carlo was in the 80%–99% range, where the pass rate for Pencil Beam was as low as 10.76%. Conclusion: The dose distribution from Monte Carlo agreed with the measured dose from the film. When compared to the Pencil Beam algorithm, pass rates for Monte Carlo were much higher. Monte Carlo should be used over Pencil Beam for regions with heterogeneities and irregular surfaces.

  5. Practical IMRT QA dosimetry using Gafchromic film: a quick start guide.

    PubMed

    Bennie, Nick; Metcalfe, Peter

    2016-06-01

    This work outlines a method for using Gafchromic film for dosimetry purposes, by scanning it with currently available commercial scanners. The scanners used were: Epson V800, Epson V700, Epson V37 series, specifically a V370 and a Canon multi-function office printer/scanner. The Epson scanners have 16 bit RGB resolution, the Canon has 8 bit RGB (Red Green Blue) resolution, and the V800 and V700 allow scanning in transmission mode. The V700 uses an Epson White Cold Cathode Florescent Lamp; the recently released V800 uses an Epson light emitting diode (LED) light source, while the V37 series uses a reflective mode and the Epson LED light source. The Epson V37 series scanners are designed for non-professional use so the cost has been kept at a low "entry level" point, so they would be a suitable option for a department wanting to use Gafchromic film or with limited needs that did not justify a more sophisticated and expensive unit. Note that the V800 or V700 scanners are not expensive in context, costing approximately the same as a 25 sheet box of Gafchromic film. The Canon was included to demonstrate that a scanner with 8 bit RGB resolution can be used for dosimetry. These general multi-function units are available in most departments, and they would allow Gafchromic film to be evaluated as a dosimetry tool without a significant investment. Furthermore, they are generally capable of scanning large format film (425 × 350 mm) in one part. Although this is not necessary for dosimetry, it is often useful for machine QA, where dividing the film into two parts to ensure accurate measurements is not practical. Moreover, this analytical method uses software that is freely or commonly available, particularly the image processing package ImageJ. Note ImageJ v1.48 was the version used. The results demonstrate that this method used with the scanners evaluated is a practical method of using Gafchromic film as a dosimeter for IMRT QA. PMID:27098156

  6. Accurate skin dose measurements using radiochromic film in clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.; Abdel-Rahman, W.; Evans, M.; Olivares, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Vuong, Te; Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-04-15

    Megavoltage x-ray beams exhibit the well-known phenomena of dose buildup within the first few millimeters of the incident phantom surface, or the skin. Results of the surface dose measurements, however, depend vastly on the measurement technique employed. Our goal in this study was to determine a correction procedure in order to obtain an accurate skin dose estimate at the clinically relevant depth based on radiochromic film measurements. To illustrate this correction, we have used as a reference point a depth of 70 {mu}. We used the new GAFCHROMIC[reg] dosimetry films (HS, XR-T, and EBT) that have effective points of measurement at depths slightly larger than 70 {mu}. In addition to films, we also used an Attix parallel-plate chamber and a home-built extrapolation chamber to cover tissue-equivalent depths in the range from 4 {mu} to 1 mm of water-equivalent depth. Our measurements suggest that within the first millimeter of the skin region, the PDD for a 6 MV photon beam and field size of 10x10 cm{sup 2} increases from 14% to 43%. For the three GAFCHROMIC[reg] dosimetry film models, the 6 MV beam entrance skin dose measurement corrections due to their effective point of measurement are as follows: 15% for the EBT, 15% for the HS, and 16% for the XR-T model GAFCHROMIC[reg] films. The correction factors for the exit skin dose due to the build-down region are negligible. There is a small field size dependence for the entrance skin dose correction factor when using the EBT GAFCHROMIC[reg] film model. Finally, a procedure that uses EBT model GAFCHROMIC[reg] film for an accurate measurement of the skin dose in a parallel-opposed pair 6 MV photon beam arrangement is described.

  7. Application of the gamma evaluation method in Gamma Knife film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Chae-Yong; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Do-Heui; Suh, Tae-Suk; Gyu Kim, Dong; Chung, Hyun-Tai

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of intracranial lesions. To minimize neurological deficits, submillimeter accuracy is required during treatment delivery. In this paper, the delivery accuracy of GK radiosurgery was assessed with the gamma evaluation method using planning dose distribution and film measurement data. Methods: Single 4, 8, and 16 mm and composite shot plans were developed for evaluation using the GK Perfexion (PFX) treatment planning system (TPS). The planning dose distributions were exported as digital image communications in medicine - radiation therapy (DICOM RT) files using a new function of GK TPS. A maximum dose of 8 Gy was prescribed for four test plans. Irradiation was performed onto a spherical solid water phantom using Gafchromic EBT2 films in the axial and coronal planes. The exposed films were converted to absolute dose based on a 4th-order polynomial calibration curve determined using ten calibration films. The film measurement results and planning dose distributions were registered for further analysis in the same Leksell coordinate using in-house software. The gamma evaluation method was applied to two dose distributions with varying spatial tolerance (0.3-2.0 mm) and dosimetric tolerance (0.3-2.0%), to verify the accuracy of GK radiosurgery. The result of gamma evaluation was assessed using pass rate, dose gamma index histogram (DGH), and dose pass rate histogram (DPH). Results: The 20, 50, and 80% isodose lines found in film measurements were in close agreement with the planning isodose lines, for all dose levels. The comparison of diagonal line profiles across the axial plane yielded similar results. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high pass rates of >95% within the 50% isodose line for 0.5 mm/0.5% tolerance criteria, in both the axial and coronal planes. They satisfied 1.0 mm/1.0% criteria within the 20% isodose line. Our DGH and DPH also showed that low

  8. Stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiochromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Perches, Rodolfo Díaz

    2000-10-01

    In this work we present a protocol to measure absorbed dose distributions in stereotactic radiosurgery treatments with a linear accelerator (Linac) using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic dye films. A Linac Philips SL-15 (6 MV X-rays), a ZD2 stereoactic system for localizing the target via computed tomography (CT), and Leibinger radiosurgery accessories will be used. A versatile spherical acrylic phantom of 16 cm diameter to measure the dose distributions has been designed. The phantom is composed of two hemispheres. On one flat side of the hemispheres an array of Harshaw/Bicron TLD-100 or a sheet of GafChromic MD-55 film will be placed. The phantom will be irradiated in three different orientations to obtain spatial dose distributions in the coronal, sagital and transverse planes. The experimental measurement will be compared with the results provided by a commercial treatment-planning system.

  9. [Patient skin dose in interventional radiology using radiochromic dosimetry film].

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Nishitani, Hiromu; Kohno, Shingo; Yasutomo, Motokatsu; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Yagi, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Various types of X-ray examinations are currently being carried out for the purpose of diagnosis. However, since dose limits for contamination by medical examinations have not been set, management of dose measurements and contamination records is called for. With increasing use of the IVR technique, reports of radiation injury and the symptoms associated with it have become more common. To advance our understanding of this situation and to reduce contamination, it is necessary to carry out contamination management. The reflection film on which colors are formed by irradiating X-rays has recently come into use. Dose measurement is possible with the use of this film, and, because effective results can be obtained as a result of performing fundamental examinations, the film actually provides dose measurements for the IVR technique. Another benefit is that maximum patient skin dose and dose distribution can be determined in addition to dose measurement. Moreover, since various methods were examined in this study, the method of dose evaluation is also reported for those wishing to employ it in the clinical setting. PMID:12577009

  10. Reference radiochromic film dosimetry in kilovoltage photon beams during CBCT image acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Tomic, Nada; Devic, Slobodan; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: A common approach for dose assessment during cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition is to use thermoluminescent detectors for skin dose measurements (on patients or phantoms) or ionization chamber (in phantoms) for body dose measurements. However, the benefits of a daily CBCT image acquisition such as margin reduction in planning target volume and the image quality must be weighted against the extra dose received during CBCT acquisitions. Methods: The authors describe a two-dimensional reference dosimetry technique for measuring dose from CBCT scans using the on-board imaging system on a Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator that employs the XR-QA radiochromic film model, specifically designed for dose measurements at low energy photons. The CBCT dose measurements were performed for three different body regions (head and neck, pelvis, and thorax) using humanoid Rando phantom. Results: The authors report on both surface dose and dose profiles measurements during clinical CBCT procedures carried out on a humanoid Rando phantom. Our measurements show that the surface doses per CBCT scan can range anywhere between 0.1 and 4.7 cGy, with the lowest surface dose observed in the head and neck region, while the highest surface dose was observed for the Pelvis spot light CBCT protocol in the pelvic region, on the posterior side of the Rando phantom. The authors also present results of the uncertainty analysis of our XR-QA radiochromic film dosimetry system. Conclusions: Radiochromic film dosimetry protocol described in this work was used to perform dose measurements during CBCT acquisitions with the one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty of up to 3% for doses above 1 cGy. Our protocol is based on film exposure calibration in terms of ''air kerma in air,'' which simplifies both the calibration procedure and reference dosimetry measurements. The results from a full Monte Carlo investigation of the dose conversion of measured XR-QA film dose at the surface into

  11. TLD-100 and Radiochromic Dye Film in Medical Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado-Uribe, H.

    2006-01-06

    TLD-100 and radiochromic dye films are two types of the dosimeters most used in the medical physics area. Both are secondary detectors and operate in a different way and in different dose measurement ranges. The use of TLD-100 is based on the thermoluminescent process, and the RDF in the optical density change when has been exposed to an irradiation field previously. In this work it is analyzed in a general way, the advantages and characteristics of these detectors and the reasons of the great increase in their use in the last decades.

  12. Thermoluminescence in CVD diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Flores, M; Meléndrez, R; Chernov, V; Castañeda, B; Pedroza-Montero, M; Gan, B; Ahn, J; Zhang, Q; Yoon, S F

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z =6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z =7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220), 320 and 370 degrees C. The 120 and 370 degrees C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 degrees C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of CVD diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications. PMID:12382917

  13. Reference dosimetry during diagnostic CT examination using XR-QA radiochromic film model

    SciTech Connect

    Boivin, Jonathan; Tomic, Nada; Fadlallah, Bassam; DeBlois, Francois; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The authors applied 2D reference dosimetry protocol for dose measurements using XR-QA radiochromic film model during diagnostic computed tomography (CT) examinations carried out on patients and humanoid Rando phantom. Methods: Response of XR-QA model GAFCHROMIC film reference dosimetry system was calibrated in terms of Air-Kerma in air. Four most commonly used CT protocols were selected on their CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT 64), covering three anatomical sites (head, chest, and abdomen). For each protocol, 25 patients ongoing planned diagnostic CT examination were recruited. Surface dose was measured using four or eight film strips taped on patients' skin and on Rando phantom. Film pieces were scanned prior to and after irradiation using Epson Expression 10000XL document scanner. Optical reflectance of the unexposed film piece was subtracted from exposed one to obtain final net reflectance change, which is subsequently converted to dose using previously established calibration curves. Results: The authors' measurements show that body skin dose variation has a sinusoidal pattern along the scanning axis due to the helical movement of the x-ray tube, and a comb pattern for head dose measurements due to its axial movement. Results show that the mean skin dose at anterior position for patients is (51 {+-} 6) mGy, (29 {+-} 11) mGy, (45 {+-} 13) mGy and (38 {+-} 20) mGy for head, abdomen, angio Abdomen, and chest and abdomen protocol (UP position), respectively. The obtained experimental dose length products (DLP) show higher values than CT based DLP taken from the scanner console for body protocols, but lower values for the head protocol. Internal dose measurements inside the phantom's head indicate nonuniformity of dose distribution within scanned volume. Conclusions: In this work, the authors applied an Air-Kerma in air based radiochromic film reference dosimetry protocol for in vivo skin dose measurements. In this work, they employed green channel extracted

  14. Thermally stimulated currents in polycrystalline diamond films: Application to radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.

    1997-06-01

    Thermally stimulated currents (TSC) were studied in polycrystalline diamond films to gain information about the trap levels in this material. The TSC glow curve is composed of a dominant peak at 555 K with smaller overlapping peaks in the 400-500 K range. The analysis of the TSC isothermal decay at high temperatures shows that the peak at 555 K is related to a trap level at 1.86 eV. The dose response and the room temperature fading rate of TSC were measured in order to evaluate the potential of these films for UV radiation dosimetry. The TSC are found to increase sublinearly with the dose over three decades and to decay with the logarithm of the storage time at room temperature.

  15. Pushing the boundaries of spatial resolution in dosimetry using polymer gels and radiochromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilemann, G.; Georg, D.; Berg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy and brachytherapy techniques are raising the bar for detectors with respect to high spatial resolution. Dosimetry based on most point-like dosimeters, e.g. diamond detectors or small volume ionization chambers cannot be used efficiently and accurately for detecting 2 or 3D-dose variations at millimeter scale. Hence radiochromic films and polymer gels with high two/three-dimensional resolution provide a good verification tool for measuring dose distributions of very small collimated beams. In this study the performance of film and gel detectors in detecting the very fine dose distributions generated from collimation holes of four different sizes is investigated. Pencil beams with diameters down to 0.455 mm could be resolved by both detector types comparably.

  16. Use of novel fibre-coupled radioluminescence and RADPOS dosimetry systems for total scatter factor measurements in small fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploquin, N.; Kertzscher, G.; Vandervoort, E.; Cygler, J. E.; Andersen, C. E.; Francescon, P.

    2015-01-01

    A dosimetry system based on Al2O3:C radioluminescence (RL), and RADPOS, a novel 4D dosimetry system using microMOSFETs, were used to measure total scatter factors, ≤ft({{S}c,p}\\right)\\text{det}{{f\\text{clin}}}, for the CyberKnife robotic radiosugery system. New Monte Carlo calculated correction factors are presented and applied for the RL detector response for the 5, 7.5 and 10 mm collimators in order to correct for the detector geometry and increased photoelectric cross section of Al2O3:C relative to water. For comparison, measurements were also carried out using a micro MOSFET, PTW60012 diode and GAFCHROMIC® film (EBT and EBT2). Uncorrected ≤ft({{S}c,p}\\right)\\text{det}{{f\\text{clin}}}, were obtained by taking the ratio of the detector response for each collimator to that for the 60 mm diameter reference field. Published Monte Carlo calculated correction factors were applied to the RADPOS, microMOSFET and diode detector measurements to yield corrected field factors, Ω {{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}}, following the terminology of a recent formalism introduced for small and composite field relative dosimetry. With corrections, the RL measured Ω {{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}}, were 0.656  ±  0.002, 0.815  ±  0.002 and 0.865  ±  0.003 for the 5, 7.5 and 10 mm collimators, respectively. This was in good agreement with RADPOS corrected field factors of 0.650  ±  0.010, 0.816  ±  0.024 and 0.867  ±  0.010 for the 5, 7.5 and 10 mm collimators, respectively. Both RL and RADPOS total scatter factors agreed within approximately two standard deviations of the GAFCHROMIC film values (average of EBT and EBT2) of 0.640  ±  0.006, 0.806  ±  0.007 and 0.859  ±  0.09. Corrected total scatter factors for all dosimetry systems agreed within one standard deviation for collimator sizes 10-60 mm. Our study suggests that the micro

  17. Evaluation of material heterogeneity dosimetric effects using radiochromic film for COMS eye plaques loaded with {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16)

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Hilal; Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Oezbay, Ismail; Kemikler, Goenuel; Tuncer, Samuray

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: (1) To measure absolute dose distributions in eye phantom for COMS eye plaques with {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16) using radiochromic EBT film dosimetry. (2) To determine the dose correction function for calculations involving the TG-43 formalism to account for the presence of the COMS eye plaque using Monte Carlo (MC) method specific to this seed model. (3) To test the heterogeneous dose calculation accuracy of the new version of Plaque Simulator (v5.3.9) against the EBT film data for this seed model. Methods: Using EBT film, absolute doses were measured for {sup 125}I seeds (model I25.S16) in COMS eye plaques (1) along the plaque's central axis for (a) uniformly loaded plaques (14-20 mm in diameter) and (b) a 20 mm plaque with single seed, and (2) in off-axis direction at depths of 5 and 12 mm for all four plaque sizes. The EBT film calibration was performed at {sup 125}I photon energy. MC calculations using MCNP5 code for a single seed at the center of a 20 mm plaque in homogeneous water and polystyrene medium were performed. The heterogeneity dose correction function was determined from the MC calculations. These function values at various depths were entered into PS software (v5.3.9) to calculate the heterogeneous dose distributions for the uniformly loaded plaques (of all four sizes). The dose distributions with homogeneous water assumptions were also calculated using PS for comparison. The EBT film measured absolute dose rate values (film) were compared with those calculated using PS with homogeneous assumption (PS Homo) and heterogeneity correction (PS Hetero). The values of dose ratio (film/PS Homo) and (film/PS Hetero) were obtained. Results: The central axis depth dose rate values for a single seed in 20 mm plaque measured using EBT film and calculated with MCNP5 code (both in ploystyrene phantom) were compared, and agreement within 9% was found. The dose ratio (film/PS Homo) values were substantially lower than unity (mostly between 0.8 and 0

  18. Development and evaluation of gallium nitride-based thin films for x-ray dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Sharp, Ian D.; Stutzmann, Martin; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    X-ray radiation plays an important role in medical procedures ranging from diagnostics to therapeutics. Due to the harm such ionizing radiation can cause, it has become common practice to closely monitor the dosages received by patients. To this end, precise online dosimeters have been developed with the dual objectives of monitoring radiation in the region of interest and improving therapeutic methods. In this work, we evaluate GaN thin film high electron mobility heterostructures with sub-mm2 detection areas as x-ray radiation detectors. Devices were tested using 40-300 kV Bremsstrahlung x-ray sources. We find that the photoconductive device response exhibits a large gain, is almost independent of the angle of irradiation, and is constant to within 2% of the signal throughout this medical diagnostic x-ray range, indicating that these sensors do not require recalibration for geometry or energy. Furthermore, the devices show a high sensitivity to x-ray intensity and can measure in the air kerma rate (free-in-air) range of 1 µGy s-1 to 10 mGy s-1 with a signal stability of ±1% and a linear total dose response over time. Medical conditions were simulated by measurements of device responses to irradiation through human torso phantoms. Direct x-ray imaging is demonstrated using the index finger and wrist sections of a human phantom. The results presented here indicate that GaN-based thin film devices exhibit a wide range of properties, which make them promising candidates for dosimetry applications. In addition, with potential detection volumes smaller than 10-6 cm3, they are well suited for high-resolution x-ray imaging. Moreover, with additional engineering steps, these devices can be adapted to potentially provide both in vivo biosensing and x-ray dosimetry.

  19. Absorption spectra of irradiated XRCT radiochromic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butson, Martin J.; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-06-01

    Gafchromic XRCT radiochromic film is a self-developing high sensitivity radiochromic film product which can be used for assessment of delivered radiation doses which could match applications such as computed tomography (CT) dosimetry. The film automatically changes colour upon irradiation changing from a yellow to green/brown colour. The absorption spectra of Gafchromic XRCT radiochromic film as measured with reflectance spectrophotometry have been investigated to analyse the dosimetry characteristics of the film. Results show two main absorption peaks produced from irradiation located at 636 nm and 585 nm. This is similar to EBT Gafchromic film. A high level of sensitivity is found for this film with a 1 cGy applied dose producing an approximate net optical density change of 0.3 at 636 nm. This high sensitivity combined with its relatively energy independent nature around the 100 kVp to 150 kVp x-ray energy range provides a unique enhancement in dosimetric measurement capabilities over currently available dosimetry films for CT applications.

  20. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around {sup 192}Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B.

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate {sup 192}Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate ({approx}0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a {sup 192}Ir wire source.

  1. Radiation chemistry of anionic disazo dyes in Cellophane films applications for high-dose dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William L.

    2003-06-01

    Thin transparent Cellophane films containing anionic disazo "Direct" dyes, e.g. blue Cellophanes, have long been used as monitors of large absorbed doses of ionizing radiation (10-300 kGy) and especially for mapping electron-beam dose profiles. Examples of dyes for such purposes are variations on forms of the disazo dyes, Direct Orange, Direct Violet or Direct Blue. The films have a thickness of 25.6 μm (+0.1 μm) and are available in rolls of either 30 m×0.51 m or 60 m×0.76 m. Such dyed Cellophanes are typically lightfast but can readily be bleached irreversibly by ionizing radiation, as a means of dosimetry using spectrophotometry as the analytical tool. The radiation response is markedly dependent on temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The reaction is initiated mainly by dehydrogenation and nitrosation upon electrophilic reductive attack on the dye molecule by the thermal electrons, at initial reaction rate constants in the range 10 5-10 6 s -1.

  2. Commissioning a small-field biological irradiator using point, 2D, and 3D dosimetry techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Joseph; Oldham, Mark; Thomas, Andrew; Li Yifan; Adamovics, John; Kirsch, David G.; Das, Shiva

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To commission a small-field biological irradiator, the XRad225Cx from Precision x-Ray, Inc., for research use. The system produces a 225 kVp x-ray beam and is equipped with collimating cones that produce both square and circular radiation fields ranging in size from 1 to 40 mm. This work incorporates point, 2D, and 3D measurements to determine output factors (OF), percent-depth-dose (PDD) and dose profiles at multiple depths. Methods: Three independent dosimetry systems were used: ion-chambers (a farmer chamber and a micro-ionisation chamber), 2D EBT2 radiochromic film, and a novel 3D dosimetry system (DLOS/PRESAGE registered ). Reference point dose rates and output factors were determined from in-air ionization chamber measurements for fields down to {approx}13 mm using the formalism of TG61. PDD, profiles, and output factors at three separate depths (0, 0.5, and 2 cm), were determined for all field sizes from EBT2 film measurements in solid water. Several film PDD curves required a scaling correction, reflecting the challenge of accurate film alignment in very small fields. PDDs, profiles, and output factors were also determined with the 3D DLOS/PRESAGE registered system which generated isotropic 0.2 mm data, in scan times of 20 min. Results: Surface output factors determined by ion-chamber were observed to gradually drop by {approx}9% when the field size was reduced from 40 to 13 mm. More dramatic drops were observed for the smallest fields as determined by EBT{approx}18% and {approx}42% for the 2.5 mm and 1 mm fields, respectively. PRESAGE registered and film output factors agreed well for fields <20 mm (where 3D data were available) with mean deviation of 2.2% (range 1%-4%). PDD values at 2 cm depth varied from {approx}72% for the 40 mm field, down to {approx}55% for the 1 mm field. EBT and PRESAGE registered PDDs agreed within {approx}3% in the typical therapy region (1-4 cm). At deeper depths the EBT curves were slightly steeper (2.5% at 5 cm

  3. Film dosimetry analyses on the effect of gold shielding for Iodine-125 eye plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A. ); Krasin, F. )

    1990-09-01

    One of the methods currently being used to treat choroidal melanoma employs an episcleral plaque containing I-125 radioactive seeds. However, comprehensive dosimetry studies on the plaque are scarce and controversial. For this work, we use film to study the dosimetry outside the lip of the gold shield of the eye plaque. This lip around the gold shield was made to protect the critical structures behind and adjacent to the lesion. Since the changes of energy spectrum of I-125 in tissue are negligible, film dosimetry seems to be a logical choice because of high spatial resolution required around the lip of the gold plaque. For this study, we first established an H and D curve with dose expressed in a unit of specific dose rate constant. This avoids absolute dose measurements. All film density measurements are made with a 1-mm aperture scan, normalized to the density at the prescription point for tumor of 3--5-mm apical height, i.e., 5 mm from the interior surface of sclera, and converted to percentage isodose curves. With a gold shield, it is found that when the plaque is placed against the optical nerve, the optical disk and macula, located at 2 mm outside the lip, on the exterior surface of sclera, may receive 85% of the prescription dose for a 12-mm plaque and 58% for a 16-mm plaque. For tumors of 8-mm apical height, the optical nerve would receive more than the prescription dose.

  4. Low-cost flexible thin-film detector for medical dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Zygmanski, P; Abkai, C; Han, Z; Shulevich, Y; Menichelli, D; Hesser, J

    2014-01-01

    detector sensors in a Solid Water phantom under various irradiation conditions. Different factors are considered in characterization of the device attributes: energies (80 kVp, 130 kVp, 6 MV, 15 MV), dose rates (different ms × mA, 100-600 MU/min), total doses (0.1 cGy-500 cGy), depths (0.5 cm-20 cm), irradiation angles with respect to the detector surface (0°-180°), and IMRT tests (closed MLC, sweeping gap). The detector response to MV radiation is both linear with total dose (~1-400 cGy) and independent of dose rate (100-600 Mu/min). The sensitivity per unit area of thin-film sensors is lower than for aSi flat-panel detectors, but sufficient to acquire stable and accurate signals during irradiations. The proposed thin-film photodiode system has properties which make it promising for clinical dosimetry. Due to the mechanical flexibility of each sensor and readout electronics, low-cost, and wireless data acquisition, it could be considered for quality assurance (e.g., IMRT, mechanical linac QA), as well as real-time dose monitoring in challenging setup configurations, including large area and 3D detection (multiple planes or curved surfaces). PMID:24710432

  5. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  6. The use of film dosimetry of the penumbra region to improve the accuracy of intensity modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, Mark R.; Otto, Karl; Aroumougame, Vijayan R.; Alkins, Ryan D.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the penumbra region are important for the proper modeling of the radiation beam for linear accelerator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy. The usual data collection technique with a standard ionization chamber artificially broadens the measured beam penumbrae due to volume effects. The larger the chamber, the greater is the spurious increase in penumbra width. This leads to inaccuracies in dose calculations of small fields, including small fields or beam segments used in IMRT. This source of error can be rectified by the use of film dosimetry for penumbra measurements because of its high spatial resolution. The accuracy of IMRT calculations with a pencil beam convolution model in a commercial treatment planning system was examined using commissioning data with and without the benefit of film dosimetry of the beam penumbrae. A set of dose-spread kernels of the pencil beam model was calculated based on commissioning data that included beam profiles gathered with a 0.6-cm-i.d. ionization chamber. A second set of dose-spread kernels was calculated using the same commissioning data with the exception of the penumbrae, which were measured with radiographic film. The average decrease in the measured width of the 80%-20% penumbrae of various square fields of size 3-40 cm, at 5 cm depth in water-equivalent plastic was 0.27 cm. Calculations using the pencil beam model after it was re-commissioned using film dosimetry of the penumbrae gave better agreement with measurements of IMRT fields, including superior reproduction of high dose gradient regions and dose extrema. These results show that accurately measuring the beam penumbrae improves the accuracy of the dose distributions predicted by the treatment planning system and thus is important when commissioning beam models used for IMRT.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF A PLASMA MODE IN EBTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.

    2000-11-06

    A plasma related mode has been identified when EBTS operated with long trap length. The mode frequency scaling showed monotonic increased with confinement time. Initial scaling qualitatively suggested the mode to an electron beam driven ion cyclotron instability. However, a more quantitative evaluation is indicative of a drift mode. Nevertheless, the possibility of a structure mode, though unlikely, can not be completely excluded. The process of proper instability identification and stabilization is described.

  8. EBT-P proposed reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Boch, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the proposed reference design for the EBT-P proof-of-principle test device. The device described is a result of broad studies by many participating organizations from industry and from Department of Energy-sponsored fusion research groups, some working together and some in competitive studies, but all with the goal of defining a device at minimum cost and with maximum probability of meeting its goals. This design work is based upon advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of EBT achieved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The strategy adopted permits an initial test and validation of the key scaling properties of the ELMO Bumpy Torus concept, with a degree of built-in flexibility to extend the performance parameters toward the condition for containing a fusion reactor plasma. This will lead the way, then, to determination of a later power break-even demonstration and an eventual fusion reactor that can exploit the special high power-density and steady-state properties of the EBT concept.

  9. An application of GafChromic MD-55 film for 67.5 MeV clinical proton beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Daftari, I; Castenadas, C; Petti, P L; Singh, R P; Verhey, L J

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the use of GafChromic MD-55 (RC) film for 67.5 MeV clinical proton beam dosimetry at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, University of California, Davis. Several strips of RC film 6 cm x 6 cm in dimension were irradiated at a depth of 18.2 mm corresponding to the middle of a 24 mm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The films were irradiated to a proton dose in the range of 0.5 Gy to 100 Gy. The beam profiles were also measured at the middle of the 24 mm SOBP. The Bragg peak was measured by using a wedge shaped phantom made of Lucite. The Bragg peak measured with RC film was compared with diode and ionization chamber measurements. After background subtraction, the calibration of the dose response of RC film showed, to a maximum deviation of 10%, a linear increase of optical density (OD) with dose from 0.5 to 100 Gy. The uniformity of OD over a single sheet of film showed a variation of +/-6%. The distal-fall off between 90% and 20% measured with GafChromic film for the Bragg peak was 1.3 mm as compared to 1.1 mm for a diode measurement and 1.4 mm for an ionization chamber measurement. The FWHM of the Bragg peak was 7.5 mm when measured with GafChromic film, 5.3 mm when measured with a diode and 8.1 mm as measured by an ionization chamber. The peak/plateau ratio with GafChromic film was 3.3 as compared to 3.7 with a diode and 3.2 with an ionization chamber. In conclusion, GafChromic MD-55 film may be a useful and convenient detector for dose measurement and quality assurance programmes of proton beams. PMID:10588281

  10. Commissioning a small-field biological irradiator using point, 2D, and 3D dosimetry techniques

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Joseph; Oldham, Mark; Thomas, Andrew; Li, Yifan; Adamovics, John; Kirsch, David G.; Das, Shiva

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To commission a small-field biological irradiator, the XRad225Cx from Precision x-Ray, Inc., for research use. The system produces a 225 kVp x-ray beam and is equipped with collimating cones that produce both square and circular radiation fields ranging in size from 1 to 40 mm. This work incorporates point, 2D, and 3D measurements to determine output factors (OF), percent-depth-dose (PDD) and dose profiles at multiple depths. Methods: Three independent dosimetry systems were used: ion-chambers (a farmer chamber and a micro-ionisation chamber), 2D EBT2 radiochromic film, and a novel 3D dosimetry system (DLOS/PRESAGE®). Reference point dose rates and output factors were determined from in-air ionization chamber measurements for fields down to ∼13 mm using the formalism of TG61. PDD, profiles, and output factors at three separate depths (0, 0.5, and 2 cm), were determined for all field sizes from EBT2 film measurements in solid water. Several film PDD curves required a scaling correction, reflecting the challenge of accurate film alignment in very small fields. PDDs, profiles, and output factors were also determined with the 3D DLOS/PRESAGE® system which generated isotropic 0.2 mm data, in scan times of 20 min. Results: Surface output factors determined by ion-chamber were observed to gradually drop by ∼9% when the field size was reduced from 40 to 13 mm. More dramatic drops were observed for the smallest fields as determined by EBT∼18% and ∼42% for the 2.5 mm and 1 mm fields, respectively. PRESAGE® and film output factors agreed well for fields <20 mm (where 3D data were available) with mean deviation of 2.2% (range 1%–4%). PDD values at 2 cm depth varied from ∼72% for the 40 mm field, down to ∼55% for the 1 mm field. EBT and PRESAGE® PDDs agreed within ∼3% in the typical therapy region (1–4 cm). At deeper depths the EBT curves were slightly steeper (2.5% at 5 cm). These results indicate good overall consistency between ion-chamber, EBT

  11. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83–90% (93–97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm2. As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  12. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  13. Dosimetric verification of stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dose distributions using Gafchromic EBT3

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, Davide; Fumagalli, Maria L.; Marchetti, Marcello; Fariselli, Laura; De Martin, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the new Gafchromic EBT3 film in a high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy quality assurance procedure. Owing to the reduced dimensions of the involved lesions, the feasibility of scanning plan verification films on the scanner plate area with the best uniformity rather than using a correction mask was evaluated. For this purpose, signal values dispersion and reproducibility of film scans were investigated. Uniformity was then quantified in the selected area and was found to be within 1.5% for doses up to 8 Gy. A high-dose threshold level for analyses using this procedure was established evaluating the sensitivity of the irradiated films. Sensitivity was found to be of the order of centiGray for doses up to 6.2 Gy and decreasing for higher doses. The obtained results were used to implement a procedure comparing dose distributions delivered with a CyberKnife system to planned ones. The procedure was validated through single beam irradiation on a Gafchromic film. The agreement between dose distributions was then evaluated for 13 patients (brain lesions, 5 Gy/die prescription isodose ~80%) using gamma analysis. Results obtained using Gamma test criteria of 5%/1 mm show a pass rate of 94.3%. Gamma frequency parameters calculation for EBT3 films showed to strongly depend on subtraction of unexposed film pixel values from irradiated ones. In the framework of the described dosimetric procedure, EBT3 films proved to be effective in the verification of high doses delivered to lesions with complex shapes and adjacent to organs at risk.

  14. Evaluation of superficial dosimetry between treatment planning system and measurement for several breast cancer treatment techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; Das, Indra J.; Bartlett, Gregory K.; Zhang Hualin; Thompson, Elizabeth; Zook, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric accuracy in radiation treatment of breast cancer is critical for the evaluation of cosmetic outcomes and survival. It is often considered that treatment planning systems (TPS) may not be able to provide accurate dosimetry in the buildup region. This was investigated in various treatment techniques such as tangential wedges, field-in-field (FF), electronic compensator (eComp), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Under Institutional Review Board (IRB) exemption, radiotherapy treatment plans of 111 cases were retrospectively analyzed. The distance between skin surface and 95% isodose line was measured. For measurements, Gafchromic EBT2 films were used on a humanoid unsliced phantom. Multiple layers of variable thickness of superflab bolus were placed on the breast phantom and CT scanned for planning. Treatment plans were generated using four techniques with two different grid sizes (1 Multiplication-Sign 1 and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 2.5 mm{sup 2}) to provide optimum dose distribution. Films were placed at different depths and exposed with the selected techniques. A calibration curve for dose versus pixel values was also generated on the same day as the phantom measurement was conducted. The DICOM RT image, dose, and plan data were imported to the in-house software. On axial plane of CT slices, curves were drawn at the position where EBT2 films were placed, and the dose profiles on the lines were acquired. The calculated and measured dose profiles were separated by check points which were marked on the films before irradiation. The segments of calculated profiles were stretched to match their resolutions to that of film dosimetry. Results: On review of treatment plans, the distance between skin and 95% prescribed dose was up to 8 mm for plans of 27 patients. The film measurement revealed that the medial region of phantom surface received a mere 45%-50% of prescribed dose. For wedges, FF, and eComp techniques, region around the

  15. Optical computed tomography of radiochromic gels for accurate three-dimensional dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Steven

    In this thesis, three-dimensional (3-D) radiochromic Ferrous Xylenol-orange (FX) and Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelles gels were imaged by laser and cone-beam (Vista(TM)) optical computed tomography (CT) scanners. The objective was to develop optical CT of radiochromic gels for accurate 3-D dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and small field techniques used in modern radiotherapy. First, the cause of a threshold dose response in FX gel dosimeters when scanned with a yellow light source was determined. This effect stems from a spectral sensitivity to multiple chemical complexes that are at different dose levels between ferric ions and xylenol-orange. To negate the threshold dose, an initial concentration of ferric ions is needed in order to shift the chemical equilibrium so that additional dose results in a linear production of a coloured complex that preferentially absorbs at longer wavelengths. Second, a low diffusion leuco-based radiochromic gel consisting of Triton X-100 micelles was developed. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV micelle gel was found to be minimal (0.036 + 0.001 mm2 hr-1 ). Although a dosimetric characterization revealed a reduced sensitivity to radiation, this was offset by a lower auto-oxidation rate and base optical density, higher melting point and no spectral sensitivity. Third, the Radiological Physics Centre (RPC) head-and-neck IMRT protocol was extended to 3-D dose verification using laser and cone-beam (Vista(TM)) optical CT scans of FX gels. Both optical systems yielded comparable measured dose distributions in high-dose regions and low gradients. The FX gel dosimetry results were crossed checked against independent thermoluminescent dosimeter and GAFChromicRTM EBT film measurements made by the RPC. It was shown that optical CT scanned FX gels can be used for accurate IMRT dose verification in 3-D. Finally, corrections for FX gel diffusion and scattered stray light in the Vista(TM) scanner were developed to

  16. Detailed modeling of microwave energy deposition in EBT devices

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Goldfinger, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    Ray-tracing studies have been combined with a simple wave power balance model to provide a complete, albeit approximate, description of microwave power deposition in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT-I), EBT-Scale (EBT-S), and EBT Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) devices. Electron cyclotron absorption of ordinary and extraordinary waves by the combined core plasma and relativistic annuli is calculated using a fully relativistic damping package developed for the RAYS geometrical optics code. The rays are traced in finite-beta bumpy cylinder plasma equilibria that are obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium code. These results for direct, single-pass absorption are combined with results from a statistical model for the deposition of multiply reflected and mode-converted waves to obtain estimates of the power deposited in the core, surface, and annulus plasma components. Wave absorption by the annuli and by the core components at the fundamental and second harmonic resonances, reflection and Budden tunneling of the extraordinary mode at the right-hand cutoff, and conversion between ordinary and extraordinary modes upon wall reflection are the processes included in the power balance model. Experimental measurements of wave power flux on the cavity wall in EBT-S made with a simple microwave calorimeter are in good agreement with predictions of the model for a variety of operating configurations.

  17. Testing and linearity calibration of films of phenol compounds exposed to thermal neutron field for EPR dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Gallo, S; Panzeca, S; Longo, A; Altieri, S; Bentivoglio, A; Dondi, D; Marconi, R P; Protti, N; Zeffiro, A; Marrale, M

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results obtained by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements on films of IRGANOX® 1076 phenols with and without low content (5% by weight) of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) exposed in the thermal column of the Triga Mark II reactor of LENA (Laboratorio Energia Nucleare Applicata) of Pavia (Italy). Thanks to their size, the phenolic films here presented are good devices for the dosimetry of beams with high dose gradient and which require accurate knowledge of the precise dose delivered. The dependence of EPR signal as function of neutron dose was investigated in the fluence range between 10(11) cm(-2) and 10(14) cm(-2). Linearity of EPR response was found and the signal was compared with that of commercial alanine films. Our analysis showed that gadolinium oxide (5% by weight) can enhance the thermal neutron sensitivity more than 18 times. Irradiated dosimetric films of phenolic compound exhibited EPR signal fading of about 4% after 10 days from irradiation. PMID:26242561

  18. SU-E-T-497: Semi-Automated in Vivo Radiochromic Film Dosimetry Using a Novel Image Processing Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Reyhan, M; Yue, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To validate an automated image processing algorithm designed to detect the center of radiochromic film used for in vivo film dosimetry against the current gold standard of manual selection. Methods: An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically select the region of interest (ROI) in *.tiff images that contain multiple pieces of radiochromic film (0.5x1.3cm{sup 2}). After a user has linked a calibration file to the processing algorithm and selected a *.tiff file for processing, an ROI is automatically detected for all films by a combination of thresholding and erosion, which removes edges and any additional markings for orientation. Calibration is applied to the mean pixel values from the ROIs and a *.tiff image is output displaying the original image with an overlay of the ROIs and the measured doses. Validation of the algorithm was determined by comparing in vivo dose determined using the current gold standard (manually drawn ROIs) versus automated ROIs for n=420 scanned films. Bland-Altman analysis, paired t-test, and linear regression were performed to demonstrate agreement between the processes. Results: The measured doses ranged from 0.2-886.6cGy. Bland-Altman analysis of the two techniques (automatic minus manual) revealed a bias of -0.28cGy and a 95% confidence interval of (5.5cGy,-6.1cGy). These values demonstrate excellent agreement between the two techniques. Paired t-test results showed no statistical differences between the two techniques, p=0.98. Linear regression with a forced zero intercept demonstrated that Automatic=0.997*Manual, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.999. The minimal differences between the two techniques may be explained by the fact that the hand drawn ROIs were not identical to the automatically selected ones. The average processing time was 6.7seconds in Matlab on an IntelCore2Duo processor. Conclusion: An automated image processing algorithm has been developed and validated, which will help

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) for film dosimetry in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schembri, V.; Heijmen, B. J. M.

    2007-06-15

    Introduction and Purpose: Conventional x-ray films and radiochromic films have inherent challenges for high precision radiotherapy dosimetry. Here we have investigated basic characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of irradiated films containing carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) for dosimetry in therapeutic photon and electron beams. Materials and Methods: The OSL films consist of a polystyrene sheet, with a top layer of a mixture of single crystals of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, ground into a powder, and a polyester base. The total thickness of the films is 0.3 mm. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 4, 6, 10, and 18 MV photon beams, and 6-22 MeV electron beams. The studies include assessment of the film response (acquired OSL signal/delivered dose) on delivered dose (linearity), dose rate (1-6 Gy/min), beam quality, field size and depth (6 MV, ranges 4x4-30x30 cm{sup 2}, d{sub max}-35 cm). Doses have been derived from ionization chamber measurements. OSL films have also been compared with conventional x-ray and GafChromic films for dosimetry outside the high dose area, with a high proportion of low dose scattered photons. In total, 787 OSL films have been irradiated. Results: Overall, the OSL response for electron beams was 3.6% lower than for photon beams. Differences between the various electron beam energies were not significant. The 6 and 18 MV photon beams differed in response by 4%. No response dependencies on dose rate were observed. For the 6 MV beam, the field size and depth dependencies of the OSL response were within {+-}2.5%. The observed inter-film response variation for films irradiated with the same dose varied from 1% to 3.2% (1 SD), depending on the measurement day. At a depth of 20 cm, 5 cm outside the 20x20 cm{sup 2} 6 and 18 MV beams, an over response of 17% was observed. In contrast to GafChromic and conventional x-ray films, the response of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C films is linear

  20. Three-dimensional dosimetry of small megavoltage radiation fields using radiochromic gels and optical CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Steven; McNiven, Andrea; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-04-01

    The dosimetry of small fields as used in stereotactic radiotherapy, radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be challenging and inaccurate due to partial volume averaging effects and possible disruption of charged particle equilibrium. Consequently, there exists a need for an integrating, tissue equivalent dosimeter with high spatial resolution to avoid perturbing the radiation beam and artificially broadening the measured beam penumbra. In this work, radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gels were used to measure relative dose factors (RDFs), percent depth dose profiles and relative lateral beam profiles of 6 MV x-ray pencil beams of diameter 28.1, 9.8 and 4.9 mm. The pencil beams were produced via stereotactic collimators mounted on a Varian 2100 EX linear accelerator. The gels were read using optical computed tomography (CT). Data sets were compared quantitatively with dosimetric measurements made with radiographic (Kodak EDR2) and radiochromic (GAFChromic® EBT) film, respectively. Using a fast cone-beam optical CT scanner (Vista™), corrections for diffusion in the FX gel data yielded RDFs that were comparable to those obtained by minimally diffusing LCV gels. Considering EBT film-measured RDF data as reference, cone-beam CT-scanned LCV gel data, corrected for scattered stray light, were found to be in agreement within 0.5% and -0.6% for the 9.8 and 4.9 mm diameter fields, respectively. The validity of the scattered stray light correction was confirmed by general agreement with RDF data obtained from the same LCV gel read out with a laser CT scanner that is less prone to the acceptance of scattered stray light. Percent depth dose profiles and lateral beam profiles were found to agree within experimental error for the FX gel (corrected for diffusion), LCV gel (corrected for scattered stray light), and EBT and EDR2 films. The results from this study reveal that a three-dimensional dosimetry method

  1. Implementation of radiochromic film dosimetry protocol for volumetric dose assessments to various organs during diagnostic CT procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Samuel; Yoshizumi, Terry; Toncheva, Greta; Frush, Donald; and others

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors present a means to measure high-resolution, two-dimensional organ dose distributions in an anthropomorphic phantom of heterogeneous tissue composition using XRQA radiochromic film. Dose distributions are presented for the lungs, liver, and kidneys to demonstrate the organ volume dosimetry technique. XRQA film response accuracy was validated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Methods: XRQA film and TLDs were first exposed at the center of two CTDI head phantoms placed end-to-end, allowing for a simple cylindrical phantom of uniform scatter material for verification of film response accuracy and sensitivity in a computed tomography (CT) exposure geometry; the TLD and film dosimeters were exposed separately. In a similar manner, TLDs and films were placed between cross-sectional slabs of a 5 yr old anthropomorphic phantom's thorax and abdomen regions. The anthropomorphic phantom was used to emulate real pediatric patient geometry and scatter conditions. The phantom consisted of five different tissue types manufactured to attenuate the x-ray beam within 1%-3% of normal tissues at CT beam energies. Software was written to individually calibrate TLD and film dosimeter responses for different tissue attenuation factors, to spatially register dosimeters, and to extract dose responses from film for TLD comparison. TLDs were compared to film regions of interest extracted at spatial locations corresponding to the TLD locations. Results: For the CTDI phantom exposure, the film and TLDs measured an average difference in dose response of 45%(SD{+-}2%). Similar comparisons within the anthropomorphic phantom also indicated a consistent difference, tracking along the low and high dose regions, for the lung (28%) (SD{+-}8%) and liver and kidneys (15%) (SD{+-}4%). The difference between the measured film and TLD dose values was due to the lower response sensitivity of the film that arose when the film was oriented with its large surface area parallel to

  2. SU-E-T-445: Lateral Optical Density Variation in Flatbed Scanners in Combination with Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Battum, LJ van; Heukelom, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose This study investigates the origin of lateral optical density (OD) variation for Gafchromic film (EBT and EBT2) scanned in transmission mode with Epson flatbed scanners (1680 Expression Pro and 10000XL). Effects investigated are: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Methods Cross talk has been examined with triangular shaped light-transmission sheets with OD ranging from 0 to opaque. Optical path length has been studied with absorptive and reflective OD-filters (OD range 0.2 to 2.0). Dependency on light-polarization on the scanner read out has been investigated using linear polarizer sheets. All experiments have been performed at centre scanner position (norm point) and at several lateral scan positions, without and with (un)irradiated EBT-film. Dose values used ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, yielding an OD-range between 0.25 to 1.1. Results The lateral OD variation is dose dependent and increases up to 14% at most lateral position for dose up to 9 Gy. Cross talk effect contributes to 0.5% in clinical used OD ranges but equals 2% for extreme high dose gradients. Film induced optical path length will effect the lateral OD variation up to 3% at most lateral points. Light polarization is inherent present in these scanners due to multiple reflection on mirrors. In addition film induced polarization is the most important effect generating the observed lateral OD variation. Both Gafchromic film base and sensitive layer have polarizing capabilities; for the sensitive layer its influence is dose dependent. Conclusions Lateral OD variation origins from optical physics (i.e. polarization and reflection) related to scanner and film construction. Cross talk can be ignored in film dosimetry for clinical used dose values and gradients. Therefore it is recommended to determine the lateral OD variation per film type and scanner.

  3. SU-E-T-435: Development and Commissioning of a Complete System for In-Vivo Dosimetry and Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, D; Testa, M; Park, Y; Schneider, R; Moteabbed, M; Janssens, G; Prieels, D; Orban de Xivry, J; Lu, H; Bentefour, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In-vivo dose and beam range verification in proton therapy could play significant roles in proton treatment validation and improvements. Invivo beam range verification, in particular, could enable new treatment techniques one of which, for example, could be the use of anterior fields for prostate treatment instead of opposed lateral fields as in current practice. We have developed and commissioned an integrated system with hardware, software and workflow protocols, to provide a complete solution, simultaneously for both in-vivo dosimetry and range verification for proton therapy. Methods: The system uses a matrix of diodes, up to 12 in total, but separable into three groups for flexibility in application. A special amplifier was developed to capture extremely small signals from very low proton beam current. The software was developed within iMagX, a general platform for image processing in radiation therapy applications. The range determination exploits the inherent relationship between the internal range modulation clock of the proton therapy system and the radiological depth at the point of measurement. The commissioning of the system, for in-vivo dosimetry and for range verification was separately conducted using anthropomorphic phantom. EBT films and TLDs were used for dose comparisons and range scan of the beam distal fall-off was used as ground truth for range verification. Results: For in-vivo dose measurement, the results were in agreement with TLD and EBT films and were within 3% from treatment planning calculations. For range verification, a precision of 0.5mm is achieved in homogeneous phantoms, and a precision of 2mm for anthropomorphic pelvic phantom, except at points with significant range mixing. Conclusion: We completed the commissioning of our system for in-vivo dosimetry and range verification in proton therapy. The results suggest that the system is ready for clinical trials on patient.

  4. In vivo dosimetry with optically stimulated dosimeters and RTQA2 radiochromic film for intraoperative radiotherapy of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Caleb; Pederson, Aaron; Frazier, Chanté; Duttenhaver, John

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Measurements were taken with optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) and with RTQA2 radiochromic film to evaluate the use of each for in vivo dosimetry with intraoperative radiotherapy of the breast.Methods: Nonlinear calibration curves were established for OSLDs and RTQA2 radiochromic film using the Intrabeam 50 kV{sub p} source. Measurements were taken in a water phantom and compared to absolute dose measurements taken with an ionization chamber to investigate the characteristics of both types of dosimeters, including energy response and radiative absorption. In vivo readings were taken on the skin and in the tumor cavity using OSLDs and RTQA2 radiochromic film for 10 patients and 20 patients respectively. A prescription of 20 Gy to the surface of the applicator was used for all in vivo measurements in this study.Results: OSLDs were found to have an approximate uncertainty of ±7% for readings near the surface of the applicator and ±17% for readings at distances typical to the skin. The radiative absorption by OSLD was negative, indicating that this type of dosimeter absorbs less radiation than water in the targeted intraoperative radiotherapy energy range. RTQA2 film exhibited no energy dependence and all film readings were within ±8% of the delivered dose. The maximum radiative absorption in film was 8.5%. Radiochromic film measurements were found to be on average 18.2 ± 3.3 Gy for the tumor cavity and 2.1 ± 0.8 Gy for positions on the skin superior and inferior to the Intrabeam applicator. Average cavity measurements taken with OSLDs were 15.9 ± 3.9 Gy and average skin doses were 1.4 ± 0.8 Gy.Conclusions: OSLDs produce results with an uncertainty comparable to other dosimeters near the surface of the applicator but the uncertainty increases to an unacceptably high level with distance from the applicator. RTQA2 radiochromic film is shown to be accurate both at the surface of the applicator and at distances of 1–2 cm.

  5. A comparison of HDR near source dosimetry using a treatment planning system, Monte Carlo simulation, and radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Amoush, Ahmad; Luckstead, Marcus; Lamba, Michael; Elson, Howard; Kassing, William

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy, including near source dosimetry, of a catheter-based applicator from 0.5 mm to 1 cm along the transverse axis. Radiochromic film and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation were used to generate absolute dose for the catheter-based applicator. Results from radiochromic film and MC simulation were compared directly to the treatment planning system (TPS) based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Updated Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) dose calculation formalism. The difference between dose measured using radiochromic film along the transverse plane at 0.5 mm from the surface and the predicted dose by the TPS was 24%±13%. The dose difference between the MC simulation along the transverse plane at 0.5 mm from the surface and the predicted dose by the TPS was 22.1%±3%. For distances from 1.5 mm to 1 cm from the surface, radiochromic film and MC simulation agreed with TPS within an uncertainty of 3%. The TPS under-predicts the dose at the surface of the applicator, i.e., 0.5 mm from the catheter surface, as compared to the measured and MC simulation predicted dose. MC simulation results demonstrated that 15% of this error is due to neglecting the beta particles and discrete electrons emanating from the sources and not considered by the TPS, and 7% of the difference was due to the photon alone, potentially due to the differences in MC dose modeling, photon spectrum, scoring techniques, and effect of the presence of the catheter and the air gap. Beyond 1 mm from the surface, the TPS dose algorithm agrees with the experimental and MC data within 3%.

  6. Toward acquiring comprehensive radiosurgery field commissioning data using the PRESAGE®/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    PubMed Central

    Clift, Corey; Thomas, Andrew; Adamovics, John; Chang, Zheng; Das, Indra; Oldham, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Achieving accurate small field dosimetry is challenging. This study investigates the utility of a radiochromic plastic PRESAGE® read with optical-CT for the acquisition of radiosurgery field commissioning data from a Novalis Tx system with a high-definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC). Total scatter factors (Sc, p), beam profiles, and penumbrae were measured for five different radiosurgery fields (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm) using a commercially available optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS, MGS Research). The percent depth dose (PDD), beam profile and penumbra of the 10 mm field were also measured using a higher resolution in-house prototype CCD-based scanner. Gafchromic EBT® film was used for independent verification. Measurements of Sc, p made with PRESAGE® and film agreed with mini-ion chamber commissioning data to within 4% for every field (range 0.2–3.6% for PRESAGE®, and 1.6–3.6% for EBT). PDD, beam profile and penumbra measurements made with the two PRESAGE®/optical-CT systems and film showed good agreement with the high-resolution diode commissioning measurements with a competitive resolution (0.5 mm pixels). The in-house prototype optical-CT scanner allowed much finer resolution compared with previous applications of PRESAGE®. The advantages of the PRESAGE® system for small field dosimetry include 3D measurements, negligible volume averaging, directional insensitivity, an absence of beam perturbations, energy and dose rate independence. PMID:20134082

  7. Evaluation of spatial resolution in image acquisition by optical flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asero, G.; Greco, C.; Gueli, A. M.; Raffaele, L.; Spampinato, S.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Radiochromic films are two-dimensional dosimeters that do not require developing and give values of absorbed dose with accuracy and precision. Since this dosimeter colours directly after irradiation, it can be digitized with commercial optical flatbed scanners to obtain a calibration curve that links blackening of the film with dose. Although the film has an intrinsic high spatial resolution, the scanner determines the actual resolution of this dosimeter, in particular the "dot per inch" (dpi) parameter. The present study investigates the effective spatial resolution of a scanner used for Gafchromic® XR-QA2 film (designed for radiology Quality Assurance) analysis. Material and methods: The quantitative evaluation of the resolution was performed with the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) method, comparing the nominal resolution with the experimental one. The analysis was performed with two procedures. First, the 1951 USAF resolution test chart, a tool that tests the performance of optical devices, was used. Secondly, a combined system of mammography X-ray tube, XR-QA2 film and a bar pattern object was used. In both cases the MTF method has been applied and the results were compared. Results: The USAF and the film images have been acquired with increasing dpi and a standard protocol for radiochromic analysis, to evaluate horizontal and vertical and resolution. The effective resolution corresponds to the value of the MTF at 50%. In both cases and for both procedures, it was verified that, starting from a dpi value, the effective resolution saturates. Conclusion: The study found that, for dosimetric applications, the dpi of the scanner have to be adjusted to a reasonable value because, if too high, it requires high scanning and computational time without providing additional information.

  8. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Antony L.; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J.; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A novel phantom is presented for ‘full system’ dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit.

  9. Investigation into the feasibility of using PRESAGE™/optical-CT dosimetry for the verification of gating treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Brown, William E.; Clift, Corey G.; Yoo, Sua; Oldham, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This work presents an investigation into the use of PRESAGE™ dosimeters with an optical-CT scanner as a 3D dosimetry system for quantitative verification of respiratory-gated treatments. The CIRS dynamic thorax phantom was modified to incorporate a moving PRESAGE™ dosimeter-simulating respiration motion in the lungs. A simple AP/PA lung treatment plan was delivered three times to the phantom containing a different but geometrically identical PRESAGE™ insert each time. Each delivery represented a treatment scenario: static, motion (free-breathing) and gated. The dose distributions, in the three dosimeters, were digitized by the optical-CT scanner. Improved optical-CT readout yielded an increased signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 3 and decreased reconstruction artifacts compared with prior work. Independent measurements of dose distributions were obtained in the central plane using EBT film. Dose distributions were normalized to a point corresponding to the 100% isodose region prior to the measurement of dose profiles and gamma maps. These measurements were used to quantify the agreement between measured and ECLIPSE® dose distributions. Average gamma pass rates between PRESAGE™ and EBT were >99% (criteria 3% dose difference and 1.2 mm distance-to-agreement) for all three treatments. Gamma pass rates between PRESAGE™ and ECLIPSE® 3D dose distributions showed excellent agreement for the gated treatment (100% pass rate), but poor for the motion scenario (85% pass rate). This work demonstrates the feasibility of using PRESAGE™/optical-CT 3D dosimetry to verify gating-enabled radiation treatments. The capability of the Varian gating system to compensate for motion in this treatment scenario was demonstrated.

  10. Dosimetry and cost of imaging osseointegrated implants with film-based and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Scaf, G; Lurie, A G; Mosier, K M; Kantor, M L; Ramsby, G R; Freedman, M L

    1997-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure radiation doses at craniofacial sites in a tissue-equivalent phantom during film-based multidirectional tomography with the Tomax Ultrascan (Incubation Industries, Ivyland, Pa.) and during computed tomography with the Elscint Excel 2400 (Elscint Corp., Tel Aviv, Israel). Mean absorbed doses for presurgical mandibular and maxillary canine and molar implant assessments were converted to equivalent doses, which were then multiplied by published weighting factors and summed to give effective doses. The computed tomography device consistently delivered higher doses than the Tomax Ultrascan to all anatomic locations; the differences were most pronounced when only one or two implant sites were evaluated. The reasons for the dose disparities are considered both anatomically and procedurally. A survey of examination cost revealed film-based multidirectional tomography to be less expensive than computed tomography. PMID:9007922

  11. Dose-Dependent Z-Scan Measurements on GAFCHROMIC® Dosimetry Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouklidis, A.; Karava, K.; Kalef-Ezra, J.; Cohen, S.

    2010-11-01

    The open- and closed-aperture z-scan techniques are applied for investigating the non-linear optical response of GAFCHROMIC® docimetry films, irradiated by 60Co γ-rays. Upon irradiation the films active diacetylene layers undergo radiation-Dose-dependent polymerization to the so-called blue polydiacetylene form. A cw He/Ne laser is used as the light source. Open-aperture z-scan measurements reveal reverse saturable absorption while Dose-dependent thermal effects become apparent with increasing laser intensity. Those effects are tentatively attributed to the transition from the blue form to the conformer red form of the active layer (thermochromic transition) which, for the highest available power, appears to be irreversible. For minimizing the importance of thermal effects the closed aperture z-scan technique is applied with a chopped laser beam. The z-scan curves recorded under those conditions reveal a sensitivity on absorbed Dose which is comparable to that of the films linear absorbance.

  12. Characterization of calibration curves and energy dependence GafChromic{sup TM} XR-QA2 model based radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomic, Nada Quintero, Chrystian; Aldelaijan, Saad; Bekerat, Hamed; Liang, LiHeng; DeBlois, François; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R.; Seuntjens, Jan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated the energy response of XR-QA2 GafChromic{sup TM} film over a broad energy range used in diagnostic radiology examinations. The authors also made an assessment of the most suitable functions for both reference and relative dose measurements. Methods: Pieces of XR-QA2 film were irradiated to nine different values of air kerma in air, following reference calibration of a number of beam qualities ranging in HVLs from 0.16 to 8.25 mm Al, which corresponds to effective energy range from 12.7 keV to 56.3 keV. For each beam quality, the authors tested three functional forms (rational, linear exponential, and power) to assess the most suitable function by fitting the delivered air kerma in air as a function of film response in terms of reflectance change. The authors also introduced and tested a new parameterχ = netΔR·e{sup m} {sup netΔR} that linearizes the inherently nonlinear response of the film. Results: The authors have found that in the energy range investigated, the response of the XR-QA2 based radiochromic film dosimetry system ranges from 0.222 to 0.420 in terms of netΔR at K{sub air}{sup air} = 8 cGy. For beam qualities commonly used in CT scanners (4.03–8.25 mm Al), the variation in film response (netΔR at K{sub air}{sup air} = 8 cGy) amounts to ± 5%, while variation in K{sub air}{sup air} amounts to ± 14%. Conclusions: Results of our investigation revealed that the use of XR-QA2 GafChromic{sup TM} film is accompanied by a rather pronounced energy dependent response for beam qualities used for x-ray based diagnostic imaging purposes. The authors also found that the most appropriate function for the reference radiochromic film dosimetry would be the power function, while for the relative dosimetry one may use the exponential response function that can be easily linearized.

  13. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1–2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  14. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1-2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  15. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Preliminary Results On a 2D Dosimetry System Based On the Optically Stimulated Luminescence of Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M; Eller, S; Yukihara, E; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; Akselrod, M; Hanson, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a precise 2D dose mapping technique based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for medical applications. Methods: A 2D laser scanning reader was developed using fast F{sup +}-center (lifetime of <7 ns) and slow F-center (lifetime of 35 ms) OSL emission from newly developed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films (Landauer Inc.). An algorithm was developed to correct images for both material and system properties. Since greater contribution of the F??-center emission in the recorded signal increases the readout efficiency and robustness of image corrections, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C,Mg film samples are being investigated in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C samples. Preliminary investigations include exposure of the films to a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in solid water phantom with an SSD of 100 cm, using a 10 cm × 10 cm flat field or a 4 cm × 4 cm field with a 60° wedge filter. Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and EBT2 Gafchromic film were also exposed for comparison. Results: The results indicate that the algorithm is able to correct images and calculate 2D dose. For the wedge field irradiation, the calculated dose at the center of the field was 0.9 Gy for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C and 0.87 Gy for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C,Mg, whereas, the delivered dose was 0.95 Gy. A good qualitative agreement of the dose profiles was obtained between the OSL films and EDR2 and EBT2 films. Laboratory tests using a beta source suggest that a large dynamic range (10{sup −2}−10{sup 2} Gy) can be achieved using this technique. Conclusion: A 2D dosimetry system and an in-house image correction algorithm were developed for 2D film dosimetry in medical applications. The system is in the preliminary stage of development, but the data demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. This work was supported by Landauer, Inc.

  17. Elevation (typical EBT Coal Hopper Car) with scale. 3 Bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation (typical EBT Coal Hopper Car) with scale. 3 Bay Steel Hopper Car with side extensions raising coal carrying capacity to 80,000 pounds. Note cars on either side lack extensions limiting their coal capacity to 70,000 pounds - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  18. Radiochromic film based transit dosimetry for verification of dose delivery with intensity modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo; Lee, Kiho; Shin, Dongho; Kyung Lim, Young; Byeong Lee, Se; Yoon, Myonggeun; Son, Jaeman; Yong Park, Sung

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the transit dose based patient specific quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for verification of the accuracy of dose delivered to the patient. Methods: Five IMRT plans were selected and utilized to irradiate a homogeneous plastic water phantom and an inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. The transit dose distribution was measured with radiochromic film and was compared with the computed dose map on the same plane using a gamma index with a 3% dose and a 3 mm distance-to-dose agreement tolerance limit. Results: While the average gamma index for comparisons of dose distributions was less than one for 98.9% of all pixels from the transit dose with the homogeneous phantom, the passing rate was reduced to 95.0% for the transit dose with the inhomogeneous phantom. Transit doses due to a 5 mm setup error may cause up to a 50% failure rate of the gamma index. Conclusions: Transit dose based IMRT QA may be superior to the traditional QA method since the former can show whether the inhomogeneity correction algorithm from TPS is accurate. In addition, transit dose based IMRT QA can be used to verify the accuracy of the dose delivered to the patient during treatment by revealing significant increases in the failure rate of the gamma index resulting from errors in patient positioning during treatment.

  19. SU-E-T-112: Dose Distribution of Praseodymium-142 Microspheres in Microcapillary Using Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and Applications in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Microsphere Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M; Rasmussen, K; Jung, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work verified simulations of beta-minus emitter Praseodymium-142 (Pr-142) for microsphere brachytherapy by performing absolute dose measurements for Pr 142 microspheres in a microcapillary as a simplified model for a single blood vessel for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Pr-142 microspheres (mass: 0.169g, average diameter: 29.7±3.9μm) were activated by thermal neutron activation at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Experimental setup consisted of a microsphere solution (initial activity 36.6mCi in 0.1ml of sterile water) within a glass microcapillary (internal and external diameter: 305μm and 453μm, respectively) placed for 51h in a custom made Gammex Solid Water™ phantom. GAFCHROMIC™ EBT2 film calibrated with a 6MeV electron beam was used to access the dose fall-off of microspheres. The microcapillary was modeled in MCNPX2.6 in order to compare with experiments. Results: The radial dose fall-off on the transverse plane due to scatter and attenuation in the solid water phantom was analyzed using ImageJ for both film and MCNPX2.6 simulations. Isodose analysis showed close agreement among the methods used, i.e. measurements and simulations agree within 3.9% for doses below 1600cGy. Experimental and simulated doses obtained at 0.5 cm radially from the source were 1547cGy and 1610cGy respectively. Discrepancies for points close to the microcapillary surface were observed between MCNPX2.6 and measurements due to film saturation for high doses. Dose due to Pr-142 3.7% gamma emission was below the threshold of detection for the film. Conclusion: A detailed dosimetric study was performed for Pr-142 glass microspheres within a single microcapillary. MCNPX2.6 simulations were verified by means of direct measurement. Based on these results, Pr-142 appears to be a viable choice of radionuclide for treating HCC.

  20. Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement for various detectors used in photon and electron beam dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khee Looe, Hui; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2011-07-01

    The subject of this study is the 'shift of the effective point of measurement', Δz, well known as a method of correction compensating for the 'displacement effect' in photon and electron beam dosimetry. Radiochromic EBT 1 films have been used to measure the 'true' TPR curves of 6 and 15 MV photons and 6 and 9 MeV electrons in the solid water-equivalent material RW3. For the Roos and Markus chambers, the cylindrical 'PinPoint', 'Semiflex' and 'Rigid-Stem' chambers, the 2D-Array and the E-type silicon diode (all from PTW-Freiburg), the positions of the effective points of measurement have been determined by direct or indirect comparison between their TPR curves and those of the EBT 1 film. Both for the Roos and Markus chambers, we found Δz = (0.4 ± 0.1) mm, which confirms earlier experimental and Monte Carlo results, but means a shortcoming of the 'water-equivalent window thickness' formula. For the cylindrical chambers, the ratio Δz/r was observed to increase with r, confirming a recent Monte Carlo prediction by Tessier (2010 E2-CN-182, Paper no 147, IDOS, Vienna) as well as the experimental observations by Johansson et al (1978 IAEA Symp. Proc. (Vienna) IAEA-SM-222/35 pp 243-70). According to a theoretical consideration, the shift of the effective point of measurement from the reference point of the detector is caused by a gradient of the fluence of the ionizing particles. As the experiments have shown, the value of Δz depends on the construction of the detector, but remains invariant under changes of radiation quality and depth. Other disturbances, which do not belong to the class of 'gradient effects', are not corrected by shifting the effective point of measurement.

  1. Failure analysis of PB-1 (EBTS Be/Cu mockup)

    SciTech Connect

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H.

    1996-11-01

    Failure analysis was done on PB-1 (series of Be tiles joined to Cu alloy) following a tile failure during a high heat flux experiment in EBTS (electron beam test system). This heat flux load simulated ambient conditions inside ITER; the Be tiles were bonded to the Cu alloy using low-temperature diffusion bonding, which is being considered for fabricating plasma facing components in ITER. Results showed differences between the EBTS failure and a failure during a room temperature tensile test. The latter occurred at the Cu-Be interface in an intermetallic phase formed by reaction of the two metals at the bonding temperature. Fracture strengths measured by these tests were over 300 MPa. The high heat flux specimens failed at the Cu-Cu diffusion bond. Fracture morphology in both cases was a mixed mode of dimple rupture and transgranular cleavage. Several explanations for this difference in failure mechanism are suggested.

  2. Particle confinement in EBT reactors with noncircular mirror coils

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.W.; Uckan, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving single particle confinement in the vacuum magnetic field of an ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor have heretofore focused on enhancement of the effective magnetic aspect ratio through the addition of relatively low current supplementary coils to the basic EBT configuration of toroidally linked circular mirror coils. This method of aspect ratio enhancement is reviewed and compared to the use of noncircular, D-shaped mirror coils. A critical parameter in this evaluation is the required radial thickness delta of the blanket-shield assembly in the coil throat. Results indicate that D-coils represent an attractive alternative to the supplementary coil configurations if future neutronics calculations show that delta

  3. A universal dose–response curve for radiochromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Martín-Viera Cueto, J. A. Parra Osorio, V.; Moreno Sáiz, C.; Navarro Guirado, F.; Casado Villalón, F. J.; Galán Montenegro, P.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a model for dose–response curves of radiochromic films. It is based on a modified version of single-hit model to take into account the growth experienced by lithium salt of pentacosa-10,12-diynoic acid polymers after irradiation. Methods: Polymer growth in radiochromic films is a critical phenomenon that can be properly described by means of percolation theory to provide an appropriate distribution function for polymer sizes. Resulting functional form is a power function featuring a critical exponent and two adjustable parameters. Moreover, these parameters act as scaling factors setting a natural scale for sensitometric curves where the dependence on channel sensitivity is removed. A unique reduced response curve is then obtained from all the color channels describing film behavior independently of film dosimetry system. Results: Resulting functional form has been successfully tested in several sensitometric curves from different Gafchromic EBT models, providing excellent agreement with experimental data in a wide dose range up to about 40 Gy and low dose uncertainty. Conclusions: The model presented in this paper describes accurately the sensitometric curves of radiochromic films in wide dose ranges covering all typical ranges used in external radiotherapy. Resulting dose uncertainty is low enough to render a reasonably good performance in clinical applications. Due to cross-correlation, only one of the adjustable parameters is totally independent and characterizes film batches.

  4. Dosimetric response of radiochromic films to protons of low energies in the Bragg peak region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, M. C.; Schardt, D.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Lallena, A. M.; Miras, H.; Guirado, D.

    2016-06-01

    One of the major advantages of proton or ion beams, applied in cancer treatment, is their excellent depth-dose profile exhibiting a low dose in the entrance channel and a distinct dose maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range in tissue. In the region of the Bragg peak, where the protons or ions are almost stopped, experimental studies with low-energy particle beams and thin biological samples may contribute valuable information on the biological effectiveness in the stopping region. Such experiments, however, require beam optimization and special dosimetry techniques for determining the absolute dose and dose homogeneity for very thin biological samples. At the National Centre of Accelerators in Seville, one of the beam lines at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator was equipped with a scattering device, a special parallel-plate ionization chamber with very thin electrode foils and target holders for cell cultures. In this work, we present the calibration in absolute dose of EBT3 films [Gafchromic radiotherapy films, http://www.ashland.com/products/gafchromic-radiotherapy-films] for proton energies in the region of the Bragg peak, where the linear energy transfer increases and becomes more significant for radiobiology studies, as well as the response of the EBT3 films for different proton energy values. To irradiate the films in the Bragg peak region, the energy of the beam was degraded passively, by interposing Mylar foils of variable thickness to place the Bragg peak inside the active layer of the film. The results obtained for the beam degraded in Mylar foils are compared with the dose calculated by means of the measurement of the beam fluence with an ionization chamber and the energy loss predicted by srim2008 code.

  5. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  6. Evaluation of the incident directional dependence of radiochromic film by use of Monte Carlo simulation and measurement.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Yuki; Kawamura, Shinji; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Uehara, Takuya; Koike, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Ryuji; Hanazawa, Hideki; Takahashi, Shotaro; Shibuya, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    In high-precision radiotherapy, absolute and relative doses are evaluated for patient-specific intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). In our institution, we use GAFCHROMIC EBT3 (EBT3) for relative dose evaluation in IMRT QA. We usually use two directional film configurations, which are in the axial and sagittal planes. The QA in our institution shows some differences between the gamma pass rates in the axial and sagittal directions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incident directional dependence of EBT3 by using the percent depth dose (PDD) and the off-center ratio (OCR) between EBT3 films positioned perpendicular to the beam axis and along the beam axis. Furthermore, we compared the PDD in EBT3 films positioned perpendicular to the beam axis and the PDD by using an ionization chamber. In addition, PDDs in water phantoms with and without EBT3 films were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The results showed that the PDD in EBT3 films positioned perpendicular to the beam axis increased with the depth from the phantom surface. Monte Carlo simulation showed the same trend as did the film measurements. The OCR results were slightly different at dose levels below 20 %. The OCR in EBT3 films positioned along the beam axis was higher than that perpendicular to the beam axis. Thus, we conclude that EBT3 film has incident directional dependence. In IMRT QA, the gamma analysis results may be affected by the incident directional dependence of EBT3 film. PMID:27010193

  7. 7 CFR 274.8 - Functional and technical EBT system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for the SNAP account; (ii) Comply with the requirements of 12 CFR part 205 (Regulation E) in addition... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functional and technical EBT system requirements. 274... PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.8 Functional and technical EBT system requirements. (a) Functional...

  8. EBT-P gamma-ray shielding system

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1981-12-01

    An elaborate study was carried out for the coil and biological shield of the ELMO Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle (EBT-P) device. A three-dimensional scoping study for the coil shield was performed for four different shielding options to define the heat load for each component and check the compliance with the design criterion of 10 watts maximum heat per coil from the gamma ray sources. Also, a detailed biological dose survey was performed which included: (a) the dose equivalent inside and outside the building, (b) the dose equivalent from the two mazes of the machine room, and (c) the skyshine contribution to the dose equivalent.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  10. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  11. Epid Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  12. Epid Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  13. Is It Possible to Publish a Calibration Function for Radiochromic Film?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, David; Yu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the possibility of using a public calibration function for radiochromic film dosimetry in dose QA of highly conformal treatment plans. Methods EBT3 film calibration strips (3.5 × 20 cm2 from lots A101212 and A011713) were exposed on a Varian Trilogy at a facility to a 10 × 10 cm2 open field at doses of 80, 160, 320 cGy using 6MV photons. Together with a strip of unexposed film from the same lot the exposed films were digitized in a single scan using different Epson 10,000 XL scanners at two different facilities. The dose-response data for each color-channel from each facility were generated using the same calibration function X(D) = a + b/(D − c), where X(D) is the response at dose D and a, b and c are the coefficients. Different batches of EBT3 film were exposed to a VMAT beam. These films, plus two reference strips exposed to doses of zero and 160 cGy, were digitized on the scanners at the two facilities. Using the multi-channel dosimetry method and One-scan protocol (Med Phys, 39:6339–49, 2012) the recorded doses on the VMAT films were calculated and the results were compared with the VMAT plan using a Gamma index of 3%/3 mm. Results The passing rates obtained for dose maps calculated for all combinations of VMAT images and calibration functions were nearly unchanged, using the One-scan protocol. Also, in all cases a passing rate of >99% was obtained for Gamma index of 3%/3 mm. On the other hand, if the One-scan protocol was not employed, the dose maps for VMAT images and calibration functions from different scanners showed poor correlation with the treatment plan. This is probably due to the scan-to-scan variability. Conclusions The authors have found that it is feasible to use a public calibration function for a given radiochromic film lot using the same methodology, One-scan protocol, for patient-specific QA.

  14. Development of radiochromic film for spatially quantitative dosimetric analysis of indirect ionizing radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Samuel Loren

    Two types of radiochromic films (RCF) were characterized for this work: EBT and XRQA film. Both films were investigated for: radiation interaction with film structure; light interaction with film structure for optimal film readout (densitometry) sensitivity; range of absorbed dose measurements; dependence of film dose measurement response as a function of changing radiation energy; fractionation and dose rate effects on film measurement response; film response sensitivity to ambient factors; and stability of measured film response with time. EBT film was shown to have the following properties: near water equivalent atomic weight (Zeff); dynamic dose range of 10 -1-102 Gy; 3% change in optical density (OD) response for a single exposure level when exposed to radiation energies from (75-18,000) kV; and best digitized using transmission densitometry. XRQA film was shown to have: a Zeff of ˜25; a 12 fold increase in sensitivity at lower photon energies for a dynamic dose range of 10-3-100 Gy, a difference of 25% in OD response when comparing 120 kV to 320 kV, and best digitized using reflective densitometry. Both XRQA and EBT films were shown to have: a temporal stability (DeltaOD) of ˜1% for t > 24 hr post film exposure for up to ˜20 days; a change in dose response of ˜0.03 mGy hr-1 when exposed to fluorescent room lighting at standard room temperature and humidity levels; a negligible dose rate and fractionation effect when operated within the optimal dose ranges; and a light wavelength dependence with dose for film readout. The flat bed scanner was chosen as the primary film digitizer due to its availability, cost, OD range, functionality (transmission and reflection scanning), and digitization speed. As a cost verses functionality comparison, the intrinsic and operational limitations were determined for two flat bed scanners. The EPSON V700 and 10000XL exhibited equal spatial and OD accuracy. The combined precision of both the scanner light sources and CCD

  15. Two-point model for electron transport in EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.; Guest, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport in EBT is simulated by a two-point model corresponding to the central plasma and the edge. The central plasma is assumed to obey neoclassical collisionless transport. The edge plasma is assumed turbulent and modeled by Bohm diffusion. The steady-state temperatures and densities in both regions are obtained as functions of neutral influx and microwave power. It is found that as the neutral influx decreases and power increases, the edge density decreases while the core density increases. We conclude that if ring instability is responsible for the T-M mode transition, and if stability is correlated with cold electron density at the edge, it will depend sensitively on ambient gas pressure and microwave power.

  16. Analytical theory of interchange and compressional Alfven instabilities in EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Tsang, K.T.

    1981-07-01

    The local stability of the EBT plasma is analyzed for the long wavelength perturbations in the frequency regime, ..omega.. approx. less than or equal to ..cap omega../sub i/(..cap omega../sub i/ is ion cyclotron frequency). In addition to the low frequency interchange instability, the plasma can be unstable to the compressional Alfven wave. Contrary to the previously obtained quadratic dispersion relation in ..omega.. for the interchange mode, our dispersion relations for both types of instabilities are cubic in ..omega... New stability boundaries are found, for the hot electron interchange mode, to relate to the enhanced compressibility of the core plasma in the presence of hot electrons. The compressional Alfven instability is driven due to the coupling of hot electron magnetic drifts and diamagnetic drift with the compressional Alfven wave. The stability conditions of these two types of instabilities are opposite to each other.

  17. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  18. SU-E-T-447: Electronic Brachytherapy (EBT) Treatment of Cervical Cancer - First Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D; Johnson, M; Thompson, J; Ahmad, S; Chan, L; Hausen, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the first trial patient in which an electronic brachytherapy (EBT) x-ray source is utilized for treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: During patient treatment, a miniaturized x-ray source was used in combination with a customized titanium tandem and ovoid applicator set. The semi-specialized source was modeled with formalisms outlined by AAMP Task Group 43. Multiple models were used to compensate for variable attenuation conditions as a function of source positions. Varian Brachyvision treatment planning software was utilized on CT data sets for dose calculations prior to treatment delivery. The dose was prescribed to “point A” as defined by American Brachytherapy society. Additional treatments plans were created from those clinically utilized in patient care and were recalculated for an existing Ir-192 source model. Dose volume histograms (DVH) and point dose calculations were compared between the modalities for the clinical condition present in patients treated with EBT. Results: Clinical treatment times, though longer than those typically experienced by Ir-192 users, were manageable. Instantaneous dose rates at personal positions within the treatment vault were lower than those measured during intra operative radiation therapy and breast EBT treatments. Due to lower average photon energy in EBT, dose gradients within the treatment plans were as expected steeper than those observed in Ir-192 based brachytherapy. DVH comparisons between Ir-192 and EBT treatments showed an expected decrease in the integral dose to normal tissues of interest for EBT. In comparing plans created for EBT delivery with those calculated for Ir-192, average dose values for EBT were more than 4%, 11%, and 9% lower at predefined bladder, rectum and “point B” positions, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, we have demonstrated that the utilizing electronic brachytherapy system for tandem and ovoid based treatment of cancer of the cervix is feasible, and

  19. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  20. SU-E-T-12: A Feasibility Study of Patient Specific QA Using Gafchromic Film of Dynamic Feathering in Junctions of Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J; Duggar, W; Yang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cranio-spinal irradiation is the most complicated format of the conventional external beam radiation therapy because it involves matches of non-coplanar beams which are susceptible to daily setup errors. This study explores the efficacy of Gafchromic film dosimetry to quantitatively verify the junctions for cranio-spinal radiation feathered with field in field technique. Methods: 15cm in thickness of solid water phantom was scanned vertically and exported to the Pinnacle TPS as primary phantom data set. A patient cranio-spinal plan, consisted of two bilateral whole brain beams dynamically matched with a posterior spinal beam using field in field technique, was transferred to the phantom and recalculated for one fraction with set monitor units identical to the original plan. Next, planar dose distribution on the phantom was exported to the FilmQA Pro 2013 software (Ashland, Inc.) in binary format for comparison with the measured dose distribution. An EBT2 film was sandwiched in the middle of the phantom and the phantom was set up according to the QA plan based on the room laser system. The shifts instructions associated with the patient original plan were made and the beams from the patient original plan delivered to the solid water phantom via the record and verify system in QA mode. The dose distribution from the measured film was compared with the planned reference distribution using gamma analysis and profile comparison. Results: Gamma passing rate of 91 % with DTA 3mm and 5% dose difference was obtained within the junction region, significantly greater passing rate above 95 % was obtained in the homogeneous region of the brain field. Conclusion: This study confirms that Gafchromic film dosimetry can be used to validate the efficacy of FIF feathering technique for cranio-spinal treatment. FIF technique with Gafchromic dosimetry may now be the new standard for delivering efficient and accurate cranio-spinal radiation with confidence.

  1. Development of radiochromic film for spatially quantitative dosimetric analysis of indirect ionizing radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Samuel Loren

    Two types of radiochromic films (RCF) were characterized for this work: EBT and XRQA film. Both films were investigated for: radiation interaction with film structure; light interaction with film structure for optimal film readout (densitometry) sensitivity; range of absorbed dose measurements; dependence of film dose measurement response as a function of changing radiation energy; fractionation and dose rate effects on film measurement response; film response sensitivity to ambient factors; and stability of measured film response with time. EBT film was shown to have the following properties: near water equivalent atomic weight (Zeff); dynamic dose range of 10 -1-102 Gy; 3% change in optical density (OD) response for a single exposure level when exposed to radiation energies from (75-18,000) kV; and best digitized using transmission densitometry. XRQA film was shown to have: a Zeff of ˜25; a 12 fold increase in sensitivity at lower photon energies for a dynamic dose range of 10-3-100 Gy, a difference of 25% in OD response when comparing 120 kV to 320 kV, and best digitized using reflective densitometry. Both XRQA and EBT films were shown to have: a temporal stability (DeltaOD) of ˜1% for t > 24 hr post film exposure for up to ˜20 days; a change in dose response of ˜0.03 mGy hr-1 when exposed to fluorescent room lighting at standard room temperature and humidity levels; a negligible dose rate and fractionation effect when operated within the optimal dose ranges; and a light wavelength dependence with dose for film readout. The flat bed scanner was chosen as the primary film digitizer due to its availability, cost, OD range, functionality (transmission and reflection scanning), and digitization speed. As a cost verses functionality comparison, the intrinsic and operational limitations were determined for two flat bed scanners. The EPSON V700 and 10000XL exhibited equal spatial and OD accuracy. The combined precision of both the scanner light sources and CCD

  2. Calibration of the Gamma Knife Perfexion using TG-21 and the solid water Leksell dosimetry phantom

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Daniel; Yount, Caroline; Koch, Nicholas; Ashenafi, Michael; Peng, Jean; Vanek, Kenneth

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To calibrate a Gamma Knife (GK) Perfexion using TG-21 with updated chamber-dependent values for modern microionization chambers in the new solid water Leksell dosimetry phantom. This work illustrates a calibration method using commercially available equipment, instruments, and an established dosimetry protocol that may be adopted at any GK center, thus reducing the interinstitutional variation in GK calibration. The calibration was verified by three third-party dosimetry checks. In addition, measurements of the relative output factors are presented and compared to available data and the new manufacturer-provided relative output factors yet to be released. Methods: An absolute dose calibration based on the TG-21 formalism, utilizing recently reported phantom material and chamber-dependent factors, was performed using a microionization chamber in a spherical solid water phantom. The result was compared to other calibration protocols based on TG-51. Independent verification of the machine output was conducted through M.D. Anderson Dosimetry Services (MDADS), using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in an anthropomorphic head phantom; the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), using TLDs in the standard Elekta ABS plastic calibration phantom (gray phantom), included with the GK; and through a collaborative international calibration survey by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) using alanine dosimeters, also in the gray phantom. The alanine dosimeters were read by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Finally, Gafchromic EBT film was used to measure relative output factors and these factors were compared to values reported in the literature as well as new values announced for release by Elekta. The films were exposed in the solid water phantom using an included film insert accessory. Results: Compared to the TG-21 protocol in the solid water phantom, the modified and unmodified TG-51 calibrations resulted in dose rates which were 1

  3. Radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists. PMID:2040250

  4. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  5. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  6. Effects of elevated temperatures during interruption of irradiation on Harwell Red 4034 PMMA and Kodak Biomax alanine film dosimetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidereas, P.; Patil, D. S.; Garcia, R.; Tracy, R. P.; Holzman, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    In the industrial setting it is not uncommon for a process interruption to occur during irradiation. In this event, dosimeters may be exposed to prolonged periods of elevated temperature without exposure to ionizing radiation. Once the process is restarted, the same dosimeters are exposed to ionizing radiation in order to achieve target dose. The goal of this experiment was to simulate a process interruption within limits and quantify the effects of a combination of factors (heat, time, and fractionation) on dosimeter response. We present an in-depth experimental study on the response of dosimeters that have been irradiated, stored for a fixed period of time at several temperatures, and then re-irradiated. This study was performed using Harwell Red 4034 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and Kodak BioMax alanine film dosimeters.

  7. Vacuum system problems of EBT: a steady-state fusion experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Livesey, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the vacuum problems faced by EBT will soon be shared by other plasma devices as high-power microwave systems and long pulse lengths become more common. The solutions used on EBT (such as the raised lip with elastomer seal) are not unique; however, experience has shown that microwave-compatible designs must be carefully thought out. All details of the vacuum must be carefully thought out. All details of the vacuum must be carefully screened in advance to insure that microwaves do not leak into pumps or diagnostics where they can cause major damage. Sputter coating, which even now is noticeably present in most pulsed plasma systems, becomes much worse as systems approach steady state. And finally, radiation degradation of components which is presently a minor problem will become significant on high-power microwave-fed devices, such as EBT-P.

  8. Application of the Exradin W1 scintillator to determine Ediode 60017 and microDiamond 60019 correction factors for relative dosimetry within small MV and FFF fields.

    PubMed

    Underwood, T S A; Rowland, B C; Ferrand, R; Vieillevigne, L

    2015-09-01

    In this work we use EBT3 film measurements at 10 MV to demonstrate the suitability of the Exradin W1 (plastic scintillator) for relative dosimetry within small photon fields. We then use the Exradin W1 to measure the small field correction factors required by two other detectors: the PTW unshielded Ediode 60017 and the PTW microDiamond 60019. We consider on-axis correction-factors for small fields collimated using MLCs for four different TrueBeam energies: 6 FFF, 6 MV, 10 FFF and 10 MV. We also investigate percentage depth dose and lateral profile perturbations. In addition to high-density effects from its silicon sensitive region, the Ediode exhibited a dose-rate dependence and its known over-response to low energy scatter was found to be greater for 6 FFF than 6 MV. For clinical centres without access to a W1 scintillator, we recommend the microDiamond over the Ediode and suggest that 'limits of usability', field sizes below which a detector introduces unacceptable errors, can form a practical alternative to small-field correction factors. For a dosimetric tolerance of 2% on-axis, the microDiamond might be utilised down to 10 mm and 15 mm field sizes for 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively. PMID:26271097

  9. SU-F-BRE-03: Consideration of a Track-Interaction Model for Radiochromic Film Response

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, B; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Conventional methods for characterizing the energy response of radiochromic film (RCF) typically involve assessing changes in response when exposed to various beam qualities and use Monte Carlo to determine absorbed dose. These methods represent RCF as a dose integrator of a homogeneous energy deposition volume. Apparent film saturation, nonlinearity, and intrinsic energy dependence are unpredicted with conventional methods. Recent work has shown significant RCF intrinsic energy dependence, which limits its use in absolute dosimetry. This work introduces a track-interaction model (TIM) for RCF and assesses its ability to predict total energy response. Methods: A TIM based on Katz single-hit theory was developed to accumulate energy flux along particle tracks within active crystals, represented as (1×1×20)um{sup 3} prisms about the Gafchromic™ EBT3 active volume using MCNP5 and Matlab. Energy flux contributed to film response only if near the threshold energy for polymerization in polydiacetylenes (2.5eV/monomer). Energy deposition in excess of maximum efficiency represented crystal saturation and did not contribute to film response. The TIM was applied to RCF exposed in air to various monoenergetic photon beams and Co-60. Geometric distribution of energy flux was found for each beam quality in a (1×1)mm{sup 2} RCF area. RCF response relative to Co-60 absorbed dose-to-water (S-TIM) was determined and compared to published values (S-PUB). Results: TIM successfully predicted that lower energy radiation is less effective at inducing polymerization, though the magnitude of the phenomenon was overpredicted. S-TIM was −29% and +20% for 20 and 40 keV, respectively. This agreed qualitatively with S-PUB of −27% and +16%. TIM-generated sensitometric curves contained the non-linearity and saturation apparent in RCF. Conclusion: This work indicates the possibility for TIMs to predict changes in RCF response to various energies. Future work will refine TIM by

  10. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

  11. 7 CFR 274.8 - Functional and technical EBT system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standard response time. (2) System availability and reliability. (i) The EBT system central computer shall... maintenance. The total system, including the system's central computer, any network or intermediate processing... prescribed herein prior to permitting the interface with the central computer system. (ii) The system......

  12. 7 CFR 274.8 - Functional and technical EBT system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standard response time. (2) System availability and reliability. (i) The EBT system central computer shall... maintenance. The total system, including the system's central computer, any network or intermediate processing... prescribed herein prior to permitting the interface with the central computer system. (ii) The system......

  13. 7 CFR 274.8 - Functional and technical EBT system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standard response time. (2) System availability and reliability. (i) The EBT system central computer shall... maintenance. The total system, including the system's central computer, any network or intermediate processing... prescribed herein prior to permitting the interface with the central computer system. (ii) The system......

  14. 49 CFR 40.233 - What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for proper use and care... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs? (a) As... must take into account factors like frequency of use, environmental conditions (e.g.,...

  15. Total skin electron therapy (TSET): A reimplementation using radiochromic films and IAEA TRS-398 code of practice

    SciTech Connect

    Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Massone, F.; Taccini, G.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to present an updated implementation of total skin electron therapy (TSET) using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films. The optimization of quality control tests is also included. Methods: A Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator equipped with the special procedure HDTSe{sup -} (high dose rate total skin electron mode, E=6 MeV) was employed to perform TSET irradiations using the modified Stanford technique. The commissioning was performed following the AAPM report 23 recommendations. In particular, for dual-field beams irradiation, the optimal tilt angle was investigated and the dose distribution in the treatment plane was measured. For a complete six dual-field beams irradiation, the treatment skin dose on the surface of a cylindrical phantom was evaluated by radiochromic films and the B factor which relates the single dual-field skin dose to the six dual-field skin dose was assessed. Since the TRS-398 reference conditions do not meet the requirements of TSET absolute dosimetry, GafChromic EBT films were also employed to check and validate the application of the protocol. Simplified procedures were studied to verify beam constancy in PMMA phantoms without the more difficult setup of total skin irradiation. Results: The optimized geometrical setup for dual-field beams was: Tilt angle={+-}19 deg., SSD=353 cm, and the beam degrader (200x100x1 cm{sup 3}) placed at 320 cm from the source. As regards to dose homogeneity in the treatment plane, for dual-field beams irradiation, the mean relative dose value was 97%{+-}5% (normalizing to 100% at the calibration point level). For six dual-field beams irradiation, the multiplication factor B was 2.63. In addition, beam quality, dose rate, and bremsstrahlung contribution were also suitable for TSET treatments. The TRS-398 code of practice was used for TSET dosimetry, as dose measurements performed by ionization chamber and

  16. HSE performance tests for dosimetry services.

    PubMed

    Birch, R; Simpson, J A; Hedley, R P; Wardle, J

    2000-12-01

    In the United Kingdom a dosimetry service that measures and assesses whole-body or part-body doses arising from external radiation must successfully complete a performance test. Results of the performance tests for routine whole-body, routine extremity/skin and special accident dosimetry, carried out over the past six years by the AEA Technology Calibration Service at Winfrith, and DRaStaC, the AWE Calibration Service at Aldermaston, are presented. The test involves irradiating groups of dosemeters to known doses of gamma radiation and determining the bias and relative standard deviations for each dose group. The results are compared with the pass criteria specified by the UK Health and Safety Executive. For routine whole-body dosimetry, both the film badge and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) perform adequately for irradiations between 0.6 and 30 mSv. For higher doses up to 250 mSv, where the slow emulsion of the film is used, the film badge shows poorer performance with a tendency to overestimate the dose. For routine extremity/skin dosimetry there is a wider spread of relative standard deviation results than is seen for routine whole-body dosimetry. This is to be expected since the results will include dosemeters that are based on 'disposable' TLDs and ones based on lithium fluoride powder in sachets. For special accident dosimetry the dosemeters are tested between 0.26 and 6 Gy. For the highest dose group the film badge invariably underestimates the true dose, whereas the TLD has a tendency to overestimate it. PMID:11140715

  17. Dosimetry verification on VMAT and IMRT radiotherapy techniques: In the case of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, A.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatment depends on the accuracy of the dose delivery to patients, the purpose of the study is to verify the dose in IMRT and VMAT technique in prostate cancer cases correspond to TPS dose using phantom base on ICRU No.50. The dose verification of the target and OAR was performed by placing the TLD Rod LiF100 and EBT2 Gafchromic film at slab hole of pelvic part of the Alderson RANDO phantom for prostate cancer simulation. The Exposed TLDs was evaluated using the TLD Reader Harshaw while EBT2 film was scanned using Epson scanner. The point dose measurements were compared between planned dose and measured dose at target volume and OAR. The result is the dose difference at target volume, bladder and rectum for IMRT and VMAT are less than 5%. On the other hand, the dose difference at the Femoral head is more than 5% for both techniques because the location of OAR already in low gradient dose. Furthermore, the difference dose of the target volume for IMRT technique tends to be smaller than VMAT either for TLD and EBT2 film detectors. From the measurement showed that the delivered dose on the phantom simulation match with ICRU No.50 criteria.

  18. Comparative measurement of the neutral density and particle confinement time in EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Glowienka, John C.; Richards, Roger K.

    1985-11-01

    The neutral density and particle confinement time in the ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale Experiment (EBT-S) have been determined by two different techniques. These involve a spectroscopic measurement of molecular and atomic hydrogen emissions and a time-decay measurement of a fast-ion population using a diagnostic neutral beam. The results from both diagnostics exhibit identical trends for either estimate, although the absolute values differ by a factor of 2 to 3. The observed variations with fill gas pressure and microwave power from either technique are consistent with measurements of electron density and temperature. In this paper, the measurement techniques are discussed, and the results are compared in the context of consistency with independently observed plasma behavior.

  19. Czech results at criticality dosimetry intercomparison 2002.

    PubMed

    Frantisek, Spurný; Jaroslav, Trousil

    2004-01-01

    Two criticality dosimetry systems were tested by Czech participants during the intercomparison held in Valduc, France, June 2002. The first consisted of the thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) (Al-P glasses) and Si-diodes as passive neutron dosemeters. Second, it was studied to what extent the individual dosemeters used in the Czech routine personal dosimetry service can give a reliable estimation of criticality accident exposure. It was found that the first system furnishes quite reliable estimation of accidental doses. For routine individual dosimetry system, no important problems were encountered in the case of photon dosemeters (TLDs, film badge). For etched track detectors in contact with the 232Th or 235U-Al alloy, the track density saturation for the spark counting method limits the upper dose at approximately 1 Gy for neutrons with the energy >1 MeV. PMID:15353690

  20. SU-E-T-533: LET Dependence Correction of Radiochromic Films for Application in Low Energy Proton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, S; Wuerl, M; Assmann, W; Parodi, K; Greubel, C; Wilkens, J; Hillbrand, M; Mairani, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many cell irradiation experiments with low-energy laser-driven ions rely on radiochromic films (RCF), because of their dose-rate independent response and superior spatial resolution. RCF dosimetry in low-energy ion beams requires a correction of the LET dependent film response. The relative efficiency (RE), the ratio of photon to proton dose that yields the same film darkening, is a measure for the film’s LET dependence. A direct way of RE determination is RCF irradiation with low-energy mono-energetic protons and hence, well-defined LET. However, RE is usually determined using high energy proton depth dose measurements where RE corrections require knowledge of the average LET in each depth, which can be either track (tLET) or dose (dLET) averaged. The appropriate LET concept has to be applied to allow a proper film response correction. Methods: Radiochromic EBT2 and EBT3 films were irradiated in clinical photon and proton beams. For each depth of the 200 MeV proton depth dose curve, tLET and dLET were calculated by special user routines from the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. Additional irradiations with mono-energetic low energy protons (4–20 MeV) serve as reference for the RE determination. Results: The difference of dLET and tLET increases with depth, with the dLET being almost twice as large as the tLET for the maximum depth. The comparison with mono-energetic measurements shows a good agreement of the RE for the dLET concept, while a considerably steeper drop in RE is observed when applying the tLET. Conclusion: RCF can be used as reference dosimeter for biomedical experiments with low-energy proton beams if appropriate LET corrections are applied. When using depth dose measurements from clinical proton accelerators for these corrections, the concept of dLET has to be applied. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Cluster of Excellence ‘Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics’ (MAP). This work was funded by the DFG Cluster of Excellence

  1. Cell irradiation setup and dosimetry for radiobiological studies at ELBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, K.; Beyreuther, E.; Lessmann, E.; Wagner, W.; Pawelke, J.

    2009-07-01

    The radiation source ELBE delivers different types of secondary radiation, which is used for cell irradiation studies in radiobiological research. Thereby an important issue is the determination of the biological effectiveness of photon radiation as a function of photon energy by using low-energetic, monochromatic channeling radiation (10-100 keV) and high-energetic bremsstrahlung (up to 40 MV). Radiobiological studies at the research facility ELBE demand special technical and dosimetric prerequisites. Therefore, a cell irradiation system (CIS) has been designed, constructed and installed at the beam line. The CIS allows automatic irradiation of a larger cell sample number and the compensation of spatial inhomogeneity of the dose distribution within the beam spot. The recently introduced GafChromic ® EBT radiochromic film model has been used to verify the cell irradiation dose deposition achieving a dose uncertainty of <5%. Both, the installed cell irradiation system and the developed dosimetric procedure based on the use of the EBT film have been experimentally tested at ELBE. The biological effectiveness of 34 MV bremsstrahlung with respect to 200 kV X-rays from a conventional X-ray tube has been determined. An RBE value of 0.75 has been measured in good agreement with literature.

  2. International Reactor Dosimetry Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-06-28

    Version 00 IRDF-82 contains 620 neutron group cross sections (SAND-II format) based on the ENDF/B-V Special Purpose Dosimetry File as well as other reaction cross sections important for dosimetry applications. In addition, multigroup spectra for ten reference benchmarks are also provided.

  3. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Knittel, T.; Downes, S.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Jackson, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. Methods: The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n{sup +} strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n{sup +} strip is 20x2000 {mu}m{sup 2}. The Si wafer is 375 {mu}m thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S{sub cp}) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S{sub cp} values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. Results: The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be <5% for a dpp change of 7.5 times. The angular response of the detector was investigated in the azimuthal and polar directions. The maximum polar angular response was 13.8% at the gantry angle of 320 deg., which may be partly due to the phantom geometry. The maximum azimuthal angular response

  4. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT. PMID:25586878

  5. Validation of fast Monte Carlo dose calculation in small animal radiotherapy with EBT3 radiochromic films.

    PubMed

    Noblet, C; Chiavassa, S; Smekens, F; Sarrut, D; Passal, V; Suhard, J; Lisbona, A; Paris, F; Delpon, G

    2016-05-01

    In preclinical studies, the absorbed dose calculation accuracy in small animals is fundamental to reliably investigate and understand observed biological effects. This work investigated the use of the split exponential track length estimator (seTLE), a new kerma based Monte Carlo dose calculation method for preclinical radiotherapy using a small animal precision micro irradiator, the X-RAD 225Cx. Monte Carlo modelling of the irradiator with GATE/GEANT4 was extensively evaluated by comparing measurements and simulations for half-value layer, percent depth dose, off-axis profiles and output factors in water and water-equivalent material for seven circular fields, from 20 mm down to 1 mm in diameter. Simulated and measured dose distributions in cylinders of water obtained for a 360° arc were also compared using dose, distance-to-agreement and gamma-index maps. Simulations and measurements agreed within 3% for all static beam configurations, with uncertainties estimated to 1% for the simulation and 3% for the measurements. Distance-to-agreement accuracy was better to 0.14 mm. For the arc irradiations, gamma-index maps of 2D dose distributions showed that the success rate was higher than 98%, except for the 0.1 cm collimator (92%). Using the seTLE method, MC simulations compute 3D dose distributions within minutes for realistic beam configurations with a clinically acceptable accuracy for beam diameter as small as 1 mm. PMID:27055114

  6. Validation of fast Monte Carlo dose calculation in small animal radiotherapy with EBT3 radiochromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noblet, C.; Chiavassa, S.; Smekens, F.; Sarrut, D.; Passal, V.; Suhard, J.; Lisbona, A.; Paris, F.; Delpon, G.

    2016-05-01

    In preclinical studies, the absorbed dose calculation accuracy in small animals is fundamental to reliably investigate and understand observed biological effects. This work investigated the use of the split exponential track length estimator (seTLE), a new kerma based Monte Carlo dose calculation method for preclinical radiotherapy using a small animal precision micro irradiator, the X-RAD 225Cx. Monte Carlo modelling of the irradiator with GATE/GEANT4 was extensively evaluated by comparing measurements and simulations for half-value layer, percent depth dose, off-axis profiles and output factors in water and water-equivalent material for seven circular fields, from 20 mm down to 1 mm in diameter. Simulated and measured dose distributions in cylinders of water obtained for a 360° arc were also compared using dose, distance-to-agreement and gamma-index maps. Simulations and measurements agreed within 3% for all static beam configurations, with uncertainties estimated to 1% for the simulation and 3% for the measurements. Distance-to-agreement accuracy was better to 0.14 mm. For the arc irradiations, gamma-index maps of 2D dose distributions showed that the success rate was higher than 98%, except for the 0.1 cm collimator (92%). Using the seTLE method, MC simulations compute 3D dose distributions within minutes for realistic beam configurations with a clinically acceptable accuracy for beam diameter as small as 1 mm.

  7. Practical CT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Suneja, S.K.; Teal, J.S. )

    1989-07-01

    The dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible from a radiation safety standpoint. Occasionally, one encounters a case in which an unsuspected pregnant woman undergoes a CT pelvic scan, and the radiologist is required to estimate the dose to the fetus. This article addresses practical methods of CT dosimetry with a specific discussion on fetal dose estimate. Three methods are described: (1) the use of a dose chart, (2) the pencil ionization chamber method, and (3) the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method.

  8. Research support for plasma diagnostics on Elmo Bumpy Torus. Observations of EBT ring geometry by means of diamagnetic field measurements using a compensated ferromagnetic resonance magnetometer, and a preliminary numerical study of EBT flux penetration dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H.; Booker, R.H.

    1982-10-01

    A preliminary numerical study of flux penetration dynamics has been made assuming a bumpy cylinder geometry for the EBT vacuum vessel. Estimates made by this study show that the diamagnetic signal from the rings should penetrate the vacuum vessel in a time on the order of 100 mS when the plasma is changed. This penetration time appears qualitatively reasonable.

  9. SU-E-J-156: Preclinical Inverstigation of Dynamic Tumor Tracking Using Vero SBRT Linear Accelerator: Motion Phantom Dosimetry Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mamalui-Hunter, M; Wu, J; Li, Z; Su, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Following the ‘end-to-end testing’ paradigm of Dynamic Target Tracking option in our Image-Guided dedicated SBRT VeroTM linac, we verify the capability of the system to deliver planned dose to moving targets in the heterogeneous thorax phantom (CIRSTM). The system includes gimbaled C-band linac head, robotic 6 degree of freedom couch and a tumor tracking method based on predictive modeling of target position using fluoroscopically tracked implanted markers and optically tracked infrared reflecting external markers. Methods: 4DCT scan of the motion phantom with the VisicoilTM implanted marker in the close vicinity of the target was acquired, the ‘exhale’=most prevalent phase was used for planning (iPlan by BrainLabTM). Typical 3D conformal SBRT treatment plans aimed to deliver 6-8Gy/fx to two types of targets: a)solid water-equivalent target 3cm in diameter; b)single VisicoilTM marker inserted within lung equivalent material. The planning GTV/CTV-to-PTV margins were 2mm, the block margins were 3 mm. The dose calculated by MonteCarlo algorithm with 1% variance using option Dose-to-water was compared to the ion chamber (CC01 by IBA Dosimetry) measurements in case (a) and GafchromicTM EBT3 film measurements in case (b). During delivery, the target 6 motion patterns available as a standard on CIRSTM motion phantom were investigated: in case (a), the target was moving along the designated sine or cosine4 3D trajectory; in case (b), the inserted marker was moving sinusoidally in 1D. Results: The ion chamber measurements have shown the agreement with the planned dose within 1% under all the studied motion conditions. The film measurements show 98.1% agreement with the planar calculated dose (gamma criteria: 3%/3mm). Conclusion: We successfully verified the capability of the SBRT VeroTM linac to perform real-time tumor tracking and accurate dose delivery to the target, based on predictive modeling of the correlation between implanted marker motion and

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW Dosimetry for ion beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Christian P.; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, ion beam radiotherapy (including protons as well as heavier ions) gained considerable interest. Although ion beam radiotherapy requires dose prescription in terms of iso-effective dose (referring to an iso-effective photon dose), absorbed dose is still required as an operative quantity to control beam delivery, to characterize the beam dosimetrically and to verify dose delivery. This paper reviews current methods and standards to determine absorbed dose to water in ion beam radiotherapy, including (i) the detectors used to measure absorbed dose, (ii) dosimetry under reference conditions and (iii) dosimetry under non-reference conditions. Due to the LET dependence of the response of films and solid-state detectors, dosimetric measurements are mostly based on ion chambers. While a primary standard for ion beam radiotherapy still remains to be established, ion chamber dosimetry under reference conditions is based on similar protocols as for photons and electrons although the involved uncertainty is larger than for photon beams. For non-reference conditions, dose measurements in tissue-equivalent materials may also be necessary. Regarding the atomic numbers of the composites of tissue-equivalent phantoms, special requirements have to be fulfilled for ion beams. Methods for calibrating the beam monitor depend on whether passive or active beam delivery techniques are used. QA measurements are comparable to conventional radiotherapy; however, dose verification is usually single field rather than treatment plan based. Dose verification for active beam delivery techniques requires the use of multi-channel dosimetry systems to check the compliance of measured and calculated dose for a representative sample of measurement points. Although methods for ion beam dosimetry have been established, there is still room for developments. This includes improvement of the dosimetric accuracy as well as development of more efficient measurement techniques.

  11. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  12. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.; Westermark, J.

    1986-09-17

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnel requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm/sup 2//mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 90/sup 0/. This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. SU-E-T-160: Evaluation of Accuracy for Target Margin Size Obtained From CBCT On Lung SBRT Based On Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Lee, M; Kim, M; Suh, T; Park, J; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analysis delivered dose on target using gafchromic films for evaluating accuracy of target margin size obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) Methods: The phantom consists of measurement part and driving part. The motor of Quasar motion phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc, London, ON, Canada) was used for driving part and we developed measurement part which consist of cork cylindrical body and acrylic target with radiochromic film inserted into central and both ends of acrylic target. In this study lung SBRT cases through both four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and CBCT were selected. Target contouring including margin based on 4DCT is defined with a 1 cm margin around gross tumor volume (GTV) in all directions except for inferior direction. The moving range in inferior direction was larger than other directions thus, including 2 cm margin. In case of CBCT, the margin means blurring of target on CBCT images. This study was compared margin size determined through 4DCT and that of based on CBCT and we also evaluated dose profile and the length of margin in superior-inferior direction on CBCT compared with 4DCT. Results: The length of target including margin was 2.48 cm (based on CBCT) and 2.66 cm (based on 4DCT), respectively in superior-inferior direction. The difference of delivered dose on target between two margins was only within 1%. Conclusions: This study has shown the feasibility of determining target margin using CBCT for delivering more accurate prescription dose to lung cancer.

  14. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  15. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-06-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  16. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  17. Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

  18. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  19. Ion storage dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  20. A thermoluminescence dosimetry system for personal monitoring in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Currivan, L; Spain, D; Donnelly, H; Colgan, P A

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 the decision was taken to replace film badges with thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) as the main form of dosemeter for both whole-body and extremity monitoring at the Dosimetry Service of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in Dublin. A review of commercially available automatic TLD systems was carried out to identify the system which best met the RPII's requirements. This paper describes the dosimetry system used, and, in addition, discusses the problems encountered and how these were addressed. PMID:11586731

  1. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  2. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  3. [Electronic portal image device dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Daisaku; Nakada, Ryosei; Ienaga, Akinori; Yomoda, Akane; Inoue, Makoto; Ichida, Takao; Hosono, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Recently electronic portal image devices (EPIDs) have been widely used for quality assurance and dose verification. However there are no reports describing EPID dosimetry for Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We have investigated EPID dosimetry during VMAT delivery using a commercial software EPIDose with an Elekta Synergy linac. Dose rate dependence and the linac system sag during gantry rotation were measured. Gamma indices were calculated between measured doses using an EPID and calculation made by a treatment planning system for prostate VMAT test plans. The results were also compared to gamma indices using films and a two-dimensional detector array, MapCHECK2. The pass rates of the gamma analysis with a criterion of 3% and 2 mm for the three methods were over 96% with good consistency. Our results have showed that EPID dosimetry is feasible for Elekta VMAT. PMID:23358333

  4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  5. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  7. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  8. Cosmic Ray Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Belkhir, F.; Attallah, R.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation levels at aircraft cruising altitudes are twenty times higher than at sea level. Thus, on average, a typical airline pilot receives a larger annual radiation dose than some one working in nuclear industry. The main source of this radiation is from galactic cosmic radiation, high energy particles generated by exploding stars within our own galaxy. In this work we study cosmic rays dosimetry at various aviation altitudes using the PARMA model.

  9. 3D dosimetry by optical-CT scanning

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The need for an accurate, practical, low-cost 3D dosimetry system is becoming ever more critical as modern dose delivery techniques increase in complexity and sophistication. A recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) (1), revealed that 38% of institutions failed the head-and-neck IMRT phantom credentialing test at the first attempt. This was despite generous passing criteria (within 7% dose-difference or 4mm distance-to-agreement) evaluated at a half-dozen points and a single axial plane. The question that arises from this disturbing finding is – what percentage of institutions would have failed if a comprehensive 3D measurement had been feasible, rather than measurements restricted to the central film-plane and TLD points? This question can only be adequately answered by a comprehensive 3D-dosimetry system, which presents a compelling argument for its development as a clinically viable low cost dosimetry solution. Optical-CT dosimetry is perhaps the closest system to providing such a comprehensive solution. In this article, we review the origins and recent developments of optical-CT dosimetry systems. The principle focus is on first generation systems known to have highest accuracy but longer scan times. PMID:17460781

  10. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  11. Dosimetry of dose distributions in radiotherapy of patients with surgical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brożyna, Bogusław; Chełmiński, Krzysztof; Bulski, Wojciech; Giżyńska, Marta; Grochowska, Paulina; Walewska, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Marta; Kawecki, Andrzej; Krajewski, Romuald

    2014-11-01

    The investigation was performed in order to evaluate the use of Gafchromic EBT films for measurements of dose distributions created during radiotherapy in tissues surrounding titanium or resorbable implants used for joining and consolidating facial bones. Inhomogeneous dose distributions at implant-tissue interfaces can be the reason of normal tissue complications observed in radiotherapy patients after surgery with implants. The dose measured at a depth of 2.5 cm on contact surfaces, proximal and distal to the beam source, between the titanium implant and the phantom material was 109% and 92% respectively of the reference dose measured in a homogeneous phantom. For the resorbable implants the doses measured on the proximal and the distal contact surfaces were 102% and 101% respectively of the reference dose. The resorbable implants affect the homogeneity of dose distribution at a significantly lesser degree than the titanium implants. Gafchromic EBT films allowed for precise dose distribution measurements at the contact surfaces between tissue equivalent materials and implants. We measured doses at contact surfaces between titanium implants and RW3 phantom. We measured doses at contact surfaces between resorbable implants and RW3 phantom. We compared doses measured on contact surfaces and doses in homogeneous phantom. Doses at contact surfaces between RW3 phantom and titanium were distorted about 8-9%. Doses at RW3 phantom and resorbable implant contact surfaces were distorted about 2%.

  12. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Daniel A.; Moran, Jean M.; Dempsey, James F.; Dong Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  13. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT.

    PubMed

    Low, Daniel A; Moran, Jean M; Dempsey, James F; Dong, Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  14. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  15. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  16. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  17. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  18. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  19. Small field electron beam dosimetry using MOSFET detector.

    PubMed

    Amin, Md Nurul; Heaton, Robert; Norrlinger, Bern; Islam, Mohammad K

    2011-01-01

    The dosimetry of very small electron fields can be challenging due to relative shifts in percent depth-dose curves, including the location of dmax, and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium in an ion chamber when placed in the beam. Conventionally a small parallel plate chamber or film is utilized to perform small field electron beam dosimetry. Since modern radiotherapy departments are becoming filmless in favor of electronic imaging, an alternate and readily available clinical dosimeter needs to be explored. We have studied the performance of MOSFET as a relative dosimeter in small field electron beams. The reproducibility, linearity and sensitivity of a high-sensitivity microMOSFET were investigated for clinical electron beams. In addition, the percent depth doses, output factors and profiles have been measured in a water tank with MOSFET and compared with those measured by an ion chamber for a range of field sizes from 1 cm diameter to 10 cm × 10 cm for 6, 12, 16 and 20 MeV beams. Similar comparative measurements were also per-formed with MOSFET and films in solid water phantom. The MOSFET sensitivity was found to be practically constant over the range of field sizes investigated. The dose response was found to be linear and reproducible (within ± 1% for 100 cGy). An excellent agreement was observed among the central axis depth dose curves measured using MOSFET, film and ion chamber. The output factors measured with MOSFET for small fields agreed to within 3% with those measured by film dosimetry. Overall results indicate that MOSFET can be utilized to perform dosimetry for small field electron beam. PMID:21330970

  20. Liquid radiochromic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rativanich, N.; Radak, B. B.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    By strategic combination of weak acid, mild oxidizing agent, and polar organic solvents containing millimolar concentrations of leucocyanides of certain triphenylmethane dyes, fairly broad ranges of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation can be determined. The yield of dye ions as determined by spectrophotometry can be made essentially constant with dose (i.e. linear response) from 0.01 to 30 kGy and it does not vary with dose rate upto 10 11 Gy·s -1. The radiation-induced color is stable and offers fast-retrieval dosimetry if N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone is used as solvent. Other possible polar solvents are 2-propanol, 2-methoxy ethanol, N, N-dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and triethyl phosphate. Dimethyl sulfoxide is found to give the widest and most linear response. Suitable dye precursors are leucocyanides of pararosaniline, new fuchsin, hexa (hydroxyethyl) pararosaniline, crystal violet, malachite green, setoglaucine, ethyl violet, helvetia green, basic violet-14, and formyl violet. Low concentrations of carboxylic acids contribute stability to the system. Typical mild oxidizing agents are nitrobenzene, and atmospheric oxygen, or oxygen released radiolytically from the solvents. The dosimetry systems do not require high-purity of ingredients or ultracleanliness of containers, although, for reproducibility of dye yields (G-values), thoroughly purified and uniform dye derivates are recommended.

  1. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry I: basic investigations.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Kumar, Sai; Wong, John; Jaffray, David A

    2003-04-01

    Comprehensive verification of the intricate dose distributions associated with advanced radiation treatments is now an immediate and substantial problem. The task is challenging using traditional dosimeters because of restrictions to point measurements (ion chambers, diodes, TLD, etc.) or planar measurements (film). In essence, rapid advances in the technology to deliver radiation treatments have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. A potential solution has emerged in the form of water equivalent three dimensional (3D) gel-dosimetry. In this paper we present basic characterization and performance studies of a prototype optical-CT scanning system developed in our laboratory. An analysis of the potential role or scope of gel dosimetry, in relation to other dosimeters, and to verification across the spectrum of therapeutic techniques is also given. The characterization studies enabled the determination of nominal operating conditions for optical-CT scanning. "Finger" phantoms are introduced as a powerful and flexible tool for the investigation of optical-CT performance. The modulation-transfer function (MTF) of the system is determined to be better than 10% out to 1 mm(-1), confirming sub-mm imaging ability. System performance is demonstrated by the acquisition of a 1 x 1 x 1 mm3 dataset through the dose distribution delivered by an x-ray lens that focuses x rays in the energy range 40-80 KeV. This 3D measurement would be extremely difficult to achieve with other dosimetry techniques and highlights some of the strengths of gel dosimetry. Finally, an optical Monte Carlo model is introduced and shown to have potential to model light transport through gel-dosimetry systems, and to provide a tool for the study and optimization of optical-CT gel dosimetry. The model utilizes Mie scattering theory and requires knowledge of the variation of the particle size distribution with dose. The latter was determined here using the

  2. Review of US Army ionizing-radiation dosimetry system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Army civilian and military personnel are exposed occupationally to various forms of ionizing radiation, and the U.S. Army Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry Center is responsible for monitoring these exposures. There are several accepted methods for monitoring radiation exposure, the oldest being the film badge method. A modern alternative method, which has achieved widespread acceptance, is the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badge. Inasmuch as the Radiation Dosimetry Center is in the process of converting from film badges to TLD badges for radiation monitoring, the Army requested assistance on how it might optimize the transition to this new monitoring system.

  3. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  4. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J. Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Yung H.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Iagaru, Andre H.; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  5. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  6. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  7. Laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    We report a novel laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimeter that is radically different from previous laser-heated dosimeters. The dosimeter is a semiconductor and metal ion doped silica glass that has excellent optical transparency. The high optical quality of the glass essentially eliminates laser power loss due to light scattering. This efficient utilization of the laser power permits operation of the dosimeter without strong absorption of the laser, as is required in traditional laser-heated dosimetry. Our laser-heated dosimeter does not rely on the diffusion of heat from a separate, highly absorbing substrate, but operates via intimate, localized heating within the glass dosimeter due to the absorption of the laser light by rare earth ion dopants in the glass. Following absorption of the laser light, the rare earth ions transfer energy to the surrounding glass via nonradiative relaxation processes, resulting in rapid, localized temperature increases sufficient to release all the filled traps near the ions. As the heat diffuses radially away from the rare earth ions the temperature plummets dramatically on a manometer distance scale and the release of additional filled traps subsides. A key distinguishing feature of this laser-heated dosimeter is the ability to read the dose information more than once. While laser-heating provides complete information about the radiation exposure experienced by the glass due to the release of locally heated traps, the process leaves the remaining filled bulk traps undisturbed. The bulk traps can be read using traditional bulk heating methods and can provide a direct determination of an accumulated dose, measured following any number of laser-heated readouts. Laser-heated dosimetry measurements have been performed using a solid state diode laser for the readout following radiation exposure with a {sup 60}Co source.

  8. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.; Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  9. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry for gamma knife using a gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Kazi Muazzam

    The use of three-dimensional radiation dosimetry has been limited. With the use of water phantoms and ionization chambers, it has been possible to determine three dimensional dose distributions on a gross scale for cobalt 60 and linear accelerator sources. This method has been somewhat useful for traditional radiotherapy. There is, however, a need for more precise dosimetry, particularly with stereotactic radiosurgery. Most gamma knife facilities use either thermoluminescant dosimetry or film, neither of which provides three dimensional dose distributions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a gel dosimetry system that relies on the production of a ferric ion-xylenol orange colored complex. This work demonstrates the use of laser light and a detector to quantify radiation-induced colorimetric changes in absorbance for the gel dosimeter. The absorbance has been reconstructed by the back projection technique to demonstrate the applicability of the gel dosimeter to gamma knife 3D-dose distributions.

  10. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  11. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  12. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of β-adrenergic antagonists drugs via ion-pair complex formation using MO and EBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Didamony, A. M.; Shehata, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the assay of bisoprolol fumarate (BSF), propranolol hydrochloride (PRH), and timolol maleate (TIM) either in bulk or in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of the selected drugs with methyl orange (MO) and eriochrome black T in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane and measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 428 and 518 nm for MO and EBT, respectively. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. The extracts are intensely colored and very stable at room temperature. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.6, 0.8-5.6 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with MO and 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.2, and 0.8-8.0 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with EBT. The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1 : 1 in all cases. The proposed methods were successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The proposed methods can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical technique are of great importance.

  14. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the... breath has been obtained. (d) Show the employee the displayed test result. (e) If the device is one...

  15. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the... breath has been obtained. (d) Show the employee the displayed test result. (e) If the device is one...

  16. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the... breath has been obtained. (d) Show the employee the displayed test result. (e) If the device is one...

  17. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the... breath has been obtained. (d) Show the employee the displayed test result. (e) If the device is one...

  18. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the... breath has been obtained. (d) Show the employee the displayed test result. (e) If the device is one...

  19. Algorithm for dosimetry of multiarc linear-accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Astrahan, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    Treatment planning for multiarc radiosurgery is an inherently complex three-dimensional dosimetry problem. Characteristics of small-field x-ray beams suggest that major simplification of the dose computation algorithm is possible without significant loss of accuracy compared to calculations based on large-field algorithms. The simplification makes it practical to efficiently implement accurate multiplanar dosimetry calculations on a desktop computer. An algorithm is described that is based on data from fixed-beam tissue-maximum-ratio (TMR) and profile measurements at isocenter. The profile for each fixed beam is scaled geometrically according to distance from the x-ray source. Beam broadening due to scatter is taken into account by a simple formula that interpolates the full width at half maximum (FWHM) between profiles at isocenter at different depths in phantom. TMR and profile data for two representative small-field collimators (10- and 25-mm projected diameter) were obtained by TLD and film measurements in a phantom. The accuracy of the calculational method and the associated computer program were verified by TLD and film measurements of noncoplanar multiarc irradiations from these collimators on a 4-MV linear accelerator. Comparison of film measurements in two orthogonal planes showed close agreement with calculations in the shape of the dose distribution. Maximal separation of measured and calculated 90%, 80%, and 50% isodose curves was {le}0.5 mm for all planes and collimators. All TLD and film measurements of dose to isocenter agreed with calculations to within 2%.

  20. Space radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hanser, F.A.; Dichter, B.K. ||

    1993-12-31

    Dosimetry is the measurement of the energy deposited in matter by various forms of radiation. In space the radiation is primarily energetic electrons, protons and heavier ions from planetary radiation belts, solar flares, and interstellar cosmic rays. Experimentally, dose is frequently obtained by summing the individual energy deposits in a solid state detector. If the detector is calibrated and the sensitive mass is known, the energy sum can be converted directly to accumulated radiation dose in Gy (J/kg). Such detectors can also be used to provide an approximate separation of dose into the components due to electrons, protons, and heavier ions, which is useful if it is desired to convert the measured dose into a biological effective dose (Sv) for manned spaceflight purposes. The output can also be used to provide an essentially instantaneous dose rate for use as warning devices. This is the primary type of space radiation dosimeter to be discussed here. The MOS-type dosimeter is another solid state sensor which can be of small size and low power. These devices integrate the total dose once through, can not separate particle types, and are not suitable for instantaneous dose rate measurement at low levels. There are several additional methods of measuring space radiation dose using scintillators, etc., but are not discussed in detail. In this paper emphasis is given to descriptions of active solid state detector instruments which have successfully worked in space. Some results of in-orbit dose measurements are presented.

  1. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  2. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  3. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Garduño, O. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Suárez-Campos, J. J.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT® radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region.

  4. Fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    The fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)

  5. TVA's dosimetry technician training program

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.G.; Faust, V.L.; Cornelius, T.W.; Regan, J.M.; Farrell, W.E. )

    1984-04-01

    In 1984, the Tennessee Valley Authority decentralized its personnel TLD program and established TLD processing facilities at each of its nuclear plant sites. This article describes the training program that was developed to aid in staffing dosimetry technician positions at each of the plants. The scope of the dosimetry technician's duties include TLD processing, operation of a computerized records system, whole-body counting system operation, and respirator mask fit-testing. The training program includes thirteen weeks of classroom and laboratory training plus a 15-month apprenticeship at a nuclear plant. Retraining and requalification are performed on an annual basis.

  6. Monte Carlo portal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, P.W. . E-mail: mary.chin@physics.org

    2005-10-15

    This project developed a solution for verifying external photon beam radiotherapy. The solution is based on a calibration chain for deriving portal dose maps from acquired portal images, and a calculation framework for predicting portal dose maps. Quantitative comparison between acquired and predicted portal dose maps accomplishes both geometric (patient positioning with respect to the beam) and dosimetric (two-dimensional fluence distribution of the beam) verifications. A disagreement would indicate that beam delivery had not been according to plan. The solution addresses the clinical need for verifying radiotherapy both pretreatment (without the patient in the beam) and on treatment (with the patient in the beam). Medical linear accelerators mounted with electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were used to acquire portal images. Two types of EPIDs were investigated: the amorphous silicon (a-Si) and the scanning liquid ion chamber (SLIC). The EGSnrc family of Monte Carlo codes were used to predict portal dose maps by computer simulation of radiation transport in the beam-phantom-EPID configuration. Monte Carlo simulations have been implemented on several levels of high throughput computing (HTC), including the grid, to reduce computation time. The solution has been tested across the entire clinical range of gantry angle, beam size (5 cmx5 cm to 20 cmx20 cm), and beam-patient and patient-EPID separations (4 to 38 cm). In these tests of known beam-phantom-EPID configurations, agreement between acquired and predicted portal dose profiles was consistently within 2% of the central axis value. This Monte Carlo portal dosimetry solution therefore achieved combined versatility, accuracy, and speed not readily achievable by other techniques.

  7. In vivo dosimetry for estimation of effective doses in multislice CT coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    De Denaro, M.; Bregant, P.; Severgnini, M.; De Guarrini, F.

    2007-10-15

    In vivo dosimetry represents a technique that has been widely employed to evaluate the dose to the patient mainly in radiotherapy. Considering the increment in dose to the population due to new high-dose multislice CT examinations, such as coronary angiography, it is becoming important to more accurately know the dose to the patient. The desire to know patient dose extends even to radiological examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are considered the gold standard for in vivo dosimetry, but their use is time consuming. A rapid, less labor-intensive method has been developed to perform in vivo dosimetry using radiochromic film positioned next to the patient's skin. Multislice CT scanners allow the estimation of the effective dose to the patient from the dose length product (DLP) parameter, the value of which is displayed on the acquisition console, simply multiplying the DLP by published conversion factors. The method represents only an approximation based on standard size circular phantoms and neglects the actual size of the patient. More accurate evaluations can be carried out using software-based Monte Carlo simulations. However, these methods do not consider possible dose reduction techniques, such as automatic tube-current modulation. For 22 patients effective doses measured by in vivo dosimetry and calculated by software were compared. The technique of using in vivo dosimetry measured with radiochromic film appears a promising procedure for improving the assessment of the effective dose to the patient.

  8. Comparison of dose accuracy between film and two-dimensional detectors in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuichi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shinsaku; Kaneshige, Souichirou; Monzen, Hajime; Matsumoto, Kenji; Shintani, Naoya; Kamomae, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    We constructed seven intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for prostate cancer (49 irradiation fields which contained seven randomly-sampled patients and seven fields) and evaluated the dose distributions by using a radiochromic film (EBT3 film) and a 2D detector. We superposed the calculated dose distribution of the IMRT treatment plan on EBT3 film and the 2D detector results and then compared those with the γ-analysis pass rate. The relative positions of the beam and the detector were varied; the results of the analysis of the superior-inferior (SI) direction potentially differed, depending on the detector position, under an irradiation beam with the same fluence map. The detector was moved over a range of' 8 mm in the SI direction in 1-mm step increments, measurement were made at each position, and the results were analyzed. The γ-analysis compared the dose distributions from EBT3 film and the radiation treatment planning system (RTPS) for each patient and field; the pass rate with the γ-analysis from 98 to 100% was 2.04%. When we compared the dose distributions of the 2D detector and the RTPS, the pass rate from 98 to 100% was 63.2%. The mean values for the ?-analysis pass rates for EBT3 film and the 2D detector were 94.2 and 97.6%, respectively. Volume averaging of the data indicated a mean pass rate and standard deviation of 98.6 and 0.91%, respectively, and a pass rate of more than 96% for all positions. A 2D detector can, therefore, be used as an alternative apparatus for IMRT dose verification.

  9. Development and dosimetry of a small animal lung irradiation platform

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Ross; Hadley, Caroline; Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    Advances in large scale screening of medical counter measures for radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity are currently hampered by animal irradiation paradigms that are both inefficient and highly variable among institutions. Here, we introduce a novel high-throughput small animal irradiation platform for use in orthovoltage small animal irradiators. We used radiochromic film and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor detectors to examine several parameters, including 2D field uniformity, dose rate consistency, and shielding transmission. We posit that this setup will improve efficiency of drug screens by allowing for simultaneous, targeted irradiation of multiple animals, improving efficiency within a single institution. Additionally, we suggest that measurement of the described parameters in all centers conducting counter measure studies will improve the translatability of findings among institutions. We also investigated the use of tissue equivalent phantoms in performing dosimetry measurements for small animal irradiation experiments. Though these phantoms are commonly used in dosimetry, we recorded a significant difference in both the entrance and target tissue dose rates between euthanized rats and mice with implanted detectors and the corresponding phantom measurement. This suggests that measurements using these phantoms may not provide accurate dosimetry for in vivo experiments. Based on these measurements, we propose that this small animal irradiation platform can increase the capacity of animal studies by allowing for more efficient animal irradiation. We also suggest that researchers fully characterize the parameters of whatever radiation setup is in use in order to facilitate better comparison among institutions. PMID:23091878

  10. Unexplained overexposures on physical dosimetry reported by biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Montoro, A; Almonacid, M; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G

    2009-01-01

    The Medical Service of the Radiation Protection Service from the University Hospital La Fe (Valencia, Spain), carries out medical examinations of the workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory is developing its activity since 2001. Up to now, the activities have been focused in performing biological dosimetry studies of Interventionists workers from La Fe Hospital. Recently, the Laboratory has been authorized by the Health Authority in the Valencian Community. Unexplained overexposures of workers and patients are also studied. Workers suspected of being overexposed to ionising radiation were referred for investigation by cytogenetic analysis. Two of these were from Hospitals of the Valencian Community and one belonged to an uranium mine from Portugal. Hospital workers had a physical dose by thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD) that exceeded the established limit. The worker of the uranium mine received a dose from a lost source of Cesium 137 with an activity of 170 mCi. All three cases showed normal values after the hematological analysis. Finally, the aim of this study consist to determine whether the dose showed by the dosimeter is reliable or not. In the case of workers that wore dosimeter, it is concluded that the doses measured by dosimeter are not corresponding to real doses. Hospital worker with a physical dose of 2.6 Sv and 0.269 Sv had an estimated absorbed dose by biological dosimetry of 0.076 Gy (0-0.165 Gy) and 0 Gy (0-0.089 Gy), respectively. In case of the mine worker an estimated absorbed dose of 0.073 Gy (0-0.159 Gy) was obtained by biological dosimetry. In all cases we used the odds ratio to present the results due to a very low frequency of observed aberrations [1]. PMID:19964943

  11. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  12. Fifth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1980-02-01

    The fifth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (PDIS) was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility on March 20-22, 1979. This study is the latest PDIS in the continuing series started at the DOSAR facility in 1974. The PDIS is a three day study, typically in March, where personnel dosimeters are mailed to the DOSAR facility, exposed to a range of low-level neutron radiation doses (1 to 15 mSv or equivalently, 100 to 1500 mrem) and neutron-to-gamma ratios (1:1-10:1) using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as the radiation source, and returned to the participants for evaluation. This report is a summary and analysis of the results reported by the various participants. The participants are able to intercompare their results with those of others who made dose measurements under identical experimental conditions.

  13. Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants for evaluation. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) was used as the primary radiation source in PDIS 1--12 and radioisotopic neutron sources at DOSAR's Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) were mainly used, along with sources and accelerators at cooperating institutions, in PDIS 13--16. Conclusions based on 13,560 measurements made by 146 different participating organizations (102 - US) are presented.

  14. Interspecies dosimetry of reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Gerrity, T.R.; Graham, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    The development of dosimetry models that can provide a description of the uptake and distribution of inhaled compounds throughout the body and the availability of animal toxicological data are integral components for a full evaluation of potential risks associated with human exposure. Interspecies dosimetric comparisons must be approached using a model conceptualization that incorporates the major factors affecting the uptake of the gas, such as respiratory tract morphology, route of breathing, depth and rate of breathing, physicochemical properties of the gas, etc. Modeling efforts thus far have primarily focused on ozone. A comparison of theoretical predictions of delivered dose of ozone to the lower respiratory tract of man shows good agreement with dose estimates derived from experimental measurements. Applications to ozone toxicological data in animals and man have been examined that incorporate the use of dosimetry models in studying quantitative dose-response relationships.

  15. Ion beam energy spectrum calculation via dosimetry data deconvolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Sharp, Andrew Clinton

    2010-10-01

    The energy spectrum of a H{sup +} beam generated within the HERMES III accelerator is calculated from dosimetry data to refine future experiments. Multiple layers of radiochromic film are exposed to the beam. A graphic user interface was written in MATLAB to align the film images and calculate the beam's dose depth profile. Singular value regularization is used to stabilize the unfolding and provide the H{sup +} beam's energy spectrum. The beam was found to have major contributions from 1 MeV and 8.5 MeV protons. The HERMES III accelerator is typically used as a pulsed photon source to experimentally obtain photon impulse response of systems due to high energy photons. A series of experiments were performed to explore the use of Hermes III to generate an intense pulsed proton beam. Knowing the beam energy spectrum allows for greater precision in experiment predictions and beam model verification.

  16. Validation of a prototype DiodeAir for small field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, T. S. A.; Thompson, J.; Bird, L.; Scott, A. J. D.; Patmore, P.; Winter, H. C.; Hill, M. A.; Fenwick, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    Standard commercial diode detectors over-respond within small radiation fields, an effect largely attributable to the relatively high mass-density of silicon. However, Monte Carlo studies can be used to optimise dosimeter designs and have demonstrated that ‘mass-density compensation’—for example, introducing a low-density air-gap upstream of a diode’s high-density silicon volume—can substantially improve instrument response. In this work we used egs_chamber Monte Carlo simulations to predict the ideal air-gap thickness for a PTW 60017 unshielded diode detector. We then developed a prototype instrument incorporating that air-gap and, for a 6 MV linac, tested it experimentally against EBT3 film. We also tested a further three prototypes with different air-gap thicknesses. Our results demonstrate that for a 10 × 10 cm2 reference field the DiodeAir, a PTW 60017 diode with a built-in air-gap of 1 mm, has on-axis correction factors near unity. Laterally the DiodeAir performs very well off-axis and reports FWHM and penumbra values consistent with those measured using EBT3. For PDD measurement, the performance of the DiodeAir matches that of the original PTW 60017. The experimental focus of this work was 6 MV but we also simulated the on-axis response of the DiodeAir within 15 MV beams and found that our modification proved robust to this substantial increase in beam energy. However, the original diode 60017 does exhibit low energy scatter dependencies and may over-respond to high linac dose-rates such that applying the mass-density compensation method to an alternative instrument (particularly a diamond detector) could ultimately take us even closer to the small-field ideal.

  17. Validation of a prototype DiodeAir for small field dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Underwood, T S A; Thompson, J; Bird, L; Scott, A J D; Patmore, P; Winter, H C; Hill, M A; Fenwick, J D

    2015-04-01

    Standard commercial diode detectors over-respond within small radiation fields, an effect largely attributable to the relatively high mass-density of silicon. However, Monte Carlo studies can be used to optimise dosimeter designs and have demonstrated that 'mass-density compensation'-for example, introducing a low-density air-gap upstream of a diode's high-density silicon volume-can substantially improve instrument response. In this work we used egs_chamber Monte Carlo simulations to predict the ideal air-gap thickness for a PTW 60017 unshielded diode detector. We then developed a prototype instrument incorporating that air-gap and, for a 6 MV linac, tested it experimentally against EBT3 film. We also tested a further three prototypes with different air-gap thicknesses. Our results demonstrate that for a 10 × 10 cm(2) reference field the DiodeAir, a PTW 60017 diode with a built-in air-gap of 1 mm, has on-axis correction factors near unity. Laterally the DiodeAir performs very well off-axis and reports FWHM and penumbra values consistent with those measured using EBT3. For PDD measurement, the performance of the DiodeAir matches that of the original PTW 60017. The experimental focus of this work was 6 MV but we also simulated the on-axis response of the DiodeAir within 15 MV beams and found that our modification proved robust to this substantial increase in beam energy. However, the original diode 60017 does exhibit low energy scatter dependencies and may over-respond to high linac dose-rates such that applying the mass-density compensation method to an alternative instrument (particularly a diamond detector) could ultimately take us even closer to the small-field ideal. PMID:25789823

  18. Results from a multicenter prostate IMRT dosimetry intercomparison for an OCOG-TROG clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, B.; Frantzis, J.; Murry, R.; Martin, J.; Plank, A.; Middleton, M.; Catton, C.; Kron, T.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: A multi-institution dosimetry intercomparison has been undertaken of prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. The dosimetry intercomparison was incorporated into the quality assurance for site credentialing for the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Prostate Fractionated Irradiation Trial 08.01 clinical trial.Methods: An anthropomorphic pelvic phantom with realistic anatomy was used along with multiplanar dosimetry tools for the assessment. Nineteen centers across Australia and New Zealand participated in the study.Results: In comparing planned versus measured dose to the target at the isocenter within the phantom, all centers were able to achieve a total delivered dose within 3% of planned dose. In multiplanar analysis with radiochromic film using the gamma analysis method to compare delivered and planned dose, pass rates for a 5%/3 mm criterion were better than 90% for a coronal slice through the isocenter. Pass rates for an off-axis coronal slice were also better than 90% except for one instance with 84% pass rate.Conclusions: Strengths of the dosimetry assessment procedure included the true anthropomorphic nature of the phantom used, the involvement of an expert from the reference center in carrying out the assessment at every site, and the ability of the assessment to detect and resolve dosimetry discrepancies.

  19. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a /sup 137/Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of a computed radiography system for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Olch, Arthur J

    2005-09-01

    Computed radiography (CR) systems have been gaining adoption as digital replacements for film for diagnostic and therapy imaging. As a result, film processors are being removed from service, leaving a void for the medical physicists who use film and processors for two-dimensional mega-voltage beam dosimetry. This is the first report to evaluate the ability of a commercial CR reader and storage phosphor plate system to accurately quantitate absolute dose and dose distributions from a 6 MV photon beam. There are potential advantages and disadvantages of current CR systems compared to film systems. CR systems inherently produce a linear dose-response over several logs of dose. However, the barium in the storage phosphor has a higher atomic number than the silver in film, resulting in significant energy sensitivity. The purpose of this work is to fully characterize the impact of these and other features of this CR system relevant to dosimetry. The tests performed and reported on in this study include uniformity of readout across a uniform field, geometrical accuracy, intra- and interday reproducibility, signal decay with time and with light exposure, dose-to-signal calibration, high dose effects, obliquity effects, perpendicular and parallel calibration results, field size and depth of measurement effects and the use of lead filters to minimize them, and intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance test results compared to that for film. Practical techniques are provided to optimize the accuracy of the system as a dosimetric replacement for film. PMID:16266113

  1. The spatial resolution in dosimetry with normoxic polymer-gels investigated with the dose modulation transfer approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bayreder, Christian; Schoen, Robert; Wieland, M.; Georg, Dietmar; Moser, Ewald; Berg, Andreas

    2008-05-15

    The verification of dose distributions with high dose gradients as appearing in brachytherapy or stereotactic radiotherapy for example, calls for dosimetric methods with sufficiently high spatial resolution. Polymer gels in combination with a MR or optical scanner as a readout device have the potential of performing the verification of a three-dimensional dose distribution within a single measurement. The purpose of this work is to investigate the spatial resolution achievable in MR-based polymer gel dosimetry. The authors show that dosimetry on a very small spatial scale (voxel size: 94x94x1000 {mu}m{sup 3}) can be performed with normoxic polymer gels using parameter selective T2 imaging. In order to prove the spatial resolution obtained we are relying on the dose-modulation transfer function (DMTF) concept based on very fine dose modulations at half periods of 200 {mu}m. Very fine periodic dose modulations of a {sup 60}Co photon field were achieved by means of an absorption grid made of tungsten-carbide, specifically designed for quality control. The dose modulation in the polymer gel is compared with that of film dosimetry in one plane via the DMTF concept for general access to the spatial resolution of a dose imaging system. Additionally Monte Carlo simulations were performed and used for the calculation of the DMTF of both, the polymer gel and film dosimetry. The results obtained by film dosimetry agree well with those of Monte Carlo simulations, whereas polymer gel dosimetry overestimates the amplitude value of the fine dose modulations. The authors discuss possible reasons. The in-plane resolution achieved in this work competes with the spatial resolution of standard clinical film-scanner systems.

  2. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.630 Dosimetry equipment. (a) Except for low dose-rate remote afterloader sources...

  3. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  4. Dosimetry modeling of inhaled toxic reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Miller, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    This report focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological processes and factors involved in the absorption of reactive gases. Emphasis is placed on the importance of these factors in developing dosimetry models, special consideration being given to the role of lung fluids and tissues. Several dosimetry models are discussed and illustrations of predicted results presented to demonstrate the application of the models to the uptake of NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, and to demonstrate the use of models in determining the effects of physical, chemical and biological parameters on dosimetry predictions. Gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the processes of dosimetry are pointed out, and research recommendations are made to increase our understanding of the processes and to enhance the development of dosimetry models.

  5. Ozone dosimetry predictions for humans and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C.; McCurdy, T.R.; Richmond, H.M.

    1990-11-01

    The report summarizes ozone (O3) dosimetry model predictions for rats and humans under several different scenarios based on the most recent empirical data and theoretical considerations in the field of O3 dosimetry. The report was prepared at the request of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as an input to be considered by scientists participating in a chronic lung injury risk assessment project for O3. As indicated in the report a number of judgments and assumptions had to be made to obtain the dosimetry predictions. In addition to presenting the simulation results, the O3 dosimetry model used to make the predictions is discussed and the choice or method of selecting important physiological parameters explained. This includes anatomical dimensions, choices of rat and human ventilatory parameters, and the method of estimating human and rat upper respiratory tract uptake. Finally, a comparison of simulation results to recent experimental dosimetry results is discussed.

  6. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  7. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Robert D.

    2015-07-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  8. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.; Ragan, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  10. Feasibility study on dosimetry verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy-based total marrow irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Pawlicki, Todd; Mundt, Arno J; Mell, Loren K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop dosimetry verification procedures for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based total marrow irradiation (TMI). The VMAT based TMI plans were generated for three patients: one child and two adults. The planning target volume (PTV) was defined as bony skeleton, from head to mid-femur, with a 3 mm margin. The plan strategy similar to published studies was adopted. The PTV was divided into head and neck, chest, and pelvic regions, with separate plans each of which is composed of 2-3 arcs/fields. Multiple isocenters were evenly distributed along the patient's axial direction. The focus of this study is to establish a dosimetry quality assurance procedure involving both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric verifications, which is desirable for a large PTV treated with multiple isocenters. The 2D dose verification was performed with film for gamma evaluation and absolute point dose was measured with ion chamber, with attention to the junction between neighboring plans regarding hot/cold spots. The 3D volumetric dose verification used commercial dose reconstruction software to reconstruct dose from electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) images. The gamma evaluation criteria in both 2D and 3D verification were 5% absolute point dose difference and 3 mm of distance to agreement. With film dosimetry, the overall average gamma passing rate was 98.2% and absolute dose difference was 3.9% in junction areas among the test patients; with volumetric portal dosimetry, the corresponding numbers were 90.7% and 2.4%. A dosimetry verification procedure involving both 2D and 3D was developed for VMAT-based TMI. The initial results are encouraging and warrant further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:23470926

  11. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: < 0.5 MeV, 0.5 MeV to 1.5 MeV and > 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures.

  12. International intercomparison for criticality dosimetry: the case of biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Roy, L; Buard, V; Delbos, M; Durand, V; Paillole, N; Grégoire, E; Voisin, P

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) organized a biological dosimetry international intercomparison with the purpose of comparing (i) dicentrics yield produced in human lymphocytes; (ii) the gamma and neutron dose estimate according to the corresponding laboratory calibration curve. The experimental reactor SILENE was used with different configurations: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield 1 and 2 Gy and a 60Co source 2 Gy. An increasing variation of dicentric yield per cell was observed between participants when there were more damages in the samples. Doses were derived from the observed dicentric rates according to the dose-effect relationship provided by each laboratory. Differences in dicentric rate values are more important than those in the corresponding dose values. The doses obtained by the participants were found to be in agreement with the given physical dose within 20%. The evaluation of the respective gamma and neutron dose was achieved only by four laboratories, with some small variations among them. PMID:15353693

  13. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1

  14. A Novel Biological Dosimetry Method for Monitoring Occupational Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Wards: From Radiation Dosimetry to Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Heydarheydari, S.; Haghparast, A.; Eivazi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional radiation workers are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. Occupational health hazards from radiation exposure, in a large occupational segment of the population, are of special concern. Biological dosimetry can be performed in addition to physical dosimetry with the aim of individual dose assessment and biological effects. Methods In this biodosimetry study, some hematological parameters have been examined in 40 exposed and 40 control subjects who were matched by gender, age and occupational records (±3 years) in Kermanshah hospitals in Iran (2013-2014). The occupational radiation dose was measured by personal dosimetry device (film badges). The data was analyzed using SPSS V.20 and statistical tests such as two-sided Student’s t-test. Results Exposed subjects had a median exposure of 0.68±1.58 mSv/year by film badge dosimetry. Radiation workers with at least a 10-year record showed lower values of Mean Hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) compared to the control group (p<0.05). The mean value of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in personnel working in Radiology departments seemed to show decrease in comparison with other radiation workers. Conclusion Although the radiation absorbed doses were below the permissible limits based on the ICRP, this study showed the role of low-level chronic exposure in decreasing Hb and MCV in the blood of radiation workers with at least 10 years records. Therefore, the findings from the present study suggest that monitoring of hematological parameters of radiation workers can be useful as biological dosimeter, and also the exposed medical personnel should carefully follow the radiation protection instructions and radiation exposure should be minimized as possible. PMID:27026951

  15. Emerging technological bases for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Anspaugh, L R; Haskell, E H; Lucas, J N; Marchetti, A A; Likhtarev, I A; Chumak, V V; Romanyukha, A A; Khrouch, V T; Gavrilin YuI; Minenko, V F

    1997-01-01

    In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel. PMID:9368303

  16. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  17. INTERSPECIES DOSIMETRY MODELS FOR PULMONARY PHARMACOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies Dosimetry Models for Pulmonary Pharmacology

    Ted B. Martonen, Jeffry D. Schroeter, and John S. Fleming

    Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  18. Audits for advanced treatment dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibbott, G. S.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly over the last few decades, progressing from 3D conformal treatment to image-guided intensity modulated therapy of several different flavors, both 3D and 4D and to adaptive radiotherapy. The use of intensity modulation has increased the complexity of quality assurance and essentially eliminated the physicist's ability to judge the validity of a treatment plan, even approximately, on the basis of appearance and experience. Instead, complex QA devices and procedures are required at the institutional level. Similarly, the assessment of treatment quality through remote and on-site audits also requires greater sophistication. The introduction of 3D and 4D dosimetry into external audit systems must follow, to enable quality assurance systems to perform meaningful and thorough audits.

  19. Aufgaben und Genauigkeit der klinischen Dosimetrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    In diesem Kapitel werden die Aufgaben der klinischen Dosimetrie für die verschiedenen radiologischen Disziplinen zusammengestellt. Die wichtigste Aufgabe ist die Messung der im bestrahlten Medium entstandenen Energiedosis für die verschiedenen Strahlungsquellen. Die am weitesten verbreitete dazu verwendete Methode ist die Dosismessung mit gasgefüllten Ionisationskammern. Im zweiten Teil des Kapitels werden die Genauigkeitsanforderungen der klinischen Dosimetrie diskutiert.

  20. Section 9.1 new dosimeters. New dosimetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William L.

    During the past two years there have been significant advances in several forms of radiation measurement systems for radiation processing, covering dose ranges of 1-10 6 Gy. Calorimeters as reference standards for both ionizing photon and electron fields have become well-established. In addition to the older ceric-cerous dosimetry solution analyzed potentiometrically, new liquid-phase dosimeters include those analyzed by spectrophotometry, e.g., improved forms of acidic aqueous solutions of K-Ag dichromate and organic radiochromic dye solutions. It has recently been demonstrated that by using certain refined sugars, e.g., D-(-) ribose, optical rotation response in aqueous solutions can be enhanced for dosimetry at doses > 10 4 Gy. There has been expanded development, use, and formulation (rods, tablets, and thin films) of the amino acid, alanine, as a solid-phase dosimeter analyzed by either ESR spectrometry or by glutamine or alanine spectrophotometry of complexes with ferric ion in the presence of a sulfonphthalein dye (xylenol orange). New commercial types of radiochromic plastic dosimeters, e.g., GafChromic TM, Riso B3 TM, GAMMACHROME YR TM, Radix TM, and Gammex TM, have been introduced and applied in practice. Improvements and broader use of optical waveguide dosimeters, e.g., Opti-Chromic TM, have also been reported, especially in food irradiation applications. Several novel dyed plastic dosimeters are available in large quantities and they lose color due to irradiation. An example is a dyed cellulosic thin film (ATC type DY-42 TM) which can be measured spectrophotometrically or densitometrically up to doses as high as 10 6 Gy.

  1. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  2. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-06: Radiochromic Film Analysis Based On Principal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: An algorithm to convert the color image of scanned EBT2 radiochromic film [Ashland, Covington KY] into a dose map was developed based upon a principal component analysis. The sensitive layer of the EBT2 film is colored so that the background streaks arising from variations in thickness and scanning imperfections may be distinguished by color from the dose in the exposed film. Methods: Doses of 0, 0.94, 1.9, 3.8, 7.8, 16, 32 and 64 Gy were delivered to radiochromic films by contact with a calibrated Sr-90/Y-90 source. They were digitized by a transparency scanner. Optical density images were calculated and analyzed by the method of principal components. The eigenimages of the 0.94 Gy film contained predominantly noise, predominantly background streaking, and background streaking plus the source, respectively, in order from the smallest to the largest eigenvalue. Weighting the second and third eigenimages by −0.574 and 0.819 respectively and summing them plus the constant 0.012 yielded a processed optical density image with negligible background streaking. This same weighted sum was transformed to the red, green and blue space of the scanned images and applied to all of the doses. The curve of processed density in the middle of the source versus applied dose was fit by a twophase association curve. A film was sandwiched between two polystyrene blocks and exposed edge-on to a different Y-90 source. This measurement was modeled with the GATE simulation toolkit [Version 6.2, OpenGATE Collaboration], and the on-axis depth-dose curves were compared. Results: The transformation defined using the principal component analysis of the 0.94 Gy film minimized streaking in the backgrounds of all of the films. The depth-dose curves from the film measurement and simulation are indistinguishable. Conclusion: This algorithm accurately converts EBT2 film images to dose images while reducing noise and minimizing background streaking. Supported by a sponsored research

  3. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by

  4. Research of boron films deposited on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Linjun; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Ren, Bing; Yao, Beiling; Xia, Yiben

    2013-09-01

    Semiconductor detector that incorporate neutron reactive material within the same detector demonstrates a new method for neutron dosimetry and boron neutron reactive therapy seems to be a promising treatment. Boron films were deposited on single crystalline silicon, glass, and CVD diamond film by magnetron sputtering, close-space sublimation and vacuum evaporation. The properties of the samples were characterized by SEM, which shows vacuum evaporation method is suitable for depositing high quality boron films.

  5. Measurement of low-energy backscatter factors using GAFCHROMIC film and OSLDs.

    PubMed

    Mart, Chris J; Elson, Howard R; Lamba, Michael A S

    2012-01-01

    Some of the lowest voltages used in radiotherapy are termed Grenz and superficial X-rays of ~ 20 and ~ 100 kVp, respectively. Dosimetrically, the surface doses from these beams are calculated with the use of a free in-air air kerma measurement combined with a backscatter factor and the appropriate ratio of mass energy absorption coefficients from the measurement material to water. Alternative tools to the standard ion chamber for measuring the BSF are GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) crystals made from Al2O3. The scope of this project included making three different backscatter measurements with an Xstrahl-D3100 X-ray unit on the Grenz ray and superficial settings. These measurements were with OSLDs, GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film, and a PTW ionization chamber. The varied measurement methods allowed for intercomparison to determine the accuracy of the results. The ion chamber measurement was the least accurate, as expected from previous experimental findings. GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film proved to be a useful tool which gave reasonable results, and Landauer OSLDs showed good results for smaller field sizes and an increasing overresponse with larger fields. The specific backscatter factors for this machine demonstrated values about 5% higher than the universal values suggested by the AAPM and IPEMB codes of practice for the 100 kVp setting. The 20 kvp measured data from both techniques showed general agreement with those found in the BJR Supplement No. 10, indicating that this unit's Grenz ray spectrum is similar to those used in previous experimental work. PMID:23149776

  6. Breast dosimetry in clinical mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis Alberto Do Rego

    The objective of this study was show that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. In the study, AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The protocol proposes the use of a fiber-optic coupled (FOCD) or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter to measure the entrance skin exposure at the time of the mammogram without interfering with diagnostic information of the mammogram. The study showed that FOCD had sensitivity with less than 7% energy dependence, linear in all tube current-time product stations, and was reproducible within 2%. FOCD was superior to MOSFET dosimeter in sensitivity, reusability, and reproducibility. The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. In addition, the study population anthropometric

  7. EBT ring physics

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers. (MOW)

  8. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee.

  9. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  10. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  11. Monte Carol-Based Dosimetry of Beta-Emitters for Intravascular Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, C.K.

    2002-06-25

    Monte Carlo simulations for radiation dosimetry and the experimental verifications of the simulations have been developed for the treatment geometry of intravascular brachytherapy, a form of radionuclide therapy for occluded coronary disease (restenosis). Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, has been used to calculate the radiation dose from the encapsulated array of B-emitting seeds (Sr/Y-source train). Solid water phantoms have been fabricated to measure the dose on the radiochromic films that were exposed to the beta source train for both linear and curved coronary vessel geometries. While the dose difference for the 5-degree curved vessel at the prescription point of f+2.0 mm is within the 10% guideline set by the AAPM, however, the difference increased dramatically to 16.85% for the 10-degree case which requires additional adjustment for the acceptable dosimetry planning. The experimental dose measurements agree well with the simulation results

  12. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D.; Harken, A. D.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2 mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions.

  13. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D; Harken, A D; Randers-Pehrson, G; Brenner, D J

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2 mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions. PMID:25860401

  14. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space. PMID:10631334

  15. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values. PMID:15353694

  16. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  17. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... nuclear accident is possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

  18. Evaluation of dosimetric uncertainties and transit dosimetry feasibility in pulmonary stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui

    The aims of this dissertation were to develop a method with improved accuracy for various heterogeneous geometries and to evaluate the feasibility of using EPID transit dosimetry for error detection. This dissertation examined phantom geometries with an emphasis on a tumor-in-lung geometry that may occur in hypo-fractionated SBRT treatments. For dose investigation in heterogeneous geometries, a multi-planar film measurement system was used with a measurement accuracy (within 3%) by using specific procedures to reduce the film perturbation in a low density medium. Measurements were used to validate a Monte Carlo (MC) method, and the results indicated that this MC method can be used as a reference to validate other calculation algorithms or to evaluate the doses delivered to patients for lung treatment. For developing an error detection method, a commercial electronic portal imaging device (EPID) composed of amorphous silicon was characterized for dosimetry application. A general calibration method was explored to use this device as a water-equivalent dosimeter, allowing for direct comparison to calculated doses from treatment planning systems. The calibration method was validated for a range of situations, field shapes, and intensities. The EPID transit dosimetry was sensitive to delivery errors, such as variations in treatment field shape, machine output and patient setup. The correlation between in-patient and transit dose variations may be established and used to determine acceptance or rejection criteria when the error is found. This dissertation showed the potential of using EPID dosimetry during treatment for on-line error correction and for estimating the in-patient dose error.

  19. Dosimetry of a Small-Animal Irradiation Model using a 6 MV Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, F. Moran; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.

    2010-12-07

    A custom made rat-like phantom was used to measure dose distributions using a 6 MV linear accelerator. The phantom has air cavities that simulate the lungs and cylindrical inserts that simulate the backbone. The calculated dose distributions were obtained with the BrainScan v.5.31 TPS software. For the irradiation two cases were considered: (a) near the region where the phantom has two air cavities that simulate the lungs, and (b) with an entirely uniform phantom. The treatment plan consisted of two circular cone arcs that imparted a 500 cGy dose to a simulated lesion in the backbone. We measured dose distributions using EBT2 GafChromic film and an Epson Perfection V750 scanner working in transmission mode. Vertical and horizontal profiles, isodose curves from 50 to 450 cGy, dose and distance to agreement (DTA) histograms and Gamma index were obtained to compare the dose distributions using DoseLab v4.11. As a result, these calculations show very good agreement between calculated and measured dose distribution in both cases. With a 2% 2 mm criteria 100% of the points pass the Gamma test for the uniform case, while 98.9% of the points do it for the lungs case.

  20. Dosimetry of a Small-Animal Irradiation Model using a 6 MV Linear Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, F. Morán; García-Garduño, O. A.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.

    2010-12-01

    A custom made rat-like phantom was used to measure dose distributions using a 6 MV linear accelerator. The phantom has air cavities that simulate the lungs and cylindrical inserts that simulate the backbone. The calculated dose distributions were obtained with the BrainScan v.5.31 TPS software. For the irradiation two cases were considered: (a) near the region where the phantom has two air cavities that simulate the lungs, and (b) with an entirely uniform phantom. The treatment plan consisted of two circular cone arcs that imparted a 500 cGy dose to a simulated lesion in the backbone. We measured dose distributions using EBT2 GafChromic film and an Epson Perfection V750 scanner working in transmission mode. Vertical and horizontal profiles, isodose curves from 50 to 450 cGy, dose and distance to agreement (DTA) histograms and Gamma index were obtained to compare the dose distributions using DoseLab v4.11. As a result, these calculations show very good agreement between calculated and measured dose distribution in both cases. With a 2% 2 mm criteria 100% of the points pass the Gamma test for the uniform case, while 98.9% of the points do it for the lungs case.

  1. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables.

  2. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. γ-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  3. 3-D Imaging Based, Radiobiological Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard; He, Bin; Prideaux, Andrew; Hobbs, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy holds promise as a new treatment against cancer. Advances in imaging are making it possible to evaluate the spatial distribution of radioactivity in tumors and normal organs over time. Matched anatomical imaging such as combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT have also made it possible to obtain tissue density information in conjunction with the radioactivity distribution. Coupled with sophisticated iterative reconstruction algorithims, these advances have made it possible to perform highly patient-specific dosimetry that also incorporates radiobiological modeling. Such sophisticated dosimetry techniques are still in the research investigation phase. Given the attendant logistical and financial costs, a demonstrated improvement in patient care will be a prerequisite for the adoption of such highly-patient specific internal dosimetry methods. PMID:18662554

  4. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  5. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  6. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently.

  7. Applicability of Topaz Composites to Electron Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, K. S.; Souza, D. N.

    2010-11-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimetric topaz properties have been investigated and the results have shown that this mineral presents characteristics of a good dosimeter mainly in doses evaluation in radiotherapy with photons beams in radiotherapy. Typical applications of thermoluminescent dosimeters in radiotherapy are: in vivo dosimetry on patients (either as a routine quality assurance procedure or for dose monitoring in special cases); verification of treatment techniques; dosimetry audits; and comparisons among hospitals. The mean aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of topaz-Teflon pellets as thermoluminescent dosimeters in high-energy electron beams used to radiotherapy. Topaz-Teflon pellets were used as TLD.

  8. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  9. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  10. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  11. Time to demand dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Guy, M J

    2015-01-01

    Molecular radiotherapy (MRT) has been used clinically for around 75 years. Despite this long history of clinical use, there is no established dosimetry practice for calculating the absorbed dose delivered to tumour targets or to organs at risk. As a result, treatment protocols have often evolved based on experience with relatively small numbers of patients, each receiving a similar administered activity but, potentially, widely varying doses. This is in stark contrast to modern external-beam radiotherapy practice. This commentary describes some of the barriers to MRT dosimetry and gives some opinions on the way forward. PMID:25571916

  12. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter for small field dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Aaki, Fujio; Ishidoya, Tatsuya; Ikegami, Tohru; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2005-06-15

    We have recently developed a prototypical radiophotoluminescent glass plate dosimeter (GPD) system as a device for small field dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of the GPD system for small field dosimetry. The profiles measured with the GPD were evaluated by comparing them to those from Kodak X-Omat V and GAFCROMIC XR type R film dosimeters for 2, 5, 9, and 15 mm circular collimators created by a linear accelerator-based radiosurgery system. The GPD output factors were compared with those of various detectors including an ion chamber, a p-type silicon diode detector, a glass rod dosimeter (GRD), and a diamond detector. The results measured with the GPD were also confirmed by comparing them to those from Monte Carlo simulations. The accuracy of a simulated beam is validated by the excellent agreement between Monte Carlo calculated and measured central axis depth-dose curves for 9- and 15 mm circular collimators using 4- and 10 MV photon beams. The GPD profiles show almost the same full width at half maximum as those of film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations at 4- and 10 MV photon beams, but a little narrower penumbrae than the film dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations. The output factors measured with the GPD are in good agreement with those from a diode detector, a diamond detector, and the GRD with a small active volume and Monte Carlo simulations, except for a very small 2 mm circular collimator. It was found that the GPD is a very useful detector for small field dosimetry.

  13. Polymer gel dosimetry applied to beta particles, electrons and 300 kV X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Md. Nurul

    Polymer gels were used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions for beta particles, electron and x-rays beams that are used in radiotherapy. The manufacturing processes and calibration procedures for two dosimeters (hypoxic PAG and normoxic MAGIC gels) were investigated. The response of both gels was energy independent over a range of electron and photon energies commonly used for radiotherapy. However, dose response of both gels was dependent on the temperature at the time of MR scanning, while MAGIC was also dependent on the temperature at the time of irradiation, which had not been previously reported. Results suggest that MAGIC gel is superior to PAG, since it is easier to manufacture and unaffected by oxygen diffusion through wall materials. The potential usefulness of both types of gel in different areas of radiotherapy was studied, including vascular brachytherapy. Results were compared with doses measured using radio- chromic film, confirming that dose distributions for vascular brachytherapy sources with a high dose gradient can be measured using PAG. However, because of the disadvantages of the gel manufacturing process and the need for access to a high-resolution scanner, it was concluded that radio-chromic film would be the method of choice for routine quality assurance in brachytherapy. PAG and MAGIC gels were also used for dosimetry across the junction of 6MV photon and 12MeV electron fields that are often used in radiotherapy. Different photon field configurations were studied, and dose profiles were measured. For each configuration either significant "hot" or "cold spots" were measured, with good agreement between the MAGIC and PAG and radio- chromic film. This work has confirmed the usefulness of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy in general, and in beta and electron dosimetry in particular. In addition, these studies have quantified the advantages of normoxic gels over the hypoxic PAG.

  14. The three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry method: test for a 106Ru eye plaque applicator.

    PubMed

    Kirov, A S; Piao, J Z; Mathur, N K; Miller, T R; Devic, S; Trichter, S; Zaider, M; Soares, C G; LoSasso, T

    2005-07-01

    The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within approximately 2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (approximately 4.5 mm high and approximately 12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than approximately 10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed. PMID:15972981

  15. The three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry method: test for a 106Ru eye plaque applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, A. S.; Piao, J. Z.; Mathur, N. K.; Miller, T. R.; Devic, S.; Trichter, S.; Zaider, M.; Soares, C. G.; Lo Sasso, T.

    2005-07-01

    The need for fast, accurate and high resolution dosimetric quality assurance in radiation therapy has been outpacing the development of new and improved 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques. This paper summarizes the efforts to create a novel and potentially very fast, 3D dosimetry method based on the observation of scintillation light from an irradiated liquid scintillator volume serving simultaneously as a phantom material and as a dose detector medium. The method, named three-dimensional scintillation dosimetry (3DSD), uses visible light images of the liquid scintillator volume at multiple angles and applies a tomographic algorithm to a series of these images to reconstruct the scintillation light emission density in each voxel of the volume. It is based on the hypothesis that with careful design and data processing, one can achieve acceptable proportionality between the local light emission density and the locally absorbed dose. The method is applied to a Ru-106 eye plaque immersed in a 16.4 cm3 liquid scintillator volume and the reconstructed 3D dose map is compared along selected profiles and planes with radiochromic film and diode measurements. The comparison indicates that the 3DSD method agrees, within 25% for most points or within ~2 mm distance to agreement, with the relative radiochromic film and diode dose distributions in a small (~4.5 mm high and ~12 mm diameter) volume in the unobstructed, high gradient dose region outside the edge of the plaque. For a comparison, the reproducibility of the radiochromic film results for our measurements ranges from 10 to 15% within this volume. At present, the 3DSD method is not accurate close to the edge of the plaque, and further than ~10 mm (<10% central axis depth dose) from the plaque surface. Improvement strategies, considered important to provide a more accurate quick check of the dose profiles in 3D for brachytherapy applicators, are discussed.

  16. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  17. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy... system or source traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and...

  18. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy... system or source traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and...

  19. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy... system or source traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and...

  20. 10 CFR 35.630 - Dosimetry equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dosimetry equipment. 35.630 Section 35.630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy... system or source traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and...

  1. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  2. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  3. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  4. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increased need for after-the fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effect...

  5. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  6. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  7. A new paradigm in personal dosimetry using LiF:Mg,Cu,P.

    PubMed

    Cassata, J R; Moscovitch, M; Rotunda, J E; Velbeck, K J

    2002-01-01

    The United States Navy has been monitoring personnel for occupational exposure to ionising radiation since 1947. Film was exclusively used until 1973 when thermoluminescence dosemeters were introduced and used to the present time. In 1994, a joint research project between the Naval Dosimetry Center, Georgetown University, and Saint Gobain Crystals and Detectors (formerly Bicron RMP formerly Harshaw TLD) began to develop a state of the art thermoluminescent dosimetry system. The study was conducted from a large-scale dosimetry processor point of view with emphasis on a systems approach. Significant improvements were achieved by replacing the LiF:Mg,Ti with LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL elements due to the significant sensitivity increase, linearity, and negligible hiding. Dosemeter filters were optimised for gamma and X ray energy discrimination using Monte Carlo modelling (MCNP) resulting in significant improvement in accuracy and precision. Further improvements were achieved through the use of neural-network based dose calculation algorithms. Both back propagation and functional link methods were implemented and the data compared with essentially the same results. Several operational aspects of the system are discussed, including (1) background subtraction using control dosemeters, (2) selection criteria for control dosemeters, (3) optimisation of the TLD readers, (4) calibration methodology, and (5) the optimisation of the heating profile. PMID:12382701

  8. Resistance probe for energetic particle dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Wampler, W.R.

    A probe for determining the energy and flux of particles in a plasma comprises a carbon film adapted to be exposed to the plasma, the film having an electrical resistance which is related to the number of particles impacting the film, contacts for passing an electrical current throught the film, and contacts for determining the electrical resistance of the film. An improved method for determining the energy or flux of particles in a plasma is also disclosed.

  9. Direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification using a modified EPID

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Helen; Vial, Philip; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modified by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both

  10. Development of an improved dosimetry system for the workers at the Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhryakov, V.; Suslova, K.; Aladova, E.; Vasilenko, E.; Miller, S.C.; Slaughter, D.M.; Krahenbuhl, M.P.

    2000-07-01

    Databases are being created that contain verified and updated dosimetry and worker history information for workers at the Mayak Production Association. many workers had significant external and internal exposures, particularly during the early years (1948--1952) of operation. These dosimetric and worker history data are to be used in companion epidemiology studies of stochastic and deterministic effects. The database contains both external and internal dose information and is being constructed from other databases that include radiochemical analyses of tissues, bioassay data, air sampling data, while body counting data, and occupational and worker histories. The procedures, models, methods, and operational uncertainties will be documented and included in the database, technical reports, and publications. The cohort of the stochastic epidemiological study is expected to include about 19,000 persons while the cohort for the deterministic epidemiological study is expected to include about 600 persons. For external dosimetry, workplace gamma, beta, and neutron doses are being reconstructed. The models used for this incorporate issues such as known isotopes, composition, shielding, further analysis of film bandage sensitivities, and records of direct measurements. Organ doses from external exposures are also being calculated. Methods for calculating dose uncertainties are being developed. For internal dosimetry, the organ doses have been calculated using the established FIB-1 biokinetic model. A new biokinetic model is being developed that includes more information of the solubility and biokinetics of the different chemical forms and particulate sizes of plutonium that were in the workplace. In addition, updated worker histories will be sued to estimate doses to some workers where direct measurements were not made. A rigorous quality control procedure is being implemented to ensure that the correct dosimetry data is entering the various databases being used by the

  11. Tactical gamma and fast neutron dosimetry with leuko dye optical waveguides. Conference paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1982-06-18

    Ionizing radiation-induced changes in the refractive index of radiochromic dye solution results in a novel dosimetry system with a very wide dynamic range. This approach is adaptable to personnel dosimetry and to Army tactical dosimetry.

  12. An Absorbed-Dose/Dose-Rate Dependence for the Alanine-EPR Dosimetry System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Puhl, J. M.; Cooper, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    NIST developed the alanine dosimetry system in the early 1990s to replace radiochromic dye film dosimeters. Later in the decade the alanine system was firmly established as a transfer service for high-dose radiation dosimetry and an integral part of the internal calibration scheme supporting these services. Over the course of the last decade, routine monitoring of the system revealed a small but significant observation that, after examination, led to the characterization of a previously unknown absorbed-dose-dependent, dose-rate effect for the alanine system. Though the potential impact of this effect is anticipated to be extremely limited for NIST’s customer-based transfer dosimetry service, much greater implications may be realized for international measurement comparisons between National Measurement Institutes. PMID:27096113

  13. Clinical experience with EPID dosimetry for prostate IMRT pre-treatment dose verification.

    PubMed

    McDermott, L N; Wendling, M; van Asselen, B; Stroom, J; Sonke, J J; van Herk, M; Mijnheer, B J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how dosimetry with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (a-Si EPID) replaced film and ionization chamber measurements for routine pre-treatment dosimetry in our clinic. Furthermore, we described how EPID dosimetry was used to solve a clinical problem. IMRT prostate plans were delivered to a homogeneous slab phantom. EPID transit images were acquired for each segment. A previously developed in-house back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the dose distribution in the phantom mid-plane (intersecting the isocenter). Segment dose images were summed to obtain an EPID mid-plane dose image for each field. Fields were compared using profiles and in two dimensions with the y evaluation (criteria: 3%/3 mm). To quantify results, the average gamma (gamma avg), maximum gamma (gamma max), and the percentage of points with gamma < 1(P gamma < 1) were calculated within the 20% isodose line of each field. For 10 patient plans, all fields were measured with EPID and film at gantry set to 0 degrees. The film was located in the phantom coronal mid-plane (10 cm depth), and compared with the back-projected EPID mid-plane absolute dose. EPID and film measurements agreed well for all 50 fields, with (gamma avg) =0.16, (gamma max)=1.00, and (P gamma < 1)= 100%. Based on these results, film measurements were discontinued for verification of prostate IMRT plans. For 20 patient plans, the dose distribution was re-calculated with the phantom CT scan and delivered to the phantom with the original gantry angles. The planned isocenter dose (plan(iso)) was verified with the EPID (EPID(iso)) and an ionization chamber (IC(iso)). The average ratio, (EPID(iso)/IC(iso)), was 1.00 (0.01 SD). Both measurements were systematically lower than planned, with (EPID(iso)/plan(iso)) and (IC(iso)/plan(iso))=0.99 (0.01 SD). EPID mid-plane dose images for each field were also compared with the corresponding plane derived from the three dimensional

  14. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

  15. Neutron dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1991-06-01

    The addition of thermoluminescent (TL) materials within hydrogenous matrices to detect neutron induced proton recoils for radiation dosimetry is a well known concept. Previous attempts to implement this technique have met with limited success, primarily due to the high temperatures required for TL readout and the low melting temperatures of hydrogen-rich plastics. Research in recent years PNL has produced a new Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique known as the Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) that offers, for the first time, the capability of performing extremely sensitive radiation dosimetry at low temperatures. In addition to its extreme sensitivity, the COSL technique offers multiple readout capability, limited fading in a one year period, and the capability of analyzing single grains within a hydrogenous matrix.

  16. Passive particle dosimetry. [silver halide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Present methods of dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the processes using silver chloride crystals for ionizing particle dosimetry. Differences between the ability of various crystals to record ionizing particle paths are directly related to impurities in the range of a few ppm (parts per million). To understand the roles of these impurities in the process, a method for consistent production of high purity silver chloride, and silver bromide was developed which yields silver halides with detectable impurity content less than 1 ppm. This high purity silver chloride was used in growing crystals with controlled doping. Crystals were grown by both the Czochalski method and the Bridgman method, and the Bridgman grown crystals were used for the experiments discussed. The distribution coefficients of ten divalent cations were determined for the Bridgman crystals. The best dosimeters were made with silver chloride crystals containing 5 to 10 ppm of lead; other impurities tested did not produce proper dosimeters.

  17. Neutron dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Eschbach, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The addition of thermoluminescent (TL) materials within hydrogenous matrices to detect neutron-induced proton recoils for radiation dosimetry is a well-known concept. Previous attempts to implement this technique have met with limited success, primarily due to the high temperatures required for TL readout and the low melting temperatures of hydrogen-rich plastics. Research in recent years at Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) has produced a new Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique known as the Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) that offers, for the first time, the capability of performing extremely sensitive radiation dosimetry at low temperatures. In addition to its extreme sensitivity, the COSL technique offers multiple readout capability, limited fading in a one-year period, and the capability of analyzing single grains within a hydrogenous matrix. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Anthony; Lo, Anthony T.; Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R.

    2012-04-01

    There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

  19. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  20. Simple optical theory for light dosimetry during PDT (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.

    1992-06-01

    Photons are one of the three major reactants in the photodynamic reaction that yields toxic photoproduct for cell killing. Dosimetry of light is a major concern when planning a photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocol. This paper presents a very simple approach toward the tissue optics with a practical conclusion about how tissue optics affects planning of day-to-day PDT dosimetry. The paper does not address all the complexities of real tissue dosimetry, such as heterogeneous tissues, variable absorption due to changing tissue blood content, and variable tissue oxygen levels. The paper outlines the optical behavior in a homogeneous tissue, which is a starting point for understanding light dosimetry.

  1. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A

    2005-07-15

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of {sup 14}C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic {sup 14}C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings.

  2. Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, W. A.

    1994-08-01

    A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations.

  3. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  4. The Importance of Dosimetry Standardization in Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Marc; DeWerd, Larry; Deye, James; Lindsay, Patricia; Murphy, Mark K; Mitch, Michael; Macchiarini, Francesca; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Stone, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation dose is central to much of radiobiological research. Precision and accuracy of dose measurements and reporting of the measurement details should be sufficient to allow the work to be interpreted and repeated and to allow valid comparisons to be made, both in the same laboratory and by other laboratories. Despite this, a careful reading of published manuscripts suggests that measurement and reporting of radiation dosimetry and setup for radiobiology research is frequently inadequate, thus undermining the reliability and reproducibility of the findings. To address these problems and propose a course of action, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) brought together representatives of the radiobiology and radiation physics communities in a workshop in September, 2011. The workshop participants arrived at a number of specific recommendations as enumerated in this paper and they expressed the desirability of creating dosimetry standard operating procedures (SOPs) for cell culture and for small and large animal experiments. It was also felt that these SOPs would be most useful if they are made widely available through mechanism(s) such as the web, where they can provide guidance to both radiobiologists and radiation physicists, be cited in publications, and be updated as the field and needs evolve. Other broad areas covered were the need for continuing education through tutorials at national conferences, and for journals to establish standards for reporting dosimetry. This workshop did not address issues of dosimetry for studies involving radiation focused at the sub-cellular level, internally-administered radionuclides, biodosimetry based on biological markers of radiation exposure, or dose reconstruction for epidemiological studies. PMID:26401441

  5. 3D dosimetry fundamentals: gels and plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, M.; Jordan, K.

    2010-11-01

    Many different materials have been developed for 3D radiation dosimetry since the Fricke gel dosimeter was first proposed in 1984. This paper is intended as an entry point into these materials where we provide an overview of the basic principles for the most explored materials. References to appropriate sources are provided such that the reader interested in more details can quickly find relevant information.

  6. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general

  7. Dosimetry and field matching for radiotherapy to the breast and superclavicular fossa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, Elizabeth

    Radiotherapy for early breast cancer aims to achieve local disease control and decrease loco-regional recurrence rates. Treatment may be directed to breast or chest wall alone or, include regional lymph nodes. When using tangential fields to treat the breast a separate anterior field directed to the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) is needed to treat nodal areas. The complex geometry of this region necessitates matching of adjacent radiation fields in three dimensions. The potential exists for zones of overdosage or underdosage along the match line. Cosmetic results may be compromised if treatment fields are not accurately aligned. Techniques for field matching vary between centres in the UK. A study of dosimetry across the match line region using different techniques, as reported in the multi-centre START Trial Quality Assurance (QA) programme, was undertaken. A custom-made anthropomorphic phantom was designed to assess dose distribution in three dimensions using film dosimetry. Methods with varying degrees of complexity were employed to match tangential and SCF beams. Various techniques combined half beam blocking and machine rotations to achieve geometric alignment. Matching of asymmetric beams allowed a single isocentre technique to be used. Where field matching was not undertaken a gap between tangential and SCF fields was employed. Results demonstrated differences between techniques in addition to variations within the same technique between different centres. Geometric alignment techniques produced more homogenous dose distributions in the match region than gap techniques or those techniques not correcting for field divergence. For this multi-centre assessment of match plane techniques film dosimetry used in conjunction with a breast shaped phantom provided relative dose information. This study has highlighted the difficulties of matching treatment fields to achieve homogenous dose distribution through the region of the match plane and the degree of

  8. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-09-29

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model.

  9. Software tool for portal dosimetry research.

    PubMed

    Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects. PMID:18946980

  10. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  11. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Errico, Francesco

    2001-09-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as "superheated drop detectors" or "bubble (damage) detectors", have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry.

  12. Effects of temperature variation on MOSFET dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J; Yu, Peter K N

    2004-07-01

    This note investigates temperature effects on dosimetry using a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) for radiotherapy x-ray treatment. This was performed by analysing the dose response and threshold voltage outputs for MOSFET dosimeters as a function of ambient temperature. Results have shown that the clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) MOSFET provides stable dose measurements with temperatures varying from 15 degrees C up to 40 degrees C. Thus standard irradiations performed at room temperature can be directly compared to in vivo dose assessments performed at near body temperature without a temperature correction function. The MOSFET dosimeter threshold voltage varies with temperature and this level is dependent on the dose history of the MOSFET dosimeter. However, the variation can be accounted for in the measurement method. For accurate dosimetry, the detector should be placed for approximately 60 s on a patient to allow thermal equilibrium before measurements are taken with the final reading performed whilst still attached to the patient or conversely left for approximately 120 s after removal from the patient if initial readout was measured at room temperature to allow temperature equilibrium to be established. PMID:15285264

  13. In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mijnheer, Ben; Beddar, Sam; Izewska, Joanna; Reft, Chester

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is in use in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to detect major errors, to assess clinically relevant differences between planned and delivered dose, to record dose received by individual patients, and to fulfill legal requirements. After discussing briefly the main characteristics of the most commonly applied IVD systems, the clinical experience of IVD during EBRT will be summarized. Advancement of the traditional aspects of in vivo dosimetry as well as the development of currently available and newly emerging noninterventional technologies are required for large-scale implementation of IVD in EBRT. These new technologies include the development of electronic portal imaging devices for 2D and 3D patient dosimetry during advanced treatment techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, and the use of IVD in proton and ion radiotherapy by measuring the decay of radiation-induced radionuclides. In the final analysis, we will show in this Vision 20/20 paper that in addition to regulatory compliance and reimbursement issues, the rationale for in vivo measurements is to provide an accurate and independent verification of the overall treatment procedure. It will enable the identification of potential errors in dose calculation, data transfer, dose delivery, patient setup, and changes in patient anatomy. It is the authors' opinion that all treatments with curative intent should be verified through in vivo dose measurements in combination with pretreatment checks.

  14. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Valverde, N.J.; Da Silva, F.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. PMID:26445332

  15. [Thorium: analysis and dosimetry of thorium welding electrodes].

    PubMed

    Laroche, P; Cazoulat, A; Rotger, C; Petitot, F; Gérasimo, P

    1998-01-01

    The use of thoriated tungsten electrodes may be at the origin of a potential hazard for the personnel involved in the use of electrodes, as well as the general population. To assess this hazard, the electrode radioactivity measurements by alpha and beta counting has been conducted. The radioelements were identified by alpha and gamma spectromety. It appeared that there was a radioactive disequilibrium between thorium-232 (Th-232) and it daughters atoms. Additionally, some thorium 230 (Th-230) belonging to the uranium chain, was present. The chemical separation and the milling processing had affected the radioactive composition and the thorium in the electrodes, doesn't exactly corresponds to natural thorium. Radiation doses were also assessed: film and photoluminescence dosimetry were undertaken. Finally smears method showed a alpha removable area contamination. Even if the hazard is weak. As a matter of fact, it must not be neglected because it was complex, for the thorium was always accompanied by Th-232 progeny, alpha emitters but also beta and gamma emitters. PMID:9770019

  16. Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which

  17. Passively scattered proton beam entrance dosimetry with a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Landon; Holmes, Charles; Sahoo, Narayan; Beddar, Sam

    2015-02-01

    We tested the feasibility of using plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) for proton entrance dosimetry. A PSD built with BCF-12 scintillating fiber was used to measure the absolute entrance dose of a passively scattered proton beam for energies ranging from 140 to 250 MeV, and for a range of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) widths at two energies, to quantify the effect of ionization quenching on the response of the detector and to determine the necessity of Cerenkov radiation correction in proton beams. The overall accuracy and precision of the PSD was evaluated by measuring lateral beam profiles and comparing the results with profiles measured using film. The PSD under-responded owing to ionization quenching, exhibiting approximately a 7% loss of signal at the highest energy studied (250 MeV) and a 10% loss of signal at the lowest energy studied (140 MeV). For a given nominal energy, varying the SOBP width did not significantly alter the response of the PSD. Cerenkov radiation contributed negligibly to the PSD signal and can be safely ignored without introducing more than 1% error in the measured dose. Profiles measured with the PSD and film agreed to within the uncertainty of the detector, demonstrating good relative accuracy. Although correction factors were necessary to account for ionization quenching, the magnitude of the correction varied minimally over a broad range of energies; PSDs therefore represent a practical detector for proton entrance dosimetry. PMID:25591037

  18. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  19. Film Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  20. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, A. S.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al2O3:C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al2O3:C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF3:Eu2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al2O3:C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice for point dose

  1. Automatic in vivo portal dosimetry of all treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Rozendaal, R.; Mijnheer, B.; van Herk, M.; Mans, A.

    2013-11-01

    At our institution EPID (electronic portal imaging device) dosimetry is routinely applied to perform in vivo dose verification of all patient treatments with curative intent since January 2008. The major impediment of the method has been the amount of work required to produce and inspect the in vivo dosimetry reports (a time-consuming and labor-intensive process). In this paper we present an overview of the actions performed to implement an automated in vivo dosimetry solution clinically. We reimplemented the EPID dosimetry software and modified the acquisition software. Furthermore, we introduced new tools to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database and automatically run the EPID dosimetry software when needed. In 2012, 95% of our 3839 treatments scheduled for in vivo dosimetry were analyzed automatically (27 633 portal images of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields, 5551 portal image data of VMAT arcs, and 2003 portal images of non-IMRT fields). The in vivo dosimetry verification results are available a few minutes after delivery and alerts are immediately raised when deviations outside tolerance levels are detected. After the clinical introduction of this automated solution, inspection of the detected deviations is the only remaining work. These newly developed tools are a major step forward towards full integration of in vivo EPID dosimetry in radiation oncology practice.

  2. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  3. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  4. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  5. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  6. Student Perceptions of an Online Medical Dosimetry Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenards, Nishele D.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin--La Crosse offers the first web-based medical dosimetry program in the nation. There is no data to research a program of this type. This research consisted of the evaluation of other distance education programs including health profession programs in addition to face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. There was need to…

  7. Automatic in vivo portal dosimetry of all treatments.

    PubMed

    Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Mijnheer, B; van Herk, M; Mans, A

    2013-11-21

    At our institution EPID (electronic portal imaging device) dosimetry is routinely applied to perform in vivo dose verification of all patient treatments with curative intent since January 2008. The major impediment of the method has been the amount of work required to produce and inspect the in vivo dosimetry reports (a time-consuming and labor-intensive process). In this paper we present an overview of the actions performed to implement an automated in vivo dosimetry solution clinically. We reimplemented the EPID dosimetry software and modified the acquisition software. Furthermore, we introduced new tools to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database and automatically run the EPID dosimetry software when needed. In 2012, 95% of our 3839 treatments scheduled for in vivo dosimetry were analyzed automatically (27,633 portal images of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields, 5551 portal image data of VMAT arcs, and 2003 portal images of non-IMRT fields). The in vivo dosimetry verification results are available a few minutes after delivery and alerts are immediately raised when deviations outside tolerance levels are detected. After the clinical introduction of this automated solution, inspection of the detected deviations is the only remaining work. These newly developed tools are a major step forward towards full integration of in vivo EPID dosimetry in radiation oncology practice. PMID:24201085

  8. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE∕optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    PubMed Central

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5× scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1×3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5× commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to ∼2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in opaqueness

  10. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Sakhalkar, H S; Adamovics, J; Ibbott, G; Oldham, M

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1 x 3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to approximately 2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  11. Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research.

  12. In vivo light dosimetry for pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Culligan, Melissa; Edmonds, Christine E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2009-02-01

    In-vivo light Dosimetry for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the important dosimetry quantities critical for predicting PDT outcome. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to patients undergoing pleural PDT as a function of treatment time, treatment volume and surface area, and its accuracy as a function of the calibration accuracies of each isotropic detector and the calibration integrating sphere. The patients studied here were enrolled in Phase II clinical trial of Photofrin-mediated PDT for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with pleural effusion. The ages of the patients studied varied from 34 to 69 year old. All patients were administered 2mg per kg body weight Photoprin 24 hours before the surgery. Patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) are treated with laser light with a light fluence of 60 J/cm^2 at 630nm. Fluence rate (mW/cm^2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm^2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. The anisotropy of each isotropic detector was found to be within 30%. The mean fluence rate delivery varied from 37.84 to 94.05 mW/cm^2 and treatment time varied from 1762 to 5232s. We have established a correlation between the treatment time and the treatment volume. The results are discussed using an integrating sphere theory and the measured tissue optical properties. The result can be used as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  13. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy: A method to evaluate geometric and dosimetric uncertainties using radiochromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Coscia, Gianluca; Vaccara, Elena; Corvisiero, Roberta; Cavazzani, Paolo; Ruggieri, Filippo Grillo; Taccini, Gianni

    2009-07-15

    In the authors' hospital, stereotactic radiotherapy treatments are performed with a Varian Clinac 600C equipped with a BrainLAB m3 micro-multileaf-collimator generally using the dynamic conformal arc technique. Patient immobilization during the treatment is achieved with a fixation mask supplied by BrainLAB, made with two reinforced thermoplastic sheets fitting the patient's head. With this work the authors propose a method to evaluate treatment geometric accuracy and, consequently, to determine the amount of the margin to keep in the CTV-PTV expansion during the treatment planning. The reproducibility of the isocenter position was tested by simulating a complete treatment on the anthropomorphic phantom Alderson Rando, inserting in between two phantom slices a high sensitivity Gafchromic EBT film, properly prepared and calibrated, and repeating several treatment sessions, each time removing the fixing mask and replacing the film inside the phantom. The comparison between the dose distributions measured on films and computed by TPS, after a precise image registration procedure performed by a commercial piece of software (FILMQA, 3cognition LLC (Division of ISP), Wayne, NJ), allowed the authors to measure the repositioning errors, obtaining about 0.5 mm in case of central spherical PTV and about 1.5 mm in case of peripheral irregular PTV. Moreover, an evaluation of the errors in the registration procedure was performed, giving negligible values with respect to the quantities to be measured. The above intrinsic two-dimensional estimate of treatment accuracy has to be increased for the error in the third dimension, but the 2 mm margin the authors generally use for the CTV-PTV expansion seems adequate anyway. Using the same EBT films, a dosimetric verification of the treatment planning system was done. Measured dose values are larger or smaller than the nominal ones depending on geometric irradiation conditions, but, in the authors' experimental conditions, always

  14. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy: a method to evaluate geometric and dosimetric uncertainties using radiochromic films.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Gianluca; Vaccara, Elena; Corvisiero, Roberta; Cavazzani, Paolo; Ruggieri, Filippo Grillo; Taccini, Gianni

    2009-07-01

    In the authors' hospital, stereotactic radiotherapy treatments are performed with a Varian Clinac 600C equipped with a BrainLAB m3 micro-multileaf-collimator generally using the dynamic conformal arc technique. Patient immobilization during the treatment is achieved with a fixation mask supplied by BrainLAB, made with two reinforced thermoplastic sheets fitting the patient's head. With this work the authors propose a method to evaluate treatment geometric accuracy and, consequently, to determine the amount of the margin to keep in the CTV-PTV expansion during the treatment planning. The reproducibility of the isocenter position was tested by simulating a complete treatment on the anthropomorphic phantom Alderson Rando, inserting in between two phantom slices a high sensitivity Gafchromic EBT film, properly prepared and calibrated, and repeating several treatment sessions, each time removing the fixing mask and replacing the film inside the phantom. The comparison between the dose distributions measured on films and computed by TPS, after a precise image registration procedure performed by a commercial piece of software (FILMQA, 3cognition LLC (Division of ISP), Wayne, NJ), allowed the authors to measure the repositioning errors, obtaining about 0.5 mm in case of central spherical PTV and about 1.5 mm in case of peripheral irregular PTV. Moreover, an evaluation of the errors in the registration procedure was performed, giving negligible values with respect to the quantities to be measured. The above intrinsic two-dimensional estimate of treatment accuracy has to be increased for the error in the third dimension, but the 2 mm margin the authors generally use for the CTV-PTV expansion seems adequate anyway. Using the same EBT films, a dosimetric verification of the treatment planning system was done. Measured dose values are larger or smaller than the nominal ones depending on geometric irradiation conditions, but, in the authors' experimental conditions, always

  15. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD's were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD's were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's). The USF dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and TRND's, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and nuclear emulsions.

  16. Multisegmented ion chamber for CT scanner dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.M.; Cacak, R.K.; Hendee, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A multisegmented, ionization chamber capable of determining dosimetric profiles from a CT scanner has been developed and tested. The chamber consists of a number of 2 mm wide electrically isolated segments from which ionization currents may be measured. Presented here are the performance characteristics of the chamber including energy response, dose linearity, and corrections for ''cross talk'' between segments. Sample dosimetric profiles are depicted for 3 and 6 mm nominal beam widths at two locations in a dosimetric phantom positioned in the x-ray beam of a fourth generation CT scanner. The results agree well with the conventional method of obtaining dosimetry measurements with TLD chips.

  17. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements.

  18. The next decade in external dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1986-10-01

    As the radiation protection community moves through the last half of the '80s and into the next decade, we can expect the requirements for external dosimetry to become increasingly more restrictive and demanding. As in other health protection fields, growing regulatory and legal pressures, together with a natural evolution in philosophy, require the health physicist to display an increasing degree of accountability, rigor, and professionalism. The good news is that, for the most part, the technology necessary to solve many of the problems will be available or not far behind. This paper describes anticipated technology. 66 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Hydroxyanthraquinone dye solutions for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bedear El-Assy, N; Alian, A; Abdel Rahim, F; Roushdy, H

    1982-06-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the effect of gamma-radiation on the absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of the hydroxyanthraquinone dyes, alizarin and alizarin red S. Ionizing radiation at absorbed doses over the range 10(5)-3 x 10(6) rad brought about gradual bleaching of aerated (oxygenated) dye solutions. The radiolytic bleaching was enhanced through addition of hydrogen peroxide, as expected. A mechanism for the radiolytic reaction is proposed, based on chemical attack of the chromophore by radicals and radical ions as aqueous radiolysis products. Suggestions are made for possible radiation dosimetry by means of spectrophotometric analysis of the absorption spectra. PMID:7107037

  20. Solid-state fermentation: tool for bioremediation of adsorbed textile dyestuff on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass using isolated Bacillus cereus strain EBT1.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Kamatkar, Jeevan D; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-02-01

    Bioremediation of textile dyestuffs under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using industrial wastes as substrate pose an economically feasible, promising, and eco-friendly alternative. The purpose of this study was to adsorb Red M5B dye, a sample of dyes mixture and a real textile effluent on distillery industry waste-yeast biomass (DIW-YB) and its further bioremediation using Bacillus cereus EBT1 under SSF. Textile dyestuffs were allowed to adsorb on DIW-YB. DIW-YB adsorbed dyestuffs were decolorized under SSF by using B. cereus. Enzyme analysis was carried out to ensure decolorization of Red M5B. Metabolites after dye degradation were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC, and GC-MS. DIW-YB showed adsorption of Red M5B, dyes mixture and a textile wastewater sample up to 87, 70, and 81 %, respectively. DIW-YB adsorbed Red M5B was decolorized up to 98 % by B. cereus in 36 h. Whereas B. cereus could effectively reduce American Dye Manufacture Institute value from DIW-YB adsorbed mixture of textile dyes and textile wastewater up to 70 and 100 %, respectively. Induction of extracellular enzymes such as laccase and azoreductase suggests their involvement in dye degradation. Repeated utilization of DIW-YB showed consistent adsorption and ADMI removal from textile wastewater up to seven cycles. HPLC and FTIR analysis confirms the biodegradation of Red M5B. GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of new metabolites. B. cereus has potential to bioremediate adsorbed textile dyestuffs on DIW-YB. B. cereus along with DIW-YB showed enhanced decolorization performance in tray bioreactor which suggests its potential for large-scale treatment procedures. PMID:22562346

  1. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  2. Overview of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology in the USA for the past 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Boone, John M.

    2008-12-15

    This review covers the role of medical physics in addressing issues directly related to patient dosimetry in radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT. The sections on radiography and fluoroscopy radiation doses review the changes that have occurred during the last 50 to 60 years. A number of technological improvements have contributed to both a significant reduction in patient and staff radiation doses and improvements to the image quality during this period of time. There has been a transition from film-screen radiography with hand dip film processing to electronic digital imaging utilizing CR and DR. Similarly, fluoroscopy has progressed by directly viewing image intensifiers in darkened rooms to modern flat panel image receptor systems utilizing pulsed radiation, automated variable filtration, and digitally processed images. Mammography is one of the most highly optimized imaging procedures performed, because it is a repetitive screening procedure that results in annual radiation exposure. Mammography is also the only imaging procedure in the United States in which the radiation dose is regulated by the federal government. Consequently, many medical physicists have studied the dosimetry associated with screen-film and digital mammography. In this review, a brief history of mammography dose assessment by medical physicists is discussed. CT was introduced into clinical practice in the early 1970s, and has grown into one of the most important modalities available for diagnostic imaging. CT dose quantities and measurement techniques are described, and values of radiation dose for different types of scanner are presented. Organ and effective doses to adult patients are surveyed from the earliest single slice scanners, to the latest versions that include up to two x-ray tubes and can incorporate as many as 256 detector channels. An overview is provided of doses received by pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations, as well as methods, and results, of studies

  3. Three-dimensional heart dose reconstruction to estimate normal tissue complication probability after breast irradiation using portal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Louwe, R. J. W.; Wendling, M.; Herk, M. B. van; Mijnheer, B. J.

    2007-04-15

    Irradiation of the heart is one of the major concerns during radiotherapy of breast cancer. Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning would therefore be useful but cannot always be performed for left-sided breast treatments, because CT data may not be available. However, even if 3D dose calculations are available and an estimate of the normal tissue damage can be made, uncertainties in patient positioning may significantly influence the heart dose during treatment. Therefore, 3D reconstruction of the actual heart dose during breast cancer treatment using electronic imaging portal device (EPID) dosimetry has been investigated. A previously described method to reconstruct the dose in the patient from treatment portal images at the radiological midsurface was used in combination with a simple geometrical model of the irradiated heart volume to enable calculation of dose-volume histograms (DVHs), to independently verify this aspect of the treatment without using 3D data from a planning CT scan. To investigate the accuracy of our method, the DVHs obtained with full 3D treatment planning system (TPS) calculations and those obtained after resampling the TPS dose in the radiological midsurface were compared for fifteen breast cancer patients for whom CT data were available. In addition, EPID dosimetry as well as 3D dose calculations using our TPS, film dosimetry, and ionization chamber measurements were performed in an anthropomorphic phantom. It was found that the dose reconstructed using EPID dosimetry and the dose calculated with the TPS agreed within 1.5% in the lung/heart region. The dose-volume histograms obtained with EPID dosimetry were used to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for late excess cardiac mortality. Although the accuracy of these NTCP calculations might be limited due to the uncertainty in the NTCP model, in combination with our portal dosimetry approach it allows incorporation of the actual heart dose. For the anthropomorphic

  4. Investigation of the dosimetry of chest tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Zachrisson, Sara; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus

    2009-02-01

    Chest tomosynthesis has recently been introduced to healthcare as a low-dose alternative to CT or as a tool for improved diagnostics in chest radiography with only a modest increase in radiation dose to the patient. However, no detailed description of the dosimetry for this type of examination has been presented. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the dosimetry of chest tomosynthesis. The chest tomosynthesis examination was assumed to be performed using a stationary detector and a vertically moving x-ray tube, exposing the patient from different angles. The Monte Carlo based computer software PCXMC was used to determine the effective dose delivered to a standard-sized patient from various angles using different assumptions of the distribution of the effective dose over the different projections. The obtained conversion factors between input dose measures and effective dose for chest tomosynthesis for different angular intervals were then compared with the horizontal projection. The results indicate that the error introduced by using conversion factors for the PA projection in chest radiography for estimating the effective dose of chest tomosynthesis is small for normally sized patients, especially if a conversion factor between KAP and effective dose is used.

  5. Numerical dosimetry dedicated to children RF exposure.

    PubMed

    Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Varsier, Nadège; Conil, Emmanuelle

    2011-12-01

    Children are more and more using wireless communication systems. This growth has strengthened public concern and has highlighted the need to assess the radio frequency (RF) exposure of children. In dosimetry, taking advantage of the improvement of High Performance Calculation systems, great efforts have been carried out to improve the numerical tools and human models used to assess the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). This paper analyses progress in building child and foetus models for numerical dosimetry purpose. The simulation results, in terms of Specific Absorption Rate over 1 and 10 g of tissues, in specific organs such as brain and averaged over the whole body, are reported and analysed. The results show that compliance methods used nowadays to certify phones are valid for children. The studies also show that specific tissues such as peripheral brain tissues can have higher exposure with children than with adults. Studies performed with plane waves as sources and whole body children models show that the whole body SAR of children can be higher than the WBSAR of adults and that the compliance to ICNIRP reference levels does not guarantee the compliance to ICNIRP basic restrictions. Dealing with the foetus models and dielectric properties great efforts have been made. Preliminary results show that the foetus exposure is often lower than the mother exposure, with an important influencing parameter: the foetus position in the uterus. PMID:22005525

  6. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP`s new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential {alpha} energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP`s recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ``Normalization`` of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for {alpha} dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk.

  7. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. PDT dose dosimetry for pleural photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharikova, Anna V.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Liang, Xing; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2013-03-01

    PDT dose is the product of the photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence in target tissue. Although existing systems are capable of measuring the light fluence in vivo, the concurrent measurement of photosensitizer in the treated tissue so far has been lacking. We have developed and tested a new method to simultaneously acquire light dosimetry and photosensitizer fluorescence data via the same isotropic detector, employing treatment light as the excitation source. A dichroic beamsplitter is used to split light from the isotropic detector into two fibers, one for light dosimetry, the other, after the 665 nm treatment light is removed by a band-stop filter, to a spectrometer for fluorescence detection. The light fluence varies significantly during treatment because of the source movement. The fluorescence signal is normalized by the light fluence measured at treatment wavelength. We have shown that the absolute photosensitizer concentration can be obtained by an optical properties correction factor and linear spectral fitting. Tissue optical properties are determined using an absorption spectroscopy probe immediately before PDT at the same sites. This novel method allows accurate real-time determination of delivered PDT dose using existing isotropic detectors, and may lead to a considerable improvement of PDT treatment quality compared to the currently employed systems. Preliminary data in patient studies is presented.

  9. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N. D.; Thomas, C. G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-10-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%).

  10. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  12. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  13. PREFACE: Third International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeDeene, Yves; Baldock, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry is not merely another dosimetry technique. Gel dosimeters are integrating dosimeters that enable dose verification in three dimensions. The application of a 3D dosimetry technique in the clinic would give a real push to the implementation of advanced high-precision radiotherapy technologies in many institutes. It can be expected that with the recent developments in the field towards more user-friendly gel systems and imaging modalities, gel dosimetry will become a vital link in the chain of high-precision radiation cancer therapy in the near future. Many researchers all over the world have contributed to the emerging technology of gel dosimetry. The research field of gel dosimetry is recognized to be very broad from polymer and analytical chemistry and material research to imaging technologies. The DOSGEL conferences in the past have proven to be an important forum at which material scientists, chemists, medical physicists, magnetic resonance imaging and radiation specialists brought together a critical mass of thoughts, findings and considerations. DOSGEL 2004 has been endorsed by many international, supra-national and national medical physics organizations and publishers. These proceedings contain 51 papers that cover various aspects of gel dosimetry.

  14. Gel-layer dosimetry for dose verification in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomatis, S.; Carrara, M.; Gambarini, G.; Marchesini, R.; Valente, M.

    2007-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a technique in which the radiation fluence within each of the treatment beams is not uniformly distributed. This allows the patient dose to follow the boundaries even of a target volume of complex shape, and, virtually, to spare critical healthy organs at risk. The agreement between planned and delivered IMRT dose is verified by means of standard dosimetric methods such as film dosimetry or semiconductors array dosimetry. In this paper, we compare the output of a commercial device using an array of diodes for IMRT absolute dose verification with the output of a gel dosimeter, composed by a 10×8 cm 2 rectangular layer of a tissue-equivalent gel matrix in which a proper chemical dosimeter has been incorporated. The dose distribution is derived from the images of visible light transmittance, detected with a CCD camera before and after the gel exposure. The analysis was carried out on a single IMRT field chosen among those archived at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. The radiation field was examined in an area common to both dosimeters. The agreement between the two detectors was good, as shown by analysis of dose profiles, especially for doses above 15-20 cGy. Gel dosimeter was in good agreement with the planned dose too, with a percentage of dosimeter points passing a dose to agreement test ranging between 90% and 93%. Although preliminary, our data suggest that gel dosimetry is a reliable method for IMRT dose verification. Due to the good spatial resolution and to the tissue equivalent properties of its composition, it would be suitable also for 3D IMRT dose reconstruction and verification in the form of multiple piled-up gel layers.

  15. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  16. Quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry using the storage phosphor KCl:Eu2+

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaohui; Driewer, Joseph P.; Zheng, Yuanshui; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2009-01-01

    This work, for the first time, reports the use of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor for quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry. In principle, KCl:Eu2+ functions using the same photostimulatated luminescence (PSL) mechanism as commercially available BaFBr0.85I0.15:Eu2+ material that is used for computed radiography (CR) but features a significantly smaller effective atomic number—18 versus 49—making it a potentially useful material for nearly tissue-equivalent radiation dosimetry. Cylindrical KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 7 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house. Dosimetric properties, including radiation hardness, response linearity, signal fading, dose rate sensitivity, and energy dependence, were studied with a laboratory optical reader after irradiation by a linear accelerator. The overall experimental uncertainty was estimated to be within ±2.5%. The findings were (1) KCl:Eu2+ showed satisfactory radiation hardness. There was no significant change in the stimulation spectra after irradiation up to 200 Gy when compared to a fresh dosimeter, indicating that this material could be reused at least 100 times if 2 Gy per use was assumed, e.g., for patient-specific IMRT QA. (2) KCl:Eu2+ exhibited supralinear response to dose after irradiation from 0 to 800 cGy. (3) After x ray irradiation, the PSL signal faded with time and eventually reached a fading rate of about 0.1%∕h after 12 h. (4) The sensitivity of the dosimeter was independent of the dose rate ranging from 15 to 1000 cGy∕min. (5) The sensitivity showed no beam energy dependence for either open x ray or megavoltage electron fields. (6) Over-response to low-energy scattered photons was comparable to radiographic film, e.g., Kodak EDR2 film. By sandwiching dosimeters between low-energy photon filters (0.3 mm thick lead foils) during irradiation, the over-response was reduced. The authors have demonstrated that KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters have many desirable

  17. Permanent Breast Seed Implant Dosimetry Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Sankreacha, Raxa; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant is a novel method of accelerated partial breast irradiation for women with early-stage breast cancer. This article presents pre- and post-implant dosimetric data, relates these data to clinical outcomes, and makes recommendations for those interested in starting a program. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 consecutive patients were accrued into one of three clinical trials after breast-conserving surgery: a Phase I/II trial (67 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); a Phase II registry trial (25 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); or a multi-center Phase II trial for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (3 patients). Contouring of the planning target volume (PTV) was done on a Pinnacle workstation and dosimetry calculations, including dose-volume histograms, were done using a Variseed planning computer. Results: The mean pre-implant PTV coverage for the V{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, and V{sub 200} were as follows: 98.8% {+-} 1.2% (range, 94.5-100%); 97.3% {+-} 2.1% (range, 90.3-99.9%), 68.8% {+-} 14.3% (range, 32.7-91.5%); and 27.8% {+-} 8.6% (range, 15.1-62.3%). The effect of seed motion was characterized by post-implant dosimetry performed immediately after the implantation (same day) and at 2 months after the implantation. The mean V{sub 100} changed from 85.6% to 88.4% (p = 0.004) and the mean V{sub 200} changed from 36.2% to 48.3% (p < 0.001). Skin toxicity was associated with maximum skin dose (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Preplanning dosimetry should aim for a V{sub 90} of approximately 100%, a V{sub 100} between 95% and 100%, and a V{sub 200} between 20% and 30%, as these numbers are associated with no local recurrences to date and good patient tolerance. In general, the target volume coverage improved over the duration of the seed therapy. The maximum skin dose, defined as the average dose over the hottest 1 Multiplication-Sign 1-cm{sup 2} surface area, should be limited to 90% of the

  18. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent {sup 103}Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm{sup 3}, respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm{sup 3} obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry

  19. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  20. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  1. MECHANISTIC DOSIMETRY MODELS OF NANOMATERIAL DEPOSITION IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate health risk assessments of inhalation exposure to nanomaterials will require dosimetry models that account for interspecies differences in dose delivered to the respiratory tract. Mechanistic models offer the advantage to interspecies extrapolation that physicochemica...

  2. Radiation dosimetry for quality control of food preservation and disinfestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters that are sufficiently stable and reproducible, it is possible to monitor minimum and maximum radiation absorbed dose levels and dose uniformity for a given processed foodstuff. The dosimetry procedure is especially important in the commisioning of a process and in making adjustments of process parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes.

  3. Retrospective dosimetry analyses of reactor vessel cladding samples

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L. R.; Soderquist, C. Z.; Fero, A. H.

    2011-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessel cladding samples for Ringhals Units 3 and 4 in Sweden were analyzed using retrospective reactor dosimetry techniques. The objective was to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluence for comparison with neutron transport calculations. A total of 51 stainless steel samples consisting of chips weighing approximately 100 to 200 mg were removed from selected locations around the pressure vessel and were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for analysis. The samples were fully characterized and analyzed for radioactive isotopes, with special interest in the presence of Nb-93m. The RPV cladding retrospective dosimetry results will be combined with a re-evaluation of the surveillance capsule dosimetry and with ex-vessel neutron dosimetry results to form a comprehensive 3D comparison of measurements to calculations performed with 3D deterministic transport code. (authors)

  4. Dosimetry of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in man and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H. Jr.; Miller, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The health effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) are assessed from animal toxicological, controlled human, and epidemiological studies. These assessments will be strengthened when results of animal studies can be quantitatively extrapolated to man. To achieve quantitative extrapolation, improvements are needed in the areas of dosimetry and species sensitivity. And, of course, an adequate health effect data base must exist on which to make extrapolations. The focus of this paper is to review the regional dosimetry of O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract of man and animals. Dosimetry relates to estimating the amount of pollutant reaching a specific target region of the respiratory tract as a function of exposure concentration. At present, there are two approaches to dosimetry, experimental and mathematical modeling, which are discussed.

  5. Phantom for moving organ dosimetry with gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, Paul; Mahata, Anurupa; Suman Babu, Ebenezer

    2009-05-01

    The displacements caused by the cardiac and respiratory motions cause smearing of the dose distribution that defeats the purpose of high precision radiotherapy. A phontom that holds a gel cylinder and radiochromic film, was designed and developed to simulate the respiratory motion in the superior and inferior directions. The effect of lung movement on dose distribution was studied by exposing gel as well as a radiochromic film using the phantom. The results obtained with Gel was comparable to those obtained with the radiochromic films.

  6. Investigation criteria for dosimetry results comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, E.G. )

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports that the Oconee Nuclear Station, like most nuclear facilities, monitors its personnel with two types of dosimeters: a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), which is normally used for determining the official dose equivalent, and a pocket ionization chamber (PIC), which is used to estimate exposure for control purposes. At Oconee, the results obtained from the two types of dosimeters are compared on a monthly basis as a part of the routine exchange and processing of worker TLDs. Each worker's TLD result is compared to the sum of the PIC dose estimates for the month that the TLD was used. The TLD result is accepted as the official dose equivalent for the month if the comparison results are within the tolerance limits specified by the criteria. An out-of-tolerance comparison requires investigation, which consists of performance tests of the dosimetry involved and reviews of exposure records. Adjustments to a worker's official dose equivalent are made when warranted by an investigation.

  7. Gastroesophageal scintiscanning in a pediatric population: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    The dosimetry associated with orally administered (/sup 99m/Tc)sulfur colloid for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux has not been adequately described for the pediatric populations. Standard MIRD methodology was performed for the following: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr old, and adult standard man. The critical organ for all pediatric groups was the lower large intestine with absorbed dose of 0.927, 0.380, 0.194, 0.120 and 0.0721 rad/100 microCi, respectively. For the adult the critical organ was the upper large intestine with an absorbed dose of 0.0518 rad/100 microCi. These data should be considered when administering (99mTc)sulfur colloid orally in a pediatric population.

  8. Advanced Semiconductor Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2011-05-05

    Modern radiation therapy is very conformal, resulting in a complexity of delivery that leads to many small radiation fields with steep dose gradients, increasing error probability. Quality assurance in delivery of such radiation fields is paramount and requires real time and high spatial resolution dosimetry. Semiconductor radiation detectors due to their small size, ability to operate in passive and active modes and easy real time multichannel readout satisfy many aspects of in vivo and in a phantom quality assurance in modern radiation therapy. Update on the recent developments and improvements in semiconductor radiation detectors and their application for quality assurance in radiation therapy, based mostly on the developments at the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, is presented.

  9. Dosimetry in mixed neutron-gamma fields

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, I.

    1998-04-01

    The gamma field accompanying neutrons may, in certain circumstances, play an important role in the analysis of neutron dosimetry and even in the interpretation of radiation induced steel embrittlement. At the High Flux Isotope Reactor pressure vessel the gamma induced reactions dominate the responses of {sup 237}Np and {sup 238}U dosimeters, and {sup 9}Be helium accumulation fluence monitors. The gamma induced atom displacement rate in steel is higher than corresponding neutron rate, and is the cause of ``accelerated embrittlement`` of HFIR materials. In a large body of water, adjacent to a fission plate, photofissions contribute significantly to the responses of fission monitors and need to be taken into account if the measurements are used for the qualification of the transport codes and cross-section libraries.

  10. AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.

  11. Simultaneous macro and micro dosimetry with MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.B.; Kaplan, G.I.; Carolan, M.G.; Allen, B.J.; Maughan, R.; Yudelev, M.; Kota, C.; Coderre, J.

    1996-12-01

    The application of MOSFET dosimeters in complicated mixed radiation fields for measurement of absorbed dose distribution in tissue equivalent phantoms has been studied. The spectra of secondary charged particles have been measured simultaneously with average absorbed doses by the same MOSFET dosimeter. A good correlation has been observed between neutron depth dose distribution in a water phantom obtained using MOSFETs in integral mode and a tissue equivalent (T.E.) ionization chamber. Such MOSFET dosimeters are a promising tool for micro-macro dosimetry in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT). Paired MOSFETs with one of the dosimeters covered by {sup 10}B have been applied for measuring of average boron dose distribution and microdosimetric spectra due to alpha particles and {sup 7}Li ions throughout a perspex phantom exposed in the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR).

  12. Dosimetry for photodynamic therapy of endometrial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaasand, Lars O.; Fehr, Mathias K.; Madsen, Sten; Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    Hysterectomy is the most common major operation performed in the United States with dysfunctional uterine bleeding as one of the major indications. The clinical needs for simple and safe endometrial destruction are essential. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may offer a simple and cost effective solution for the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. The dosimetry is discussed for the case of topical application of photosensitizer. This technique might be the method of preference because undesired side effects such as skin photosensitization that is typical for systemically injected photosensitizers, can be avoided. Effective PDT requires a sufficient amount of light delivered to the targeted tissue in a reasonable period of time. A trifurcated optical applicator consisting of three cylindrical diffusing fibers has been constructed, and this applicator can deliver a typical required optical dose of about 50-100 J/cm2 to the full depth of the endometrium for an exposure time of 10-20 minutes.

  13. Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the activities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements and discusses tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurement. The following section is on basic concepts including definitions, specifications, and interaction coefficients. This section also includes a description of the effects of photons, electrons, neutrons, and heavily charged particles on body tissues. The third section is on selected requirements for tissue substitutes and briefly covers radiation-related requirements for radiation therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation protection, and radiobiology. The fourth short section is on composition of body tissues, and comparative interaction and depth dose data for selected tissue substitutes are covered in the fifth section. This includes several tables and many graphs of the ratios required to calculate the radiation dose.

  14. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  15. Neutron dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Miola, U.J.; Ettinger, K.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recent development of various borated compounds and the utilization of one of these (Na/sub 2/B/sub 12/H/sub 11/SH) to treat brain tumors in clinical studies in Japan has renewed interest in neutron capture therapy. In these procedures thermal neutrons interact with /sup 10/B in boron containing cells through the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction producing charged particles with a maximum range of approx. 10..mu..m in tissue. Borated analogs of chlorpromazine, porphyrin, thiouracil and deoxyuridine promise improved tumor uptake and blood clearance. The therapy beam from the Medical Research Reactor in Brookhaven contains neutrons from a modified and filtered fission spectrum and dosimetric consequences of the use of the above mentioned compounds in conjunction with thermal and epithermal fluxes are discussed in the paper. One of the important problems of radiation dosimetry in capture therapy is determination of the flux profile and, hence, the dose profile in the brain. This has been achieved by constructing a brain phantom made of TE plastic. The lyoluminescence technique provides a convenient way of monitoring the neutron flux distributions; the detectors for this purpose utilize /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B compounds. Such compounds have been synthesized specially for the purpose of dosimetry of thermal and epithermal beams. In addition, standard lyoluminescent phosphors, like glutamine, could be used to determine the collisional component of the dose as well as the contribution of the /sup 14/N(n,p)/sup 14/C reaction. Measurements of thermal flux were compared with calculations and with measurements done with activation foils.

  16. On flattening filter-free portal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Eduardo; Castro Novais, Juan; Molina López, María Yolanda; Ruiz Maqueda, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Varian introduced (in 2010) the option of removing the flattening filter (FF) in their C-Arm linacs for intensity-modulated treatments. This mode, called flattening filter-free (FFF), offers the advantage of a greater dose rate. Varian's "Portal Dosimetry" is an electronic portal imager device (EPID)-based tool for IMRT verification. This tool lacks the capability of verifying flattening filter-free (FFF) modes due to saturation and lack of an image prediction algorithm. (Note: the latest versions of this software and EPID correct these issues.) The objective of the present study is to research the feasibility of said verifications (with the older versions of the software and EPID). By placing the EPID at a greater distance, the images can be acquired without saturation, yielding a linearity similar to the flattened mode. For the image prediction, a method was optimized based on the clinically used algorithm (analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA)) over a homogeneous phantom. The depth inside the phantom and its electronic density were tailored. An application was developed to allow the conversion of a dose plane (in DICOM format) to Varian's custom format for Portal Dosimetry. The proposed method was used for the verification of test and clinical fields for the three qualities used in our institution for IMRT: 6X, 6FFF and 10FFF. The method developed yielded a positive verification (more than 95% of the points pass a 2%/2 mm gamma) for both the clinical and test fields. This method was also capable of "predicting" static and wedged fields. A workflow for the verification of FFF fields was developed. This method relies on the clinical algorithm used for dose calculation and is able to verify the FFF modes, as well as being useful for machine quality assurance. The procedure described does not require new hardware. This method could be used as a verification of Varian's Portal Dose Image Prediction. PMID:27455487

  17. Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: A Preliminary Study for microCT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Garcia, C.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2006-09-08

    Preliminary measurements for microCT dosimetry are reported in this work, using TLD-100 crystals (1x1x1 mm3) within a solid water phantom specially designed with approximate dimensions of a mouse. A dose dependence as a function of radial distance and position along the axis of the phantom was found. Because of the smaller doses used in this work we can say that it is feasible to perform dosimetry measurements with high accuracy using TLD-100 microcubes.

  18. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2003-10-10

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP). It describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and site contractors, and provides recommendations and guidance for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs. Guidance includes identifying conditions under which workers should be placed on bioassay programs, types, descritptions, and capabilities of measurements, suggested routine bioassay programs, limitations on services, and practices for recording and reporting results.

  19. EPID dosimetry for pretreatment quality assurance with two commercial systems.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Malhotra, Harish K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the EPID dosimetry algorithms of two commercial systems for pretreatment QA, and analyzes dosimetric measurements made with each system alongside the results obtained with a standard diode array. 126 IMRT fields are examined with both EPID dosimetry systems (EPIDose by Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL, and Portal Dosimetry by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto CA) and the diode array, MapCHECK (also by Sun Nuclear Corporation). Twenty-six VMAT arcs of varying modulation complexity are examined with the EPIDose and MapCHECK systems. Optimization and commissioning testing of the EPIDose physics model is detailed. Each EPID IMRT QA system is tested for sensitivity to critical TPS beam model errors. Absolute dose gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm, 10% threshold, global normalization to the maximum measured dose) yields similar results (within 1%-2%) for all three dosimetry modalities, except in the case of off-axis breast tangents. For these off-axis fields, the Portal Dosimetry system does not adequately model EPID response, though a previously-published correction algorithm improves performance. Both MapCHECK and EPIDose are found to yield good results for VMAT QA, though limitations are discussed. Both the Portal Dosimetry and EPIDose algorithms, though distinctly different, yield similar results for the majority of clinical IMRT cases, in close agreement with a standard diode array. Portal dose image prediction may overlook errors in beam modeling beyond the calculation of the actual fluence, while MapCHECK and EPIDose include verification of the dose calculation algorithm, albeit in simplified phantom conditions (and with limited data density in the case of the MapCHECK detector). Unlike the commercial Portal Dosimetry package, the EPIDose algorithm (when sufficiently optimized) allows accurate analysis of EPID response for off-axis, asymmetric fields, and for orthogonal VMAT QA. Other forms of QA are necessary to supplement the limitations of the

  20. A back projection dosimetry method for diagnostic and orthovoltage x-ray from 40 to 140 kVp for patients and phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrashteh, Hossein

    2005-07-01

    Patient dosimetry in practice is involved with time consuming, tedious calculations during the measurement process. There is a need for a straight forward and accurate method to perform patient dosimetry when required. A back projection dosimetry method for patient/phantom using Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and its corresponding Exit Surface Dose with an average value for attenuation coefficient (mu), (e.g., mean effective attenuation coefficient (mu`)), was developed. The method focused on low energy X-ray units (40--140 kVp), primarily for conventional diagnostic radiography and low energy radiation therapy procedures. The assumption is that it may be used for similar concepts and modalities within the same energy range, (e.g., fluoroscopy, where the skin injuries have been common in the past, or mammography, where the radiation carcinogenesis has been a matter of concern). A new Gafchromic film, XR-QA, as a precision dosimeter was assessed and used with this algorithm. Due to the fact that the dose range often seen in conventional radiography exams in most cases is not high enough to activate the sensitive layer of this film sufficiently, the measured net Optical Density (OD) changes were not substantial enough. Therefore, a conventional and relatively low speed dental film, DF58 Ultra, was used. Various thicknesses of Acrylic, a tissue equivalent material, were used with the algorithm. When compared with the other sources and reference data, the results from the developed mathematical algorithm are in a reasonable agreement with these values. The developed method is straight forward, and within the acceptable accuracy range. The back projection dosimetry method is effective and may be used individually for the desired body parts or fetus areas, depending on the clinical practice and interests.

  1. Testing the methodology for dosimetry audit of heterogeneity corrections and small MLC-shaped fields: Results of IAEA multi-center studies

    PubMed Central

    Izewska, Joanna; Wesolowska, Paulina; Azangwe, Godfrey; Followill, David S.; Thwaites, David I.; Arib, Mehenna; Stefanic, Amalia; Viegas, Claudio; Suming, Luo; Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulski, Wojciech; Georg, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a long tradition of supporting development of methodologies for national networks providing quality audits in radiotherapy. A series of co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) has been conducted by the IAEA since 1995 assisting national external audit groups developing national audit programs. The CRP ‘Development of Quality Audits for Radiotherapy Dosimetry for Complex Treatment Techniques’ was conducted in 2009–2012 as an extension of previously developed audit programs. Material and methods. The CRP work described in this paper focused on developing and testing two steps of dosimetry audit: verification of heterogeneity corrections, and treatment planning system (TPS) modeling of small MLC fields, which are important for the initial stages of complex radiation treatments, such as IMRT. The project involved development of a new solid slab phantom with heterogeneities containing special measurement inserts for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic films. The phantom and the audit methodology has been developed at the IAEA and tested in multi-center studies involving the CRP participants. Results. The results of multi-center testing of methodology for two steps of dosimetry audit show that the design of audit procedures is adequate and the methodology is feasible for meeting the audit objectives. A total of 97% TLD results in heterogeneity situations obtained in the study were within 3% and all results within 5% agreement with the TPS predicted doses. In contrast, only 64% small beam profiles were within 3 mm agreement between the TPS calculated and film measured doses. Film dosimetry results have highlighted some limitations in TPS modeling of small beam profiles in the direction of MLC leave movements. Discussion. Through multi-center testing, any challenges or difficulties in the proposed audit methodology were identified, and the methodology improved. Using the experience of these

  2. Specific issues in small animal dosimetry and irradiator calibration

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizumi, Terry; Brady, Samuel L.; Robbins, Mike E.; Bourland, J. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In response to the increased risk of radiological terrorist attack, a network of Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) has been established in the United States, focusing on evaluating animal model responses to uniform, relatively homogenous whole- or partial-body radiation exposures at relatively high dose rates. The success of such studies is dependent not only on robust animal models but on accurate and reproducible dosimetry within and across CMCR. To address this issue, the Education and Training Core of the Duke University School of Medicine CMCR organised a one-day workshop on small animal dosimetry. Topics included accuracy in animal dosimetry accuracy, characteristics and differences of cesium-137 and X-ray irradiators, methods for dose measurement, and design of experimental irradiation geometries for uniform dose distributions. This paper summarises the information presented and discussed. Conclusions Without ensuring accurate and reproducible dosimetry the development and assessment of the efficacy of putative countermeasures will not prove successful. Radiation physics support is needed, but is often the weakest link in the small animal dosimetry chain. We recommend: (i) A user training program for new irradiator users, (ii) subsequent training updates, and (iii) the establishment of a national small animal dosimetry center for all CMCR members. PMID:21961967

  3. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-02-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to {alpha} and {sup 7}Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by {sup 10}B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient`s dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here.

  4. Review of the near-earth space radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianming; Chen, Xiaoqian; Li, Shiyou

    2016-07-01

    The near-earth space radiation environment has a great effect to the spacecraft and maybe do harm to the astronaut's health. Thus, how to measure the radiation has become a serious challenge. In order to provide sufficient protection both for astronauts and for instruments on-board, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer should be measured instead of merely measuring total radiation dose. This paper reviews the methods of radiation measurement and presents a brief introduction of dosimetry instruments. The method can be divided into two different kinds, i.e., positive dosimetry and passive dosimetry. The former usually includes electronic devices which can be used for data storage and can offer simultaneous monitoring on space radiation. The passive dosimetry has a much simple structure, and need extra operation after on-orbit missions for measuring. To get more reliable data of radiation dosimetry, various instruments and methods had been applied in the spacecrafts and the manned spacecrafts in particular. The outlook of the development in the space radiation dosimetry measurement is also presented.

  5. ESR dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors and radiologic technologists

    NASA Astro