Science.gov

Sample records for ecc injection experiments

  1. Condensation during gravity driven ECC: Experiments with PACTEL

    SciTech Connect

    Munther, R.; Kalli, H.; Kouhia, J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper provides the results of the second series of gravity driven emergency core cooling (ECC) experiments with PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop). The simulated accident was a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a break in a cold leg. The ECC flow was provided from a core makeup tank (CMT) located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. The CMT was pressurized with pipings from the pressurizer and a cold leg. The tests indicated that steam condensation in the CMT can prevent ECC and lead to core uncovery.

  2. Experiments of ECCS strainer blockage and debris settling in suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, G.E.; Johnson, A.B.; Murthy, P.; Padmanabhan

    1996-03-01

    If a rupture occurs in a nuclear power station pipe that leads to or from the reactor pressure vessel, the resultant Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) would initiate a chain of events involving complex flow phenomena. In a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), the steam or liquid pipe break pressurizes the dry well, forcing the inert containment gases and steam through downcomers into the suppression pool, thoroughly mixing any particulates and pipe insulation debris carried with the gas flow to the pool. As the steam flow decreases, its unsteady condensation at the end of the downcomers (Condensation Oscillation and Chugging) produces continued water motion in the suppression pool and downcomers. During the blowdown event, high pressure and then low pressure pumps automatically start injecting water from the suppression pool into the reactor to keep its temperature under control. Proper functioning of this Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is critical for the first 30 minutes or so, before operators have time to consider and align alternative sources of cooling water. A major concern for proper operation of the ECCS is the effect of fragmented insulation and plant particulates on the head loss at pump suction strainers. Sufficient loss could exceed the NPSH margin, causing cavitation with a resultant loss of pump capacity and longevity. The bead loss increases with the mass of debris accumulated on the pump strainers, which in turn is dependent on the debris concentration versus time in the suppression pool. This paper describes two sets of experiments that quantified the strainer head loss. One set of experiments considered the mixing and settling of fibrous insulation debris and fine iron oxide particles in the suppression pool during and after chugging. These tests used a reduced scale facility which duplicated the kinetic energy per unit water volume to define the concentration of the actual materials in the pool versus time.

  3. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  4. Experience of injected fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, P K; Toledo, L S

    1988-02-01

    Eighteen months' experience with the injected fat grafting technique used in 208 patients to correct various problems such as buttocks (augmentation and reshaping), trochanteric depressions, breast augmentation, scar depressions, thighs and legs (calf and ankle augmentation), small wrinkles and depressions of the face (Romberg's disease), nasolabial fold, upper outer breast quadrant, liposuction sequela, fingers and hands is presented. This method shows major advantages with few complications. Some technical details and recommendations for successful fat grafting are also presented. PMID:3376783

  5. NSTX conditioning experiment using injected lithium powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Dennis

    2007-11-01

    An attempt was made to condition the plasma facing components of NSTX by injecting Li powder. The injection was carried out using the existing lithium pellet injector with a modified sabot design. The 50 micron diameter powder was injected into several discharges while its effects were evaluated on each subsequent discharge. A discussion of the effects of this experiment will be presented. This work was supported by U.S. DOE Contract # DE-AC02-76CH03073.

  6. Dense Plasma Injection Experiment at MCX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Case, A.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Elton, R.; Hassam, A.; Teodorescu, C.; Witherspoon, D.; Young, W.

    2009-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the High Density Plasma Injection Experiment at the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX). HyperV Technologies Corp. has designed, built, and installed a prototype coaxial gun to drive rotation in MCX. This gun has been designed to avoid the blow-by instability via a combination of electrode shaping and a tailored plasma armature. An array of diagnostics indicates the gun is capable of plasma jets with a mass of 160 μg at 70 km/s with an average plasma density above 1015 cm-3. Preliminary measurements are underway at MCX to understand the penetration of the plasma jet through the MCX magnetic field and the momentum transfer from the jet to the MCX plasma. Data will be presented for a wide range of MCX field parameters, and the prospects for future injection experiments will be evaluated.

  7. [Pittsburgh experience with botulinum toxin A injection].

    PubMed

    de Miguel, F; Chancellor, M B

    2006-03-01

    We report one institution's six-year experience using botulinum toxin A (BONT-A) in the bladder and urethra in 110 patients for a variety of lower urinary tract dysfunction. 110 patients (age 19-82) were injected with BONT-A into the bladder (n=42) or urethra (n=68), 35 M, 75 F. Voiding dysfunction included: neurogenic detrusor overactivity and/or detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, overactive bladder (OAB), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), bladder neck obstruction (BNO) and interstitial cystitis (IC). Currently, 27 patients have undergone further injections (up to 6) at intervals > 6 months. All the patients with bladder BONT-A injection had preoperative evidence of involuntary detrusor contractions during urodynamic testing. Analysis of the 110 patients indicates that 67.3% reported a decrease or absence of incontinence. Diaries indicate a decrease in both day and night voiding symptoms. Efficacy occurred within 7 days and lasted for at least 6 months. Condition specific QOL symptom scores also demonstrated improvement. There have been no long-term complications. Two MS women with mild baseline stress urinary incontinence reported increased leakage with stress after BONT-A external sphincter injection. One MS woman who had a bladder injection had an increased residual urine from 78 to 155 ml. She did not have to perform intermittent catheterization. BONT-A injection is a safe and promising treatment modality for a variety of lower urinary tract dysfunctions for both skeletal and smooth muscle dysfunction. In our series, BONT-A is equally effective in women as it is in men. Bladder injections with BONT-A are effective for not only neurogenic detrusor overactivity but also overactive bladder. BONT-A can even be considered for IC. PMID:16749589

  8. Sensitivity of the ECC ozonesondes response to solution concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübi, R.; Levrat, G.; Viatte, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesondes are commonly used to measure the ozone profiles during the aerological balloon ascents. Various experiments showed that the response of the ECC sondes are sensitive to a few factors like sensing solution concentration, supplier and preparation procedures. This sensitivity represents an important issue in case of comparison between stations or when a specific station changes its procedure. The simulator experiments during JOSIE campaigns have produced clear indications of those effects which have to be confirmed in atmospheric conditions. At the Payerne aerological station, a weekly dual ECC flight program is running since September 2002 in order to measure the difference between the 0.5% and 1% KI concentration solution for ENSCI sondes. Preliminary results of the first half of this one year program will be presented. The systematic difference profiles will be shown as well as the comparison of the ozone total ozone columns evaluated from the ballon soundings and the measurements of a Dobson spectrophotometer. In addition, laboratory experiments with different concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 2% KI buffered solutions have been conducted. Regular calibration of the sondes are performed with a UV photometer reference to evidence concentration sensitivity of the ECC sondes response in laboratory conditions and possible aging effect. These experiments should help to finalize Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) which are still to be set up by the ECC users community.

  9. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic compounds: Anaerobic field injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Mosbaek, H.; Christensen, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, a continuous field injection experiment is being performed in the anaerobic part of a pollution plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark. This natural gradient experiment includes an injection of 18 different xenobiotic compounds with bromide as a tracer. The injection is taking place under methanogenic/sulfate-reducing conditions and the compounds will, as they migrate with the groundwater, pass through a zone where the redox conditions have been determined as iron-reducing.

  10. Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Enedy, Steve

    1993-01-28

    Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and overrecovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.

  11. Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K. ); Enedy, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and over-recovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.

  12. PACTEL experiments for the investigation of passive safety injection systems of advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tuunanen, J.; Munther, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    1996-07-01

    An important aspect of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) decay heat removal concerns the plant response under Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. In ALWRs, e.g. Westinghouse AP600, pump driven Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) are replaced by passive safety injection systems, which are gravity driven. It is therefore important that in such accidents, the ALWR coolant system pressure can be controlled to allow gravity fed injection to take place. The safety issue here is whether undesirable system responses could occur in any circumstances. Additionally, it is necessary to prove that the plant always depressurizes sufficiently for the ECCS to operate efficiently. Two experimental series have been carried out with the PACTEL integral test facility on the simulation of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs in accidental conditions. The safety system investigated was a passive core make-up tank (CMT), which was connected to the downcomer of the test facility. This paper starts with a short description of the PACTEL test facility and a summary of the results of the passive safety injection tests on PACTEL. Also included is a summary of the results of the computer simulations of the tests. The second part of the paper consists of a description of the planned third passive safety injection test series and the results of the pre-test simulations of the planned tests.

  13. ECC Ozonesonde Calibration and Observations: Satellite Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The reliability of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozonesonde depends on the care exercised in preparing the instrument for use. Although the ECC can be quickly prepared and flown, generally within less then one day if necessary, it is best to prepare the instrument at least one week prior to use, and as our tests have confirmed even 2-3 weeks prior to use may actually be better. There are a number of factors that must be considered when preparing an ECC. These basically are the pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and the background current. Also of importance is the concentration of the potassium iodide solution. Tests conducted at Wallops Island (38 N) has enabled us to identify potential problem areas and ways to avoid them. The calibration and pre-flight preparation methods will be discussed. The method of calibrating the ECC also is used at Ascension Island (8 S) and Natal, Brazil (5 S). Comparisons between vertical profiles of the ECC instrument and satellites will be reviewed as well as comparison with ground based instruments, such as, the Dobson Spectrophotometer and hand held Microtops photometers.

  14. Initial Results from Coaxial Helicity Injection Experiments in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Sabbagh, S.; Bell, M.; Ewig, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Orvis, D.; Paolette, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Wilgen, W.; Zweben, S.; and the NSTX Research Team

    2001-05-10

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been investigated on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial experiments produced 130 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. The corresponding injector current was 20 kA. Discharges with pulse lengths up to 130 ms have been produced.

  15. Nanoscale characterization of engineered cementitious composites (ECC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakulich, Aaron Richard Li, Victor C.

    2011-02-15

    Engineered cementitious composites (ECC) are ultra-ductile fiber-reinforced cementitious composites. The nanoscale chemical and mechanical properties of three ECC formulae (one standard formula, and two containing nanomaterial additives) were studied using nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Nanoindentation results highlight the difference in modulus between bulk matrix ({approx} 30 GPa) and matrix/fiber interfacial transition zones as well as between matrix and unreacted fly ash ({approx} 20 GPa). The addition of carbon black or carbon nanotubes produced little variation in moduli when compared to standard M45-ECC. The indents were observed by electron microscopy; no trace of the carbon black particles could be found, but nanotubes, including nanotubes bridging cracks, were easily located in ultrafine cracks near PVA fibers. Elemental analysis failed to show a correlation between modulus and chemical composition, implying that factors such as porosity have more of an effect on mechanical properties than elemental composition.

  16. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  17. Flux-Level Transit Injection Experiments with NASA Pleiades Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    Flux-Level Transit Injection (FLTI) experiments are executed with NASA's Pleiades supercomputer for the Kepler Mission. The latest release (9.3, January 2016) of the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline is used in the FLTI experiments. Their purpose is to validate the Analytic Completeness Model (ACM), which can be computed for all Kepler target stars, thereby enabling exoplanet occurrence rate studies. Pleiades, a facility of NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Division, is one of the world's most powerful supercomputers and represents NASA's state-of-the-art technology. We discuss the details of implementing the FLTI experiments on the Pleiades supercomputer. For example, taking into account that ~16 injections are generated by one core of the Pleiades processors in an hour, the “shallow” FLTI experiment, in which ~2000 injections are required per target star, can be done for 16% of all Kepler target stars in about 200 hours. Stripping down the transit search to bare bones, i.e. only searching adjacent high/low periods at high/low pulse durations, makes the computationally intensive FLTI experiments affordable. The design of the FLTI experiments and the analysis of the resulting data are presented in “Validating an Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments” by Catanzarite et al. (#2494058).Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  19. Continuation of Lithium Aerosol Injection Experiments on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Irby, J.; Wang, Z.

    2009-11-01

    During the 2008 run campaign, a Li powder dropper was installed on NSTX that successfully injected up to 35 mg/s of Li aerosol into the SOL. Initial improvements in the plasma performance from these initial experiments warranted the installation of a second Li dropper for the 2009 campaign. Design improvements in the dropper have resulted in accurate control of the flux of Li powder injected. The improved duel-dropper system has injected lithium fluxes of from 30 - 140 mg/s. At the highest flux, plasmas of 950 kA with 6 MW off NBI auxiliary heating have been successfully operated. This flux corresponds to 2.5 x106 - 5.8 x106 aerosol particles/s and is stoichiometrically equivalent 80 - 187 Torr L/s of D2. Operation of the Li dropper and the effects of the Li aerosol on the plasma performance will be discussed.

  20. A fault injection experiment using the AIRLAB Diagnostic Emulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Robert; Mangum, Scott; Scheper, Charlotte

    1988-01-01

    The preparation for, conduct of, and results of a simulation based fault injection experiment conducted using the AIRLAB Diagnostic Emulation facilities is described. An objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of the diagnostic self-test sequences used to uncover latent faults in a logic network providing the key fault tolerance features for a flight control computer. Another objective was to develop methods, tools, and techniques for conducting the experiment. More than 1600 faults were injected into a logic gate level model of the Data Communicator/Interstage (C/I). For each fault injected, diagnostic self-test sequences consisting of over 300 test vectors were supplied to the C/I model as inputs. For each test vector within a test sequence, the outputs from the C/I model were compared to the outputs of a fault free C/I. If the outputs differed, the fault was considered detectable for the given test vector. These results were then analyzed to determine the effectiveness of some test sequences. The results established coverage of selt-test diagnostics, identified areas in the C/I logic where the tests did not locate faults, and suggest fault latency reduction opportunities.

  1. Gas-injection experiments on a dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Barnouin, O.; Javedani, J.; Del Medico, S.; Miley, G.H.; Bromley, B.

    1994-12-31

    Rockford Technology Associates, Inc. (RTA) has been doing experiments on the Dense Plasma focus (DPF) device at the Fusion Studies Laboratory of the University of Illinois. This DPF consists of four racks of five 2-{mu}F capacitors whose charge is switched onto the inner electrode of a plasma focus by four Trigatron spark gaps. The stored energy is 12.5 kJ at 25 kV. The bank is usually discharged in a static fill of H{sub 2} at {approx} 6 torr. Preliminary experiments aimed at exploring the potential of the DPF device as a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and as an x-ray source for lithography have investigated various alternative ways of injecting gas between the electrodes. One of those approaches consists of injecting gas from the tip of the inner electrode at a steady rate. In this operation, the DPF chamber pressure was held constant by running the vacuum pump at full throttle. This operation simulated simultaneous pulsed injection at the base insulator and electrode tip. Hydrogen was fed through a 1/16th-inch hole at a flow rate of {approx} 90 cm/s. Pulsing was then performed at 23 kV, and the corresponding variations of the current were observed using a Rogowski coil. It is found that the plasma collapses into a pinch at the same time as in conventional experiments using a static fill. The singularity in the current waveform is slightly smaller with tip injection, but its size and shape are easily reproducible. Further details and comparison of this operation with conventional pulsing will be presented.

  2. First neutral beam injection experiments on KSTAR tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Chang, D H; Kim, T S; In, S R; Lee, K W; Jin, J T; Chang, D S; Oh, B H; Bae, Y S; Kim, J S; Park, H T; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Kashiwagi, M; Dairaku, M; Tobari, H; Hanada, M

    2012-02-01

    The first neutral beam (NB) injection system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak was partially completed in 2010 with only 1∕3 of its full design capability, and NB heating experiments were carried out during the 2010 KSTAR operation campaign. The ion source is composed of a JAEA bucket plasma generator and a KAERI large multi-aperture accelerator assembly, which is designed to deliver a 1.5 MW, NB power of deuterium at 95 keV. Before the beam injection experiments, discharge, and beam extraction characteristics of the ion source were investigated. The ion source has good beam optics in a broad range of beam perveance. The optimum perveance is 1.1-1.3 μP, and the minimum beam divergence angle measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy is 0.8°. The ion species ratio is D(+):D(2)(+):D(3)(+) = 75:20:5 at beam current density of 85 mA/cm(2). The arc efficiency is more than 1.0 A∕kW. In the 2010 KSTAR campaign, a deuterium NB power of 0.7-1.5 MW was successfully injected into the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-90 keV. L-H transitions were observed within a wide range of beam powers relative to a threshold value. The edge pedestal formation in the T(i) and T(e) profiles was verified through CES and electron cyclotron emission diagnostics. In every deuterium NB injection, a burst of D-D neutrons was recorded, and increases in the ion temperature and plasma stored energy were found. PMID:22380259

  3. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  4. Noise-based Stego-ECC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardjo, Budi; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan; Paryasto, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    A novel method of inserting noise into stream of ciphered text is proposed. The goal of inserting noise is to increase the level of uncertainty, thus making it harder for an attacker to detect data and noise. This form of steganography is implemented using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). The process of embedding the noise to the message in the encryption process and removing the noise from the message in the decryption process is proposed in this work by modifying ElGamal to allow auto detection of data and noise.

  5. Experiment on fuel injection in high-enthalpy flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Hideyuki; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Shuichi

    2001-04-01

    An experiment of inert gas injection into a high enthalpy hypersonic air flow is described. Gaseous helium at room temperature was injected transversely through four (phi) 1.5 mm circular sonic injectors at a spacing of 20 mm, which was located 28 mm downstream from a backward-facing step of 4 mm height. The experiment was carried out in the high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST under the free stream test condition at Mach number of 6.5 and at the velocity of 4 km/s. The purpose of the experiment was to examine transient behavior of the helium jet mixing with the test air flow. Sequential Schlieren flow visualization with high-speed CCD camera of 1 (mu) sec exposure time have been used. Pitot pressure profile in the helium jet was measured at three stream-wise location. The measurements showed that the helium jet reached to the steady state in less than 2 msec, which was within HIEST test duration.

  6. Visualization experiments on steam injection in Hele-Shaw cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xianli; Haghighi, M.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-03-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been successfully employed in reservoir engineering research for many years. They involve 2-D geometries in transparent Hele-Shaw cells and glass micromodels. Although much work has been done on immiscible flows (drainage or imbibition), visualization of steamfloods, which constitute a major part of current EOR methods, has not been attempted to data. In this paper, we present experimental results on steam injection in a transparent, pyrex glass Hele-Shaw cell. Both synthetic (Dutrex 739) and natural heavy oils were used under a variety of conditions, including effects of gravity.

  7. Energy Injection in a Non-Equilibrium Granular Gas Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, K.; Olafsen, J. S.

    2009-06-01

    Recent measurements involving a driven, novel bi-layer granular gas experiment demonstrate interesting behaviors in each of two segregated layers comprising the granular media. A lower layer of heavier dimers consisting of two monomers and a connecting rod are driven by a vertically oscillating plate. Above this dimer layer, a lighter layer of Delrin monomers is driven, not by the plate directly, but via collisions with the lower layer. Each layer is driven far from equilibrium and is influenced by particle collisions both within the layer (intralayer) and between layers (interlayer). The steady state dynamics in each layer demonstrate a non-equilibrium balance between the energy input from below and the dissipation through collisions. Interestingly enough, while the velocity statistics of the lower layer are driven strongly non-Gaussian by the energy input from the plate, the upper layer dynamics recapture robust Gaussian velocity statistics over a wide range of shaking parameters. The details of the energy injection into the upper layer are not well understood and could shed light on the conditions necessary to recapture a Maxwell-Boltzmann description in systems driven far from equilibrium. The dynamics of a single Delrin particle free to move on top of a high density lattice of dimers has been studied to evaluate the role of the interlayer collisions on the energy injection into this system. In this paper, the diffusion of the single tracer particle has been examined to better understand the influence of energy injection within the system.

  8. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. D.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; Airila, M.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Esser, H. G.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.

    2008-10-15

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of {sup 13}C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to {sup 13}C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - ECCS Evaluation Models

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ECCS Evaluation Models K Appendix K to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part 50—ECCS Evaluation Models I. Required and Acceptable Features of Evaluation Models. II. Required Documentation. I. Required...

  10. The Status of ECCE Provision in Trinidad and Tobago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logie, Carol

    This study examined the provision of early childhood care and education (ECCE) in Trinidad and Tobago, focusing on the educational environment and demographic factors within ECCE. A representative national sample of 2,370 children, 175 teachers, and 883 parents from 79 public and private centers across the country completed questionnaires or…

  11. Optical injection using colliding laser pulses: experiments at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemans, W. P.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Toth, C.; Faure, J.; van Tilborg, J.; Marcelis, B.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Fubiani, G.; Shadwick, B. A.; Dugan, G.; Cary, J.; Giacone, R.

    2002-11-01

    Laser driven acceleration in plasmas has succeeded in producing electron beams containing multi-nC's of charge, with some fraction of the electrons having energies in excess of 10's of MeV's but 100 % energy spread. One of the current challenges is to produce electron beams with much reduced energy spread. We report on experimental progress in the laser triggered injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator using the colliding pulse method (E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682 (1997).), (C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Rev. E 59, 6037 (1999).). The experiments use the l'OASIS multi-beam 10 Hz high power Ti:Al_2O3 laser system (W.P. Leemans et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2510 (2001).). In the present experiments, two counter propagating beams (30^rc angle) are focused onto a high density gas jet. Preliminary results indicate that electron beam properties are affected by the second beam. Details of the experiments will be shown as well as comparisons with simulations.

  12. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  13. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  14. Experiments on Plasma Injection into a Centrifugally Confined System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Elton, R.; Young, W.; Teodorescu, C.; Morales, C. H.; Ellis, R. F.

    2009-11-01

    We describe the cross-field injection of plasma into a centrifugally-confined system. Two different types of plasma railgun have been installed on the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) in an attempt to drive that plasma's rotation. The initial gun was a coaxial device designed to mitigate the blowby instability. The second one was a MiniRailgun with a rectangular bore oriented so that the MCX magnetic field augments the railgun's internal magnetic field. Tests at HyperV indicate this MiniRailgun reaches much higher densities than the original gun, although muzzle velocity is slightly reduced. We discuss the impact of these guns on MCX for various conditions. Initial results show that even for a 2 kG field, firing the MiniRailgun modifies oscillations of the MCX diamagnetic loops and can impact the core current and voltage. The gun also has a noticeable impact on MCX microwave emissions. These observations suggest plasma enters the MCX system. We also compare diagnostic data collected separately from MCX for these and other guns, focussing primarily on magnetic measurements.

  15. Spectral Analysis Software for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belknap, Donald

    2009-11-01

    The Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) operated by UC Davis functions by producing a spheromak-like plasma which is accelerated via a coaxial railgun. In order to examine features of the plasma such as impurities and temperature, the spectrum of the plasma is measured during a shot. Because of the number of shots that may be taken in a single day, a computer analysis program is an expedient method of analyzing the spectra. A graphic user interface (GUI) was designed to allow the user to easily read the spectral images from an archived data file and interactively perform functions such as CCD camera tilt correction, background subtraction, and wavelength calibration. The code for the GUI, background subtraction, wavelength calibration, and tilt correction algorithms are written in a high-level programming language, Igor, to allow for easy extension by CTIX scientists. The code can be extended to add features that can perform analysis on large numbers of spectra. Results of CTIX shots and calibration spectra will be presented.

  16. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. Results These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0) and 66 (26.2%) were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8%) participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004) and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019). A majority (67.9%) reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%). Conclusions Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions. PMID:20465842

  17. Neutral injection experiments on the ISX-B tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described: (1) review of confinement scaling in ISX-B with strong neutral injection in clean plasmas, (2) discussion of observed energy confinement improvement in slightly contaminated discharges (factor less than or equal to 2), and (3) preliminary evaluation of confinement with balanced neutral beam injection. (MOW)

  18. Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chijin; D, Liu; S, Livingstone; A, K. Singh; E, Zhang; A, Hirose

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the setup and results of compact torus (CT) injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M induced H-mode-like phenomena including doubling the electron density, reduction in the Hα radiation level, suppression of the floating potential fluctuations, suppression of the m = 2 Mirnov oscillations, and increase in the global energy confinement time. Experimental setup, bench-test results, and some preliminary injection data for vertical CT injection experiments on STOR-M will be shown. In addition, numerical simulations of the CT trajectories in tokamak discharges for both tangential and vertical injection geometries will be discussed.

  19. EPRI R and D contributions to the technical basis for revision of ECCS rules

    SciTech Connect

    Chexal, V.K.; Duffey, R.; Horowitz, J.

    1985-07-01

    EPRI research efforts over the last ten years in the area of ECCS methodology are summarized. The results when added to those of the NRC and others provide a technical basis to show that the regulatory requirements in 10CFR50 Appendix K, are very conservative. In addition, these research efforts allow quantification of that conservatism. The research experiments, computer code development, and code assessment efforts funded by EPRI or cofunded with others are described.

  20. ECC Ozonesonde Reliability, Observations, and Comparisons with Satellite Ozone Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Northam, E. T.; Ross, E. D.; Schauer, A. G.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone instruments depend on the quality of care exercised in their pre-flight preparation. The ozone-measuring project conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility uses a number of mechanisms designed to inspect the ECC for anomalies that may interfere with the reception of valid ozone profiles. Complete electronic testing of the instrument, individually and when coupled to its radiosonde has led to exceptional monitoring of ozone for detecting long-term atmospheric changes. A number of factors are considered when preparing an ECC instrument for flight. These basically are specific calibrations of pump efficiency, volumetric flow rate, temperature of the air entering the pump, and background current. The concentration of the potassium iodide solution is also important. Wallops is the only site using a UV photometer (Dasibi) to compare ECC ozone output at various concentrations of ozone that allows adjustment to be made to offsets that may appear in the balloon-borne instrument prior to release. All of the above procedures allow identification of potential problems before release of the ECC instrument. Procedures followed at Wallops also are employed in Brazil, and Ascension Island where NASA has cooperative agreements in place to obtain ozonesondes data. All ECC instruments are prepared 3-4 weeks prior to the day of observation. We will briefly describe the instrumental tests employed. These tests have included simultaneous dual observations to compare the effect of different solution concentrations, comparison of sensors of different manufacturers, and comparisons with surface- and space-based instrumentation such as the Dobson Spectrophotometer and satellites. Vertical profiles of ozone from Arctic, mid-latitudes, and Antarctica will be discussed. Although not unusual, the data reveals ozone structure that correlate well with typical atmospheric temperatures and possibly relative humidity. Finally

  1. The validation of LIMS ozone profiles using correlative rocket, ECC, and Dobson data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Gordley, L. L.; Gille, J. C.; Bailey, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment is a limb scanning infrared sounder designed to measure vertical temperature profiles and the concentrations of key chemical compounds which are important in the stratospheric ozone-nitrogen photochemistry. Preliminary ozone profiles are being intercompared with correlative rocket and balloonsonde ozone data sets as part of the Nimbus 7 LIMS data validation activity. The LIMS ozone retrievals extend from the lower mesosphere to the tropopause (or cloud-top altitudes). In this paper, preliminary statistics of comparisons of ECC (electrochemical concentration cell) ozonesonde and rocket ozone profiles with LIMS ozone profiles are presented. ECC ozonesonde data taken at times of LIMS overpasses are also used to extend the LIMS retrieval down to ground level. Each combined profile is then integrated to obtain total column ozone. These integrated results are compared to Dobson data obtained at approximately the same time and location.

  2. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.; Ebrahimi, F.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-09-15

    The generation of helicity-injected startup plasmas in National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), including flux surface closure, is studied using resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations with plasma flows, currents, ohmic heating and anisotropic thermal conduction. An injection-voltage pulse shape is used that separates the injection and closure phases allowing elucidation of the physics. The formation of an X-point near the helicity-injection gap is triggered as the injector voltage drops to zero. Near the forming X-point, magnetic pressure due to toroidal field entrained in the E × B plasma flow from the helicity-injection gap drops, allowing resistive magnetic reconnection even though the total injected current is almost constant. Where appropriate, the simulations are compared with Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection experiments in the NSTX spherical tokamak, which have demonstrated the formation of a promising candidate for non-inductive startup plasmas [Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 075005 (2003)].

  3. LABORATORY MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS OF OXIDATION PROCESSES AFTER STEAM INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aggressive thermal methods such as steam injection or resistive heating are known to be effective for the recovery of many types of volatile and semivolatile compounds. It has been suggested that oxidation or other chemical reactions that occur at remediation temperatures can ai...

  4. Analysis and experiments of self-injection magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhang; Wen-Jun, Ye; Ping, Yuan; Huan-Cheng, Zhu; Yang, Yang; Ka-Ma, Huang

    2016-04-01

    Magnetrons are widely used in microwave-based industrial applications, which are rapidly developing. However, the coupling between their output frequency and power as well as their wideband spectra restricts their further application. In this work, the output frequency and power of a magnetron are decoupled by self-injection. Moreover, the spectral bandwidth is narrowed, and the phase noise is reduced for most loop phase values. In order to predict the frequency variation with loop phase and injection ratio, a theoretical model based on a circuit equivalent to the magnetron is developed. Furthermore, the developed model also shows that the self-injection magnetron is stabler than the free-running magnetron and that the magnetron’s phase noise can be reduced significantly for most loop phase values. Experimental results confirm the conclusions obtained using the proposed model. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501311).

  5. ECC ozonesonde performance at high altitudes: Pump efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    The ECC ozonesonde sampling behavior was examined at pressures ranging from 60 to 6 hPa with the objective of evaluating uncertainties in high altitude ozone data caused by variations in pumping efficiency. The averaged pump efficiency correction curve for a 43 sample set of 3A type ECC pumps showed a 2-3% bias from the curve provided by the manufacturer. In addition, random pump to pump variations (2 sigma) + or - were 5% at 6 hPa. These values probably represent minimum errors since the pumps were from the same production batch. A seven sample set of the newer 4A type ECC pumps was examined, with similar findings as for the 3A types.

  6. Hydrothermal injection experiments at the Raft River KGRA, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, W.F.; McAtee, R.E.; Capuano, R.M.; Sill, W.

    1982-12-14

    The optimal development and management of a geothermal resource requires a knowledge of the hydrological characteristics of the reservoir. Reservoir engineering analysis techniques for permeable aquifers have been undergoing development for several decades but little attention has been paid to fracture-dominated systems. A program to test the ability of Huff-Puff tests to help characterize a fracture-dominated reservoir is presented. Several series of these injection (Huff)-backflow (Puff) tests were conducted at the Raft River KGRA in Southern Idaho. These test series are described and preliminary results and interpretations are discussed.

  7. Experiments on Injection of Dust Jets into Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Lvov, Igor L.; Sadovoi, Sergey A.; Selemir, Victor D.; Vyalykh, Dmitry V.

    2005-10-31

    Experimental technique for studying the injection of dust jets into plasma of a glow discharge in air based on a needle injector is developed. The velocity and flight time of a dust jet is measured under different initial conditions by laser method. Imprints of dust jets on adhesive films are obtained. It is shown that the propagation of 20-{mu}m dust grains in plasma is accompanied by self-contraction instability along and across the discharge, which leads to the dust agglomeration.

  8. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F. P.; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. Methods: German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25–30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Results: Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Conclusions: Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of

  9. D Helicity Injection Studies on the Current Drive Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrow, Douglass Sterling

    A tokamak-like plasma has been created and sustained in the CDX device solely by means of an electron beam. The poloidal field structure observed is that of a tokamak and the density and temperatures seen are larger than in previous types of plasmas generated in this device. A plasma current scaling consistent with the helicity balance equation is observed and about 40% of the injected helicity appears in the tokamak plasma. Rapid transport of current from the region of injection to the center produces a peaked current profile. Plasmas with beta in the neighborhood of the Troyon-Sykes limit may be generated by this technique. In high-beta plasmas, a coherent fluctuation is seen which has its largest amplitude in a region of unfavorable curvature. The mode is absent below a certain density and plasma current, corresponding to a threshold beta. When present, the mode has an m = 4 structure and it propagates in the ion diamagnetic direction. These properties identify it as a ballooning mode. A significant radial electric field alters the observed frequency and dispersion of the mode.

  10. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-05-15

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  11. Deportation Experiences of Women Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico. PMID:21917563

  12. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  13. Active experiments in space in conjunction with Skylab. [barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two papers are presented which relate to the Skylab barium shaped charge experiments. The first describes the L=6.6 OOSIK barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972. Rocket payload, instrumentation, data reduction methods, geophysical environment at the time of the experiment, and results are given. The second paper presents the observation of an auroral Birkeland current which developed from the distortion of a barium plasma jet during the above experiment.

  14. Imaging of CO{sub 2} injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

    2003-04-29

    A series of time-lapse seismic cross well and single well experiments were conducted in a diatomite reservoir to monitor the injection of CO{sub 2} into a hydrofracture zone, using P- and S-wave data. During the first phase the set of seismic experiments were conducted after the injection of water into the hydrofrac-zone. The set of seismic experiments was repeated after a time period of 7 months during which CO{sub 2} was injected into the hydrofractured zone. The issues to be addressed ranged from the detectability of the geologic structure in the diatomic reservoir to the detectability of CO{sub 2} within the hydrofracture. During the pre-injection experiment, the P-wave velocities exhibited relatively low values between 1700-1900 m/s, which decreased to 1600-1800 m/s during the post-injection phase (-5 percent). The analysis of the pre-injection S-wave data revealed slow S-wave velocities between 600-800 m/s, while the post-injection data revealed velocities between 500-700 m/s (-6 percent). These velocity estimates produced high Poisson ratios between 0.36 and 0.46 for this highly porous ({approx} 50 percent) material. Differencing post- and pre-injection data revealed an increase in Poisson ratio of up to 5 percent. Both, velocity and Poisson estimates indicate the dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the liquid phase of the reservoir accompanied by a pore-pressure increase. The results of the cross well experiments were corroborated by single well data and laboratory measurements on core data.

  15. Electron beam injection during active experiments. II - Collisional effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    During active beam experiments, the presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings has been observed to modify the spacecraft charging and the properties of the beam. Two-dimensional (three-velocity) electromagnetic particle simulations with ionizing collisions incorporated are used to investigate the modification of the beam-plasma interaction as the neutral density is increased. It is shown that when the spacecraft is uniformly immersed in a neutral cloud, most of the ionization is produced by direct ionization by the beam and its secondaries, rather than via vehicle-induced or wave-induced ionization for the neutral densities considered.

  16. Injecting learning experience into geoethics for human and natural sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crookall, David

    2016-04-01

    Our early life experience has a strong influence on our actions in later life. Humans today are just starting to re-learn, collectively, how to treat Earth with the respect that it deserves and that is needed for our offspring to inherit a decent home. However, we still have a long way to go to instill in people at large the ethics, knowledge and skills necessary to ensure a healthy journey for humanity on spaceship. The experience of early upbringing, of schooling and of everyday life is probably the only path strong enough to develop in people a strong desire for ethical behaviour towards their environment. The problem is that the measures taken today to ensure the development of ethical behaviours in the population at large are woefully inadequate. At best, western school programmes contain a few lessons devoted to the environment, and even then they usually just pay lip service to the basics of the environment; they rarely aim to instill skills and knowledge in order to understand and care deeply for the environment. My presentation will suggest some practical ways to help communities build ethical frameworks and strategies to guide and generate tools, methods and activities that guide young people (pupils, students, scholars, researchers) to toward more ethical behaviours regarding their environment and their communities. Examples might include: - Developing geoethical dimensions of internships, in all areas; - Designing, testing and running simulation/games+debriefing providing a rich affective-cognitive context for grappling with geoethical problems- eg, FISH BANKS, KEEP COOL. - Pressuring governments to make geoethics, environmental care and climate change understanding central components of (almost) all educational programmes (in, eg, history, language, business, law, medicine, etc). - Subsidizing environmental-care summer schools for families and teachers at all levels. - Etc. One of my actions is founding a academic journal in the area, maybe with the

  17. An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…

  18. External-injection Experiment at SPARC_LAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. R.; Bacci, A.; Belleveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Maroli, C.; Mostacci, A.; Petrillo, V.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.

    At the SPARC_LAB facility of INFN-LNF we are installing two transport lines for ultra-short electron bunches and an ultra- intense laser pulses, generated by the SPARC photo-injector and by the FLAME laser in a synchronized fashion at the tens of f s level, to co-propagate inside a hydrogen filled glass capillary, in order to perform acceleration of the electron bunch by a plasma wave driven by the laser pulse. The main aim of this experiment is to demonstrate that a high brightness electron beam can be accelerated by a plasma wave without any significant degradation of its quality. Motivations of the technical choices made and expected performances are reported.

  19. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R.

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  20. Considerations for realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Saha, P.; Chexal, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies the various phenomena which govern the course of large and small break LOCAs in LWRs, and affect the key parameters such as Peak Clad Temperature (PCT) and timing of the end of blowdown, beginning of reflood, PCT, and complete quench. A review of the best-estimate models and correlations for these phenomena in the current literature has been presented. Finally, a set of models have been recommended which may be incorporated in a present best-estimate code such as TRAC or RELAP5 in order to develop a realistic ECCS evaluation methodology for future LWRs and have also been compared with the requirements of current ECCS evaluation methodology as outlined in Appendix K of 10CFR50. 58 refs.

  1. Impacts of Humic Injection Experiments on the South Oyster Field Research Site

    SciTech Connect

    John F. McCarthy

    2004-04-27

    A closure plan for the South Oyster Focus Area (SOFA) is being implemented to assess the impacts of a series of experimental injections of microorganisms, tracers and chemical amendments on the chemical and physical properties of the aquifer. The proposed research addresses environmental monitoring of humic substances injected into the aquifer, as described in the Site Closure Plan for the South Oyster Field Research Site. The goal of the research is to demonstrate that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the groundwater at and downgradient from the injection site has returned to a pre-injection �baseline� conditions with respect to either the concentration or chemical composition of the DOM. For clarity, the humic solution injected during the experiment will be referred to as �humic injectate.� The term �DOM� will refer to the organic material recovered in the groundwater, which includes the autochthonous groundwater DOM as well as any of the humic injectate remaining in the groundwater. Specific objectives include: � Estimate the amount of humic material remaining in the aquifer at the completion of the push-pull experiment and the potential for environmental impacts due to release of humics retained on the sediments. � Monitor the DOM concentrations in groundwater over time at the injection well and at sampling locations within the potential downgradient plume of the injected tracers. � Evaluate the chemical composition of the DOM to determine whether the injection experiment had an impact of the chemical properties of the aquifer. The product of this research will be a contribution to the Site Closure Report documenting the impact of the humic experiments on the aquifer. Return of the aquifer to a �baseline� conditions will be achieved if the DOM concentrations in the groundwater are determined over the course of the research to have decreased to the pre-injection level, or if the chemical properties of

  2. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-08-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma.

  3. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  4. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  5. Experiment of Injecting Phase Cal Ahead of the Feed: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Dmitrij; Maslenikov, Anatolij; Vytnov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    For developing the Russian VLBI network of new generation, a few experiments of injecting the phase calibration signal ahead of the feed were carried out. In the experiments an external broadband phase calibration signal was emitted through a special feed to a receiver horn directly. Prototypes of the feed for a frequency range of 2-18 GHz were created. The first experiments on injection phase cal ahead of the feed were carried out at Svetloe Observatory of the QUASAR VLBI network. The phase cal signal was emitted by the broadband feed installed on the roof of a mirror cabin, reflected by the sub-reflector, and received by the horn of the receiving system. The results of these experiments are considered.

  6. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  7. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  8. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  9. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H.; Randall, P.R.; Wegener, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  10. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  11. 'Safer environment interventions': a qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will

    2014-04-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that social, structural, and environmental forces produce vulnerability to health harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), and safer environment interventions (SEI) have been identified as critical to mitigating the impacts of these contextual forces on drug-related harm. To date, however, SEIs have been under-theorized in the literature, and how they minimize drug-related risks across intervention types and settings has not been adequately examined. This article presents findings from a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies reporting PWID's experiences with three types of SEIs (syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection facilities and peer-based harm reduction interventions) published between 1997 and 2012. This meta-synthesis sought to develop a comprehensive understanding of SEIs informed by the experiences of PWID. Twenty-nine papers representing twenty-one unique studies that included an aggregate of more than 800 PWID were included in this meta-synthesis. This meta-synthesis found that SEIs fostered social and physical environments that mitigated drug-related harms and increased access to social and material resources. Specifically, SEIs: (1) provided refuge from street-based drug scenes; (2) enabled safer injecting by reshaping the social and environmental contexts of injection drug use; (3) mediated access to resources and health care services; and, (4) were constrained by drug prohibition and law enforcement activities. These findings indicate that it is critical to situate SEIs in relation to the lived experiences of PWID, and in particular provide broader environmental support to PWID. Given that existing drug laws limit the effectiveness of interventions, drug policy reforms are needed to enable public health, and specifically SEIs, to occupy a more prominent role in the response to injection drug use. PMID:24561777

  12. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice. PMID:24723953

  13. Interpretation of injection-withdrawal tracer experiments conducted between two wells in a large single fracture.

    PubMed

    Novakowski, K S; Bickerton, G; Lapcevic, P

    2004-09-01

    Tracer experiments conducted using a flow field established by injecting water into one borehole and withdrawing water from another are often used to establish connections and investigate dispersion in fractured rock. As a result of uncertainty in the uniqueness of existing models used for interpretation, this method has not been widely used to investigate more general transport processes including matrix diffusion or advective solute exchange between mobile and immobile zones of fluid. To explore the utility of the injection-withdrawal method as a general investigative tool and with the intent to resolve the transport processes in a discrete fracture, two tracer experiments were conducted using the injection-withdrawal configuration. The experiments were conducted in a fracture which has a large aperture (>500 microm) and horizontally pervades a dolostone formation. One experiment was conducted in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and the other in the direction opposite to the natural gradient. Two tracers having significantly different values of the free-water diffusion coefficient were used. To interpret the experiments, a hybrid numerical-analytical model was developed which accounts for the arcuate shape of the flow field, advection-dispersion in the fracture, diffusion into the matrix adjacent to the fracture, and the presence of natural flow in the fracture. The model was verified by comparison to a fully analytical solution and to a well-known finite-element model. Interpretation of the tracer experiments showed that when only one tracer, advection-dispersion, and matrix diffusion are considered, non-unique results were obtained. However, by using multiple tracers and by accounting for the presence of natural flow in the fracture, unique interpretations were obtained in which a single value of matrix porosity was estimated from the results of both experiments. The estimate of porosity agrees well with independent measurements of porosity obtained from

  14. Two-component co-injection and transfer molding and gas-assisted injection molding of polymers: Simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengtao

    Two-component molding is a novel process for manufacturing polymer products with a sandwich structure or a hollow structure. Typically, two different materials are injected or transferred into a mold sequentially or simultaneously. The skin is generally a prime polymer with required surface and bulk properties for intended use. The core can be solid, foam or gas. Obtaining a uniform encapsulated structure is difficult and there are no science-based rules for optimization of process setup. Thus, a physical model and process simulations have been developed based on the kinematics and dynamics of a moving interface, and Hele-Shaw approximation. The model has incorporated temperature and shear rate dependences of viscosity of both skin and core component into the transient interface evolution. Based on the developed model, simulations have been carried out to study flow rate controlled simultaneous co-injection molding of thermoplastics, pressure-controlled sequential transfer molding of rubber compounds, and gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM). The simulation results were compared with the experimental data, and in general, good agreement was found between the predicted and experimentally measured interface distribution in moldings. For simultaneous co-injection molding, it is found that material pairs with a broad range of viscosities may be utilized. Breakthrough phenomena are mainly determined by the volume of melt of initial single phase injection and rheological properties of material combinations. When the core has a lower viscosity than the skin, or the volume of initial injection of skin melt is smaller, breakthrough is very likely. However, the breakthrough can be eliminated by controlling injection rate of the skin and core melts. For sequential transfer molding, it is found that the rubber distribution in moldings are dominated by the rheological properties of components and the volume fraction transferred, but independent of the gate pressure. When the

  15. Real-scale miscible grout injection experiment and performance of advection-dispersion-filtration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchelaghem, F.; Vulliet, L.; Leroy, D.; Laloui, L.; Descoeudres, F.

    2001-10-01

    A model was developed, to describe miscible grout propagation in a saturated deformable porous medium, based on Bear's statistical model with spatial volume averaging. In a previous paper, the model was first successfully confronted to one-dimensional laboratory experiments.In the present paper, the numerical model is used to simulate practical grouting operation in a cylindrical injection model. The cylindrical injection model lends itself to study main flow and propagation character istics for a dispersed suspension-type grout, under axisymmetric conditions close to real scale conditions.Comparison between numerical solutions and experimental results is essential to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed model from a phenomenological standpoint. The numerical model performances show that the underlying mathematical model constitutes a realistic predictive model reproducing most prominent features during injection of a suspension-type grout into a deformable porous medium. The basic mechanism by which injected miscible grout permeates a soil mass is discussed in detail. Such a tool leads to quality control criteria for grouting on a theoretical basis, which complements existing criteria acquired through engineering practice.

  16. Analysis of cavity pressure and warpage of polyoxymethylene thin walled injection molded parts: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrier, P.; Tosello, G.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    Process analysis and simulations on molding experiments of 3D thin shell parts have been conducted. Moldings were carried out with polyoxymethylene (POM). The moldings were performed with cavity pressure sensors in order to compare experimental process results with simulations. The warpage was characterized by measuring distances using a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions. Various aspects have been considered in the simulation: machine barrel geometry, injection speed profiles, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, material rheological and pvT characterization. Factors investigated for comparisons were: injection pressure profile, short shots length, flow pattern, and warpage. A reliable molding experimental database was obtained, accurate simulations were conducted and a number of conclusions concerning improvements to simulation accuracy are presented regarding: pvT data, mesh, short shots, cavity pressure for process control validation as well as molding machine geometry modelling. Eventually, a methodology for improved molding simulations of cavity injection pressure, filling pattern and warpage was established.

  17. Passive safety injection experiments with a large-scale pressurized water reactor simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka; Anoda, Yoshinari; Asaka, Hideaki

    1995-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the ROSA-V/ Large-Scale-Test-Facility to investigate thermal-hydraulic behavior of a gravity-driven passive injection system for a pressurized water reactor under cold-leg small break loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The injection system, used in the tests, consisted of a tank located above the reactor vessel, an injection line, and pressure balance lines. The two tests were conducted using the same break area, corresponding to 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg cross-sectional area, and different actuation logic for the automatic depressurization system (ADS). Both experimental results showed an accumulation of hot water in the upper part of the tank due to the natural circulation, followed by a continuous water level drop, and the existence of a slightly superheated liquid layer near the water surface. Because of the differences in the ADS actuation logic, the system depressurization behavior was different between the two tests. Much larger injection rates from the tank were obtained for the test that experienced the larger depressurization rate. The liquid temperature distributions obtained from these tests were predicted well by an analytical model proposed in a previous paper.

  18. Impurity Ion Temperature and Flow Dynamics During Local Helicity Injection on the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Anomalous energetic thermal and non-thermal minority ion distributions are observed during local helicity injection current startup. Energetic ions in significant numbers can transfer a large amount of power to plasma electrons during helicity injection, which can alter the helicity balance and consequent plasma startup via reduced resistive dissipation. Multi-spatial point spectra from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator are recorded by an intensified high-speed camera with a time resolution of 500 μs. Te remains low during helicity injection, wherein the plasma experiences large magnetic fluctuations and strong reconnection activity near the injection region. Partially ionized low-Z impurities (CIII, NIII, and OIII) exist in the core plasma region, which allows core Ti measurements. Strong impurity ion heating (Ti ~ 1 . 2 keV, Te ~ 0 . 1 keV) correlates with n = 1 MHD activity. High frequency magnetic fluctuations are indicated at frequencies close to the impurity ion cyclotron frequencies and may act as the source of energy for the ions. These observations motivate the deployment of a neutral particle analyzer to measure the working gas ion distributions in these plasmas. In addition, a high-throughput polychromator with 2 μs resolution is being installed to more directly correlate the observed impurity ion heating and flows with MHD and reconnection activity. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  19. Hydroclast and Peperite generation: Experimental Results produced using the Silicate Melt Injection Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, W. S.; Mastin, L. G.; Spieler, O.; Kunzmann, T.; Shaw, C. S.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    The Silicate Melt Injection Laboratory Experiment (SMILE) allows for the effusive and explosive injection of molten glass into a variety of media - air, water, water spray, and wet sediments. Experiments have been preformed using the SMILE apparatus to evaluate the mechanisms of "turbulent shedding" during shallow submarine volcanic eruptions and magma/wet-sediment interactions. In these experiments, approximately 0.5 kg of basaltic melt with 5 wt.% Spectromelt (dilithium tetraborate) is produced in an internally heated autoclave at 1150° C and ambient pressure. The molten charge is ejected via the bursting of a rupture disc at 3.5 MPa into the reaction media, situated within the low pressure tank (atmospheric conditions). Preliminary experiments ejecting melt into a standing water column have yielded hydroclasts of basalt. SEM images of the clasts show ubiquitous discontinuous skins ("rinds") that are flaked, peeled, or smeared away in strips. Adhering to the clast surfaces are flakes, blocks, and blobs of detached material, up to 10 μm in size. The presence of partially detached rinds and rind debris likely reflects repeated bending, scraping, impact, and other disruption through turbulent velocity fluctuations. These textures are comparable to littoral explosive deposits at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where lava tubes are torn apart by wave action, the lava is quenched, and thrown back on the beach as loose fragments (hyaloclastite). Preliminary experiments injecting melt into wet sediments show evidence of sediment ingestion and fluidal textures. These results support the interpretation that peperite generation can be driven by hydrodynamic mixing of a fuel and a coolant.

  20. Microorganisms as tracers in groundwater injection and recovery experiments: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Modern day injection and recovery techniques designed to examine the transport behavior of microorganisms in groundwater have evolved from experiments conducted in the late 1800s, in which bacteria that form red or yellow pigments were used to trace flow paths through karst and fractured- rock aquifers. A number of subsequent groundwater hydrology studies employed bacteriophage that can be injected into aquifers at very high concentrations (e g., 1013 phage ml-1) and monitored through many log units of dilution to follow groundwater flow paths for great distances, particularly in karst terrain. Starting in the 1930s, microbial indicators of fecal contamination (particularly coliform bacteria and their coliphages) were employed as tracers to determine potential migration of pathogens in groundwater. Several injection and recovery experiments performed in the 1990s employed indigenous groundwater microorganisms (both cultured and uncultured) that are better able to survive under in situ conditions. Better methods for labeling native bacteria (e.g by stable isotope labeling or inserting genetic markers; such as the ability to cause ice nucleation) are being developed that will not compromise the organisms' viability during the experimental time course.

  1. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  2. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  3. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; D.S. Darrow; D. Liu; A.L. Roquemore

    2005-03-25

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I{sub p} {approx} 0.5 MA) and electron density (n{sub e} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented.

  4. Electric fields and plasma waves resulting from a barium injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, H.C.; Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-03-01

    A shaped-charge, barium plasma injection experiment was performed in June 1976 from the DOE Kauai test facility. The rocket payload contained seven shaped charges, a sevenfold larger package than the typical payloads employed in previous barium plasma injections conducted in this program. An attitude control system oriented the injection perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field. The injection altitude was 450 km. The second-stage motor section contained a payload to measure dc and ac electric fields using a 5-m-long, tip-to-tip dual spherical probe antenna. The ac electric field frequency response was from 100 Hz to 12 kHz. The dc channel responds up to 160 Hz. Shortly after the detonation, the dc electric field was parallel to the geomagnetic field. A few seconds later the measured electric field was the v x B field induced by the motion of the antenna through the plasma. A variety of plasma waves were detected for approximately 20 s following the injection. The initial impulse in the dc channel was measured to be 115 mV/m. The injection generated barium cyclotron waves at 3.4, 7.2, and 10.6 Hz. The barium gyrofrequency at the altitude of the injection was 3.3 Hz. The initial amplitude at 3.4 Hz was 25 mV/m peak-to-peak. These waves were evident in the data for approximately 6 s. Between 3 and 8 after the explosion, band-limited noise was intermittently present between 1.6 and 3.2 kHz. These emissions were lower-hybrid-resonance emissions in a barium plasma. The instability responsible for these emissions is tentatively identified as the modified two-stream instability. Wide-band noise with a decreasing intensity as a function of frequency in the band from 100 Hz to 5 kHz was present from 4 to 30 s following the explosion. The intensity maximized when the antenna was most nearly parallel to the geomagnetic field. This suggests that the waves were ion acoustic waves. Highly structured emission occurred between 500 Hz for several seconds after the explosion.

  5. A Cross-Hole, Multi-Year Tracer Injection Experiment in the Volcanic Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.; Neira, N. M.; Wheat, C. G.; Clark, J. F.; Becker, K.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from the first cross-hole tracer injection experiment in the volcanic ocean crust. The test site is on 3.5 to 3.6 M.y. old seafloor on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Six borehole subseafloor observatories (CORKs) were installed during three scientific ocean drilling expeditions, five arrayed along a 1 km profile aligned with the strike of underlying abyssal hills (Holes 1026B, 1301A/B, and 1362A/B), and one offset 2.4 km to the east (1027C). Before installing the sixth CORK in Hole 1362B, in 2010, we injected a mixture of tracers (dissolved gas, metal salts, particles) during 24 hours into the upper ocean crust. Seafloor samplers connected CORKs, sampling from different locations in the crust, were recovered during servicing expeditions in 2011 and 2013; downhole samplers that contain records from the full four years following tracer injection will be recovered in Summer 2014. Analyses of dissolved gas tracers collected with wellhead samplers through 2013 suggest that the dominant flow direction in upper basement is south to north, as inferred from regional thermal data and the chemistry of geochemical (pore fluid and borehole) samples. The apparent tracer flow rate in upper basement is on the order of meters/day, but calculations are complicated by an incomplete CORK seal in Hole 1301A, which resulted in discharge from this system that also "pulled" water and tracer to the south. Samples were collected from the tracer injection borehole, Hole 1362B, and a sampling site 200 m to the north, Hole 1362A, beginning one year after tracer injection, after opening a large-diameter ball valve on the wellhead of Hole 1362B to initiate a long-term free flow experiment. Analyses of these samples suggest that much of the tracer injected in 2010 remained close to Hole 1362B rather than being advected and dispersed into the formation. It also appears that much of the tracer transport to Hole 1362A occurred within one or more

  6. Development Of A Methodology For The Application Of Synthetic DNA In Stream Tracer Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppen, J.; Bogaard, T.

    2013-12-01

    Stream tracer injection experiments are useful for characterizing hydrological and biogeochemical processes in streams. We used non-conservative synthetic DNA and conservative NaCl in six instantaneous tracer injection experiments in streams in the Benelux. The main aim was to compare the performance of injected synthetic DNA tracer 'T23' with NaCl. In all experiments, the shapes of the T23 and NaCl breakthrough curves (BTCs) were similar. Recovered T23 mass ranged from 2.9-52.6%, while recovered NaCl tracer mass ranged from 66.7% to complete mass recovery. In batch experiments, T23 decay was not detected. However, in those batches, we observed an unexplained initial T23 mass loss of 40-97%. In batches with sediment, T23 attachment rate coefficients ranged from close to zero to 0.2 hr-1. Advective and dispersive transport parameters of both NaCl and T23 fitted with STAMMT-L were similar. However, compared to T23, fitted storage zone areas of NaCl were 2-5 times larger, while storage zone exchange coefficients were two times larger. Fitted mass dilution factors of T23 ranged from 1.6-34.8. Together, these results pointed towards the disappearance of a part of the T23 mass due to both initial losses and attachment or sorption of T23 mass in those storage zone(s), while decay was not important. Our research demonstrated that artificial DNA can be a valuable tool to determine advective and dispersive transport in brooks, but not to assess solute mass exchange processes related to surface transient storage or hyporheic exchange.

  7. Development of a methodology for the application of synthetic DNA in stream tracer injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppen, Jan Willem; Seopa, Judith; Bakobie, Noel; Bogaard, Thom

    2013-09-01

    Stream tracer injection experiments are useful for characterizing hydrological and biogeochemical processes in streams. We used nonconservative synthetic DNA and conservative NaCl in six instantaneous tracer injection experiments in streams in the Benelux. The main aim was to compare the performance of injected synthetic DNA tracer "T23" with NaCl. In all experiments, the shapes of the T23 and NaCl breakthrough curves (BTCs) were similar. Recovered T23 mass ranged from 2.9 to 52.6%, while recovered NaCl tracer mass ranged from 66.7% to complete mass recovery. In batch experiments, T23 decay was not detected. However, in those batches, we observed an unexplained initial T23 mass loss of 40-97%. In batches with sediment, T23 attachment rate coefficients ranged from close to zero to 0.2 hr-1. Advective and dispersive transport parameters of both NaCl and T23 fitted with STAMMT-L were similar. However, compared to T23, fitted storage zone areas of NaCl were 2-5 times larger, while storage zone exchange coefficients were two times larger. Fitted mass dilution factors of T23 ranged from 1.6 to 34.8. Together, these results pointed toward the disappearance of a part of the T23 mass due to both initial losses and attachment or sorption of T23 mass in those storage zone(s), while decay was not important. Our research demonstrated that artificial DNA can be a valuable tool to determine advective and dispersive transport in brooks, but not to assess solute mass exchange processes related to surface transient storage or hyporheic exchange.

  8. Interference of sulphur dioxide to balloon-borne ECC ozone sensors over the Valley of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, I.; Basaldud, R.; Horikoshi, N.; Okazaki, Y.; Benítez Garcia, S. E.; Ortínez, A.; Ramos Benítez, V. R.; Cárdenas, B.; Wakamatsu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal decrease in the ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City. Sharp drops around 5 km a.s.l. and above were observed in November 2011, and a broad deficit in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Various circumstantial evidence indicates that the decrease was due to interference of SO2 gas to Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) ozone sensors. The sharp drops in November 2011 are considered to be caused by the SO2 plume from the Popocatépetl volcano to the south-east of Mexico City. Response experiments of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could generate the observed abrupt drops. The vertical structure of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation also supported this assumption. The near-ground deficit in March 2012 is considered to be generated by the SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex to the north-west of Mexico City. Sporadic large SO2 emission is known to occur from this region, and before and at the ozonesonde launching time, large intermittent peaks of SO2 concentration were recorded at the ground-level monitoring stations. The difference between the O3 concentration obtained by ozonesonde and that by UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration measured by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The plume vertical profiles estimated by the Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in Mexico City revealed that the Popocatépetl effect is most likely to occur from June to October, and the Tula effect all the year.

  9. A self-injection acceleration test experiment for the FLAME laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labate, L.; Anelli, F.; Bacci, A.; Batani, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Benedetti, C.; Benocci, R.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Ciricosta, O.; Clozza, A.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Drenska, N.; Faccini, R.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Gallo, S.; Fioravanti, S.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Köster, P.; Levato, T.; Lollo, V.; Pace, E.; Pathak, N.; Rossi, A.; Serafini, L.; Turchetti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.; Valente, P.; Vicario, C.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2010-10-01

    A 250-TW laser system (FLAME - Frascati laser for acceleration and multidisciplinary experiments) is now in its commissioning phase in a new laboratory at LNF-INFN in the framework of the PLASMONX (Plasma acceleration and monochromatic X-ray generation) project. The laser will deliver<25 fs duration pulses with an energy up to 6 J, at a 10 Hz repetition rate. An ad hoc target area has also been designed and is currently being set up, allowing the first test experiments of electron laser wakefield acceleration to be carried out over the next few months in a safe, radiation-protected environment. An overview of the main features of the laser system and target area is given, along with a survey of the design and set-up of the self-injection test experiment, which is expected to reach the production of sub-GeV electron bunches.

  10. The lived experience of grieving for persons living with HIV who have used injection drugs.

    PubMed

    Cody, W K

    2000-01-01

    Parse's research method was used to investigate the lived experience of grieving for 10 persons self-identified as HIV-positive injection drug users. These individuals compose an understudied and poorly understood population, and their grief experiences have rarely been documented. The losses grieved by persons living with HIV infection include the loss of life, friends, family members, employment, energy, and sex. The lived experience of grieving was found to be "overwhelming anguish that shapes hopes and intentions as a wretched aloneness is punctuated with cherished uplifting engagements, while gratitude inspires courage in the midst of ambiguity." This new conceptualization of the grieving process is discussed in light of Parse's human becoming theory of nursing. PMID:10826306

  11. Charge-carrier relaxation in disordered organic semiconductors studied by dark injection: Experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, M.; Schaefer, C.; de Groot, J.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of stationary charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors has matured during recent years. However, charge-carrier relaxation in nonstationary situations is still poorly understood. Such relaxation can be studied in dark injection experiments, in which the bias applied over an unilluminated organic semiconductor device is abruptly increased. The resulting transient current reveals both charge-carrier transport and relaxation characteristics. We performed such experiments on hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based organic semiconductor. Modeling the dark injection by solving a one-dimensional master equation using the equilibrium carrier mobility leads to a too-slow current transient, since this approach does not account for carrier relaxation. Modeling by solving a three-dimensional time-dependent master equation does take into account all carrier transport and relaxation effects. With this modeling, the time scale of the current transient is found to be in agreement with experiment. With a disorder strength somewhat smaller than extracted from the temperature-dependent stationary current-voltage characteristics, also the shape of the experimental transients is well described.

  12. In vitro experiments with an injection technique for cup fixation in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Somville, J M; Moldenaers, P F; Mulier, J C; Mewis, J J

    1987-01-01

    A new technique has been developed to position the cup rigidly into the acetabulum during total hip joint replacement. After positioning the flanged cup on the acetabulum by means of screws, a low-viscosity cement is injected through a hole in the rim of the cup. A comparison with the standard cementing technique was made on the basis of in vitro experiments. For this purpose a mold was constructed to produce castings simulating the human acetabulum. The distribution of the cement, the pressure developed in the acetabulum, and the penetration of the cement are compared for the two cementing techniques. PMID:3606358

  13. CO2 Field Laboratory at Svelvik Ridge: Site characterization after the first injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddensiek, M. L.; Lindeberg, E.; Mørk, A.; Jones, D.; Girard, J. F.; Kuras, O.; Barrio, M.; Royse, K.; Gal, F.; Meldrum, P.; Pezard, P.; Levannier, A.; Desroches, J.; Neyens, D.; Paris, J.; Henry, G.; Bakk, A.; Wertz, F.; Aker, E.; Børresen, M.

    2012-04-01

    The safety and acceptance of CO2 storage will depend on the ability to detect and quantify CO2 within and outside the storage complex. To determine sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems with respect to CO2 distribution and leakage detection, the CO2 Field Lab project comprises two controlled CO2 injection tests in the shallow (100-300 m) and very shallow (20 m) subsurface of the glacial deposit that forms Svelvik ridge, 50 km south of Oslo. The CO2 displacement in the subsurface and at the surface has and will be monitored with an exhaustive set of techniques. Iteratively, observations and flow modeling will provide frequent updates of the CO2 distribution. The results will be upscaled to assess monitoring systems and requirements with the ultimate objective to provide guidelines to regulators, operators and technology providers for monitoring systems. The formation that comprises the laboratory is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the Ski stage of the Holocene deglaciation. Nearby outcrops show that the formation is channeled and variably laminated with a significant variation in grain size and structure. Prior to the injection experiments, the site was characterized including 2D seismic and electric surveys, the drilling, logging and sampling of a 330 m deep appraisal well, core and flow line sample analyses, ground penetrating radar (GPR), a hydrodynamic appraisal, and geochemical and soil gas baseline surveys. These data were used to populate a geomodel. Flow modeling of the plume development included some variability in permeability and anisotropy, and various injection scenarios. Accordingly, the 20 m injection experiment was conducted in fall 2011 with a monitoring plan designed to spatially and temporally monitor the expected plume development. The monitoring equipment was thus distributed around the 20 m deep injection point of an inclined well. It included seven 6 m deep monitoring wells equipped with resistivity, sonic and

  14. High pressure jet injection of viscous solutions for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD): first clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Pioche, Mathieu; Lépilliez, Vincent; Déprez, Pierre; Giovannini, Marc; Caillol, Fabrice; Piessevaux, Hubert; Rivory, Jérôme; Guillaud, Olivier; Ciocîrlan, Mihai; Salmon, Damien; Lienhart, Isabelle; Lafon, Cyril; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ponchon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long lasting elevation is a key factor during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and can be obtained by water jet injection of saline solution or by viscous macromolecular solutions. In a previous animal study, we assessed the Nestis Enki II system to combine jet injection and viscous solutions. In the present work, we used this combination in humans in different sites of the digestive tract. Methods: We retrospectively report all of the consecutive ESD procedures performed with jet injection of viscous solutions in four centers. Information was collected about the lesion, the procedure, the histological result, and the outcomes for the patient. Results: In total, 45 resections were completed by six operators: five experts and one beginner with only one previous experience in human ESD. Lesions were located in the esophagus (10), the stomach (11), the duodenum (1), the colon (1) and the rectum (22). Average maximal lesion diameter was 4.8 cm (SD 2.4, range 2 – 11 cm), average lesion surface area was 19.8 cm2 (SD 17.7, range 2.2 – 72 cm2), and average duration of procedure was 79.9 min (SD 50.3 min, range 19 – 225 min). ESD could be conducted while the endoscope was retroflexed at its maximum in 26 cases. Four adverse events were observed: two diminutive perforations and two delayed bleeding occurrences treated conservatively. The R0 resection rate was 91.1 %. The catheter was obstructed in six occurrences of bleeding. Conclusion: Endoscopic submucosal dissection using high pressure injection of viscous macromolecular solutions is safe and effective in different parts of the digestive tract. It does not impede working with the endoscope in the maximal retroflexed position. PMID:26356488

  15. Transient Changes in Shallow Groundwater Chemistry During the MSU-ZERT CO2 Injection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Apps, J. A.; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thordsen, J. J.; Kakouros, E.; Trautz, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field experiment at Bozeman, Montana, is designed to evaluate atmospheric and near-surface monitoring and detection techniques applicable to the potential leakage of CO2 from deep storage reservoirs. However, the experiment also affords an excellent opportunity to investigate the transient changes in groundwater chemical composition in response to increasing CO2 partial pressures. Between July 9 and August 7, 2008, 300 kg/day of food-grade CO2 was injected into shallow groundwater through a horizontal perforated pipe about 2-2.3 m below the ground surface. Changes in groundwater quality were investigated through comprehensive chemical analyses of 80 water samples taken before, during and following CO2 injection from 10 shallow observation wells located 1-6 m from the injection pipe, and from two distant monitoring wells. Field and laboratory analyses suggest rapid and systematic changes in pH, alkalinity, and conductance, as well as increases in the aqueous concentrations of both major and trace element species. A principal component analysis and independent thermodynamic interpretation of the water quality analyses were conducted. Results were interpreted in conjunction with a mineralogical characterization of the shallow sediments and a review of historical records of the chemical composition of rainfall at neighboring monitoring sites. The interpretation permitted tentative identification of a complex array of adsorption/desorption, ion exchange, precipitation/dissolution, oxidation/reduction and infiltration processes that were operative during the test. Geochemical modeling was conducted using TOUGHREACT to test whether the observed water quality changes were consistent with the hypothesized processes, and very good agreement was obtained with respect to the behavior of both major and trace elements.

  16. Plasmoids Formation During Simulations of Coaxial Helicity Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, F; Raman, R

    2015-05-22

    The formation of an elongated Sweet-Parker current sheet and a transition to plasmoid instability has for the first time been predicted by simulations in a large-scale toroidal fusion plasma in the absence of any preexisting instability. Plasmoid instability is demonstrated through resistive MHD simulations of transient coaxial helicity injection experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Consistent with the theory, fundamental characteristics of the plasmoid instability, including fast reconnection rate, have been observed in these realistic simulations. Motivated by the simulations, experimental camera images have been revisited and suggest the existence of reconnecting plasmoids in NSTX. Global, system-size plasmoid formation observed here should also have strong implications for astrophysical reconnection, such as rapid eruptive solar events. PMID:26047235

  17. Participant and Staff Experiences in a Peer-Delivered HIV Intervention with Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Kostick, Kristin M.; Weeks, Margaret; Mosher, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We explore ethical issues faced by investigators as they conduct research as part of a peer-delivered HIV/AIDS risk reduction program for injection drug users (IDUs). Staff and participant experiences in peer-delivered interventions among IDUs have come under scrutiny by ethics researchers because of their potential to inadvertently and negatively impact participant rehabilitation due to continued engagement with drug-using networks during the course of outreach. This study explores whether enhanced communication of participant concerns and experiences with clinic and research staff helps to reduce inadvertent malfeasance in peer-delivered drug treatment interventions. Results contribute to the development of patient support infrastructure in peer-delivered risk reduction programs involving IDUs. PMID:24572079

  18. Determination of physical properties in injection molded composites using the design of experiments method

    SciTech Connect

    Hawks, V.; Saunders, D.; Strong, A.B.; Cole, D. )

    1992-07-01

    The benefits of using Design of Experiments (DOE) for determining effects of critical factors are significantly greater than using one-at-a-time experimental techniques. The volume and validity of the information gained from DOE, especially for manufacturing processes, is very high due to the strong statistical basis of the method and highly organized nature of the results. The use of DOE is described in the case of injection molding of composites to improve and better understand the effects of critical factors on the physical properties of the finished parts. The factors, fiber length, fiber concentration, part temperature, and mold thickness, were tested using a full factorial experiment. The results demonstrated the significance of the factors and their interactions on tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and elongation.

  19. The electric field structure of auroral arcs as determined from barium plasma injection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Barium plasma injection experiments have revealed a number of features of electric fields in and near auroral forms extending from a few hundred to many thousands of km in altitude. There is evidence for V-type potential structures over some auroras, but not in others. For some auroral arcs, large E fields are found at ionospheric altitudes outside the arc but the E field inside the arc is near zero. In a few other auroras, most recently one investigated in an experiment conducted from Poker Flat on March 22, 1980, large, rapidly fluctuating E fields were detected by barium plasma near 600 km altitude. These E fields suggest that the motion of auroral rays can be an effect of low-altitude electric fields, or that V-type potential structures may be found at low altitudes.

  20. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length < 15mm) this investigation concentrates on the prediction of the local mechanical properties of an injection molded part. To realize this, the Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  1. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann; Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the

  2. Electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for monitoring CO2 injection: Demonstration of leakage detection during bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, S. J.; Carrigan, C. R.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring infiltration events in the near subsurface. ERT also shows potential for monitoring CO2 injections, despite deployment challenges in the deep subsurface. We present results from analog bench-scale experiments aimed at evaluating the ability of ERT to quantify the volume and spatial distribution of a gas injected into a brine-saturated porous medium. We injected measured volumes of gas into translucent chambers filled with quartz sand, lined with electrodes, and saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. Between injections, a CCD camera captured high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scanned the chamber. Using the CCD images, quantitative visualization techniques resulted in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution and saturation of the injected gas. Direct comparison to inverted resistivity fields then provided a quantitative measure of the ability of ERT to estimate the total volume of injected gas and its spatial distribution within the chamber. We present results from two experiments designed to represent different injection scenarios: (A) low injection rate and strong capillary barrier, and (B) high injection rate and weaker capillary barrier. Results show that ERT provides good estimates of the shape, size and location of the primary gas plume, but underestimates gas content and does not detect thin pathways of gas from the injection port or within the overlying capillary barrier. However, ERT measurements did detect a change in saturation within the primary plume caused by leakage through the capillary barrier in (B), demonstrating the potential utility of ERT as a leakage-monitoring tool. Repeated ERT scans during our experiments led to degradation in data quality that corresponded with an increase in measured contact resistance. Decreased data quality over time is clearly a

  3. The Psychosocial Consequences of BOTOX Injections for Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Qualitative Study of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Maronian, Nicole C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial consequences of BOTOX® (Allergan, Inc. Irvine, CA) treatment for spasmodic dysphonia (SD). This article also explores how patients judge the success of treatment and make decisions about future treatment based on psychosocial issues relevant to them. Study Design This study follows the phenomenological tradition of qualitative inquiry in which the objective is to explore the lived experiences of a group of persons who share a common phenomenon, in this case receiving BOTOX injections for SD. Methods Six adults with SD who had been receiving BOTOX injections on a long-term basis participated in face-to-face interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to phenomenological guidelines to identify consistent themes as well as differences among participants’ experiences. Results The results are summarized in three primary themes that suggest (1) participants’ experiences vary over time based on changes in factors such as lifestyle and personal priorities; (2) BOTOX has multidimensional psychosocial implications in physical, personal, and social domains; and (3) participants individualize their treatment regimens, taking into consideration the burden of treatment, scheduling priorities, and other strategies to maximize the benefits of BOTOX. Conclusions Based on this study, suggestions are provided for future research into a psychosocial outcome measurement, including longitudinal evaluations that accommodate changing patient priorities over time; multidimensional evaluations that incorporate physical, personal, and social issues; evaluations that include a measure of the burden of treatment; and evaluations that support a shared decision-making model with the voice clinicians. PMID:16564675

  4. Comparison of Subjective Experiences and Effectiveness of First-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics and Risperidone Long-Acting Injectables in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the subjective experiences and clinical effects of first-generation long-acting injectable (FGA-LAI) antipsychotics with those of risperidone long-acting injectables (RIS-LAIs) in 434 schizophrenia patients. Compared with the RIS-LAI group, the patients treated with FGA-LAIs had a significantly longer duration of illness and LAI treatment and were older. Our results suggest that patients treated with FGA-LAI have more satisfactory subjective experiences compared with patients treated with RIS-LAI and that both FGA-LAI and RIS-LAI treatments can prevent relapses and hospitalization. Additional longitudinal studies determining the long-term benefits of RIS-LAI are warranted. PMID:27580495

  5. ECC (electrochemical concentration cell) ozonesonde observations at South Pole, Antarctica, during 1987. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Franchois, P.R.; Kuester, S.E.; Reitelback, P.J.; Fanning, M.L.

    1988-03-01

    Atmospheric ozone vertical distributions, air temperatures, and wind speed and wind direction data are presented for 76 balloon electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde soundings made at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1987.

  6. Experiment and Numerical Simulation of Bubble Behavior in Argon Gas Injection into Lead-Bismuth Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yumi; Akashi, Toyou; Takahashi, Minoru

    In a lead-bismuth alloy (45%Pb-55%Bi) cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR), steam can be produced by direct contact of feed water with primary Pb-Bi coolant in the upper core plenum, and Pb-Bi coolant can be circulated by buoyancy forces of steam bubbles. As a basic study to investigate the two-phase flow characteristics in the chimneys of PBWFR, a two-dimensional two-phase flow was simulated by injecting argon gas into Pb-Bi pool in a rectangular vessel (400mm in length, 1500mm in height), and bubble behavior were investigated experimentally. Bubble sizes, bubble rising velocities and void fractions were measured using void probes. The experimental conditions are the atmospheric pressure and the flow rate of injection Ar gas is 10, 20, and 30 NL/min. The average of measured bubble rising velocity was about 0.6 m/s. The average chord length was about 7mm. An analysis was performed by two-dimensional and two-fluid model. The experimental results were compared with the analytical results to evaluate the validity of the analytical model. Although large diameter bubbles were observed in the experiment, the drag force model of lower value performed better for simulation of the experimental result.

  7. The demolding of powder injection molded micro-structures: analysis, simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, G.; Tor, S. B.; Loh, N. H.; Tay, B. Y.; Hardt, D. E.

    2008-07-01

    This paper studies the demolding of an array of powder injection molded micro-structures based on a variotherm mold. The demolding of the micro-structures array was analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. Finite element method (FEM) software ABAQUS was used to analyze and simulate the demolding of an array of 24 × 24 (total of 576) micro-structures. It was found that there exists a 'critical temperature' at which the demolding force for the micro-structures array is a minimum. The stress distribution of the micro-structures and demolding force for the micro-structures during the course of demolding were analyzed for both demolding temperatures higher and lower than the critical temperature. Packing pressure and demolding temperature have an apparent impact on the demolding force. A series of demolding force measuring experiments at different packing pressures and demolding temperatures were conducted to verify the theoretical results.

  8. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometryfor controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric H.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Leemans,Wim P.; Nakamura, Kei; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Schroeder, Carl B.; Bruhwiler,D.; Cary, J.R.

    2007-06-25

    An optical injection scheme for a laser-plasma basedaccelerator which employs a non-collinear counter-propagating laser beamto push background electrons in the focusing and acceleration phase viaponderomotive beat with the trailing part of the wakefield driver pulseis discussed. Preliminary experiments were performed using a drive beamof a_0 = 2.6 and colliding beam of a_1 = 0.8 both focused on the middleof a 200 mu m slit jet backed with 20 bar, which provided ~; 260 mu mlong gas plume. The enhancement in the total charge by the collidingpulse was observed with sharp dependence on the delay time of thecolliding beam. Enhancement of the neutron yield was also measured, whichsuggests a generation of electrons above 10 MeV.

  9. Transport simulations of the pre-thermal-quench phase in ASDEX Upgrade massive gas injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fable, E.; Pautasso, G.; Lehnen, M.; Dux, R.; Bernert, M.; Mlynek, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-02-01

    The pre-thermal-quench (PTQ) phase of the massive gas injection (MGI) scenario to terminate the tokamak plasma discharge is studied by means of one-dimensional (1D) transport simulations. This phase is characterized by the cold-front penetration in the hot plasma after the gas has been released from the valves, and before the actual thermal quench takes place, with consequent plasma disruption at lower stored energy. The comparison between the simulations and the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) experiments allows to gain insight in the observed dependencies and time scales. Despite the genuine three-dimensional structure of the problem, it is shown that the 1D simulations are already giving experimentally relevant answers, the reason for which will be discussed in detail. Influence of unknown parameters and simplifying assumptions are also discussed.

  10. Implementation and verification of different ECC mitigation designs for BRAMs in flash-based FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Liu, Jie; Su, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Embedded RAM blocks (BRAMs) in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are susceptible to single event effects (SEEs) induced by environmental factors such as cosmic rays, heavy ions, alpha particles and so on. As technology scales, the issue will be more serious. In order to tackle this issue, two different error correcting codes (ECCs), the shortened Hamming codes and shortened BCH codes, are investigated in this paper. The concrete design methods of the codes are presented. Also, the codes are both implemented in flash-based FPGAs. Finally, the synthesis report and simulation results are presented in the paper. Moreover, heavy-ion experiments are performed, and the experimental results indicate that the error cross-section of the device using the shortened Hamming codes can be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the device without mitigation, and no errors are discovered in the experiments for the device using the shortened BCH codes. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079045, 11179003 and 11305233)

  11. Formation and sustainment of a very low aspect ratio tokamak using coaxial helicity injection (the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper we will detail the progress of the HIT experiment construction, including the following components: preliminary data and interpretation; diagnostic systems; vacuum vessel and pumping system; helicity source and power supplies; toroidal field coil and power supply; data acquisition system; collaboration with general atomics, with a brief summary given on each.

  12. Satellite and correlative measurements of stratospheric ozone - Comparison of measurements made by SAGE, ECC balloons, chemiluminescent, and optical rocketsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The validity of ozone-profile data from the satellite sensor SAGE was tested in a series of correlative experiments conducted at five fixed sites between 6 deg S and 65 deg N during 1979-1980. The intercomparisons included data taken with electrochemical ozone (ECC) balloonsondes and chemiluminescent and optical rocketsondes. The average mean difference for 17 separate comparisons between the SAGE and ECC balloonsonde observations over the altitudes 18-28 km was 9.3 percent with a standard deviation of 2.8 percent. Excluding comparisons separated by greater than 500 km reduces the average mean difference to 8.9 percent and the standard deviation to 2.1 percent. The average mean difference between SAGE and three optical rocketsonde observations over the altitudes 25-50 km was 11 percent, and between SAGE and two chemiluminescent rocketsondes over the altitudes 20-60 km it was 13.5 percent. Considering the differences in vertical resolution, experimental errors, and ozone time and space gradients, the agreement between SAGE-derived ozone profiles and these correlative measurements is considered very good. In addition, isopleths of ozone mixing ratio versus latitude and altitude are in good agreement with previously published results.

  13. Modeling injected interstitial effects on void swelling in self-ion irradiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, M. P.; Gaston, D. R.; Jin, M.; Shao, L.; Garner, F. A.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ion irradiations at high dose rates are often used to simulate slow and expensive neutron irradiation experiments. However, many differences in the resultant modes of damage arise due to unique aspects of heavy ion irradiation. One such difference was recently shown in pure iron to manifest itself as a double peak in void swelling, with both peaks located away from the region of highest displacement damage. In other cases involving a variety of ferritic alloys there is often only a single peak in swelling vs. depth that is located very near the ion-incident surface. We show that these behaviors arise due to a combination of two separate effects: 1) suppression of void swelling due to injected interstitials, and 2) preferential sinking of interstitials to the ion-incident surface, which are very sensitive to the irradiation temperature and displacement rate. Care should therefore be used in collection and interpretation of data from the depth range outside the Bragg peak of ion irradiation experiments, as it is shown to be more complex than previously envisioned.

  14. In situ redox manipulation by dithionite injection: Intermediate-scale laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Istok, J.D.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R.

    1999-12-01

    The goal of in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) is to create a permeable treatment zone capable of removing redox-sensitive contaminants from ground water. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of one promising ISRM technology: chemical reduction of aquifer sediments by sodium dithionite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}) injection. The technology was evaluated in intermediate-scale laboratory experiments designed to investigate the kinetics of Fe(III)-reduction and dithionite-disproportionation reactions in a radial flow field over similar transport distances ({approximately}7 m) and time scales ({approximately}72 hours) as those used in a field trial for remediation of chromate contaminated ground water at the Department of Energy Hanford site in Washington state. Four hundred liters ({approximately} 1 pore volume) of 0.1 M Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} in a 0.4 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/0.04 M KHCO{sub 3} buffer were injected at a rate scaled to field values. Dithionite breakthrough curves at sampling ports were approximately described by the advection-dispersion equation with a two-part reaction model containing first-order rate coefficients for dithionite reaction with sediment Fe(III) (k{sub 1} = 0.13 hr{sup {minus}1}) and dithionite disproportionation (k{sub 2} = 0.05 hr{sup {minus}1}). Analyses on sediment cores collected from the physical model indicated that substantial Fe(III) was reduced to Fe(II) and that the dithionite-treated sediment was capable of removing 2 mg/L chromate from {approximately} 100 column pore volumes of synthetic ground water. These results indicate that the ISRM technology is a potentially feasible method for removing chromate from Hanford ground water.

  15. Simulation of field injection experiments in heterogeneous unsaturated media using cokriging and artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ming; Khaleel, Raziuddin; Schaap, Marcel G.; Zhu, Jianting

    2007-07-01

    Simulations of moisture flow in heterogeneous soils are often hampered by lack of measurements of soil hydraulic parameters, making it necessary to rely on other sources of information. In this paper, we develop a methodology to integrate data that can be easily obtained (for example, initial moisture content, θi, bulk density, and soil texture) with data on soil hydraulic properties via cokriging and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based pedotransfer functions. The method is applied to generate heterogeneous soil hydraulic parameters at a field injection site in southeastern Washington State. Stratigraphy at the site consists of imperfectly stratified layers with irregular layer boundaries. Cokriging is first used to generate three-dimensional heterogeneous fields of bulk density and soil texture using an extensive data set of field-measured θi, which carry signature about site heterogeneity and stratigraphy. Soil texture and bulk density are subsequently input into an ANN-based site-specific pedotransfer function to generate three-dimensional heterogeneous soil hydraulic parameter fields. The stratigraphy at the site is well represented by the estimated pedotransfer variables and soil hydraulic parameters. The parameter estimates are then used to simulate a field injection experiment at the site. A relatively good agreement is obtained between the simulated and observed moisture contents. The spatial distribution pattern of observed moisture content as well as the southeastward moisture movement is captured well in the simulations. In contrast to earlier work using an effective parameter approach (Yeh et al., 2005), we are able to reproduce the observed splitting of the moisture plume in a coarse sand unit that is sandwiched between two fine-textured units. The simple method of combining cokriging and ANN for site characterization provides unbiased prediction of the observed moisture plume and is flexible so that additional measurements of various types can be

  16. ‘On the same level’: facilitators’ experiences running a drug user-led safer injecting education campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practices play a major role in elevated rates of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (IDU). There is growing interest in the direct involvement of IDU in interventions that seek to address unsafe injecting. This study describes a drug user-led safer injecting education campaign, and explores facilitators’ experiences delivering educational workshops. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 8 members of the Injection Support (IS) Team who developed and facilitated a series of safer injecting education workshops. Interviews explored facilitator’s perceptions of the workshops, experiences being a facilitator, and perspectives on the educational campaign. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results IS Team facilitators described how the workshop’s structure and content enabled effective communication of information about safer injecting practices, while targeting the unsafe practices of workshop participants. Facilitators’ identity as IDU enhanced their ability to relate to workshop participants and communicate educational messages in language accessible to workshop participants. Facilitators reported gaining knowledge and skills from their involvement in the campaign, as well as positive feelings about themselves from the realization that they were helping people to protect their health. Overall, facilitators felt that this campaign provided IDU with valuable information, although facilitators also critiqued the campaign and suggested improvements for future efforts. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of involving IDU in educational initiatives targeting unsafe injecting. Findings illustrate how IDU involvement in prevention activities improves relevance and cultural appropriateness of interventions while providing individual, social, and professional benefits to those IDU delivering education. PMID:23497293

  17. Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensabat, Jacob; Niemi, Auli; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sharma, Prabhakar; Carrera, Jesus; Sauter, Martin; Tatomir, Alexandru; Ghergut, Julia; Pezard, Philippe; Edlman, Katriona; Brauchler, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz Sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injection experiments One the major components of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project is to conduct a highly controlled series of CO2 injection experiments, aimed at determining field values of key CO2 trapping mechanisms such as dissolution and residual trapping and to establish a comprehensive and consistent dataset for model validation. Prior to injecting CO2 there is a need to achieve a sufficient degree of hydrogeological characterization of the reservoir. In what follows we present a sequence of hydrologic tests to be conducted at Heletz and their expected contribution to the understanding relevant hydrogeology. These include: 1) Chemical characterization of the formation fluid; 2) Flowing Fluid Electrical Conductivity log, aimed at determining the vertical variability of the reservoir permeability in the near well vicinity; 3) Water pulse and pumping tests, aimed at determining the reservoir scale hydraulic properties; 4) Thermal test, aimed at determining the value of the heat transfer coefficient from the reservoir to the borehole fluid, which is responsible for the heating of injected fluid in the borehole; 5) two-well injection and pumping of water and tracers test, in order to determine the impact of heterogeneity on the hydraulic parameters and to identify preferential flow paths in the reservoir. This paper presents the design and planning of the experiments, the results obtained in field and a preliminary interpretation.

  18. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  19. Molecular Cluster Injection for High-Density Fueling on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-11-01

    LTX is designed to reduce global recycling, by reducing the neutral hydrogen density in the plasma edge with a liquid lithium wall. Gas-based fueling systems, such as wall-mounted gas puffers or supersonic gas injectors, are ill-suited for use in a low-recycling plasma, as they source a significant amount of gas into the plasma edge. Following experiments on the HL-2A tokamak by Yao, et al. (Nucl. Fusion 47(2007) 1399), a Molecular Cluster Injector (MCI) was designed to supply a high-density, collimated fueling source for LTX. When operated with H2 backing pressures of 50-150psia, a 4ms MCI pulse produces molecular densities of 1-4x10^16 cm-3 at distances over 20cm from the nozzle, and supplies a particle flux of 340-775 torr-lit/s, sufficient to replace the predicted LTX particle inventory. The H2 density profiles are consistent with flows that produce molecular clusters of a few hundred molecules each, which is expected to improve neutral penetration into the plasma core, relative to pure gas-phase injection. The neutral penetration into LTX plasmas will be diagnosed by a fast visible camera with an Hα filter, as well as microwave interferometry.

  20. Laboratory experiments in the argon plasma perturbed by injections of the electronegative gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Cao, Jin-xiang; Liu, Yu; Yu, Peng-cheng; Zhang, Zhong-kai

    2016-07-01

    In this study, laboratory observations of the perturbations of the magnetic field are reported due to the injection of attachment chemicals (CF4, SF6, and CO2) into argon plasmas. Besides the well-known electron density reduction, we also observed magnetic field perturbation in the experiment. The measured induced voltage B ˙ , which is taken as a proxy of the time-changing electromagnetic field, fluctuates in the boundary layer between the ambient plasmas and negative ions plasmas. Perturbations of the magnetic field were investigated by changing the ambient pressure and ratio of attachment chemicals. The measured B ˙ keeps increasing in these lower pressures; but it no longer increases as the ambient pressure higher than a threshold, e.g., for CF4, SF6, and CO2, the transition pressure is 6Pa, 5Pa and 4Pa, respectively. The magnitude of the B ˙ increase with the change of the ratio of release flow until at higher ratios, e.g., 40%. We transformed these time-sampled data into the frequency domain and found coherent modes with fundamental frequencies lying in the lower hybrid range. In addition, these coherent frequencies show a frequency drift with the increase of the contents of the negative ions. These modes were suggested as the magnetic component of electron-ion hybrid mode. This work has an important application in the study of artificially-created ionospheric depletion which is usually generated by releasing of attachment chemicals in the upper atmosphere.

  1. Blood Trials: Transfusions, Injections, and Experiments in Africa, 1890-1920.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, Thaddeus

    2016-07-01

    From about 1880 to 1920, a culture of medical experimentation promoted blood transfusion as a therapy for severe anemia in Europe, which was applied in German East Africa in 1892 for a case of blackwater fever, a complication of malaria afflicting mainly Europeans. This first case of blood transfusion in Africa, in which an African's blood was transfused into a German official, complicates the dominant narrative that blood transfusions in Africa came only after World War I. Medical researchers moreover experimented with blood serum therapies on human and animal subjects in Europe and Africa, injecting blood of different species, "races" and ethnicities into others to demonstrate parasite transmissibility and to discover vaccines for diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness, and yellow fever. While research in German colonies is highlighted here, this was a transnational medical culture that crossed borders and oceans. This research is of interest as a possible early pathway for the epidemic spread of HIV and other zoonoses in Africa and the world, which biomedical researchers have identified as emerging in West-Central Africa sometime around the turn of the twentieth century. PMID:26514397

  2. Injection Methods and Instrumentation for Serial X-ray Free Electron Laser Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Daniel

    Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These new methods include serial femtosecond crystallography, single particle imaging, solution scattering, and time resolved techniques. The XFEL is characterized by high intensity pulses, which are only about 50 femtoseconds in duration. The intensity allows for scattering from microscopic particles, while the short pulses offer a way to outrun radiation damage. XFELs are powerful enough to obliterate most samples in a single pulse. While this allows for a "diffract and destroy" methodology, it also requires instrumentation that can position microscopic particles into the X-ray beam (which may also be microscopic), continuously renew the sample after each pulse, and maintain sample viability during data collection. Typically these experiments have used liquid microjets to continuously renew sample. The high flow rate associated with liquid microjets requires large amounts of sample, most of which runs to waste between pulses. An injector designed to stream a viscous gel-like material called lipidic cubic phase (LCP) was developed to address this problem. LCP, commonly used as a growth medium for membrane protein crystals, lends itself to low flow rate jetting and so reduces the amount of sample wasted significantly. This work discusses sample delivery and injection for XFEL experiments. It reviews the liquid microjet method extensively, and presents the LCP injector as a novel device for serial crystallography, including detailed protocols for the LCP injector and anti-settler operation.

  3. Experiences with Policing among People Who Inject Drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings

  4. Injection Seeding of Ti:Al2O3 in an unstable resonator theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Wang, L. G.; Barnes, N. P.; Edwards, W. C.; Cheng, W. A.; Hess, R. V.; Lockard, G. E.; Ponsardin, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    Injection Seeding of a Ti:Al2O3 unstable resonator using both a pulsed single-mode Ti:Al2O3 laser and a continuous wave laser diode has been characterized. Results are compared with a theory which calculates injection seeding as function of seed and resonator alignment, beam profiles, and power.

  5. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement. PMID:25096968

  6. An evaluation of electrochemical concentration Cell (ECC) sonde measurements of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geraci, M. J.; Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Using Dobson spectrophotometer measurements of total ozone as a comparison, an analysis of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde's measurement accuracy is presented. Days of conjunctive ECC-Dobson observations (from 1970 to 1976 at Wallops Flight Center) provide a set of 123 pairs of total ozone values. Sample set statistics are generated with means and standard deviations of total ozone values and differences being noted. An in-depth study of factors such as time assumptions used in calculating residual ozone, and other possible sources of errors are examined. A study of ECC ozone profiles is also presented with an evaluation of sonde measurement of seasonal trends, altitude or peak ozone concentration, and other important ozone parameters. Short-period changes in total ozone using Dobson data during the observational period are also described.

  7. Validating An Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    The Kepler Mission is developing an Analytic Completeness Model (ACM) to estimate detection completeness contours as a function of exoplanet radius and period for each target star. Accurate completeness contours are necessary for robust estimation of exoplanet occurrence rates.The main components of the ACM for a target star are: detection efficiency as a function of SNR, the window function (WF) and the one-sigma depth function (OSDF). (Ref. Burke et al. 2015). The WF captures the falloff in transit detection probability at long periods that is determined by the observation window (the duration over which the target star has been observed). The OSDF is the transit depth (in parts per million) that yields SNR of unity for the full transit train. It is a function of period, and accounts for the time-varying properties of the noise and for missing or deweighted data.We are performing flux-level transit injection (FLTI) experiments on selected Kepler target stars with the goal of refining and validating the ACM. “Flux-level” injection machinery inserts exoplanet transit signatures directly into the flux time series, as opposed to “pixel-level” injection, which inserts transit signatures into the individual pixels using the pixel response function. See Jie Li's poster: ID #2493668, "Flux-level transit injection experiments with the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer" for details, including performance statistics.Since FLTI is affordable for only a small subset of the Kepler targets, the ACM is designed to apply to most Kepler target stars. We validate this model using “deep” FLTI experiments, with ~500,000 injection realizations on each of a small number of targets and “shallow” FLTI experiments with ~2000 injection realizations on each of many targets. From the results of these experiments, we identify anomalous targets, model their behavior and refine the ACM accordingly.In this presentation, we discuss progress in validating and refining the ACM, and we

  8. Experiences from First Top-Off Injection at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.M.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, S.H.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    As the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) is moving toward Top-Off injection mode, SLAC's Radiation Protection Department is working with SSRL on minimizing the radiological hazards of this mode. One such hazard is radiation that is created inside the accelerator concrete enclosure by injected beam. Since during Top-Off injection the stoppers that would otherwise isolate the storage ring from the experimental area stay open, the stoppers no longer prevent such radiation from reaching the experimental area. The level of this stray radiation was measured in April 2008 during the first Top-Off injection tests. They revealed radiation dose rates of up to 18 microSv/h (1.8 millirem/h) outside the experimental hutches, significantly higher than our goal of 1 microSv/h (0.1 millirem/h). Non-optimal injection increased the measured dose rates by a factor two. Further tests in 2008 indicated that subsequent improvements by SSRL to the injection system have reduced the dose rates to acceptable levels. This presentation describes the studies performed before the Top-Off tests, the tests themselves and their major results (both under initial conditions and after improvements were implemented), and presents the controls being implemented for full and routine Top-Off injection.

  9. Design of a field experiment for injection of natural colloids in a sandy coastal plain aquifer, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Georgetown, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; McCarthy, J.F. ); Williams, T.M. . Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Inst.)

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes the design of field injection experiments that constitute one task in the larger project described in the report Experiments Using Natural Organics.'' In the experiment, we plan to inject a large volume of colloidal organic matter (COM) into a sandy, unconsolidated coastal aquifer and observe the migration of COM into the groundwater flow system. The report provides a brief overview of the research project, including hypotheses to be tested; describes the purpose of the field injection experiments; summarizes the site characterization preliminary to the experiments; and explains the design of the experiments. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Thermionic plasma injection for the Lockheed Martin T4 Compact Fusion Reactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Jonathon

    2015-11-01

    Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept relies on diamagnetic confinement in a magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp geometry. Plasma injection into cusp field configurations requires careful deliberation. Previous work has shown that axial injection via a plasma gun is capable of achieving high-beta conditions in cusp configurations. We present a pulsed, high power thermionic plasma source and the associated magnetic field topology for plasma injection into the caulked-cusp magnetic field. The resulting plasma fueling and cross-field diffusion is discussed.

  11. A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh; Pandey, Neelisha; Jain, Eesha

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child's self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system. PMID:23843409

  12. ECC-based grouping-proof RFID for inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiping; Zhang, Fangguo

    2012-12-01

    Several papers were proposed in which symmetric cryptography was used to design RFID grouping-proof for medication safety in the Journal of Medical Systems. However, if we want to ensure privacy, authentication and protection against the tracking of RFID-tags without losing system scalability, we must design an asymmetric cryptography-based RFID. This paper will propose a new ECC-based grouping-proof for RFID. Our ECC-based grouping-proof reduces the computation of tags and prevents timeout problems from occurring in n-party grouping-proof protocol. Based on asymmetric cryptography, the proposed scheme is practical, secure and efficient for medication applications. PMID:21785968

  13. Physics of fast flux closure in coaxial helicity injection experiments in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2013-10-01

    Advancing toward non-inductive start-up and current drive for tokamaks, a solenoid-free plasma start-up method called transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI), first developed on the small HIT-II device, has been extended to the large NSTX device, in which up to 300 kA of plasma current has been generated. Unlike driven CHI (edge current drive) where non-axisymmetric MHD activity relaxes the current inward, in transient CHI only axisymmetric reconnection generates a high quality closed flux start-up equilibrium, as found in resistive MHD simulations of CHI in NSTX using the NIMROD code (nimrodteam.org). Closed flux surfaces during simulations of transient CHI can be explained through 2-D Sweet-Parker type reconnection. Non-axisymmetric 3-D modes do not appear to play a dominant role at present experimental parameters. Our simulations have used fixed boundary flux (including NSTX poloidal coil currents) and the NSTX experimental geometry. We find that, as in the experiment, an X point followed by a fairly large volume of closed flux surfaces is rapidly formed; within 0.5 ms after the injector voltage and current begin to rapidly decrease. These direct numerical simulations reveal the fundamental mechanism for the reconnection process in transient CHI. Through direct numerical calculations, we find that as the injector voltage is turned off, the fields lines tend to untwist in the toroidal direction and magnetic field compression exerts a radial JXB force to bring oppositely directed field lines closer together to reconnect. A hierarchy of models from a zero pressure model to simulations with temperature evolution, allow us a full and more detailed understanding of the reconnection and closed flux surfaces. We find that magnetic fluxes are only reconnected at low magnetic diffusivity (high Lundquist number). In these simulations, narrow current layers form and cause the flux to close at a fast time scale when pinch flows are generated near the injector flux foot

  14. Analysis of D pellet injection experiments in the W7-AS Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Baylor, L.R.; Baldzuhn, J.; Fiedler, S.; Hirsch, M.; Kuehner, G.; Weller, A.

    1997-07-01

    A centrifugal injector was used to inject deuterium pellets (with 3--5 x 10{sup 19} atoms) at approx. equal 600 m/s into current-less, nearly shear-less plasmas in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. The D pellet was injected horizontally at a location where the non-circular and non-axisymmetric plasma cross section is nearly triangular. Visible-light TV pictures usually showed the pellet as a single ablating mass in the plasma, although the pellet occasionally broke in two or splintered into a cloud of small particles. The density evolution following pellet injection and the effect of pellet injection on energy confinement and fluctuations are discussed.

  15. Clinical experience with repository corticotropin injection in patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing mood changes with intravenous methylprednisolone: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stacey; Woo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The elevated prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is well recognized, as are potential neuropsychiatric side effects of treatment with corticosteroids. Both methylprednisolone (MP) and repository corticotropin injection (HP Acthar® gel) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing short-term disability after exacerbations of MS. Although historical data are limited, repository corticotropin injection has not generally been associated with detrimental neuropsychiatric effects. We describe six cases of patients with relapsing-remitting MS who had previously experienced detrimental mood changes with MP treatment. Some of these patients had previous histories of mood disorders or other neuropsychiatric symptoms prior to MS diagnosis. All six patients were subsequently treated with repository corticotropin injection for MS exacerbations and each demonstrated improvements in MS symptoms. This clinical experience suggests that repository corticotropin injection should be considered as an alternative for patients who do not tolerate corticosteroids or have difficulties associated with intravenous medication. Furthermore, the rate of neuropsychiatric side effects observed in these patients was low. These observations support repository corticotropin injection as a viable alternative for the treatment of acute exacerbations of MS, particularly in patients who have a history of neuropsychiatric disorders or symptoms either independently or in response to MP treatment. In reviewing both the published data and our own clinical experience regarding potential neuropsychiatric adverse events with treatment for MS exacerbations, we hope to stimulate further research into the potential efficacy and safety of repository corticotropin injection among patients with some form of neuropsychiatric complications that must be considered when establishing a treatment plan for MS. PMID:27134674

  16. Clinical experience with repository corticotropin injection in patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing mood changes with intravenous methylprednisolone: a case series.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stacey; Woo, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The elevated prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is well recognized, as are potential neuropsychiatric side effects of treatment with corticosteroids. Both methylprednisolone (MP) and repository corticotropin injection (HP Acthar(®) gel) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing short-term disability after exacerbations of MS. Although historical data are limited, repository corticotropin injection has not generally been associated with detrimental neuropsychiatric effects. We describe six cases of patients with relapsing-remitting MS who had previously experienced detrimental mood changes with MP treatment. Some of these patients had previous histories of mood disorders or other neuropsychiatric symptoms prior to MS diagnosis. All six patients were subsequently treated with repository corticotropin injection for MS exacerbations and each demonstrated improvements in MS symptoms. This clinical experience suggests that repository corticotropin injection should be considered as an alternative for patients who do not tolerate corticosteroids or have difficulties associated with intravenous medication. Furthermore, the rate of neuropsychiatric side effects observed in these patients was low. These observations support repository corticotropin injection as a viable alternative for the treatment of acute exacerbations of MS, particularly in patients who have a history of neuropsychiatric disorders or symptoms either independently or in response to MP treatment. In reviewing both the published data and our own clinical experience regarding potential neuropsychiatric adverse events with treatment for MS exacerbations, we hope to stimulate further research into the potential efficacy and safety of repository corticotropin injection among patients with some form of neuropsychiatric complications that must be considered when establishing a treatment plan for MS. PMID:27134674

  17. ‘Safer Environment Interventions’: A qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that social, structural, and environmental forces produce vulnerability to health harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), and safer environment interventions (SEI) have been identified as critical to mitigating the impacts of these contextual forces on drug-related harm. To date, however, SEIs have been under-theorized in the literature, and how they minimize drug-related risks across intervention types and settings has not been adequately examined. This article presents findings from a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies reporting PWID’s experiences with three types of SEIs (syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection facilities and peer-based harm reduction interventions) published between 1997 and 2012. This meta-synthesis seeks to develop a comprehensive understanding of SEIs informed by the experiences of PWID. Twenty-nine papers representing twenty-one unique studies that included an aggregate of more than 800 PWID were included in this meta-synthesis. This meta- synthesis found that SEIs fostered social and physical environments that mitigated drug-related harms and increased access to social and material resources. Specifically, SEIs: (1) provided refuge from street-based drug scenes; (2) enabled safer injecting by reshaping the social and environmental contexts of injection drug use; (3) mediated access to resources and health care services; and, (4) were constrained by drug prohibition and law enforcement activities. These findings indicate that it is critical to situate SEIs in relation to the lived experiences of PWID, and in particular provide broader environmental support to PWID. Given that existing drug laws limit the effectiveness of interventions, drug policy reforms are needed to enable public health, and specifically SEIs, to occupy a more prominent role in the response to injection drug use. PMID:24561777

  18. INJECTING DRUG USERS’ EXPERIENCES OF POLICING PRACTICES IN TWO MEXICAN-U.S. BORDER CITIES: PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cari L.; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviors and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs’ experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. Methods In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analyzed to identify emergent themes. Results Among the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36 hours for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested 5 key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: 1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, 2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), 3) police violence, 4) police corruption, and 5) perceived changes in policing practices. Conclusion Findings suggest that some behavior of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections among IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention program among IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers. PMID:17997089

  19. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were

  20. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  1. [Pharmacodynamic experiment of the antivirus effect of Houttuynia cordata injection on influenza virus in mice].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-zhou; Shi, Han; Shi, Yu-jing; Liu, Ying; Jin, Ya-hong; Gao, Ying-jie; Guo, Shan-shan; Cui, Xiao-lan

    2010-03-01

    It is to investigate the effect of two kinds of Houttuynia Cordata Injection on preventing and treating H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice. Pneumonia model was set up by intranasal infection of the normal and immunocompromised mice with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. The two injections were administered before and after the administration of virus, separately, and the lung index was observed. The results showed that the two preparations have obvious therapeutic effect on normal mice infected with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. And to FM1, the new injection's effect is better at small dosage. The results also showed that the two preparations have obvious prophylactic effect on immunodepressed mice infected with influenza virus FM1 and PR8. And to PR8, the old injection's effect is better at small dosage. Houttuynia Cordata Injection can improve the mice pneumonia caused by influenza virus H1N1 and decrease the lung index markedly. It has a remarkable preventive and therapeutic effect on H1N1 influenza virus in mice. PMID:21351520

  2. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  3. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  4. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  5. New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed

  6. Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the am...

  7. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  8. Simulations of laser-wakefield acceleration with external electron-bunch injection for REGAE experiments at DESY

    SciTech Connect

    Grebenyuk, Julia; Mehrling, Timon; Tsung, Frank S.; Floettman, Klaus; Osterhoff, Jens

    2012-12-21

    We present particle-in-cell simulations for future laser-plasma wakefield experiments with external bunch injection at the REGAE accelerator facility at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Two effects have been studied in detail: emittance evolution of electron bunches externally injected into a wake, and longitudinal bunch compression inside the wakefield. Results show significant transverse emittance growth during the injection process, if the electron bunch is not matched to its intrinsic betatron motion inside the wakefield. This might introduce the necessity to include beam-matching sections upstream of each plasma-accelerator section with fundamental implications on the design of staged laser wakefield accelerators. When externally injected at the zero-field crossing of the laser-driven wake, the electron bunch may undergo significant compression in longitudinal direction and be accelerated simultaneously due to the gradient in the acting force. The mechanism would allow for production of single high-energy, ultra-short (on the order of one femtosecond) bunches at REGAE. The optimal conditions for maximal bunch compression are discussed in the presented studies.

  9. Ion heating during magnetic relaxation in the helicity injected torus-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Hamp, W.T.; Smith, R.J.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-12-15

    Ion doppler spectroscopy (IDS) is applied to the helicity injected torus (HIT-II) spherical torus to measure impurity ion temperature and flows. [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] The IDS instrument employs a 16-channel photomultiplier and can track temperature and velocity continuously through a discharge. Data for the coaxial helicity injection (CHI), transformer, and combined current drive configurations are presented. Ion temperatures for transformer-driven discharges are typically equal to or somewhat lower than electron temperatures measured by Thomson scattering. Internal reconnection events in transformer-driven discharges cause rapid ion heating. The CHI discharges exhibit anomalously high ion temperatures >250 eV, which are an order of magnitude higher than Thomson measurements, indicating ion heating through magnetic relaxation. The CHI discharges that exhibit current and poloidal flux buildup after bubble burst show sustained ion heating during current drive.

  10. Analysis of ICRH antenna loading data in TEXTOR obtained during gas injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, I.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.; Vervier, M.

    2011-12-23

    The possibility of increasing the coupling of ICRH power to plasmas on TEXTOR by gas injection was investigated, for a given voltage applied at the input of an antenna pair. The antenna pair was operated in the conjugated T mode, D(H) heating was used. Modeling of the antenna by transmission line theory shows that load resilience is maintained in a broad range of independent resistance variation for each strap. It is found that the absolute value of the reflection coefficient can be maintained below 0.2 for typical values of resistance measured in plasma shots (2-10 {Omega}/m) in good matching conditions. During gas injection, the loading resistance showed a clear increase with increasing line average electron density measured close to the plasma edge. Evidence of fast wave eigenmodes was also found, as characteristic resonant behavior of loading resistance and antenna self-inductance, due to poor absorption in the plasma caused by high H minority concentration.

  11. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  12. Monitoring a pilot CO2 injection experiment in a shallow aquifer using 3D cross-well electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Lassen, R. N.; Looms, M. C.; Jensen, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a pilot CO2 injection experiment at Vrøgum, Denmark. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERT method for monitoring the two opposing effects from gas-phase and dissolved CO2 in a shallow unconfined siliciclastic aquifer. Dissolved CO2 increases water electrical conductivity (EC) while gas phase CO2 reduce EC. We injected 45kg of CO2 into a shallow aquifer for 48 hours. ERT data were collected for 50 hours following CO2 injection. Four ERT monitoring boreholes were installed on a 5m by 5m square grid and each borehole had 24 electrodes at 0.5 m electrode spacing at depths from 1.5 m to 13 m. ERT data were inverted using a difference inversion algorithm for bulk EC. 3D ERT successfully detected the CO2 plume distribution and growth in the shallow aquifer. We found that the changes of bulk EC were dominantly positive following CO2 injection, indicating that the effect of dissolved CO2 overwhelmed that of gas phase CO2. The pre-injection baseline resistivity model clearly showed a three-layer structure of the site. The electrically more conductive glacial sand layer in the northeast region are likely more permeable than the overburden and underburden and CO2 plumes were actually confined in this layer. Temporal bulk EC increase from ERT agreed well with water EC and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar data. ERT monitoring offers a competitive advantage over water sampling and GPR methods because it provides 3D high-resolution temporal tomographic images of CO2 distribution and it can also be automated for unattended operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL IM release#: LLNL-PROC-657944.

  13. Ecce Homo: Science and Society Need Anthropological Collections.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Bell, Joshua A; Rick, Torben C

    2016-08-01

    Scientific collections are crucial to understanding the biological and cultural diversity of the Earth. Anthropological collections document the human experience and the interactions between people, ecosystems, and organisms. Unfortunately, anthropological collections are often poorly known by the public and face a variety of threats to their permanent care and conservation. PMID:27220779

  14. Lithium pellet injection experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, D.T.

    1996-06-01

    A pellet enhanced performance mode, showing significantly reduced core transport, is regularly obtained after the injection of deeply penetrating lithium pellets into Alcator C-Mod discharges. These transient modes, which typically persist about two energy confinement times, are characterized by a steep pressure gradient ({ell}{sub p} {le} a/5) in the inner third of the plasma, indicating the presence of an internal transport barrier. Inside this barrier, particle and energy diffusivities are greatly reduced, with ion thermal diffusivity dropping to near neoclassical values. Meanwhile, the global energy confinement time shows a 30% improvement over ITER89-P L-mode scaling. The addition of ICRF auxiliary heating shortly after the pellet injection leads to high fusion reactivity with neutron rates enhanced by an order of magnitude over L-mode discharges with similar input powers. A diagnostic system for measuring equilibrium current density profiles of tokamak plasmas, employing high speed lithium pellets, is also presented. Because ions are confined to move along field lines, imaging the Li{sup +} emission from the toroidally extended pellet ablation cloud gives the direction of the magnetic field. To convert from temporal to radial measurements, the 3-D trajectory of the pellet is determined using a stereoscopic tracking system. These measurements, along with external magnetic measurements, are used to solve the Grad-Shafranov equation for the magnetic equilibrium of the plasma. This diagnostic is used to determine the current density profile of PEP modes by injection of a second pellet during the period of good confinement. This measurement indicates that a region of reversed magnetic shear exists at the plasma core. This current density profile is consistent with TRANSP calculations for the bootstrap current created by the pressure gradient. MHD stability analysis indicates that these plasmas are near the n = {infinity} and the n = 1 marginal stability limits.

  15. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  16. ECC study in positron impact ionization in molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campeanu, R. I.; Zohouri Haghian, N.

    2012-12-01

    The electron capture to the continuum phenomenon in positron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen is studied with the distorted wave Born approximation. Our theoretical model produces results which are in better agreement with the experiment than the more elaborate models of [J. Fiol, V.D. Rodriguez, R.O. Barrachina, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 933 (2001)] and [A. Benedek, R.I. Campeanu, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 1589 (2007)] previously employed in this study.

  17. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks. PMID:24997856

  18. [Experiences with pain control during piglet castration in Switzerland Part 2: Injection anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Enz, A; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Bettschart, R; Fuschini, E; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practical implementation of the painless castration under injection anaesthesia in Switzerland. 30 swine farms were visited and 60 farmers answered a questionnaire. 34 % of the piglets showed movements during castration under injection anaesthesia and 17 % had excitations during recovery from anaesthesia. After 48 minutes half of the piglets were in sternal position and after 112 minutes half of them showed coordinated movements. The body temperature decreased by 3.1 °C until 60 minutes after castration, especially small piglets reached critical temperature levels. 38 % of the piglets showed strong bleeding after castration. The healing of the wound was good according to 82 % of the farmers. 83 % of the farmers reported piglet losses, especially at the beginning of the anaesthesia period. The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow. Increased bleeding can be controlled by using an emasculator. PMID:24297840

  19. Non-linear flow transients in fractured rock masses - the 1995 injection experiment in Soultz

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, T.; Jung, R.; Hopkirk, R.J.; Rybach, L.

    1996-01-24

    In July 1995 in the course of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site investigation studies in Soultz s.F. (France) multi rate hydraulic injection tests were conducted in the borehole GPK2. The downhole pressure records obtained from the lowermost depth domain between 3211 m and 3876 m demonstrate non-laminar hydraulic behavior. Such behavior was also observed earlier during a similar set of flow step tests in the GPKl borehole Soultz. Like the analysis of these earlier data sets, it could be shown that the pressure records from July 1995 are corresponding to empirical flow laws established for non-laminar hydraulic regimes. In this study a numerical model is described which is being developed for the analysis of non-laminar flow in fractures. Similar models have already been applied to production and injection tests at GPK1. The results show that the observed transient pressure record is well predicted by such a non-linear flow law. Conventional laminar flow models cannot reproduce these curves. An evaluation of the parameters resulting from both, steady state and transient analysis leads to assumptions on the geometry of the main fracture system. Our calculations show that surface areas above 0.05 km² and apertures in the order of 0.4 mm results in an excellent fit of the data.

  20. Transient changes in shallow groundwater chemistry during the MSU ZERT CO2 injection experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apps, J.A.; Zheng, Lingyun; Spycher, N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kharaka, Y.; Thordsen, J.; Kakouros, E.; Trautz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Food-grade CO2 was injected into a shallow aquifer through a perforated pipe placed horizontally 1-2 m below the water table at the Montana State University Zero Emission Research and Technology (MSU-ZERT) field site at Bozeman, Montana. The possible impact of elevated CO2 levels on groundwater quality was investigated by analyzing 80 water samples taken before, during, and following CO2 injection. Field determinations and laboratory analyses showed rapid and systematic changes in pH, alkalinity, and conductance, as well as increases in the aqueous concentrations of trace element species. The geochemical data were first evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify correlations between aqueous species. The PCA findings were then used in formulating a geochemical model to simulate the processes likely to be responsible for the observed increases in the concentrations of dissolved constituents. Modeling was conducted taking into account aqueous and surface complexation, cation exchange, and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Reasonable matches between measured data and model results suggest that: (1) CO2 dissolution in the groundwater causes calcite to dissolve. (2) Observed increases in the concentration of dissolved trace metals result likely from Ca+2-driven ion exchange with clays (smectites) and sorption/desorption reactions likely involving Fe (hydr)oxides. (3) Bicarbonate from CO2 dissolution appears to compete for sorption with anionic species such as HAsO4-2, potentially increasing dissolved As levels in groundwater. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Advancing High Current Startup via Localized Helicity Injection in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, E. T.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Non-solenoidal startup via local helicity injection (LHI) and poloidal field induction is used to produce Ip = 0 . 17 MA tokamak discharges. Impurity contamination has been reduced to negligible levels by use of conical frustum cathode geometry and local scraper limiters. Attainable currents are governed by global limits of helicity and energy balance, and Taylor relaxation. A simple lumped parameter model based on these limits is used to project discharge evolution, and indicates that attaining 1 MA in NSTX-U will require LHI-driven effective loop voltages to dominate contributions from dLp / dt . This regime contrasts with results to date and will be tested at 0.3 MA in PEGASUS with a new integrated multi-injector array. Injector impedance characteristics are consistent with magnetically-limited regimes observed in higher-power foilless diodes. Bursts of MHD are measured on time scales of order ~ 100 μ s, and correlate with rapid equilibrium changes, discrete rises in Ip, redistribution of the toroidal current, ion heating (Ti ~ 1 keV), transient drops in injector voltage, and apparent n = 1 line-tied kink activity at the injector. NIMROD simulations of high-field-side HI discharges in PEGASUS are in qualitative agreement, suggesting Ip buildup results from inward propagating toroidal current loops created by intermittent reconnection of injected current streams. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  2. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  3. New Electron Temperature Measurements During Local Helicity Injection and H-mode Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    Extrapolation of non-solenoidal startup via local helicity injection (LHI) to larger devices depends critically on confinement during the injection process. To begin quantifying confinement regimes, the Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Pegasus ST was upgraded to include 12 radial positions and high temperature (0.1 Experiments are underway to verify these unexpectedly high electron temperatures. If verified, these temperatures may reflect the dominance of high-energy electrons via fueling with LHI current streams with average energy ~1 keV. Further investigations will explore the dependence of the inferred electron distribution on fueling source, density, and electron injection potential. The upgraded Thomson scattering diagnostic will also be applied to Ohmic H-mode plasmas in Pegasus. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  4. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  5. Intrathymic Injection.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Intrathymic injection is used in several T cell-associated immunological studies to deliver cells or other substances directly into the thymus. Here, we describe the intrathymic injection procedure involving surgical incision of the mouse with or without a thoracotomy. Though this procedure can result in poor recovery, postsurgical complications, and distress to the animal, it is actually a simple procedure that can be carried out relatively easily and quickly with experience. PMID:26294410

  6. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Geng; He, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes' privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC). The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH) and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS) by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes. PMID:24732099

  7. A secure-enhanced data aggregation based on ECC in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Geng; He, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes' privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC). The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH) and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS) by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes. PMID:24732099

  8. Compulsory drug detention center experiences among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand's official reclassification of drug users as "patients" deserving care and not "criminals," the Thai government has continued to rely heavily on punitive responses to drug use such as "boot camp"-style compulsory "treatment" centers. There is very little research on experiences with compulsory treatment centers among people who use drugs. The work reported here is a first step toward filling that gap. Methods We examined experiences of compulsory drug treatment among 252 Thai people who inject drugs (IDU) participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a history of compulsory treatment experience. Results In total, 80 (31.7%) participants reported a history of compulsory treatment. In multivariate analyses, compulsory drug detention experience was positively associated with current spending on drugs per day (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.07 - 3.22) and reporting drug planting by police (AOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04 - 3.15). Among those with compulsory treatment experience, 77 (96.3%) reported injecting in the past week, and no difference in intensity of drug use was observed between those with and without a history of compulsory detention. Conclusion These findings raise concerns about the current approach to compulsory drug detention in Thailand. Exposure to compulsory drug detention was associated with police abuse and high rates of relapse into drug use, although additional research is needed to determine the precise impact of exposure to this form of detention on future drug use. More broadly, compulsory "treatment" based on a penal approach is not consistent with scientific evidence on addressing drug addiction and should be phased out in favor of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22014093

  9. Experience from a long-term carcinogenicity study with intraperitoneal injection of biosoluble synthetic mineral fibers.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Hans G; Bernstein, David M; Attia, Mahmoud; Richard, Jacques; De Reydellet, Aymon

    2002-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential in the intraperitoneal cavity of three newly developed biosoluble insulation glass wool fibers (M, P, and V) and one newly developed biosoluble insulation stone wool fiber (O) was investigated and compared to that of a previously developed soluble glass fiber (B). The in vitro dissolution coefficient of the three glass wool fibers ranged from 450 to 1037 ng/cm(2) x h and was 523 ng/cm(2) x h for the stone wool fiber. The in vitro dissolution coefficient of the B fiber was 580 ng/cm(2) x h. Groups of female Wistar rats (strain Crl: Wi BR) were exposed by repeated injections to doses of 0.5, 2, and 5 x 10(9) WHO fibers, which corresponds to between 41 mg to 724 mg fiber injected. In addition, 2 groups of crocidolite were used as positive controls at doses of 0.1 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(9) WHO fibers (0.5 and 5 mg). The in vitro dissolution coefficient of crocidolite is estimated to be approximately 1 ng/cm(2) x h. The protocol of the study and the size distribution of the test samples conformed to the European Commission Protocol EUR 18748 EN, and the study was executed under Good Laboratory Practice conditions. Two of the new insulation wools, fibers M and 0, showed no statistically significant tumorigenic response even at the very high dose of 5 x 10(9) WHO fibers injected. Fibers P and V showed a small tumorigenic response in the ip cavity similar in magnitude to the B fiber, which has been declared in the German fiber regulations as a noncarcinogenic fiber. The response to the soluble insulation fibers was notably different from that of the known carcinogen crocidolite, which produced 53% tumors at a comparatively low dose of 0.1 x 10(9) WHO fibers. The incidence of mesothelioma was found to be highly correlated to the incidence of intra-abdominal nodules and masses at different sites. The incidence of abdominal nodules and masses was highly correlated to the number of animals with ascites. The incidence of chronic peritonitis with fibrotic

  10. Preliminary experience with precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid in brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Naci; Hanımoğlu, Hakan; Batur, Şebnem; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Kızılkılıç, Osman; Sanus, Zihni; Öz, Büge; Işlak, Civan; Kaynar, Mehmet Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in microcatheter design and emergence of new embolic agents offer better results in endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) (Microvention) is a newly introduced dimethyl sulfoxide-based embolic agent for endovascular use. Herein, we present three patients who underwent endovascular treatment of brain AVMs with PHIL, followed by surgical resection. Endovascular features and same-day surgical handling of the new embolic agent PHIL are presented along with histopathologic changes in the acute stage in brain AVMs are presented, and its major differences from Onyx. In our series, PHIL had moderate inflammatory reaction in the acute stage without any associated angionecrosis that is different than Onyx which cause mild inflammatory reaction with angionecrosis. Smallest vessel containing PHIL was 2.9 μm compared to 5 μm with Onyx, which suggests better penetration. PMID:26782157

  11. Preliminary experience with precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid in brain arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Koçer, Naci; Hanımoğlu, Hakan; Batur, Şebnem; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Kızılkılıç, Osman; Sanus, Zihni; Öz, Büge; Işlak, Civan; Kaynar, Mehmet Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in microcatheter design and emergence of new embolic agents offer better results in endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) (Microvention) is a newly introduced dimethyl sulfoxide-based embolic agent for endovascular use. Herein, we present three patients who underwent endovascular treatment of brain AVMs with PHIL, followed by surgical resection. Endovascular features and same-day surgical handling of the new embolic agent PHIL are presented along with histopathologic changes in the acute stage in brain AVMs are presented, and its major differences from Onyx. In our series, PHIL had moderate inflammatory reaction in the acute stage without any associated angionecrosis that is different than Onyx which cause mild inflammatory reaction with angionecrosis. Smallest vessel containing PHIL was 2.9 μm compared to 5 μm with Onyx, which suggests better penetration. PMID:26782157

  12. Pilot experiments on the actions of drugs injected into the human corpus cavernosum penis.

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven drugs that are known to relax smooth muscle (phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, thymoxamine, imipramine, verapamil, papaverine, naftidrofuryl) caused erection when injected intracavernosally. Salbutamol, hydralazine, lignocaine and bupivacaine caused tumidity but not erection. Metaraminol and guanethidine caused shrinkage followed by tumidity. Neostigmine, atropine, propranolol and idazoxan had no effect in the doses tried. It is argued that the seven drugs that cause erection do so by relaxing vascular and trabecular smooth muscle within the cavernosal space, and that the two that cause shrinkage of the penis do so by constricting vascular and trabecular smooth muscle within the cavernosal space. It is argued that muscarinic and beta-adrenergic transmission play no important part in erectile mechanisms within the corpora cavernosa. Papaverine, phenoxybenzamine and metaraminol, given intracavernosally, are already used therapeutically. Uses are suggested for thymoxamine, phentolamine, verapamil and guanethidine. PMID:3801762

  13. Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: the role of expR(Ecc).

    PubMed

    Andersson, R A; Eriksson, A R; Heikinheimo, R; Mäe, A; Pirhonen, M; Kõiv, V; Hyytiäinen, H; Tuikkala, A; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    The production of the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes, is partly controlled by the diffusible signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL). OHHL is synthesized by the product of the expI/carI gene. Linked to expI we found a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-family. This gene, expR(Ecc), is transcribed convergently to the expI gene and the two open reading frames are partially overlapping. The ExpR(Ecc) protein showed extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the repressor EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (formerly Erwinia stewartii subsp. stewartii) and to the ExpR(Ech) protein of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Inactivation of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora expR(Ecc) gene caused no decrease in virulence or production of virulence determinants in vitro. In contrast, there was a slight increase in the maceration capacity of the mutant strain. The effects of ExpR(Ecc) were probably mediated by changes in OHHL levels. Inactivation of expR(Ecc) resulted in increased OHHL levels during early logarithmic growth. In addition, overexpression of expR(Ecc) caused a clear decrease in the production of virulence determinants and part of this effect was likely to be caused by OHHL binding to ExpR(Ecc). ExpR(Ecc) did not appear to exhibit transcriptional regulation of expI, but the effect on OHHL was apparently due to other mechanisms. PMID:10755301

  14. Clinical experience in pancreas transplantation in Lyon: long-term survival of duct injected pancreatic grafts.

    PubMed

    Melandri, M; Lefrancois, N; La Rocca, E; Martin, X; Sanseverino, R; Camozzi, L; Faure, J L; Secchi, A; Gelet, A; Bottani, G

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-seven pancreatic grafts in 92 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were performed during the last 11 years. Eighty-three of these grafts were carried out after neoprene duct injection, the other patients underwent pancreato-duodenal transplantation. In 80 cases, a double pancreas and kidney graft was performed. Five different immunosuppressive protocols were subsequently applied. Actuarial survival of patients and pancreata was 75.1% and 47%, after one year and 54.6% and 22.1%, respectively, 4 years after transplantation. Slightly better results were observed in double pancreas and kidney transplantation. The survival of both patients and pancreas improved when the most recent immunosuppressive protocols including cyclosporin A and only small doses of steroids were applied. The main causes of loss of the pancreatic graft were rejection, vascular thrombosis and death of the patient with functioning organ. Metabolic studies showed good insulin secretion with normal or impaired glucose tolerance as well as good short and half-term glycemic control. Whole pancreas grafts with enteric diversion yielded prompter and higher insulin secretion but the incidence of surgical complications was increased. In comparison to the data recorded at 6 months after pancreas transplantation, 5 patients of our series with still functioning organ showed an equally satisfactory and unchanged glycemic control after more than 4 years from surgery. In these patients, the previously high insulinemic values decreased to normal levels. However, 3 of these patients showed a decrease in post-prandial peaks as confirmed also by OGTT. However, mean blood glucose level was not altered. In our series the suppression of exocrine pancreatic secretion by neoprene duct injection did not appear to represent a relevant cause of decrease in endocrine function. The results obtained do not yet allow us to draw definite conclusions as to the efficacy of pancreas transplantation in the treatment of

  15. Asymptotic analysis soot model and experiment for a directed injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Pei, Pucheng; Xiong, Qinghui; Lu, Yong

    2012-09-01

    The existing soot models are either too complex and can not be applied to the internal combustion engine, or too simple to make calculation errors. Exploring the soot model becomes the pursuit of the goal of many researchers within the error range in the current computer speed. On the basis of the latest experimental results, TP (temperature phases) model is presented as a new soot model to carry out optimization calculation for a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature and excess air factor are the most important two parameters in this model. When zone temperature T<1 500 K and excess air factor Φ>0.6, only the soot precursors—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) is created and there is no soot emission. When zone temperature T ⩾ 1 500 K and excess air factor Φ<0.6, PAHs and soot source terms (particle inception, surface growth, oxidation, coagulation) are calculated. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimizing. KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed for the results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP models. The experimental results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and computational fluid dynamics can be a tool to calculate for a high-pressure common rail directed injection diesel engine. The TP model result is closer than the use of the original KIVA-3V results of soot model accuracy by about 50% and TP model gives a new method for engine researchers.

  16. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  17. Laboratory simulations of the Viking Labeled Release experiment - Kinetics following second nutrient injection and the nature of the gaseous end product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Injection of (C-14)-labeled nutrient onto Mars soil produced an evolution of C-14 gas in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment. However, a second injection of nutrient seven days later was followed by an abrupt diminution of the amount of radioactive gas in the test cell. Simulation experiments performed in the LR Test Standards Module (TSM) have yielded a plausible explanation for this diminution. Radioactive carbon gases were injected into the TSM test cell in the presence and absence of two Mars analog soils. After equilibration, water was injected and its effect observed. The results indicate that the flight data following second nutrient injection can be explained on a physico-chemical basis involving a carbon dioxide/water/soil equilibrium in the test cell. The results also suggest that the gaseous end product of the Labeled Release reaction on Mars is more likely carbon dioxide than carbon monoxide.

  18. EMC3-EIRENE modeling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lore, J. D.; Reinke, M. L.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ∼50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modeling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target

  19. EMC3-EIRENE modelling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lore, Jeremy D.; Reinke, M. L.; LaBombard, Brian; Lipschultz, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2014-09-30

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ~50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modelling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outer strike point. Finally, toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.

  20. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  1. Preferential heating of light ions during an ionospheric Ar(+) injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, C. J.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Chesney, S.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Argon Release for Controlled Studies (ARCS) 4 sounding rocket was launched northward into high altitude from Poker Flat Research Range on February 23, 1990. The vehicle crossed geomagnetic field lines containing discrete auroral activity. An instrumented subpayload released 100-eV and 200-eV Ar(+) ion beams sequentially, in a direction largely perpendicular to both the local geomagnetic field and the subpayload spin axis. The instrumented main payload was separated along field lines from the beam emitting subpayload by a distance which increased at a steady rate of approximately 2.4 m/s. Three dimensional mass spectrometric ion observations of ambient H(+) and O(+) ions, obtained on board the main payload, are presented. Main payload electric field observations in the frequency range 0-16 kHz, are also presented. These observations are presented to demonstrate the operation of transverse ion acceleration, which was differential with respect to ion mass, primarily during 100-eV beam operations. The preferential transverse acceleration of ambient H(+) ions, as compared with ambient O(+) ions, during the second, third, fourth, and fifth 100-eV beam operations, is attributed to a resonance among the injected Ar(+) ions, beam-generated lower hybrid waves, and H(+) ions in the tail of the ambient thermal distribution. This work provides experimental support of processes predicted by previously published theory and simulations.

  2. Eight-Year Experience With Botulinum Toxin Type-A Injections for the Treatment of Nonneurogenic Overactive Bladder: Are Repeated Injections Worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Sana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injections for patients with drug-refractory nonneurogenic overactive bladder (NNOAB) and explore factors predictive of outcome. Methods: Data were collected from all patients receiving repeated BTX-A injections for drug-refractory NNOAB between 2004 and 2012. Trigone-sparing injections were administered under sedation with antibiotic prophylaxis. Patient characteristics including age, sex, preoperative urodynamics, injection number, BTX-A dose, complications, and patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) scores were collected. Correlations between patient factors and outcomes were assessed by using Pearson’s chi-square tests. Results: Fifty-two patients with a mean age of 67.4 years (range, 26–93 years) received 140 BTX-A injections in total; 33 (64%), 15 (29%), and 4 patients (7%) received 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 8 injections, respectively. Mean follow-up time was 49 months (range, 9–101 months). Nine patients developed urinary tract infection; additionally, 3 patients experienced transient urinary retention. Median PGI-I score was 2 out of 7 (interquartile range [IQR], 2). For 46 patients, the PGI-I score remained stable with the administration of each injection. Pearson chi-square tests revealed that male patients or reduced bladder compliance was associated with a higher (worse) PGI-I score. Median PGI-I scores for men and women were 3 (IQR, 1) and 2 (IQR, 1), respectively; additionally, median PGI-I scores for those with normal bladder compliance and those with reduced bladder compliance were 2 (IQR, 2) and 4.5 (IQR, 1), respectively. Median PGI-I scores and complication rates were the same in the older patient (≥70 years) and younger (<70 years) patient cohorts. Conclusions: Efficacy is maintained with repeated BTX-A injections. Patients including the elderly show a good degree of tolerability with a low complication rate. Male patients or reduced bladder

  3. Paper 58714 - Exploring activated faults hydromechanical processes from semi-controled field injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-12-01

    The appreciation of the sensitivity of fractures and fault zones to fluid-induced-deformations in the subsurface is a key question in predicting the reservoir/caprock system integrity around fluid manipulations with applications to reservoir leakage and induced seismicity. It is also a question of interest in understanding earthquakes source, and recently the hydraulic behavior of clay faults under a potential reactivation around nuclear underground depository sites. Fault and fractures dynamics studies face two key problems (1) the up-scaling of laboratory determined properties and constitutive laws to the reservoir scale which is not straightforward when considering faults and fractures heterogeneities, (2) the difficulties to control both the induced seismicity and the stimulated zone geometry when a fault is reactivated. Using instruments dedicated to measuring coupled pore pressures and deformations downhole, we conducted field academic experiments to characterize fractures and fault zones hydromechanical properties as a function of their multi-scale architecture, and to monitor their dynamic behavior during the earthquake nucleation process. We show experiments on reservoir or cover rocks analogues in underground research laboratories where experimental conditions can be optimized. Key result of these experiments is to highlight how important the aseismic fault activation is compared to the induced seismicity. We show that about 80% of the fault kinematic moment is aseismic and discuss the complex associated fault friction coefficient variations. We identify that the slip stability and the slip velocity are mainly controlled by the rate of the permeability/porosity increase, and discuss the conditions for slip nucleation leading to seismic instability.

  4. The street/treatment barrier: treatment experiences of Puerto Rican injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Porter, J

    1999-12-01

    This study describes, through ethnographic interviews, the treatment experiences of Puerto Rican long-term heroin users who are at extremely high risk for HIV infection and the barriers they perceive to drug treatment. On the basis of this information we suggest policy recommendations for increasing drug treatment access for Puerto Rican long-term injectors of heroin. It is critical that Puerto Rican populations access drug treatment facilities given their risk factors for HIV infection and the high rate of poverty in Puerto Rican communities that exacerbates drug use. PMID:10573300

  5. MREIT experiments with 200 µA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and harmonic BZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpinar, V. E.; Hamamura, M. J.; Degirmenci, E.; Muftuler, L. T.

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique, electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently, the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100 µA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10-400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200 µA total injected current and tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul (1998 Elektrik 6 215-25) with Tikhonov regularization and the harmonic BZ proposed by Oh et al (2003 Magn. Reason. Med. 50 875-8). The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200 µA and 5 mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200 µA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7 µA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5 mA total injected current results in 367 µA in imaging slice. Total acquisition time

  6. Polarization Issues with High Power Injection and Low Power Emission in Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Udintsev, V. S.

    2009-11-26

    All tokamak experiments using ECCD require setting of the beam elliptical polarization for proper coupling to the plasma. This is done either in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the output of the gyrotron, or in a couple of miter bends of the transmission line. Similarly, oblique ECE receivers require selection of the correct elliptical polarization to provide localized measurements. For the TCV tokamak at the CRPP, gyrotron and oblique-ECE polarizers are characterized during either high- or low- power testing of equipment: for the gyrotrons the behaviour is determined at a single frequency, but for the oblique-ECE the broadband response is needed. These characteristics are included in the calibration database and used during subsequent analysis of the power coupling to, or from, the sources (gyrotron, plasma, or low power transmitting antenna). A more detailed characterization has been carried out (at low power) with the MOU for the EU, 170 GHz, 2 MW, gyrotron prototype for ITER. This paper discusses the methodology and results of these measurements, as well as a review of nearly a decade's worth of experimental data from the 6 gyrotron, 3 MW, 82.6 GHz TCV system. In particular, the consistency between the calibrations and the subsequent data from tokamak experiments is analysed.

  7. Experiments on opposed lateral jets injected into swirling crossflow. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurry, C. B.; Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to obtain the time-mean and turbulent quantities of opposed lateral jets in a low speed, nonreacting flowfield. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of R = v sub J/u sub 0 = 4 was used throughout the experiments, with swirl vane angles of d = 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 deg used with the crossflow. Flow visualization techniques used were neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and multispark photography in order to obtain the gross flowfield characteristics. Measurements of time-mean and turbulent quantities were obtained utilizing a six-orientation single hot-wire technique. For the nonswirling case, the jets were found not to penetrate past the test-section centerline, in contrast to the single lateral jet with the same jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio. In the swirling cases, the crossflow remains in a narrow region near the wall of the test section. The opposed jets are swept from their vertical courses into spiral trajectories close to the confining walls. Extensive results are presented in r-x plane plots.

  8. Cement/caprock fracture healing experiments to assess the integrity of CO2 injection wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Frane, W. L.; Mason, H. E.; Walsh, S. D.; Ruddle, D. G.; Carroll, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has been speculated that fractures along wellbore cement/caprock interfaces may provide a path for release of carbon from both long-term sequestration-sites and CO2-based enhanced oil recovery operations. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential for fracture growth and healing in the wellbore environment, and its impact on wellbore permeability. A series of flow-through experiments was conducted, in which sample cores containing a planar fracture between impermeable caprock (compacted quartz, from 13,927' depth in Kern County) and cement (Portland G cured by ATSM standards) were reacted with brine containing variable amounts of carbonic acid (pCO2 between 0 and 3 MPa). The initial fracture geometry was controlled by grinding the caprock and cement pieces flat, and then bead blasting topography into the cement surfaces. Runs lasted 4-8 days with cores and brine maintained at constant temperature (60 °C). Constant confining pressure (24.8 MPa) was applied to cores, while brine was flowed with constant rates (0.05-0.10 mL/min) and pore pressure (12.4 MPa). Geomechanical and geochemical responses of the fractures were monitored by in situ measurements of differential pressure, and by periodically sampling output brine to analyze compositional changes. In every experiment the total permeability of samples cores decreased substantially. For runs using brine with pCO2 = 3 MPa, sample permeability continually decreased by over a factor of 200. Sample permeability also decreased by a factor of 50 having stabilized after ~3 days in a run using brine without CO2 (pCO2 = 0 MPa). These reductions in permeability appear to be the result of chemically-induced changes to the mechanical properties of the cement surface. Prior to reaction, the cement-caprock samples had high strength and elastic response to changes in stress during loading. After the experiments, the samples were weaker, and showed inelastic response to changes in stress during unloading. All cement

  9. Impact of di-ethylhexylphthalate exposure on metabolic programming in P19 ECC-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Schaedlich, Kristina; Schmidt, Juliane-Susanne; Kwong, Wing Yee; Sinclair, Kevin D; Kurz, Randy; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Fischer, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the most common plasticizer in plastic devices of everyday use. It is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and primarily known to impair male gonadal development and fertility. Studies concerning the long-term effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on certain diseases [The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease paradigm (DOHaD) hypothesis] are scarce although it is proven that DEHP crosses the placenta. Rising environmental pollution during the last centuries coincides with an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We have investigated the effects of an early embryonic DEHP exposure at different developmental stages on cardiomyogenesis. We used an in-vitro model, the murine P19 embryonic carcinoma cell line (P19 ECC), mimicking early embryonic stages up to differentiated beating cardiomyocytes. P19 ECC were exposed to DEHP (5, 50, 100 µg ml(-1)) at the undifferentiated stage for 5 days and subsequently differentiated to beating cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the expression of metabolic (Pparg1, Fabp4 and Glut4), cardiac (Myh6, Gja1) and methylation (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a) marker genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), beating rate and the differentiation velocity of the cells. The methylation status of Pparg1, Ppara and Glut4 was investigated by pyrosequencing. DEHP significantly altered the expression of all investigated genes. The beating rate and differentiation velocity were accelerated. Exposure to DEHP led to small but statistically significant increases in methylation of specific CpGs within Ppara and Pparg1, which otherwise were generally hypomethylated, but methylation of Glut4 was unaltered. Early DEHP exposure of P19 ECC alters the expression of genes associated with cellular metabolism and the functional features of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25351189

  10. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  11. Escharotic Treatment for ECC-positive CIN3 in Childbearing Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Windstar, Kimberly; Dunlap, Corina; Zwickey, Heather

    2014-04-01

    A persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of a high-risk type is necessary for cervical cancer to develop. The severity of the diagnosis, together with colposcopy findings, determines the standard for treatment, and ablative or excisional options may be recommended. Escharotic treatment, together with an oral, anticarcinogenic HPV protocol and a vaginal-suppository protocol, is an alternative treatment, especially for those women of childbearing age who are concerned about the possibility of obstetrical complications associated with the use of loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP). The aim of the current case study was to observe the effect of an ablative escharotic treatment for a woman with severe dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3). A 28-y-old female visited the National College of Natural Medicine clinic to obtain suggestions for alternative treatments following a satisfactory colposcopy and a biopsy revealing a high-risk HPV effect, severe dysplasia CIN3, and a positive endocervical curettage (ECC). She refused the recommended standard of care, a LEEP, because of concerns about the potential for future obstetrical complications. As an alternative, she elected to receive an escharotic treatment at a frequency of 2 treatments/wk for 5 wk. In addition to the escharotic treatment, she followed an oral protocol consisting of vitamins and botanical medicine for 1 y and she completed a 12-wk regime of vaginal suppositories following the escharotic. The authors followed her for 2 y. The woman's Papanicolaou (Pap) test at the 6-mo follow-up revealed negative cervical cytology for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, and her follow-up ECC was negative. Liquid-based Pap results were normal, and HPV testing was negative at her 1-y follow-up. Her Pap continued to remain normal at her 2-y follow-up. For women with high-grade cervical neoplasias and positive ECCs, with satisfactory colposcopies, escharotic treatment, accompanied by oral

  12. The resolution of reservoir dynamics with noise based technologies: A case study from the 2006 Basel injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, Gregor; Husen, Stephan; Obermann, Anne; Planes, Thomas; Campillo, Michel; Larose, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We explore the applicability of noise-based monitoring and imaging techniques in the context of the 2006 Basel stimulation experiment using data from five borehole velocimeters and five surface accelerometers located around the injection site. We observe a significant perturbation of medium properties associated with the reservoir stimulation. The transient perturbation, with a duration of 20-30 days, reaches its maximum about 15 days after shut in, when microseismic activity has ceased; it is thus associated with aseismic deformation. Inverting relative velocity change and decorrelation observations using techniques developed and applied on laboratory and local to regional seismological scales, we can image the associated deformation pattern. We discuss limits of the the frequency- and lapse-time dependent resolution and suggestions for improvements considering the 3-D network geometry together with wave propagation models. The depth sensitivity of the analyzed wave field indicates resolution of perturbation in the shallow parts of the sedimentary layer above the stimulated deep volume located in the crystalline base layer. The deformation pattern is similar to InSAR/satellite observations associated with CO2 sequestration experiments, and indicates the transfer of deformation beyond scales associated with the instantaneously stimulated volume. Our detection and localization of delayed induced shallow aseismic transient deformation indicates that monitoring the evolution of reservoir properties using the ambient seismic field provides observables that complement information obtained with standard microseismic approaches. The results constitute a significant advance for the resolution of reservoir dynamics; the technology has the potential to provide critical constraints in related geotechnical situations associated with fluid injection, fracking, (nuclear) waste management, and carbon capture and storage.

  13. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  14. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sudden wave of mild or intense body heat) decreased sexual ability or desire leg or joint pain breast pain pain, itching, swelling, or redness at the place where injection was given difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  15. The External-Injection experiment at the SPARC_LAB facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Andrea R.; Bacci, Alberto; Belleveglia, Marco; Chiadroni, Enrica; Cianchi, Alessandro; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Ferrario, Massimo; Gallo, Alessandro; Gatti, Giancarlo; Maroli, Cesare; Mostacci, Andrea; Petrillo, Vittoria; Serafini, Luca; Tomassini, Paolo; Vaccarezza, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    At the SPARC_LAB facility of INFN-LNF we are installing a transport lines for ultra-short electron bunches and another for ultra-intense laser pulses, generated by the SPARC photo-injector and by the FLAME laser in a synchronized fashion at the tens of fs level, to co-propagate inside a hydrogen filled glass capillary, in order to perform acceleration of the electron bunch by a plasma wave driven by the laser pulse. The main aim of this experiment is to demonstrate that a high brightness electron beam can be accelerated by a plasma wave without any significant degradation of its quality. Motivations of the technical choices are made and expected performances are reported.

  16. The AGS new fast extraction system for the g-2 experiment and RHIC injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS requires a new fast extraction beam (NewFEB) system for the muon g-2 experiment and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The proposed NewFEB system will consist of a new fast multi-pulsing kicker placed at straight section G10 and an ejector septum magnet at H10, together will local orbit bumps generated by powering backleg windings on the AGS main magnets. The new system is capable of performing single bunch multiple extraction as often as every 8 ms up to 12 times per AGS cycle, in addition to the standard single turn fast extraction. The conceptual design of the NewFEB system will be discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Injection of dust into the Martian atmosphere - Evidence from the Viking Gas Exchange experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, R. L.; Harris, S. L.; Carter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that predawn midlatitude storms are triggered by a soil humidification process is examined. A freeze/thaw model of the process is evaluated in the Viking Gas Exchange experiments conducted on Mars. The humidification-driven desorption and desiccation state of Martian soil samples are analyzed. The periodic humidification of equatorial regolith soil is studied in terms of pore space pressure during desorption events and soil diffusivity; the thermal properties of the regolith surface layer are modeled using the program of Clifford (1984). Consideration is given to the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the humidification process, the permanent, low-albedo features in the midlatitudes, and the production of H2SO4 and HCl aerosols.

  18. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. PMID:24669192

  19. Intrathecal Injections in Children With Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Nusinersen Clinical Trial Experience.

    PubMed

    Haché, Manon; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Sethna, Navil; Farrow-Gillespie, Alan; Khandji, Alexander; Xia, Shuting; Bishop, Kathie M

    2016-06-01

    Nusinersen (ISIS-SMNRx or ISIS 396443) is an antisense oligonucleotide drug administered intrathecally to treat spinal muscular atrophy. We summarize lumbar puncture experience in children with spinal muscular atrophy during a phase 1 open-label study of nusinersen and its extension. During the studies, 73 lumbar punctures were performed in 28 patients 2 to 14 years of age with type 2/3 spinal muscular atrophy. No complications occurred in 50 (68%) lumbar punctures; in 23 (32%) procedures, adverse events were attributed to lumbar puncture. Most common adverse events were headache (n = 9), back pain (n = 9), and post-lumbar puncture syndrome (n = 8). In a subgroup analysis, adverse events were more frequent in older children, children with type 3 spinal muscular atrophy, and with a 21- or 22-gauge needle compared to a 24-gauge needle or smaller. Lumbar punctures were successfully performed in children with spinal muscular atrophy; lumbar puncture-related adverse event frequency was similar to that previously reported in children. PMID:26823478

  20. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies The Effect of Nitrate Injection in Oil Reservoirs - Experience with Nitrate Injection in the Halfdan Oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jan; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    This chapter deals with the use of nitrate injection for reservoir souring mitigation in an oilfield with seawater injection in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Nitrate impacts on the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and biofilm redox potential (Larsen et al., 2007), as a result of which corrosion due to SRB activity will be reduced, souring inhibited and previously formed sulphide removed (Larsen, 2002). One important aspect is that the microbiological reduction of nitrate provides approximately three times more energy to SRB than the reduction of sulphate. Therefore, when both nitrate and sulphate are present, nitrate becomes the preferred electron acceptor and SRB capable of growing on nitrate will dominate. Nitrate provides a competitive advantage to nitrate-utilising bacteria (indicated by the general acronym NUB) during competition for available carbon sources as the NUB are capable of much faster growth than SRB.

  1. Where to Now for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Graduates? A Study of the Experiences of Irish BA ECCE Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Mary; Pope, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    International definitions of early childhood locate the field with the care and education of children between birth and six years. In Ireland, this definition applies to both pre-school and the infant classes of primary school. While primary school teachers in Ireland must hold a Bachelor of Education degree, there is no minimum training…

  2. EMC3-EIRENE modelling of toroidally-localized divertor gas injection experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lore, Jeremy D.; Reinke, M. L.; LaBombard, Brian; Lipschultz, B.; Churchill, R. M.; Pitts, R. A.; Feng, Y.

    2014-09-30

    Experiments on Alcator C-Mod with toroidally and poloidally localized divertor nitrogen injection have been modeled using the three-dimensional edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE to elucidate the mechanisms driving measured toroidal asymmetries. In these experiments five toroidally distributed gas injectors in the private flux region were sequentially activated in separate discharges resulting in clear evidence of toroidal asymmetries in radiated power and nitrogen line emission as well as a ~50% toroidal modulation in electron pressure at the divertor target. The pressure modulation is qualitatively reproduced by the modelling, with the simulation yielding a toroidal asymmetry in the heat flow to the outermore » strike point. Finally, toroidal variation in impurity line emission is qualitatively matched in the scrape-off layer above the strike point, however kinetic corrections and cross-field drifts are likely required to quantitatively reproduce impurity behavior in the private flux region and electron temperatures and densities directly in front of the target.« less

  3. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions. PMID:26551361

  4. A provably-secure ECC-based authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  5. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  6. Onyx injection by direct puncture for the treatment of hypervascular spinal metastases close to the anterior spinal artery: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Clarençon, Frédéric; Di Maria, Federico; Cormier, Evelyne; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Enkaoua, Eric; Sailhan, Frédéric; Iosif, Christina; Le Jean, Lise; Chiras, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases has been shown to be effective in preventing major blood loss during open surgery. Most often, embolization can be performed using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microparticles. However, in some cases, the close relationship between the feeders of the metastases and the feeders of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) poses a risk of spinal cord ischemia when PVA microparticle embolization is performed. The authors present their early experience in the treatment of spinal metastases close to the ASA; in 2 cases they injected Onyx-18, by direct puncture, into hypervascular posterior arch spinal metastases situated close to the ASA. Two women, one 36 and the other 55 years of age, who presented with spinal lesions (at the posterior arch of C-4 and T-6, respectively) from thyroid and a kidney tumors, were sent to the authors' department to undergo presurgical embolization. After having performed a complete spinal digital subtraction angiography study, a regular angiography catheter was positioned at the ostium of the artery that mainly supplied the lesion. Then, with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position, direct puncture with 18-gauge needles of the lesion was performed using roadmap guidance. Onyx-18 was injected through the needles under biplanar fluoroscopy. Satisfactory devascularization of the lesions was obtained; the ASA remained patent in both cases. The metastases were surgically removed in both cases within the 48 hours after the embolization and major blood loss did not occur. Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases close the ASA by direct puncture with Onyx-18 seems to be an effective technique and appears to be safe in terms of the preserving the ASA's patency. PMID:23600580

  7. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of blood salvaged after extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in paediatric heart surgery. Study of biochemical, morphological and structural variations of RBC after ECC and after salvaging of ECC circuit priming blood.

    PubMed

    Calza, G; Zannini, L; Lerzo, F; Nitti, P; Mangraviti, S; Perutelli, P; Porlezza, M

    2000-06-01

    The salvaging of ECC circuit priming blood is essential for reducing the morbidity related to homologous blood transfusions and the importance of this technique is inversely proportionate to the age and weight of the child. In infants, the washing and centrifugation of blood not only drastically reduce the risk of contracting blood-transmitted diseases and cut management costs, but are also of considerable hemodynamic importance, producing a rapid normalization of the patient's hematocrit and hemoglobin and balancing the O2 consumption/demand ratio. The marketing of miniaturized salvagin devices with 55 ml bowls by Dideco has made possible the recovery of small quantities of blood, so as to normalise the hematic crisis and permit the application of total hemodilution in low-weight patients. The salvaged blood shows an average hematocrit of 52.7+/-9.7% (max 68.1%) and an average hemoglobin of 17.6 +/- 2.9 g/dl (max 20.7 g/dl), and maintains its structural components, osmotic resistance, concentration of intraerythrocytic hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin all intact. Washing with isoosmotic and isoionic hydroelectrolytic solutions normalizes the ionic situation in the post-operative period and activated blood salvaging after Extracorporeal Circulation. The use of solutions without nutritional substances results however in a considerable fall in the number of enzymes in the intraerythrocytic metabolic glucide chain (G6PDH: -40.7 +/- 14.3% p<0.001), (PK: -23.8 +/- 20.5% p<0.03). This drop may be responsible for erythrocytic morphological alterations (echinocytic change) and probably for the release of hemoglobin from the red blood cells. Washing with isoionic, isoosmotic solutions containing G5% and adenine could, at least in theory, improve the quality of the salvaged blood, by normalizing the morphology and the volume of the RBC and by increasing the hematocrit. PMID:10919757

  8. Perspectives and experiences of Dutch multiple sclerosis patients and multiple sclerosis-specialized neurologists on injectable disease-modifying treatment

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Leo H; Heerings, Marco A; Jongen, Peter J; van der Hiele, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The adherence to treatment with injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) may benefit from adequate information provision and management of expectations. The communication between patients and physicians is very important in this respect. The current study investigated the perspectives and experiences of the MS patients and neurologists concerning the choice and course of treatment with DMDs in the Netherlands. Methods The MS patients (aged 18–60 years; diagnosed with MS at least a year ago, currently treated with injectable DMD treatment) and MS-specialized neurologists (practicing for ≥3 years, treating ≥15 MS patients/month on average, and spending >60% of their time in clinical practice) were asked to complete semistructured Internet-based questionnaires. The neurologists in this study were not necessarily the treating neurologists of the participating MS patients. Results In all, 107 MS patients and 18 MS-specialized neurologists completed the questionnaires. The MS-specialized neurologists in this study reported discussing most of the suggested treatment goals with their patients. The MS patients indicated that certain important treatment goals, ie, reduction in disease progression, reduction or prolongation of time to long-term disability, and reduction in new magnetic resonance imaging lesions, were not discussed with them. More than one-quarter of the patients (27%) would appreciate more information about their treatment. We found evidence for suboptimal patient adherence to MS therapy (23% indicated taking a treatment break) due to diverse side effects, lack of efficacy, or practical issues. As compared to these patient reports, the scale of poor adherence was overestimated by more than half of the neurologists (on average, 30% estimated treatment breaks). Conclusion The MS patients and MS-specialized neurologists in this study differ in their experiences and perspectives on information provision and adherence

  9. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinard, C.; Barrière, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  10. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-17

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  11. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  12. Escharotic Treatment for ECC-positive CIN3 in Childbearing Years: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Windstar, Kimberly; Dunlap, Corina; Zwickey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    A persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of a high-risk type is necessary for cervical cancer to develop. The severity of the diagnosis, together with colposcopy findings, determines the standard for treatment, and ablative or excisional options may be recommended. Escharotic treatment, together with an oral, anticarcinogenic HPV protocol and a vaginal-suppository protocol, is an alternative treatment, especially for those women of childbearing age who are concerned about the possibility of obstetrical complications associated with the use of loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP). The aim of the current case study was to observe the effect of an ablative escharotic treatment for a woman with severe dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3). A 28-y-old female visited the National College of Natural Medicine clinic to obtain suggestions for alternative treatments following a satisfactory colposcopy and a biopsy revealing a high-risk HPV effect, severe dysplasia CIN3, and a positive endocervical curettage (ECC). She refused the recommended standard of care, a LEEP, because of concerns about the potential for future obstetrical complications. As an alternative, she elected to receive an escharotic treatment at a frequency of 2 treatments/wk for 5 wk. In addition to the escharotic treatment, she followed an oral protocol consisting of vitamins and botanical medicine for 1 y and she completed a 12-wk regime of vaginal suppositories following the escharotic. The authors followed her for 2 y. The woman’s Papanicolaou (Pap) test at the 6-mo follow-up revealed negative cervical cytology for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, and her follow-up ECC was negative. Liquid-based Pap results were normal, and HPV testing was negative at her 1-y follow-up. Her Pap continued to remain normal at her 2-y follow-up. For women with high-grade cervical neoplasias and positive ECCs, with satisfactory colposcopies, escharotic treatment, accompanied by oral

  13. Injection drug users' and their risk networks experiences of and attitudes toward drug dealer violence in Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; Yang, Cui; Tobin, Karin E.; German, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background A large portion of violence associated with drug use is due to drug dealing. These analyses sought to examine injection drug users' attitudes and experiences of drug dealer violence. Methods The current study used the 18-month follow up data of STEP into Action (STEP) study, an HIV prevention intervention among drug injectors and their risk network members conducted in Baltimore, Maryland. Four scales assessed acceptability of drug dealer violence, willingness to talk to drug users about avoiding drug dealer violence, social norms about reporting drug dealer violence, and intentions to report drug dealer violence to the police. Results Many (44%) of the 373 participants reported witnessing drug dealers' acts of violence within the prior 6 months. Although the majority of participants disagreed with statements on the acceptability of dealers using violence, only a minority indicated that they would call the police if they observed dealer violence. Most participants indicated that they would be interested in talking to drug users about how to avoid violent dealers. Males were more likely to report that violence was acceptable, whereas African Americans were less likely to condone violence. Those who were homeless and had higher incomes were more likely to report witnessing drug dealer violence. Conclusions These results suggest that it may be feasible to train current and former drug users and their risk network members in methods to promote violence reduction among drug dealers. PMID:22959117

  14. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based neutral beam injection heating in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Murakami, S.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B. J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; LHD Experimental Group

    2005-07-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar and/or Ne gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas heated with high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (NBI). Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is significantly enhanced in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionization) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive neon- and/or argon-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with the addition of centrally focused electron cyclotron resonance heating to a low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with high-energy NBI heating suggest that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature could be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planned in the near future in the LHD.

  15. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate(III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Flow Injection Kinetic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobrega, Joanquim A.; Rocha, Fabio R. P.

    1997-05-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a well recognized tool for solutions management. In spite of the use of this technique mainly for quantitative determination of analytes in solution, FIA systems can also be used for obtaining physical chemistry data. This work describes the use of a flow diagram to perform a kinetic experiment: the effect of ionic strength on the rate of reduction of hexacyanoferrate(III) by ascorbic acid. The rate determining step of this reaction involves the collision between two anionic species. The increase of the ionic strength of the medium alters the ionic atmosphere and changes the charge densities around the anions. Consequently, there is an increment of the rate constants for higher ionic strengths. In the proposed system, the flow is stopped by commutation when the center of the sample zone attained the flow cell and a gradual decrease in signal, related to the redox reaction, is registered as function of time. This allowed the determination of the rate constants as a function of the ionic strength. The product of the charges of the ions involved in the rate determining step was estimated in 3.2 that is close to the expected value considering the proposed mechanism.

  16. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems. PMID:26573649

  17. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  18. Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge and Practice into ECCE: A Comparison of Programs in The Gambia, Senegal and Mali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudee, Alicia Ranck

    2009-01-01

    Early Childhood Development (ECD) has emerged as a theme in international and African dialogue on education in recent years. UNESCO's Division of Basic Education Early Childhood promotes an integrated approach to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) policy development and review. The study examines how this is implemented in three West…

  19. Modeling single-well injection experiments with delayed extraction in fractured bedrock aquifers - applications in CO2 geosequestration research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Stute, M.; Zakharova, N. V.; Matter, J.; Takahashi, T.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Goldberg, D.

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of the solute transport of anthropogenically introduced solutions in fractured bedrock aquifers has practical implications on environmental problems related to CO2 geological sequestration, hydraulic fracturing, and environmental fracturing remediation. Tracer tests using conservative chemicals, such as push-pull experiments in single borehole, provide a direct and reliable method to estimate the solute transport and have been used as a basis for further understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Obtaining analytical solutions often requires simplification of the hydrogeological processes and usually is not practical or very difficult. For example, environmental studies often require a delayed extraction to increase the reaction time and amplify the biogeochemical signals during the push-pull experiments. Simulating these processes by numerical models demands large computation resources, but can reveal the complexity and heterogeneity of aquifer and hydrological processes. Testing the sensitivity of model parameters in such simulations allows for an understanding of the most significant parameters of these processes. In this study, seven push-pull experiments with delayed extraction after the introduction of chemical salts (e.g. NaCl and KBr), gases (SF6, SF5CF3), or isotopic tracers (18O, 13C) were conducted in a test well in the Newark Basin at two different depths. Fracture zones at these depths correspond to the contact zone (232-240 m) between the Palisades diabase sill and the underlying Newark Basin sand and clay sediments and an interval (362-366 m) within the sedimentary rock formations. This study investigates the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration and the potential environmental impact in the event of CO2 leakage into overlying groundwater aquifers in sedimentary formations. Analytical solutions were adapted using non-Fickian models to fit the observed tracer breakthrough curves. Normalized tracer

  20. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  1. Modeling of Fluid Induced Deformation of the Upper Crust of the Earth: Tilt Investigations About the Large Scale Injection Experiment at the KTB/Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, T.; Jentzsch, G.; Gebauer, A.

    2006-12-01

    The injection experiment at the KTB started in June, 2004 with a medium injection rate of 180 liters/minute into the KTB pilot borehole (4000 meters deep). A tiltmeter array, consisting of five high resolution borehole tiltmeters of the ASKANIA type, was operating in the surrounding area of the KTB location from mid 2003 until September 2006. The tiltmeters have a resolution of better than 0.2 msec (about 1 nrad). The aim of the research project was to observe the induced deformation of the upper crust at kilometer scale and to interpret the observation by numerical modeling, together with the monitoring of induced seismicity in the area. We expect elastic as well as anelastic responses: Changes of the rheologic properties due to pore pressure increase will cause changes in the tidal parameters. Further we expect sudden changes of the drift curve as well as slow variations. For the separation of the induced drift signal it is necessary to eliminate locally induced interference, e.g. arising from groundwater variations. The ground water / pore pressure changes, observed at all stations show significant correlations with the recorded tilt signals. The reduction of these locally acting effects and also meteorological influences like barometric pressure changes or precipitation yield tilt signals, which are significantly correlated with the injection experiment: The hodograms, which describe the tip movement of the pendulum over ground, show a clear dominant drift away from the injection point for three stations. This corresponds with a bulge in the area where the injection takes place. The tilt amplitudes are in the order of some milliseconds. Parallel to the observations with the tiltmeter array we quantified the expected additional drift for different injection scenarios at each tiltmeter site, by numerical modeling using the program POEL. It can be demonstrated that the tilt signals caused by injection intervals of less than three days are not detectable by the

  2. “We don't need services. We have no problems”: exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Anita; Hildebrand, Mikaela; Sun, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs often begin their drug use and injecting practices in adolescence, yet there are limited data available on the HIV epidemic and the responses for this population. The comprehensive package of interventions for the prevention, treatment and care of HIV infection among people who inject drugs first laid out in 2009 (revised in 2012) by World Health Organization, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, does not consider the unique needs of adolescent and young people. In order to better understand the values and preferences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services and support, we undertook a series of community consultations with young people with experience of injecting drugs during adolescence. Methods Community consultations (4–14 persons) were held in 14 countries. Participants were recruited using a combined criterion and maximum variation sampling strategy. Data were analyzed using collaborative qualitative data analysis. Frequency analysis of themes was conducted. Results Nineteen community consultations were organized with a total of 132 participants. All participants had experienced injecting drugs before the age of 18. They had the following age distribution: 18–20 (37%), 21–25 (48%) and 26–30 (15%). Of the participants, 73.5% were male while 25.7% were female, with one transgender participant. Barriers to accessing the comprehensive package included: lack of information and knowledge of services, age restrictions on services, belief that services were not needed, fear of law enforcement, fear of stigma, lack of concern, high cost, lack of outreach, lack of knowledge of HCV/TB and lack of youth friendly services. Conclusions The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic

  3. At the intersection of marginalised identities: lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people's experiences of injecting drug use and hepatitis C seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Treloar, Carla; Maher, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Although the levels of injecting drug use among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations are high, we know little about their experiences of injecting drugs or living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The loss of traditional family and cultural ties means connection to community is important to the well-being of LGBT populations. Although some kinds of drug use are normalised within many LGBT communities, injecting drug use continues to be stigmatised. This exploratory qualitative study of people with newly acquired HCV used semi-structured interviews to explore participants' understandings and awareness of HCV, seroconversion, testing, diagnosis and treatment. We present a secondary thematic analysis of eight LGBT participants of the experience of injecting drugs, living with HCV and having a marginalised sexual or gender identity. Community was central to the participants' accounts. Drug use facilitated connection to a chosen community by suppressing sexual or gender desires allows them to fit in to the mainstream; enacting LGBT community norms of behaviour; and connection through shared drug use. Participants also described feeling afraid to come out about their drug use to LGBT peers because of the associated stigma of HCV. They described a similar stigma associated with HIV within the people who inject drugs (PWID) community. Thus, the combination of being LGBT/living with HIV (a gay disease) and injecting drugs/living with HCV (a junkie's disease) left them in a kind of no-man's-land. Health professionals working in drug and HCV care services need to develop capacity in providing culturally appropriate health-care for LGBT PWID. PMID:23465052

  4. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection: a single-centre, 7-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Biočíc, Mihovil; Todoríc, Jakov; Budimir, Dražen; Roíc, Andrea Cvitkovíc; Pogorelíc, Zenon; Juríc, Ivo; Šušnjar, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of medical intervention in patients with vesicoureteral reflux are to allow normal renal growth, prevent infections and pyelonephritis, and prevent renal failure. We present our experience with endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children by subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Methods Under cystoscopic guidance, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer underneath the intravesical portion of the ureter in a subureteral or submucosal location was injected in patients undergoing endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Results A total of 282 patients (120 boys and 162 girls) underwent the procedure. There were 396 refluxed ureters altogether. The mean age of patients was 4.9 years. The mean overall follow-up period was 44 months. Among the 396 ureters treated, 76% were cured with a single injection. A second and third injection raised the cure rate to 93% and 94%, respectively. Twenty-two (6%) ureters failed all 3 injections, and were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate. PMID:22854114

  5. Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, M V; Reis, F M C V; Campos, A C; Guimarães, F S

    2014-03-01

    The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response. Although its mechanism remains unclear, CBD can facilitate 5HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission when injected into several brain structures. This study was aimed at verifying if intra-PL CBD could also induce anxiolytic-like effect in a conceptually distinct animal model, the elevated plus maze (EPM). We also verified if CBD effects in the EPM and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) depend on 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience. CBD induced opposite effects in the CFC and EPM, being anxiolytic and anxiogenic, respectively. Both responses were prevented by WAY100,635, a 5HT1A receptor antagonist. In animals that had been previously (24h) submitted to a stressful event (2h-restraint) CBD caused an anxiolytic, rather than anxiogenic, effect in the EPM. This anxiolytic response was abolished by previous injection of metyrapone, a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker. Moreover, restraint stress increased 5HT1A receptors expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, an effect that was attenuated by injection of metyrapone before the restraint procedure. Taken together, these results suggest that CBD modulation of anxiety in the PL depend on 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission and previous stressful experience. PMID:24321837

  6. Magnetic Reconnection and Ion Flows During Point-Source DC Helicity Injection on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. G.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    A passive ion temperature polychromator has been deployed on Pegasus to study power balance and non-thermal ion distributions that arise during point source helicity injection. Spectra are recorded from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator whose output is recorded by an intensified high-speed camera. During helicity injection, stochastic magnetic fields keep Te low and thus low ionization impurities penetrate to the core. Under these conditions, high core ion temperatures are measured (Ti 1.2 keV, Te 0.1 keV) using spectral lines from CIII, NIII, and BIV. This rapid ion heating is seen to coincide with internal MHD activity. The ion temperature closely follows the injection bias voltage, indicating that power from the guns is strongly coupled to the ions through this MHD activity. Bi-directional toroidal ion flows of ˜60 km/s have been observed on the BIV line during helicity injection when looking near the front of the injectors. The flow is on the order of the Alfv'en velocity, as predicted by Sweet-Parker reconnection, and is indicative of magnetic reconnection occurring near the injectors. When looking away from the helicity injectors, the bi-directional flow appears to be replaced by strong toroidal rotation, suggesting that ion acceleration during helicity injection is asymmetric and 3D in nature.

  7. Preliminary Results from a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, N. M.; Clark, J. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of vigorous hydrothermal circulation. A mixture of tracers was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327, as part of a 24-hour pumping experiment. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from this hole and three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. The array of holes is located on 3.5 M.y. old seafloor, and oriented N20°E, subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge, 100 km to the west. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was injected at a concentration of 0.0192 mol/min, with fluid pumping rate of 6.7 L/s for 20.2 h, resulting in a mean concentration of 47.6 μM and 23.3 mol of SF6 being added to crustal fluids. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps attached to the wellheads of several long-term, subseafloor observatories (CORKs). These samples were recovered from the seafloor using a remotely-operated vehicle in 2011 and 2013. Analyses of SF6 concentrations in samples recovered in 2011 indicate the first arrival of SF6 in Hole 1301A, 550 m south of the injection Hole 1362B, ~265 days after injection. This suggests that the most rapid lateral transport of gas (at the leading edge of the plume) occurred at ~2 m/day. Samples recovered in 2013 should provide a more complete breakthrough curve, allowing assessment of the mean lateral transport rate. Additional insights will come from analysis of metal salts and particle tracers injected contemporaneously with the SF6, the cross-hole pressure response to injection and a two-year fluid discharge experiment. Additional wellhead samples will be collected in Summer 2014, as will downhole osmosamplers deployed in perforated casing within the upper ocean crust in Holes 1362A and 1362B.

  8. Delayed immunologic complications due to injectable fillers by unlicensed practitioners: our experiences and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Seok, Joon; Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2016-01-01

    For a number of years, there have been unauthorized practitioners who have been illegally injecting substances. In this series of cases, delayed type hypersensitivity reactions occurred after having unknown material fillers injected by unlicensed practitioners. When injecting an unknown material, there can be a severe immune reaction due to the unknown number of antigens in the material, and therefore may act as a much stronger superantigen than conventional filler materials. It appears that the adverse effects in these cases are more severe and have tendency to break out after a longer period of time in comparison with those caused by approved fillers, likely due to operative technique and use of unverified materials. It is important to recognize the danger of such illegal procedures and to increase awareness of the public, as this has evolved into a significant public health issue. PMID:26814449

  9. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner. PMID:21711896

  10. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-04-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner.

  11. Design process of the nanofluid injection mechanism in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myoung-Suk; Jee, Changhyun; Park, Sangjun; Bang, In Choel; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, which are engineered suspensions of nanoparticles in a solvent such as water, have been found to show enhanced coolant properties such as higher critical heat flux and surface wettability at modest concentrations, which is a useful characteristic in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This study attempted to provide an example of engineering applications in NPPs using nanofluid technology. From these motivations, the conceptual designs of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) assisted by nanofluid injection mechanism were proposed after following a design framework to develop complex engineering systems. We focused on the analysis of functional requirements for integrating the conventional ECCSs and nanofluid injection mechanism without loss of performance and reliability. Three candidates of nanofluid-engineered ECCS proposed in previous researches were investigated by applying axiomatic design (AD) in the manner of reverse engineering and it enabled to identify the compatibility of functional requirements and potential design vulnerabilities. The methods to enhance such vulnerabilities were referred from TRIZ and concretized for the ECCS of the Korean nuclear power plant. The results show a method to decouple the ECCS designs with the installation of a separate nanofluids injection tank adjacent to the safety injection tanks such that a low pH environment for nanofluids can be maintained at atmospheric pressure which is favorable for their injection in passive manner. PMID:21711896

  12. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  13. Dynamic investigation of nutrient consumption and injection strategy in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) by means of large-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiyong; Zhu, Weiyao; Sun, Gangzheng; Blanckaert, Koen

    2015-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) depends on the in situ microbial activity to release trapped oil in reservoirs. In practice, undesired consumption is a universal phenomenon but cannot be observed effectively in small-scale physical simulations due to the scale effect. The present paper investigates the dynamics of oil recovery, biomass and nutrient consumption in a series of flooding experiments in a dedicated large-scale sand-pack column. First, control experiments of nutrient transportation with and without microbial consumption were conducted, which characterized the nutrient loss during transportation. Then, a standard microbial flooding experiment was performed recovering additional oil (4.9 % Original Oil in Place, OOIP), during which microbial activity mostly occurred upstream, where oil saturation declined earlier and steeper than downstream in the column. Subsequently, more oil remained downstream due to nutrient shortage. Finally, further research was conducted to enhance the ultimate recovery by optimizing the injection strategy. An extra 3.5 % OOIP was recovered when the nutrients were injected in the middle of the column, and another additional 11.9 % OOIP were recovered by altering the timing of nutrient injection. PMID:25895095

  14. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 for gravity-driven injection experiment in the core makeup tank of the CARR Passive Reactor (CP-1300)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.I.; No, H.C.; Bang, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to improve the analysis capability of RELAP5/MOD3.1 on the direct contact condensation in the core makeup tank (CMT) of passive high-pressure injection system (PHPIS) in the CARR Passive Reactor (CP-1300). The gravity-driven injection experiment is conducted by using a small scale test facility to identify the parameters having significant effects on the gravity-driven injection and the major condensation modes. It turns out that the larger the water subcooling is, the more initiation of injection is delayed, and the sparger and the natural circulation of the hot water from the steam generator accelerate the gravity-driven injection. The condensation modes are divided into three modes: sonic jet, subsonic jet, and steam cavity. RELAP5/MOD3.1 is chosen to evaluate the cod predictability on the direct contact condensation in the CMT. It is found that the predictions of MOD3.1 are in better agreement with the experimental data than those of MOD3.0. From the nodalization study of the test section, the 1-node model shows better agreement with the experimental data than the multi-node models. RELAP5/MOD3.1 identifies the flow regime of the test section as vertical stratification. However, the flow regime observed in the experiment is the subsonic jet with the bubble having the vertical cone shape. To accurately predict the direct contact condensation in the CMT with RELAP5/MOD3.1, it is essential that a new set of the interfacial heat transfer coefficients and a new flow regime map for direct contact condensation in the CMT be developed.

  15. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometry for controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Csaba; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C.; Michel, P.; Schroeder, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.

    2006-10-01

    A method for controlled injection of electrons into a plasma wakefield relying on colliding laser pulses [1] has been proposed a decade ago to produce high quality relativistic electron beams with energy spread below 1% and normalized emittances < 1 micron from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). The original idea uses three pulses in which one pulse excites the plasma wake and a trailing laser pulse collides with a counterpropagating one to form a beat pattern that boosts background electrons to catch the plasma wave. Another, two-beam off-axis injection method [2] with crossing angles varying from 180 to 90 degrees avoids having optical elements on the path of the electron beam and has been studied at the LOASIS facility of LBNL as a viable method for laser triggered injection. It allows low dark current operation with controllable final beam energy and low energy spread. Here, we report on progress of electron optical injection via the two-beam non-collinear colliding pulse scheme using multi-terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser beams (45 fs, 100s of mJ) focused onto a Hydrogen gas plume. Experimental results indicate that electron beam properties are affected by the second beam. *This work is supported by DoE under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. [1] E. Esarey, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett 79, 2682 (1997) [2] G. Fubiani, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016402 (2004)

  16. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  17. Comparison of Long Term Tropospheric Ozone Trends Measured by Lidar and ECC Ozonesondes from 1991 to 2010 in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, G.; Gaudel, A.; Godin-Beekmann, S.

    2016-06-01

    ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) ozonesondes and UV DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) measurements have been carried out simultaneously at OHP (Observatoire de Haute Provence, 44°N, 6.7°E, 690 m) since 1991. A unique long-term trend assessment by two different instruments operated routinely at the same location is possible. Air mass trajectories have been calculated for all the ozone observations available at OHP. The bias between the seasonal mean calculated with lidar and ECC ozone vertical profiles for 4 timeperiods of 5 years is 0.6 ppbv in the free troposphere (4-8 km). Larger differences (> 10 ppbv) are explained by the need for clear sky conditions during lidar observations. The measurements of both instruments have been combined to decrease the impact of short-term atmospheric variability on the trend estimate.

  18. Robust ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme with privacy protection for Telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zhu, Shaohui

    2015-05-01

    To protect the transmission of the sensitive medical data, a secure and efficient authenticated key agreement scheme should be deployed when the healthcare delivery session is established via Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMIS) over the unsecure public network. Recently, Islam and Khan proposed an authenticated key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptography for TMIS. They claimed that their proposed scheme is provably secure against various attacks in random oracle model and enjoys some good properties such as user anonymity. In this paper, however, we point out that any legal but malicious patient can reveal other user's identity. Consequently, their scheme suffers from server spoofing attack and off-line password guessing attack. Moreover, if the malicious patient performs the same time of the registration as other users, she can further launch the impersonation attack, man-in-the-middle attack, modification attack, replay attack, and strong replay attack successfully. To eliminate these weaknesses, we propose an improved ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme. Security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can resist various attacks and enables the patient to enjoy the remote healthcare services with privacy protection. Through the performance evaluation, we show that the proposed scheme achieves a desired balance between security and performance in comparisons with other related schemes. PMID:25732081

  19. Estimated net value and uncertainty for automating ECCS switchover at PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, B.; Brideau, J.; Comes, L.; Darby, J.; Guttmann, H.; Sciacca, F.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.; Zigler, G.

    1996-02-01

    Question for resolution of Generic Safety Issue No. 24 is whether or not PWRs that currently rely on a manual system for ECCS switchover to recirculation should be required to install an automatic system. Risk estimates are obtained by reevaluating the contributions to core damage frequencies (CDFs) associated with failures of manual and semiautomatic switchover at a representative PWR. This study considers each separate instruction of the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs), the mechanism for each control, and the relation of each control to its neighbors. Important contributions to CDF include human errors that result in completely coupled failure of both trains and failure to enter the required EOP. It is found that changeover to a semiautomatic system is not justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis: going from a manual to a semiautomatic system reduces the CDF by 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per reactor-year, but the probability that the net cost of the modification being less than $1, 000 per person-rem is about 20% without license renewal. Scoping analyses, using optimist assumptions, were performed for a changeover to a semiautomatic system with automatic actuation and to a fully automatic system; in these cases the probability of a net cost being less than $1,000/person-rem is about 50% without license renewal and over 95% with license renewal.

  20. ECC ozonesonde observations at Point Barrow, Alaska during January 16-April 19, 1989. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Wendell, J.; Lathrop, J.A.

    1991-03-01

    Measurements of the vertical distribution of ozone and air temperature were made with ECC ozonesondes January 16-April 19, 1989, at Point Barrow, Alaska, in an attempt to detect whether the stratospheric ozone depletion that occurs during the austral winter and spring in Antarctica also occurs during the winter and spring in the Arctic. Of 33 soundings made, 17 measured total ozone amounts of 400-531 Dobson units (DU), 13 measured 350-399 DU total ozone, and 1 measured 304 DU total ozone. (Two soundings did not attain high enough altitudes for estimates of total ozone to be made.) In contrast, total ozone amounts in winter and spring in Antarctica in recent years have ranged from about 125 to 275 DU. Stratospheric air temperatures over Point Barrow were never colder than -70 C and were often as warm as -50 C. No unequivocal evidence of photochemical ozone destruction such as that which occurs in Antarctica in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds appears on the ozone profiles presented here. Neither is there any evidence in the profiles of stratospheric transport to Point Barrow of partially depleted ozone from the eastern Arctic.

  1. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  2. Intratumor photosensitizer injection for photodynamic therapy: Pre-clinical experience with methylene blue, Pc 4, and Photofrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Timothy M.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2016-03-01

    Intravenous administration of some photosensitizers, including the FDA-approved Photofrin, results in significant systemic photosensitivity and a 2-3-day drug-light interval. Direct intratumor injection of photosensitizer could potentially eliminate these negative aspects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), while requiring a lower photosensitizer dose to achieve comparable drug concentration in the target tissue. We performed PDT using intratumor injection of 3 photosensitizers, methylene blue (MB), Pc 4, and Photofrin, in mouse tumor models. After a 0-15 minute drug-light interval, illumination was delivered by appropriate diode lasers. For animals receiving MB or Pc 4, surface illumination was delivered using a microlens-terminated fiber. For animals receiving Photofrin, interstitial illumination was delivered by a 1 cm diffuser. In animals receiving MB or Pc 4, tumor dimensions were measured daily post-PDT, with a cure being defined as no palpable tumor 90 days post-treatment. For Photofrin, animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-PDT and tumors were excised, with samples HE stained to assess PDT-induced necrosis. 55% of tumors were cured with MB-PDT, and significant tumor growth delay (p=0.002) was observed for Pc 4. For Photofrin PDT, the mean necrosis radius was 3.4+/-0.8 mm, compared to 2.9+/-1.3 mm for systemic administration, which was not a significant difference (p=0.58). Intratumoral injection of the photosensitizers methylene blue, Pc 4, and Photofrin is feasible, and results in appreciable tumor response. Further investigation is necessary to optimize treatment protocols and assess the systemic photosensitivity induced by intratumor injection.

  3. U.S. Drug Use and Migration experiences of Mexican Female Sex Workers who are injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Burgos, José Luis; Rangel, María Gudelia; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe U.S.-based drug/sex behaviors and correlates of lifetime U.S. drug use by Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs). Methods Between 2008–2010, 315 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. Results Twenty-seven percent (n=85) of FSW-IDUs were U.S. migrants; of these, 46% (n=39) were deportees. One-half of U.S.-migrant FSW-IDUs consumed illicit drugs in the U.S., and two-thirds of these injected drugs in the U.S. Among U.S. injectors, over 75% ever received or shared used injection equipment. The majority (92%) of U.S.-migrant FSW-IDUs never obtained U.S. drug treatment services. HIV prevalence was 4% among U.S.-migrant and 5% among non-U.S. migrant FSW-IDUs; 100% of U.S.-migrant and 75% of non-U.S. migrant FSW-IDUs were unaware of their HIV status. Conclusions Binational coordination to improve access to substance use treatment and HIV testing services in Mexico and the U.S. among marginalized binational migrants may be critical to containing HIV transmission. PMID:23698687

  4. Simulation of injector dynamics during steady inductive helicity injection current drive in the HIT-SI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Marklin, G.; Victor, B.; Akcay, C.; Jarboe, T.

    2015-04-15

    We present simulations of inductive helicity injection in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) device that treats the entire plasma volume in a single dynamic MHD model. A new fully 3D numerical tool, the PSI-center TETrahedral mesh code, was developed that provides the geometric flexibility required for this investigation. Implementation of a zero-β Hall MHD model using PSI-TET will be presented including formulation of a new self-consistent magnetic boundary condition for the wall of the HIT-SI device. Results from simulations of HIT-SI are presented focusing on injector dynamics that are investigated numerically for the first time. Asymmetries in the plasma loading between the two helicity injectors and progression of field reversal in each injector are observed. Analysis indicates cross-coupling between injectors through confinement volume structures. Injector impedance is found to scale with toroidal current at fixed density, consistent with experimental observation. Comparison to experimental data with an injector drive frequency of 14.5 kHz shows good agreement with magnetic diagnostics. Global mode structures from Bi-Orthogonal decomposition agree well with experimental data for the first four modes.

  5. Managing la malilla: Exploring drug treatment experiences among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico, and their implications for drug law reform

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer; Pollini, Robin A.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In August 2009, Mexico reformed its drug laws and decriminalized small quantities of drugs for personal use; offenders caught three times will be mandated to enter drug treatment. However, little is known about the quality or effectiveness of drug treatment programs in Mexico. We examined injection drug users’ (IDUs) experiences in drug treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, with the goal of informing program planning and policy. Methods We examined qualitative and quantitative data from Proyecto El Cuete, a multi-phased research study on HIV risk among IDUs in Tijuana. Phase I consisted of 20 in-depth interviews and Phase II employed respondent-driven sampling to recruit 222 IDUs for a quantitative survey. We also reviewed national drug policy documents, surveillance data, and media reports to situate drug users’ experiences within the broader sociopolitical context. Results Participants in the qualitative study were 50% male with a mean age of 32; most injected heroin (85.0%) and methamphetamine (60.0%). The quantitative sample was 91.4% male with a mean age of 35; 98.2% injected heroin and 83.7% injected heroin and methamphetamine together. The majority of participants reported receiving treatment: residential treatment was most common, followed by methadone; other types of services were infrequently reported. Participants’ perceptions of program acceptability and effectiveness were mixed. Mistreatment emerged as a theme in the qualitative interviews and was reported by 21.6% of Phase II participants, primarily physical (72.0%) and verbal (52.0%) abuse. Conclusions Our results point to the need for political, economic, and social investment in the drug treatment system before offenders are sentenced to treatment under the revised national drug law. Resources are needed to strengthen program quality and ensure accountability. The public health impact of the new legislation that attempts to bring drug treatment to the forefront of national drug policy

  6. Laboratory experiments and numerical modelling of CO2-rich brine injection through sandstone samples: Role of flow rate, brine composition, mixing and spreading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.; soler Sagarra, J.; Saaltink, M.; Martinez-Perez, L.; Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Heletz structure has been selected as a test site for a prospective CO2 reservoir and for the MUSTANG European project injection experiment based on the analysis of the available geological, geophysical and borehole data from various areas of Israel. The Heletz area is located in the Southern part of the Mediterranean Coastal Plain, about 7 km from the sea shore. The target layer is composed of sandstone, has a thickness of around 20 meters and is located at a depth of 1500 m. Flow-through laboratory experiments of CO2-rich brine were realized to evaluate the chemical processes occurring in the Heletz site.
The Heletz sandstone rock is poorly consolidated and has a high porosity (around 23%) and connectivity. We performed four flow-through experiments at in situ storage conditions (T = 60ºC, P = 15 MPa, PCO2 =1.8 MPa). The flow rates injection were 0.05 and 0.30 mL.min-1. Two different brine solutions were used, both representative of the Heletz reservoir native water. The first one was a synthetic brine of the Heletz reservoir (closed to seawater). The second one was the first one equilibrated with gypsum. The results show an increase in permeability for all the percolation experiment whatever the flow rate and the brine solution. This is explained by the dissolution of ankerite, dolomite and feldspar. We observed that the permeability increase is higher and faster for high flow rate injection than for low flow rate. Precipitation of secondary phases is characterized such as gypsum during equilibrated-gypsum brine injection. Secondary clay minerals precipitation is also observed near feldspar dissolution. Modeling these experiments is a non-trivial task, as some chemical processes are local in space. Reactive transport models have been performed in order to understand and reproduce the observed processes. We have used a water mixing approach which uses the mass mixing fraction between mobile and/or immobile zones. The approach relies in the fact of not

  7. Using Optical Oxygen Sensors and Injection Experiments to Determine in situ Microbial Rate Constants for Methane Oxidation and Heterotrophic Respiration in a Boreal Bog and Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldo, N.; Moorberg, C.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Neumann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and play a key role in feedback cycles to climate change. In recognition of this, many researchers are developing process-based models of wetland methane emissions at various scales. In these models, the three key biogeochemical reactions are methane production, methane oxidation, and heterotrophic respiration, and they are modeled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The majority of Michaelis-Menten rate constants used in models are based on experiments involving slurries of peat incubated in vials. While these slurries provide a highly controlled setting, they are different from in situ conditions in multiple ways; notably they lack live plants and the centimeter-scale heterogeneities that exist in the field. To determine rate constants in a system more representative of in situ conditions, we extracted peat cores intact from a bog and fen located in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska and part of the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) research program. Into those cores we injected water with varying concentrations of methane and oxygen at multiple depths. We used planar oxygen sensors installed on the peat cores to collect high resolution, two dimensional oxygen concentration data during the injections and used oxygen consumption rates under various conditions to calculate rate constants. Results were compared to a similar but smaller set of injection experiments conducted against planar oxygen sensors installed in the bog. Results will inform parametrization of microbial processes in wetland models, improving estimates of methane emissions both under current climate conditions and in the future.

  8. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L.

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Use of Candida antigen injections for the treatment of verruca vulgaris: A two-year mayo clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Griffin, John R; Newman, Catherine C

    2016-08-01

    Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are one of the most common problems encountered in dermatology and may present a difficult treatment dilemma, as no particular therapy has demonstrated complete efficacy. Intralesional injection of purified Candida antigen has produced impressive treatment results in small prospective and retrospective studies and is thought to produce its effect through stimulation of a cell-mediated immune response. We report a retrospective study of adult and pediatric patients treated with Candida antigen therapy in clinical practice. Of the 100 patients treated, 80% responded to therapy: 39% demonstrated a complete response and 41% demonstrated a partial response. In addition, 6 out of 7 immunocompromised patients who were treated demonstrated a partial or complete response. Injections were generally well-tolerated and adverse events were minimal and short-lived. Our data indicate that intralesional Candida antigen therapy for cutaneous warts is an efficacious option in a clinical practice setting. The treatment may also be effective in immunosuppressed patients with cutaneous warts. Our results add to the literature one of the largest retrospective series reported to date and treatment outcomes are similar to previously reported studies evaluating this therapeutic modality. PMID:26558635

  10. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. If you experience a severe reaction, ...