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1

[Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

2010-07-01

2

Chemical composition of rain water and influence of airmass trajectories at a rural site in an ecological sensitive area of Western Ghats (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of rain water were collected during monsoon season (June to September) of 2006 and 2007 at Hudegadde, a rural site\\u000a located in an ecological sensitive area of Western Ghats. The collected samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity and major\\u000a ions. At this site, rainwater pH varied from 4.20 to 7.39 with 5.65 as volume weighed mean. The observed mean

Jetta Satyanarayana; Loka Arun Kumar Reddy; Monika Jain Kulshrestha; R Nageswara Rao; Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha

3

[Ecological sensitivity of jingnanxia-heishanxia reach of Yellow River].  

PubMed

Aiming at the ecological problems such as soil erosion, desertification, and salinization in the Jingnanxia-Heishanxia reach of Yellow River, the single-factorial ecological problem's sensitivity and the comprehensive ecological sensitivity of the reach were analyzed by GIS spatial analysis, grid computing and superposition, and RS image feature extraction. The results showed that the regions with medium- and high ecological sensitivities almost covered the whole study area, including the Wufo Town of Jingtai County, the Beiwan Town, Wulan Town, Mitan Town, Dongwan Town, and Santan Town of Jingyuan County, and the area between Doucheng and Hongliutan of Pingchuan District. The high, medium, and low sensitive areas should be accordingly programmed as forbidden, medium, and deep constructing areas. During the development process of regional hydropower, effective measures should be adopted to protect the ecological environment to achieve the sustainable development of the drainage area. PMID:19449574

Liu, Yao-long; Wang, Jun; Xu, Shi-yuan; Xie, Cui-na; Chen, Jing-jing; Ye, Ming-wu

2009-01-01

4

100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

1993-09-01

5

Allergic sensitization and diet: ecological analysis in selected European cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic sensitization and diet: ecological analysis in selected European cities. J. Heinrich, B. Holscher, G. Bolte, G. Winkler. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that the prevalence of atopic diseases and their increase over time are associated with regional differences in diet and trends. The results of an ecological correlation study comparing the mean daily intake of

J. Heinrich; B. Hölscher; G. Bolte; G. Winkler

2001-01-01

6

[Ecological quality of Beijing urban area from 1996 to 2005].  

PubMed

From the aspects of four ecological themes, i.e., ecological element, ecological process, ecological function and ecological destruction, an indicator framework including 16 indicators was developed to make an integrated assessment on the ecological quality of Beijing urban area. The weights of the indicators were determined by the methods of entropy weight, optimal state weight, and worst state weight, and the ecological element index (EEI), ecological process index (EPI), ecological function index (EFI), ecological destruction index (EDI), and composite ecological index (CEI) were computed by a weighted sum method and served as effective tools for analyzing the evolvement of the ecological quality of Beijing urban area from 1996 to 2005. The results showed that during the period of 1996-2005, the EEI of Beijing urban area did not display visible improvement and maintained a low level, far from the ideal state. The EPI and EFI increased dramatically, and approached to the ideal state in 2005. The EDI fluctuated within a low level, far from ideal state, and did not show an evolutionary trend. The CEI improved year after year, but was still low and did not reach the ideal state. The EPI, EFI, and CEI increased rapidly with economic development when the GDP per capita was less than US $ 3,000, but the decrease was decelerated after the GDP exceeded US $ 3,000. The EEI and EDI were less affected by economic development, but mainly restrained by the natural conditions and global and regional eco-environmental evolvement. PMID:18593048

Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-hua; Wang, Xiao-ke

2008-04-01

7

Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.  

PubMed

Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects. PMID:17555212

Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

2007-06-01

8

Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains we...

Qin Suyun Zhou Caiyun Zhou Zirong Chen Wenying Zhen Zhijiang

1995-01-01

9

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal\\u000a mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the\\u000a whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened

Ma Xi-jun; Lu Zhao-hua; Cheng Jian-long

2008-01-01

10

Ecological science and the management of protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to survey a few among many ecological principles that are particularly relevant to the management of protected areas. Various aspects of the relation between area of protected habitat and numbers of constituent species preserved are discussed, with emphasis of edge effects and other factors. Particular attention is given to those species which persist via local extinctions and

Robert M. May

1994-01-01

11

Ecological niche modelling and prioritizing areas for species reintroductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species reintroduction programmes, in prior- itizing areas for reintroductions, have traditionally used tools that include measures of habitat suitability and evaluations of area requirements for viable populations. Here we add two tools to this approach: evaluation of ecological requirements of species and evaluation of future suitability for species facing changing climates. We demonstrate this approach with two species for which

Enrique Martínez-Meyer; A. Townsend Peterson; Jorge I. Servín; Lloyd F. Kiff

2006-01-01

12

Ecological problems of oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, the Republic of Azerbaijan is undergoing a historical period of social, economical and political changes. These reforms are bringing about problems that require immediate solutions. The pivotal point of the reforms taking place in Azerbaijan is the closure of agreements with foreign companies who are contracted for oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea region. The ecological sensitivity of this

I. M Efendiyeva

2000-01-01

13

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

1994-06-01

14

A case for conserving imperiled plants by ecological area  

Treesearch

This would help (a) safeguard plant populations of evolutionary significance; (b) maintain ... A focus on ecological areas would broaden modem conservation practice, ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ... top, Disclaimers | FOIA | Privacy Policy | Quality of Information | Print This Page.

15

[Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].  

PubMed

In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area. PMID:24066564

Quan, Zhan-Jun; Li, Yuan; Li, Jun-Sheng; Han, Yu; Xiao, Neng-Wen; Fu, Meng-Di

2013-06-01

16

The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water

O. Starry

2005-01-01

17

Ecological assessment plan for Waste Area Grouping 5  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping (WAG)5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contains 13 solid waste management units (SWMUs) covering a surface area of {approx}20 ha in Melton Valley south of the main plant area. The largest SWMUs are Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 and SWSA 5 North. These two SWMUs also contain most of the radioactive contamination. WAG 5 contains two surface impoundments and two intermittent streams; runoff from WAG 5 enters White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. Principal contaminants include fission-product radionuclides and transuranic elements, but trace metals and some organics may also be present. This document describes the ecological assessment that will perform to determine the ecological effects of contamination from WAG 5. This document also supports the baseline risk assessment and subsequent alternatives evaluations for WAG 5. Three specific tasks are incorporated in the WAG 5 ecological assessment: (1) threatened and endangered species surveys, (2) ambient toxicity tests of seeps, stream reaches, and soil that are identified as being contaminant sources, and (3) sampling of wildlife (specifically wild turkeys) that could potentially transfer contaminants from WAG 5 to humans.

Ashwood, T.L.

1992-04-01

18

Sensitivity Analysis of Limited Area Ocean Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The boundary data for a data assimilation problem for a limited-area ocean model can either be supplied by its global model or from observations interpolated from a conventional observing network. In this study, the sensitivity of the ocean model to varia...

D. K. Kamara

2002-01-01

19

Disentangling sampling and ecological explanations underlying species-area relationships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a probabilistic approach to address the influence of sampling artifacts on the form of species-area relationships (SARs). We developed a model in which the increase in observed species richness is a function of sampling effort exclusively. We assumed that effort depends on area sampled, and we generated species-area curves under that model. These curves can be realistic looking. We then generated SARs from avian data, comparing SARs based on counts with those based on richness estimates. We used an approach to estimation of species richness that accounts for species detection probability and, hence, for variation in sampling effort. The slopes of SARs based on counts are steeper than those of curves based on estimates of richness, indicating that the former partly reflect failure to account for species detection probability. SARs based on estimates reflect ecological processes exclusively, not sampling processes. This approach permits investigation of ecologically relevant hypotheses. The slope of SARs is not influenced by the slope of the relationship between habitat diversity and area. In situations in which not all of the species are detected during sampling sessions, approaches to estimation of species richness integrating species detection probability should be used to investigate the rate of increase in species richness with area.

Cam, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Alpizar-Jara, R.; Flather, C.H.

2002-01-01

20

The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

Starry, O.

2005-05-01

21

Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: Issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has two objectives. The first is to provide a culturally sensitive perspective to treatment outcome research as a resource to augment the ecological validity of treatment research. The relationships between external validity, ecological validity, and culturally sensitive research are reviewed. The second objective is to present a preliminary framework for culturally sensitive interventions that strengthen ecological validity for

Guillermo Bernal; Janet Bonilla; Carmen Bellido I

1995-01-01

22

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area A Appendix A to Part 404 Wildlife...Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area...

2009-10-01

23

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area A Appendix A to Part 404 Wildlife...Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area...

2010-10-01

24

Radiation sensitive area detection device and method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

1991-06-01

25

[Ecology of Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. I. First survey in different ecological areas].  

PubMed

The stomoxyine flies are hematophagous diptera and potential vectors of various pathogenic agents. Like those of the Afrotropical Region, the stomoxyine flies of Gabon remain nearly unknown. For these reasons, an entomological survey was conducted in a transverse way in eight localities representative of the various ecological zones of Gabon. The survey was based on the use of Vavoua traps. Various environmental factors able to influence the captures were noticed and included into a canonical correspondence analysis. In total, 15,966 Stomoxys spp., belonging to seven species or subspecies, were captured. The apparent densities (DAP) expressed as the number of flies per trap and per day, were highest in Franceville (41), Bakoumba (40), Makokou (25) and Mouila (21). The most abundant species were S. n niger (33.4%), S. transvittatus (33%), then S. calcitrans (17%). The principal factors that could explain the variability of the captures were the degree of anthropisation, the botanical facies (savanna or forest), the presence of wild and domestic fauna and the nature of the vegetal cover of the ground. S. calcitrans, S. niger niger were abundant in the areas where human presence was manifest. S. xanthomelas was present in forest belts. S. transvittatus, S. omega, S. inornatus were ubiquitous species. S. niger bilineatus was found in savannas areas. PMID:18416244

Mavoungou, J F; Jay-Robert, P; Gilles, J; Atsame, Edda A; Duvallet, G

2008-03-01

26

Ethnic-Sensitive Social Work Practice: An Integrated, Ecological, and Psychodynamic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a model that proposes multipronged approaches to the development of ethnic-sensitive social work practice and curriculum. Focuses on the integration of ecological and social systems theory, cultural sensitivity, and a psychodynamic orientation to the client's identity and values. (SV)|

Haynes, Alphonso W.; Singh, Ram N.

1992-01-01

27

Application of ecological vulnerability evaluation into environmental impact assessment of Fuxin mining area development master plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a super country in coal resources exploitation and utilization, China encounters ecological environment problems resulting from large-scale coal mining coupled with rapid economic development that have become increasingly serious such that they directly threaten regional ecological security and people's normal production and livelihood in some areas. How to formulate and implement an eco-friendly development plan is the key to

Xueqin Liao; Wei Li; Jinxiang Hou

2011-01-01

28

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy

C. C. Trettin; V. R. Tolbert; A. T. Jones; C. R. Smith; A. J. Kalmijn

1994-01-01

29

Process level sensitivity analysis for complex ecological models  

Microsoft Academic Search

I propose a methodology of sensitivity analysis applicable to complex process-based models. In application and discussion of this methodology, a model is conceived as a mechanism that is composed by multiple interacting processes. In this approach, model structure is explicitly investigated by analyzing the relationship that exists between process interactions and the emergent properties of the model. The methodology focuses

Marcela Brugnach

2005-01-01

30

Ecological Research at the Goosenest Adaptive Management Area in Northeastern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the establishment of an interdisciplinary, large-scale ecological research project on the Goosenest Adaptive Management Area of the Klamath National Forest in northeastern California. This project is a companion to the Blacks Mountain...

M. W. Ritchie

2005-01-01

31

Riparian Ecological Types: Gifford Pinchot and Mt. Hood National Forests Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In landscape ecology terms, riparian areas are zones of interaction between surface water and the surrounding uplands or hillslopes. Like the chicken and the egg, the kind, frequency and intensity of interactions that occur are both result and causative a...

N. M. Diaz T. K. Mellen

1996-01-01

32

Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the Continental United States.  

PubMed

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future. PMID:23372754

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K; Gergely, Kevin J; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J Michael

2013-01-23

33

Misspecification of within-area exposure distribution in ecological Poisson models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies enable investigation of geographic variations in exposure to environmental variables, across groups, in\\u000a relation to health outcomes measured on a geographic scale. Such studies are subject to ecological biases, including pure\\u000a specification bias which arises when a nonlinear individual exposure-risk model is assumed to apply at the area level. Introduction\\u000a of the within-area variance of exposure should induce

Léa Fortunato; Chantal Guihenneuc-Jouyaux; Margot Tirmarche; Dominique Laurier; Denis Hémon

2009-01-01

34

What Is Missing in Amphibian Decline Research: Insights from Ecological Sensitivity Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inventory, monitoring, and experimental studies have been the primary approaches for document- ing and understanding the problem of amphibian declines. However, little attention has been given to plac- ing human-caused perturbations affecting one or more life-history stages in the context of the overall popula- tion dynamics of particular species. We used two types of ecological sensitivity analysis to determine which

Roman Biek; W. Chris Funk; Bryce A. Maxell; L. Scott Mills

2002-01-01

35

Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

2012-11-01

36

Does land use under ecological constraints emerge a compensation between urban and rural areas? Some explorative considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural areas are characterised in terms of land use by spatially ecological potentials whereas urban areas concentrate the land use on economic activities with higher productivity neglecting the local spatially relevant ecological potentials. This common view seems to be deepened on the background of an increasing demand for restrictions in land use in order to maintain the ecological potentials under

Thiemo W. Eser; Regina Gaitsch

37

Effect of ecological compensation areas on floristic and breeding bird diversity in Swiss agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s the Swiss agricultural policy was reformed and new environmental objectives were formulated. The aims of the reform were to halt the loss of agro-biodiversity and to enable the spread of endangered species. As a result, the utilised agricultural area (UAA) is now interspersed with low input ecological compensation areas (ECA), making up 13% of the UAA (extensified

F. Herzog; S. Dreier; G. Hofer; C. Marfurt; B. Schüpbach; M. Spiess; T. Walter

2005-01-01

38

Ecological research at the Goosenest Adaptive Management Area in ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... One of the primary goals of the Goosenest Adaptive Management Area was to investigate means of accelerating the development ... The experimental design features four treatments, each replicated five times.

39

Ecological Impacts of Seabuckthorn in the Pisha Sandstone Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is an area of more than 11,000 km2 in northwest China which is covered by Pisha Sandstone, a kind of loosely bonded sandstone which was formed during the Tertiary\\u000a period. The sandstone is hard when it is dry and easily changes into sand when wet. The area has a very high erosion rate\\u000a (over 20,000 t\\/km2·yr) and very poor

Kang Zhang; Mengzhen Xu; Zhaoyin Wang; Xuehua Duan; Cifen Bi

40

Area-heterogeneity tradeoff and the diversity of ecological communities  

PubMed Central

For more than 50 y ecologists have believed that spatial heterogeneity in habitat conditions promotes species richness by increasing opportunities for niche partitioning. However, a recent stochastic model combining the main elements of niche theory and island biogeography theory suggests that environmental heterogeneity has a general unimodal rather than a positive effect on species richness. This result was explained by an inherent tradeoff between environmental heterogeneity and the amount of suitable area available for individual species: for a given area, as heterogeneity increases, the amount of effective area available for individual species decreases, thereby reducing population sizes and increasing the likelihood of stochastic extinctions. Here we provide a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis. First we analyze an extensive database of breeding bird distribution in Catalonia and show that patterns of species richness, species abundance, and extinction rates are consistent with the predictions of the area–heterogeneity tradeoff and its proposed mechanisms. We then perform a metaanalysis of heterogeneity–diversity relationships in 54 published datasets and show that empirical data better fit the unimodal pattern predicted by the area–heterogeneity tradeoff than the positive pattern predicted by classic niche theory. Simulations in which species may have variable niche widths along a continuous environmental gradient are consistent with all empirical findings. The area–heterogeneity tradeoff brings a unique perspective to current theories of species diversity and has important implications for biodiversity conservation.

Allouche, Omri; Kalyuzhny, Michael; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio; Pizarro, Manuel; Kadmon, Ronen

2012-01-01

41

The ecological effectiveness of protected areas: The United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the importance placed on protected areas, determining their effectiveness in representing and maintaining biodiversity is a core issue in conservation biology. Nonetheless, frameworks identifying the breadth of issues associated with this effectiveness, and case studies of how well these are understood in particular regions, remain lacking. In this paper, we provide such a framework and an overview of the

Kevin J. Gaston; Kevin Charman; Sarah F. Jackson; Paul R. Armsworth; Aletta Bonn; Robert A. Briers; Claire S. Q. Callaghan; Roger Catchpole; John Hopkins; William E. Kunin; Jim Latham; Paul Opdam; Rob Stoneman; David A. Stroud; Ros Tratt

2006-01-01

42

Using Ecological Null Models to Assess the Potential for Marine Protected Area Networks to Protect Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected area (MPA) networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of

Brice X. Semmens; Peter J. Auster; Michelle J. Paddack; Stuart A. Sandin

2010-01-01

43

Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

Esser, Robert

44

Ecological Analysis of Early Adolescents' Stress Responses to 9\\/11 in the Washington, DC, Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses an ecological perspective to explore the unique associations of maternal personal characteristics, parenting behaviors, and adolescents' own characteristics to posttraumatic distress and symptoms of arousal, avoidance, and intrusions, in 97 early adolescents and mothers from the Washington, DC, area to the events of September 11, 2001. Maternal characteristics and\\/or adolescents' perceptions of parenting behaviors were uniquely related

Charlene Hendricks; Marc H. Bornstein

2007-01-01

45

Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

46

The ecological imbalance of forest areas in eastern liaoning province and recommended measures for redressing it  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the ecological imbalance of forest areas in a Chinese province and recommended measures for correcting it. Topics considered include the characteristics of forests in the eastern forest region, and the deterioration of the ecological environment through natural disasters. Soil erosion is increasing while the interval between drought and waterlogging disasters has shortened. Recommendations to restore the ecological balance to the Liaoning forest include a general program for the building of production that includes the combination of farming, forestry, and animal husbandry, and economic diversification; the strengthening of the management of collective forests; surveys to measure the conservation of water resources; cutbacks on amount of timber felled; readjustment of proportions of tree species; reorganization of existing commune and brigade timber processing plants; intensification of forest protection and fire prevention, and of disease and insect pest prevention and control work; and halting the waste of timber. Includes 2 tables.

Lu Jing

1983-08-01

47

Disparity Sensitivity of Neurons in Monkey Extrastriate Area MST  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the disparity sensitivity of neurons from the me- dial superior temporal area (MST) in awake behaving mon- keys. While the monkey looked at a fixation spot on a screen in front of it, random dot stimuli moved in the preferred di- rection of the cell under study, and the disparity of the dots made the stimuli appear to

Jean-Pierre Roy; Hidehiko Komatsu; Robert H. Wurtzi

1992-01-01

48

Distribution of environmentally sensitive elements in residential soils near a coal-fired power plant: Potential risks to ecology and children's health.  

PubMed

One hundred and twelve soil samples were collected from residential areas surrounding a coal-fired power plant at Huainan City, Anhui Province, China. The concentrations of environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in soil samples were determined, and their potential ecological and health risks were assessed. Mean concentrations of ESEs in the downwind soils of the power plant are relatively higher than those in the upwind soils, pointing to a potential ESEs input from coal combustion. The calculated ecological risk of ESEs in soils indicates a relatively low ecological risk. Hazard quotient (HQ) of ESEs in downwind soils is 1.5, suggesting a potential health risk for children. However, the carcinogenic risk values of ESEs in soils are within the acceptable non-hazardous range of 1E-06-1E-04. PMID:24091246

Tang, Quan; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Ruoyu

2013-09-30

49

Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics.  

PubMed

This article has two objectives. The first is to provide a culturally sensitive perspective to treatment outcome research as a resource to augment the ecological validity of treatment research. The relationships between external validity, ecological validity, and culturally sensitive research are reviewed. The second objective is to present a preliminary framework for culturally sensitive interventions that strengthen ecological validity for treatment outcome research. The framework, consisting of eight dimensions of treatment interventions (language, persons, metaphors, content, concepts, goals, methods, and context) can serve as a guide for developing culturally sensitive treatments and adapting existing psychosocial treatments to specific ethnic minority groups. Examples of culturally sensitive elements for each dimension of the intervention are offered. Although the focus of the article is on Hispanic populations, the framework may be valuable to other ethnic and minority groups. PMID:7759675

Bernal, G; Bonilla, J; Bellido, C

1995-02-01

50

Ecologic and Sociodemographic Risk Determinants for Dengue Transmission in Urban Areas in Thailand  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the association between household-level ecologic and individual-level sociodemographic determinants and dengue transmission in urban areas of Chachoengsao province, Thailand. The ecologic and sociodemographic variables were examined by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. In the ecologic model, dengue risk was related to households situated in the ecotope of residential mixed with commercial and densely populated urban residential areas (RCDENPURA) (aOR?=?2.23, P = 0.009), high historical dengue risk area (aOR?=?2.06, P < 0.001), and presence of household window screens (aOR?=?1.62, P = 0.023). In the sociodemographic model, the dengue risk was related to householders aged >45 years (aOR?=?3.24, P = 0.003), secondary and higher educational degrees (aOR?=?2.33, P = 0.013), household members >4 persons (aOR?=?2.01, P = 0.02), and community effort in environmental management by clean-up campaign (aOR?=?1.91, P = 0.035). It is possible that the preventive measures were positively correlated with dengue risk because these activities were generally carried out in particular households or communities following dengue experiences or dengue outbreaks. Interestingly, the ecotope of RCDENPURA and high historical dengue risk area appeared to be very good predictors of dengue incidences.

Koyadun, Surachart; Butraporn, Piyarat; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

2012-01-01

51

[Fuzzy decision system for ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area].  

PubMed

The fuzzy decision system for ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area was established by using the data of mean extreme low temperature, accumulated active temperature (> or = 12.5 degrees C), mean temperature in coldest month, annual mean temperature integrated with annual precipitation, days with mean extreme low temperature below -9 degrees C, physiognomy, elevation, inland water body, cold air barrier, and soil nutrition and pH value. The complex reasoning model with imprecision was used in the decision system by introduction of L-R fuzzy number and recognition formula, which made the decision system have a wide range of application in practice. An example of applying the decision system was tested in Anhui province. The result showed that the development of the decision system would provide a useful tool for the decision of the ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area. PMID:12920889

Zhu, Liwu; Li, Shaowen; Kong, Juanjuan; Jia, Bing

2003-04-01

52

Towards ecological goals for the heavily modified lakes in the IJsselmeer area, The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) obliges EU member states to define ecological goals for water bodies and, if\\u000a necessary, to take measures to achieve these goals by 2015. The goals and measures for the water bodies in the IJsselmeer\\u000a area of The Netherlands are elaborated in this study, following an approach described by Irmer & Pollard (2006, Alternative\\u000a methodology

Eddy Lammens; Francien van Luijn; Yolanda Wessels; Harry Bouwhuis; Ruurd Noordhuis; Rob Portielje; Diederik van der Molen

2008-01-01

53

Towards ecological goals for the heavily modified lakes in the IJsselmeer area, The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) obliges EU member states to define ecological goals for water bodies and, if\\u000a necessary, to take measures to achieve these goals by 2015. The goals and measures for the water bodies in the IJsselmeer\\u000a area of The Netherlands are elaborated in this study, following an approach described by Irmer & Pollard (2006, Alternative\\u000a methodology

Eddy Lammens; Francien van Luijn; Yolanda Wessels; Harry Bouwhuis; Ruurd Noordhuis; Rob Portielje; Diederik Molen

54

Epidemiological evaluation of breast cancer in ecological areas of Kazakhstan--association with pollution emissions.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer in the ecological areas of Kazakhstan and assess the potential . A retrospective study of 11 years (1999 to 2009) was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. The incidence of breast cancer was the lowest in the Aral-Syr Darya area (18.6±0.80/100,000), and highest in the Irtysh area (48.9±1.90/100,000), with an increasing trends over time in almost all areas. A direct strong correlation between the degree of contamination with high pollution emissions in the atmosphere from stationary sources and the incidence of breast cancer (r=0.77±0.15; p=0.026). The results indicate an increasing importance of breast cancer in Kazakhstan and an etiological role for environmental pollution. PMID:22901219

Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinov, Nurbek; Moore, Malcolm; Igissinov, Saginbek; Sarsenova, Samal; Khassenova, Zauresh

2012-01-01

55

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

56

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

57

Retrofitting SBR systems to nutrient removal in sensitive tourist areas.  

PubMed

Retrofitting of existing SBR systems for nutrient removal is evaluated and defined for small communities in sensitive coastal areas, with seasonal fluctuations in wastewater quantity and quality. The proposed approach is developed by means of basic process stoichiometry and verified using ASM2d. The efficiency of retrofitting is found to rely on the delicate balance between the overall sludge age, the initial settled sludge volume in the reactor, and the ratio of the initial volume to the feed volume in each cycle, a parameter corresponding to the recycle ratio in continuous systems. PMID:11496662

Tasli, R; Artan, N; Orhon, D

2001-01-01

58

Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about measuring the effectiveness of conserving biological diversity within protected areas. Managers of protected areas are under increasing pressure to measure their effectiveness in conserving native biological diversity in ways that are scientifically sound, practical, and comparable among protected areas over time. The Nature Conservancy and its partners have developed a "Measures of Success" framework with four core components: (1) identifying a limited number of focal conservation targets, (2) identifying key ecological attributes for these targets, (3) identifying an acceptable range of variation for each attribute as measured by properly selected indicators, and (4) rating target status based on whether or not the target's key attributes are within their acceptable ranges of variation. A target cannot be considered "conserved" if any of its key ecological attributes exceeds its acceptable range of variation. The framework provides a rigorous basis not only for measuring success but for setting conservation objectives, assessing threats to biodiversity, identifying monitoring and research needs, and communicating management information to nonspecialists.

JEFFREY D. PARRISH, DAVID P. BRAUN, and ROBERT S. UNNASCH (;)

2003-09-01

59

Assessment of Ecological and Seismological Situations In The Geothermal Area of Tbilisi By Hydrodynamic Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to the investigation of the hydrodynamic regime of deep aquifers of the Tbilisi hydrothermal area, in order to delineate the spatial distribution of ther- mal water basins and to understand recorded anomalies quantitatively. Thermal min- eral waters or "sulphur springs" of Tbilisi have been of particular importance for its population during the 1,5 thousand years history of Tbilisi. Water of these springs is hot (40-50 C) and somewhat sulphurous: contain sulphuretted hydrogen and it is used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. The water resort is based on them. Hot natural springs are connected to the exposed sediments of middle Eocene in the river Mtkvari gorge. The water-bearing complex of volcanic type of middle Eocene is abundant at the Tbilisi thermal fields. Through drilling in the North - West part of the city (Lisi dis- trict), several boreholes were opened, where the sulphurous thermal water of 60-70 oC has been encountered. This water is used for room heating. Drilling will be continued for providing the city with hot water. It is planned to warm 30-40 % of the whole Tbil- isi using the geothermal water circulation system. From west to east, these deposits are buried under younger rocks. 20-30 km far from the deposit, oil has been found in an anticline structure. Intensive exploitation of this oil deposit caused the perturbation of the hydraulic regime with consequences in its central part where the thermal springs partly faded out in the eighties. Until present, the hydrodynamical interdependence be- tween these 3 districts has been studied by various authors, but its true character is still unclear. The spatial extent of the thermal waters has also to be investigated. Without detailed research, the sustainable and ecologically correct use of the thermal reservoir is impossible. In the period from July 1999 to July 2001 the monitoring network of water level in boreholes (WLB) and microtemperatures was operating on three wells: Botanical Garden (B.G.), Lisi (L.) and Varketili (V.). It is evident that the regime of natural thermal water is influenced by many factors: exogenous (precipitation, atmo- spheric pressure, tides) and endogenous (earthquakes, creep, tectonic strain impacts). In the reporting period, several seismic and meteorological events happened which allow to judge of connections between thermal fields. The strain-sensitivity of wells using slug-test data and the response of water level to the exogenous impacts confirm 1 the closeness of responses of Lisi and Balneological boreholes and partial deviation of response of Oil production area. In the period of observation, several local earthquakes occurred in the region (Tbilisi-12.2000; 2.2001 etc.). The hydrodynamical precursors of these earthquakes have been recorded in all three wells. The response of aquifers to the strain impact which was caused by the earthquakes, confirms the hydrodynamical connection of Balneological and Oil production area. It means that a reckless exploita- tion of the Oil deposit can strongly decrease the fluid ressure in the Balneological well and can even cause the depletion of the Balneological resort and the Lisi thermal water deposit. The obtained results demonstrate big potential of the applied network of hy- drodynamical monitoring. It allows not only the recognition of short-term precursory phenomena of earthquakes but also operates as a monitor of environmental situation of the Tbilisi region. 2

Chelidze, T.; Buntebarth, G.; Melikadze, G.; Kumsiashvili, G.; Bendukidze, G.

60

Anxiety Sensitivity and Marijuana Use: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The cognitive factor of Anxiety Sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety and related bodily sensations), is theorized to play a role in cannabis use and its disorders. Lower-order facets of AS (physical concerns, mental incapacitation concerns, social concerns) may be differentially related to cannabis use behavior. However, little is known about the impact of AS facets on the immediate antecedents of cannabis use. Methods The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to prospectively examine the relations between specific facets of AS, cannabis craving, state anxiety, and cannabis use in the natural environment using real-world data about ad-lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users (38.8% female). Results AS-mental incapacitation fears were related to significantly greater severity of cannabis-related problems at baseline. During the EMA period, AS-mental incapacitation and AS-social concerns significantly interacted with cannabis craving to prospectively predict subsequent cannabis use. Specifically, individuals with higher craving and either higher AS-mental incapacitation or AS-social concerns were the most likely to subsequently use cannabis. In contrast to prediction, no AS facet significantly moderated the relationship between state anxiety and cannabis use. Conclusions These findings suggest facets of AS (mental incapacitation and social fears) interact with cannabis craving to predict cannabis use. Findings also suggest differential relations between facets of anxiety sensitivity and cannabis-related behaviors.

Buckner, Julia D.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Norton, Peter J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Norman B.

2011-01-01

61

The effects of land-use characteristics and acid sensitivity on the ecological status of Maryland coastal plain streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the ecological status of 12 acid-sensitive and 12 non-acid-sensitive Maryland coastal plain streams during the spring, summer, and fall of 1992 to 1993. An index of biotic integrity (IBI) for fish, chemical parameters, and physical habitat conditions were evaluated in these streams. Correlations of land-use activities (forested streams vs agricultural dominated streams) and

Lenwood W. Hall Jr.; Mark C. Scott; William D. Killen Jr.; Ronald D. Anderson

1996-01-01

62

A Multitrophic Approach to Monitoring the Effects of Metal Mining in Otherwise Pristine and Ecologically Sensitive Rivers in Northern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not known if current chemical and biological monitoring methods are appropriate for assessing the impacts of growing industrial development on ecologically sensitive northern waters. We used a multitrophic level approach to evaluate current monitoring methods and to determine whether metal-mining activities had affected 2 otherwise pristine rivers that flow into the South Nahanni River, Northwest Territories, a World

Paula Spencer; Michelle F. Bowman; Monique G. Dubé

2008-01-01

63

Risk assessment of episodic exposures to chemicals should consider both the physiological and the ecological sensitivities of species.  

PubMed

In flowing water pollution regularly occurs in short pulses (hours to days). Populations of species affected by pulses have the potential to recover in the absence of further disturbance but recovery rates will vary between species due to resilience (e.g. generation time and dispersal ability) and avoidance traits. Current assessments of the risks of chemicals to community structure--predominantly based on species sensitivity distributions (SSDs)--only consider physiological sensitivity and do not give any consideration as to the rate at which populations will recover. We constructed SSDs of ecologically sensitive and tolerant stream invertebrate assemblages (based on 3 traits previously shown to be important in determining how species relative abundances respond to pesticide toxicity) from south-east Australia and in regions of Finland, Germany and France. There were differences in SSDs of a generic measure of physiological sensitivity to organic chemicals between ecologically sensitive and tolerant species, though these differences were not consistent between the regions studied. We conclude that it is important for community level risk assessments of pulses of chemicals that the ecological sensitivity of the regional species assemblage is considered and discuss several options as to how this could be achieved. PMID:23137987

Kefford, Ben J; Liess, Matthias; Warne, Michael St J; Metzeling, Leon; Schäfer, Ralf B

2012-11-06

64

Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others] [and others

1996-05-01

65

Variability in stream discharge and temperatures during ecologically sensitive time periods: a preliminary assessment of the implications for Atlantic salmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on improving the understanding of the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions and their potential influences on two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharges and temperatures in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, a small nursery stream, were characterised over a time period of ten hydrological years (1994/95-2003/04). Frequency, magnitude, duration and timing of thermal, hydraulic and hydrological conditions were examined using data with a high temporal resolution (hourly and subhourly). Particular attention was focussed on assessing variations during ecologically sensitive time periods when salmon behaviour is most susceptible to environmental perturbations. The Girnock Burn was characterised by a strong inter- and intra-annual variability in the hydrological and thermal regime. This has clear implications for the likely feeding opportunities for juvenile fish in winter and early spring and the emergence of fry in the late spring. The movement of adult spawners towards breeding areas showed a complex dependence on hydrological variability. If discharges were low, fish movement was increasingly triggered by suboptimal flow increases as spawning time approached. Elucidating links between discharge/temperature variability and salmon habitat availability and utilization at appropriately fine temporal scales is a prerequisite to the development of better conservation management strategies and more biologically meaningful flow regimes in regulated river systems.

Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Youngson, A. F.; Gibbins, C.; Bacon, P. J.; Malcolm, I. A.; Langan, S.

2005-05-01

66

Planning of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration in the Coal Mining Subsidence Areas of Wangwa Coal Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the most fragile ecological environment in Wangwa coal mine in south mountain areas in Ningxia. People's life and production had been seriously influenced by the coal mining subsidence area and the destroyed environment during coal mining. With the development of society, land reclamation must be imperative under the situation. Land reclamation is a complex and systematic project which

Hao Binbin; Qi Junde

2009-01-01

67

Trends of prevalent cancer incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=-6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=-0.5%). PMID:22296374

Igissinov, Nurbek; Igissinov, Saginbek; Moore, Malcolm A; Shaidarov, Mazhit; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy; Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinova, Gulnur; Nuralina, Indira; Kozhakhmetov, Saken

2011-01-01

68

Large area x-ray sensitive video camera: overall feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large area x-ray sensitive vidicon is an alternative to the x-ray image intensifier and television camera combination. The proposed x-ray vidicon utilizes an amorphous selenium photoconductive layer which has a higher intrinsic resolution in comparison to the input phosphor of an XRII. This higher resolution could benefit diagnostic cardiac angiography as well as interventional cardiac procedures which now frequency utilize XRII/TV zoom modes to achieve higher resolution. Signal, noise, resolution and lag of an x-ray vidicon have been analyzed theoretically and indicate a medically practical device is possible. The use of a large potential to bias the a-Se photoconductor presents a problem with respect to instability of the a-Se surface potential and excessive dark current. The incorporation of a suppressor mesh into the vidicon has been shown to provide stable vidicon operation while experiments involving a-Se blocking contacts have lead to the development of an a-Se layer with low dark current.

Luhta, Randy; Rowlands, John A.

1997-05-01

69

GIS-based fine spatial climate ecological regionalization of sweet orange in the Three Gorges reservoir area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to different ecological conditions of various of sweet orange and the different of consumption of fresh sweet orange and processing of sweet orange, the article determined the main index of climate and ecological factors, which impact the growth of citrus, based on the major climate resources and meteorological disasters which impact the growth of citrus in Three Gorges reservoir area. This article studied the spatial distribution of the average annual total solar radiation, the average annual temperature and the average annual relative humidity by methods of regression, simulation, interpolation with the help of ARCGIS and 1:250000 DEM (Districts and counties with 1:50000). In the above, the article made the fine spatial climate ecological division of sweet orange in Three Gorges reservoir area. And some development strategies of sweet orange are made according to the division.

Gao, Yanghua; Chen, Zhijun; Ju, Hui; Yang, Shiqi; Tang, Yunhui

2009-07-01

70

The Dispersal Ecology of Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness Following Its Introduction to a New Area  

PubMed Central

Tsetse-transmitted human and animal trypanosomiasis are constraints to both human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa, and although these diseases have been known for over a century, there is little recent evidence demonstrating how the parasites circulate in natural hosts and ecosystems. The spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) within Uganda over the past 15 years has been linked to the movement of infected, untreated livestock (the predominant reservoir) from endemic areas. However, despite an understanding of the environmental dependencies of sleeping sickness, little research has focused on the environmental factors controlling transmission establishment or the spatially heterogeneous dispersal of disease following a new introduction. In the current study, an annually stratified case-control study of Rhodesian sleeping sickness cases from Serere District, Uganda was used to allow the temporal assessment of correlations between the spatial distribution of sleeping sickness and landscape factors. Significant relationships were detected between Rhodesian sleeping sickness and selected factors, including elevation and the proportion of land which was “seasonally flooding grassland” or “woodlands and dense savannah.” Temporal trends in these relationships were detected, illustrating the dispersal of Rhodesian sleeping sickness into more ‘suitable’ areas over time, with diminishing dependence on the point of introduction in concurrence with an increasing dependence on environmental and landscape factors. These results provide a novel insight into the ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness dispersal and may contribute towards the implementation of evidence-based control measures to prevent its further spread.

Wardrop, Nicola A.; Fevre, Eric M.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Welburn, Susan C.

2013-01-01

71

The dispersal ecology of rhodesian sleeping sickness following its introduction to a new area.  

PubMed

Tsetse-transmitted human and animal trypanosomiasis are constraints to both human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa, and although these diseases have been known for over a century, there is little recent evidence demonstrating how the parasites circulate in natural hosts and ecosystems. The spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) within Uganda over the past 15 years has been linked to the movement of infected, untreated livestock (the predominant reservoir) from endemic areas. However, despite an understanding of the environmental dependencies of sleeping sickness, little research has focused on the environmental factors controlling transmission establishment or the spatially heterogeneous dispersal of disease following a new introduction. In the current study, an annually stratified case-control study of Rhodesian sleeping sickness cases from Serere District, Uganda was used to allow the temporal assessment of correlations between the spatial distribution of sleeping sickness and landscape factors. Significant relationships were detected between Rhodesian sleeping sickness and selected factors, including elevation and the proportion of land which was "seasonally flooding grassland" or "woodlands and dense savannah." Temporal trends in these relationships were detected, illustrating the dispersal of Rhodesian sleeping sickness into more 'suitable' areas over time, with diminishing dependence on the point of introduction in concurrence with an increasing dependence on environmental and landscape factors. These results provide a novel insight into the ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness dispersal and may contribute towards the implementation of evidence-based control measures to prevent its further spread. PMID:24130913

Wardrop, Nicola A; Fèvre, Eric M; Atkinson, Peter M; Welburn, Susan C

2013-10-10

72

Ecological solidarity as a conceptual tool for rethinking ecological and social interdependence in conservation policy for protected areas and their surrounding landscape.  

PubMed

Policy for biodiversity conservation must evolve to cope with the increasing human footprint on natural systems. A major issue here is the need for policy for protected areas, which integrates their surrounding landscape and local human populations in the construction of socially grounded measures. To illustrate current conceptual thinking in this direction we present and provide a conceptual basis for a recent initiative in national park policy in France that is based on "ecological solidarity". In the light of other policy ideas and tools that have recently emerged for the co-construction of conservation policy, we argue that this concept provides an imaginative step towards consolidating ecological and social interdependence in biodiversity policy that goes beyond statutory park boundaries. PMID:21640950

Thompson, John D; Mathevet, Raphaël; Delanoë, Olivia; Gil-Fourrier, Chantal; Bonnin, Marie; Cheylan, Marc

2011-04-30

73

Ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy).  

PubMed

This work is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating the environmental sustainability of the Province of Siena and of its communes, by means of different indicators and methods of analysis. The research presented in this article uses ecological footprint and biocapacity as indicators to monitor the environmental conditions of the area of Siena, thus complementing previous studies carried out using Emergy, greenhouse gases balance and other methods. The calculations have been performed in such a way as to enable a disaggregation of the final results according to the classical categories of ecologically productive land and of consumption, but also according to citizen's and public administration's areas of influence. This information allows us to investigate in detail the socio-economic aspects of environmental resource use. Among the notable results, the Siena territory is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, a result contrasting with the national average and most of the other Italian provinces. Furthermore, the analysis has been carried out at different spatial scales (province, districts and communes), highlighting an inhomogeneous territorial structure consisting of subareas in ecological deficit compensated by zones in ecological surplus. PMID:17110019

Bagliani, Marco; Galli, Alessandro; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

2006-11-15

74

Characterization of mercury and other heavy metals in sediment of an ecological important backwater area of River Tisza (Hungary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment from a representative and ecologically important backwater wetland under the influence of River Tisza (Hungary) was chemically characterized for sediment pollutants. Phosphine production potential, methyl mercury, mercury, and other heavy metals were determined along with other sediment chemical and physical properties. The wetland site, which is relatively isolated, represents an important bird reserve and nature conservation area. Methyl mercury

Istvan Devai; Ronald D. DeLaune; György Dévai; Csaba Aradi; Szilvia GÖri; Alex Sándor Nagy; Zsuzsa Tálas

2007-01-01

75

Inference from ecological models: Estimating the relative risk of stroke from air pollution exposure using small area data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maheswaran et al. (2006) analysed the effect of outdoor modelled NOx levels, classified into quintiles, on stroke mortality using a Poisson Bayesian hierarchical model with spatial random effects. An association was observed between higher levels of NOx and stroke mortality at the small area (enumeration district) level.As this model is framed in an ecological perspective, the relative risk estimates suffer

Robert Haining; Guangquan Li; Ravi Maheswaran; Marta Blangiardo; Jane Law; Nicky Best; Sylvia Richardson

2010-01-01

76

Research on relationship between wind power industry cultivation and government policies in Ecologically Vulnerable Areas in West China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper measures the industries in Wengniute Country of Inner Mongolia, using advantage industry of ecologically vulnerable areas in West China evaluation model and guideline system. The result proves that the competitiveness of generating electricity by wind power can be improved the soonest. By analyzing the factors affecting the competitiveness of generating electricity by wind power, we gain that government

Liu Ying-qi; Zhou Xue-jun; Zheng Tian-chi; Deng Yuan-hui

2008-01-01

77

Ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: The case of the Province of Siena (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating the environmental sustainability of the Province of Siena and of its communes, by means of different indicators and methods of analysis. The research presented in this article uses ecological footprint and biocapacity as indicators to monitor the environmental conditions of the area of Siena, thus complementing previous studies

Marco Bagliani; Alessandro Galli; Valentina Niccolucci; Nadia Marchettini

2008-01-01

78

[Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area. PMID:19419095

Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

2008-12-01

79

Effect of specific surface area on the sensitivity of hexanitrostilbene to flyer plate impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of hexanitrostilbene (HNS) to flyer plate impact over a wide range of Specific Surface Area (SSA) has been investigated. Maximum sensitivity was found to occur at SSA between 10 and 20 m\\/g for HNS pressed to 90% theoretical maximum density (TMD).Above and below this SSA the sensitivity was found to decrease. The sensitivity was also found to decrease

J. Waschl; D. Richardson

1991-01-01

80

An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India, designed to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories.…

Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

2000-01-01

81

Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Tlingit People Concerning the Sockeye Salmon Fishery of the Dry Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yakutat Tlingit Tribe and the National Park Service have collaborated to document Tlingit traditional ecological knowledge about salmon ecology and fisheries management in the Dry Bay\\/Alsek River Delta. Historically Northwest Coast Peoples including Tlingit have managed fishing and fish populations. Each Tlingit clan or house managed and controlled specific rivers or in larger river's sections of rivers in southeast

Judith Ramos; Rachel Mason

82

Estimate of the Area Affected Ecologically by the Road System in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of an extensive road system, abundant and rapidly growing vehicular traffic, and a scat- tered literature indicating that some ecological effects of roads extend outward for . 100 m, it seems likely that the cumulative ecological effect of the road system in the United States is considerable. Two recent studies in The Netherlands and Massachusetts (U.S.A.) evaluated several

Richard T. T. Forman

2000-01-01

83

Determination of ecological significance based on geostatistical assessment: a case study from the Slovak Natura 2000 protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sitno Natura 2000 Site covers an area of 935,56 hectares. The Sitno region is significant due to the number of rare and endangered species of plants, and as a result is considered a location of great importance to the maintenance of floral gene pools. The study area suffers human impacts in the form of tourism. The main purpose of this study is to the measure landscape elements, determine the ecological significance of habitats within the Sitno area, and from this data, organize the study area into conservation zones. The results of this landscape quantification are numerical values that can be used to interpret the quality of ongoing ecological processes within individual landscape types. Interpretation of this quantified data can be used to determine the ecological significance of landscapes in other study areas. This research examines the habitats of Natura 2000 Sites by a set of landscape metrics for habitat area, size, density, and shape, such as Number of patches (NP), Patch density (PD), Mean patch size (MPS), Patch size standard deviation (PSSD) and Mean shape index (MSI). The classification of land cover patches is based on the Annex Code system.

Klau?o, Michal; Gregorová, Bohuslava; Stankov, Uglješa; Markovi?, Vladimir; Lemenkova, Polina

2013-03-01

84

Do we have to incorporate ecological interactions in the sensitivity assessment of ecosystems? An examination of a theoretical assumption underlying species sensitivity distribution models.  

PubMed

Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are statistical distributions which extrapolate single-species toxicity test results to ecosystem effects. This SSD approach assumes that ecological interactions between populations, such as grazing and competition, do not influence the sensitivity of ecosystems. The validity of this assumption in a simple freshwater pelagic ecosystem was tested using ecosystem modelling. For each of a 1000 hypothetical toxicants, a lognormal SSD was fitted to chronic single-species EC10s of the species present. As such, these distributions did not account for ecological interactions and were therefore termed 'conventional SSDs' (cSSDs). Next, sensitivity distributions that did take into account ecological interactions were constructed (eco-SSD) for the same 1000 toxicants, using an ecosystem model. For 254 of the 1000 hypothetical toxicants, mean and/or variance of the cSSD were significantly higher than mean and/or variance of the eco-SSD, as such rejecting the general validity of the tested assumption. A classification tree approach indicated that especially toxicants which directly affect phytoplankton (i.e. herbicides) may have a higher mean for cSSD than for eco-SSD. Conversely, means of eco-SSD and cSSD tend to be equal for toxicants directly affecting zooplankton and fish, e.g. insecticides. For the 254 hypothetical toxicants for which the tested assumption was false, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) calculated as the lowest single-species EC10 divided by an application factor of 10 was on average a factor 10 lower than the corresponding ecosystem-NOEC calculated by the ecosystem model. PMID:17977598

De Laender, Frederik; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Janssen, Colin R

2007-10-31

85

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... means a site that has been designated under The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat program. Ramsar sites are globally critical wetland areas that support migratory waterfowl. These include...

2009-10-01

86

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... means a site that has been designated under The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat program. Ramsar sites are globally critical wetland areas that support migratory waterfowl. These include...

2010-10-01

87

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

1992-09-01

88

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

89

Complex geo-ecological responses to climatic changes in a dryland area: northern Negev desert; Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-arid and arid areas are often regarded as highly sensitive to climatic changes. A positive relationship between average annual rainfall and related environmental variables is usually suggested for such areas. This approach disregards the fact tnat a climate change in dryland areas is often accompanied by a parallel change in surface properties; such as sand deposition during a dry phase and of loess deposition during a wet phase. The new surface properties can be expected to exercise a strong effect on infiltration, runoff, soil moisture regime and water availability for plants. The work presented will cover two studies conducted in the northern Negev desert; along a rainfall gradient of ~ 90 mm to ~ 170 mm. The first study focuses on the negative environmental effects of loess penetration during a wet climatic phase. Loess deposition over rocky surfaces increased raindrop absorption by the fine-grained loessic material. Due to the low rain amounts at most rainstorms depth of water infiltration is limited; and most of the infiltrated waters are lost by evaporation. A comparative analysis of the vegetation cover and composition, soil properties and human activity in adjoining rocky and loess covered areas clearly shows that loess penetration has led to a desertification effect. The second study was conducted in a sandy area along the Egyptian-Israeli border.Most of the study area is covered by a biological topsoil crust. Data collected show a differential development of the biological crusts along the rainfall gradient. The crust is better developed,richer in fine grained particles and organic matter content than the crust in the drier area. However, the better developed crust is able to absorb and retain all rainwater at most rainstorms; limiting thus the depth of water infiltration and water availability for higher plants. At the same time the thin crust in the drier area absorbs less water and generates runoff. The overall result is deeper water penetration and high water availability for the prennial vegetation; very well expressed by the the extent of the vegetation cover and species diversity.

Yair, A.

2009-12-01

90

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or (3) The sole source aquifer recharge area where the sole source aquifer is...water and at least six months for a groundwater source. Aquatic or Aquatic Dependent...fractured, or jointed. In all cases groundwater movement is largely controlled by...

2011-10-01

91

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or (3) The sole source aquifer recharge area where the sole source aquifer is...water and at least six months for a groundwater source. Aquatic or Aquatic Dependent...fractured, or jointed. In all cases groundwater movement is largely controlled by...

2012-10-01

92

Characterization of mercury and other heavy metals in sediment of an ecological important backwater area of River Tisza (Hungary).  

PubMed

Sediment from a representative and ecologically important backwater wetland under the influence of River Tisza (Hungary) was chemically characterized for sediment pollutants. Phosphine production potential, methyl mercury, mercury, and other heavy metals were determined along with other sediment chemical and physical properties. The wetland site, which is relatively isolated, represents an important bird reserve and nature conservation area. Methyl mercury and total mercury content was also low reflecting little mercury pollution in the sediment. Results of heavy metal analysis showed that only copper was elevated with concentration slightly above the reported levels considered excessive in soils and sediments. Other sediment properties were in normal range except boron content, which was high. Results show sediment were relatively unpolluted but should be routinely monitored to insure that this ecologically important area remains environmentally safe for future generation. PMID:17558765

Devai, Istvan; Delaune, Ronald D; Dévai, György; Aradi, Csaba; Göri, Szilvia; Nagy, Alex Sándor; Tálas, Zsuzsa

2007-06-01

93

Simulation of a fire-sensitive ecological threshold: a case study of Ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was developed to represent the establishment of a fire-sensitive woody species from seeds and subsequent survival and growth through five size classes. Simulations accurately represent structural changes associated with increased density and cover of the fire-sensitive Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei, Buckholz) and provide substantial evidence for multiple steady states and ecological thresholds. Without fire, Ashe juniper increases and

Samuel D. Fuhlendorf; Fred E. Smeins; William E. Grant

1996-01-01

94

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

95

Assessing and predicting the relative ecological impacts of disturbance on habitats with different sensitivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Methods for assessing habitat sensitivity to human impacts are needed to gauge the sustainability of existing impacts, develop spatial management plans and support meaningful environmental impact assessments. These methods should be quantitative, validated, repeatable and applicable at the scales of impact and management. 2. Existing methods for assessing the sensitivity of marine habitats to human impacts have tended

J. G. HIDDINK; S. JENNINGS; M. J. KAISER

96

Potential impact of climate change on aquatic insects: A sensitivity analysis for European caddisflies (Trichoptera) based on distribution patterns and ecological preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We analysed the sensitivity of European Trichoptera (caddisfly) species to climate change impacts based on their distribution\\u000a and ecological preferences, and compared the fraction of species potentially endangered by climate change between the European\\u000a ecoregions. The study covers 23 European ecoregions as defined by Illies (1978). For 1134 Trichoptera species and subspecies,\\u000a we coded 29 parameters describing biological and ecological

Daniel Hering; Astrid Schmidt-Kloiber; John Murphy; Sofie Lücke; Carmen Zamora-Muñoz; Manuel Jesús López-Rodríguez; Thomas Huber; Wolfram Graf

2009-01-01

97

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered

T. L. Ashwood; G. W. II Suter; A. J. Stewart

1992-01-01

98

Regional Effects of Secondary Ecological Migration in Pasturing Area: A Case of Fuhai County in Xinjiang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the integrated influences of global climate changes and overgrazing, China rangeland has degraded over recent years. Fuhai County is located in the north margin of Junggar basin and its range land has experienced expansive degradation. The eco-migration policy are launched respectively by local government in 1998 and 2006. In order to analyze the regional effects of ecological migration, we

Changlong Sun; Jia Liu; Xiaolei Zhang; Hongru Du; Wenwen Ma

2009-01-01

99

Ecology of water areas associated with coal strip-mined lands in Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the open-pit method of coal mining in Ohio in 1914, com- monly referred to as strip mining, a new ecological habitat developed in the state. For a period of 35 years, subsequent to that date, the majority of the spoil banks created were left ungraded. In the ravines between the spoil banks, in the final cuts

CHARLES V. RILEY

1960-01-01

100

On the ecological validity of measuring the sensitivity of professional caregivers: The laboratory versus the nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research indicates the importance of interactional experience for young children in developing their competence. In particular\\u000a sensitive responsiveness in interaction has been associated with beneficial developmental outcomes and is often regarded as\\u000a a central component of good quality child care. This study considers some alternative ways of measuring the sensitivity of\\u000a caregivers. Thirty professional caregiver-infant dyads were observed in

Frits Goossens; Edward C. Melhuish

1996-01-01

101

The results of an ecological risk assessment screening at the Idaho National Engineering`s waste area group 2  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho and occupies approximately 890 square miles on the northwestern portion of the eastern Snake River Plain. INEL has been devoted to nuclear energy research and related activities since its establishment in 1949. In the process of fulfilling this mission, wastes were generated, including radioactive and hazardous materials. Most materials were effectively stored or disposed of, however, some release of contaminants to the environment has occurred. For this reason, the INEL was listed by the US environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List (NPL), in November, 1989. This report describes the results of an ecological risk assessment performed for the Waste Area Groups 2 (WAG 2) at the INEL. It also summarizes the performance of screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERA).

VanHorn, R.

1995-11-01

102

Focal electrical intracerebral stimulation of a face-sensitive area causes transient prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

Face perception is subtended by a large set of areas in the human ventral occipito-temporal cortex. However, the role of these areas and their importance for face recognition remain largely unclear. Here we report a case of transient selective impairment in face recognition (prosopagnosia) induced by focal electrical intracerebral stimulation of the right inferior occipital gyrus. This area presents with typical face-sensitivity as evidenced by functional neuroimaging right occipital face area (OFA). A face-sensitive intracerebral N170 was also recorded in this area, supporting its contribution as a source of the well-known N170 component typically recorded on the scalp. Altogether, these observations indicate that face recognition can be selectively impaired by local disruption of a single face-sensitive area of the network subtending this function, the right OFA. PMID:22813996

Jonas, J; Descoins, M; Koessler, L; Colnat-Coulbois, S; Sauvée, M; Guye, M; Vignal, J-P; Vespignani, H; Rossion, B; Maillard, L

2012-07-17

103

The sensitivity of topoclimatic models to fine-scale microclimatic variability and the relevance for ecological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microclimatic loggers are increasingly used to collect data from various habitats and interpolate ecologically meaningful landscape-scale topoclimatic grids. However, it is unknown how sensitive these grids are to finer-scale variations in microclimate. We performed a sensitivity analysis using three microclimatic loggers at 27 sites for 5 months in a semi-arid region of Western Australia. We partitioned the within- and between-site variance in temperature and produced 100 different topoclimatic models using a random sensor from each site. For the coldest temperatures, we found within-site variance was negligible (3 %), and models were strong ( r 2 = 0.74) and the coefficients consistent. However, for the hottest temperatures, there was substantial within-site variance (39 %), and models were weaker ( r 2 = 0.27) and more sensitive. We concluded that careful site design is needed to maximise the reliability of topoclimatic grids, including using large sample sizes, ensuring there is low predictor collinearity and sampling full environmental gradients.

Ashcroft, Michael B.; Gollan, John R.

2013-10-01

104

The sensitivity of topoclimatic models to fine-scale microclimatic variability and the relevance for ecological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microclimatic loggers are increasingly used to collect data from various habitats and interpolate ecologically meaningful landscape-scale topoclimatic grids. However, it is unknown how sensitive these grids are to finer-scale variations in microclimate. We performed a sensitivity analysis using three microclimatic loggers at 27 sites for 5 months in a semi-arid region of Western Australia. We partitioned the within- and between-site variance in temperature and produced 100 different topoclimatic models using a random sensor from each site. For the coldest temperatures, we found within-site variance was negligible (3 %), and models were strong (r 2 = 0.74) and the coefficients consistent. However, for the hottest temperatures, there was substantial within-site variance (39 %), and models were weaker (r 2 = 0.27) and more sensitive. We concluded that careful site design is needed to maximise the reliability of topoclimatic grids, including using large sample sizes, ensuring there is low predictor collinearity and sampling full environmental gradients.

Ashcroft, Michael B.; Gollan, John R.

2013-01-01

105

Cruise Report: Assessment of Ecological Condition and Stressor Impacts within Great Lakes Region Areas of Concern (AOCs): Ashtabula River and Milwaukee Estuary (August 18-25, 2012).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This cruise report is a summary of a field survey conducted within two Great Lakes Region Areas of Concern (AOCs), Ashtabula River and Milwaukee Estuary, August 18 25, 2012. Synoptic sampling of multiple ecological indicators was conducted in the benthos ...

C. Cooksey E. Johnson E. Wirth J. Hyland J. D. Dubrick K. Chung K. Kimbrough L. Balthis M. DeLorenzo M. Fulton P. Key P. Pennington

2013-01-01

106

Ecological association of water hardness with prevalence of childhood atopic dermatitis in a Japanese urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of symptoms of atopic eczema among Japanese children aged 6–7 years is the second highest in 56 countries. Reasons for such a high prevalence are unknown. This ecological study examined whether the positive association of water hardness with atopic dermatitis among British primary-school children also exists in Japan. Study subjects were 458,284 of 489,725 children, aged 6–12 years,

Yoshihiro Miyake; Tetsuji Yokoyama; Akiko Yura; Masayuki Iki; Tadahiko Shimizu

2004-01-01

107

Evidence of negative impacts of ecological tourism on turtlegrass ( Thalassia testudinum ) beds in a marine protected area of the Mexican Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established in recent years. Some MPAs are open to tourists to foster environmental\\u000a education and generate revenue for the MPA. This has been coined “ecological tourism”. Here, we examine the impact of ecological\\u000a tourism on turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) health in one area of the “Costa Occidental de Isla Mujeres, Punta Cancún y Punta

Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira; Just Cebrian; Jennifer Hauxwell; Javier Ramirez-Ramirez; Peter Ralph

2010-01-01

108

Ecological conditions in wintering and passage areas as determinants of timing of spring migration in trans-Saharan migratory birds.  

PubMed

1.?Climate change has been associated with shifts in the timing of biological events, including the spring arrival of migratory birds. Early arrival at breeding sites is an important life-history trait, usually associated with higher breeding success and therefore, susceptible to selection and evolution in response to changing climatic conditions. 2.?Here, we examine the effect of changes in the environmental conditions of wintering and passage areas on the mean passage time of 13 trans-Saharan passerines during their spring migration through the western Mediterranean over the 15 years from 1993 to 2007. 3.?We found that most of the species studied have been advancing the timing of their passage in recent years. However, annual variation in the mean date of passage was positively correlated with vegetation growth (measured as the normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]) both in the Sahel (the region of departure) and in northern Africa (the passage area). Thus, migration dates were delayed in years with high primary productivity in passage and wintering zones. All species seem to respond similarly to NDVI in the Sahel; however, late migrants were less affected by ecological conditions in northern Africa than those migrating earlier, suggesting differences based on species ecology. 4.?Mean timing of passage was not related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), temperature or NDVI in the species-specific wintering areas (the overwintering region) when analysed in combination with the other covariates. 5.?Our findings show that ecological conditions in the winter quarters (specifically the Sahel) and en route are relevant factors influencing trends in the passage dates of trans-Saharan migratory birds on the southern fringe of Europe. Possible long-term consequences for late arriving spring migrants are discussed. PMID:21073454

Robson, David; Barriocanal, Carles

2010-11-12

109

Development of a relative risk model for evaluating ecological risk of water environment in the Haihe River Basin estuary area.  

PubMed

Ecological risk assessment for water environment is significant to water resource management of basin. Effective environmental management and systems restoration such as the Haihe River Basin require holistic understanding of the relative importance of various stressor-related impacts throughout the basin. As an effective technical tool for evaluating the ecological risk, relative risk model (RRM) was applied in regional scale successfully. In this study, the risk transfer from upstream of basin was considered and the RRM was developed through introducing the source-stressor-habitat exposure filter (SSH), the endpoint-habitat exposure filter (EH) and the stressor-endpoint effect filter (SE) to reflect the meaning of exposure and effect more explicit. Water environment which includes water quality, water quantity and aquatic ecosystems was selected as the assessment endpoints. We created a conceptual model which depicting potential and effect pathways from source to stressor to habitat to endpoint. The Haihe River Basin estuary (HRBE) was selected as the model case. The results showed that there were two low risk regions, one medium risk region and two high risk regions in the HRBE. The results also indicated that urbanization was the biggest source, the second was shipping and the third was industry, their risk scores are 5.65, 4.71 and 3.68 respectively. Furthermore, habitat destruction was the largest stressor with the risk scores (2.66), the second was oxygen consuming organic pollutants (1.75) and the third was pathogens (1.75). So these three stressors were the main influencing factors of the ecological pressure in the study area. For habitats, open waters (9.59) and intertidal mudflat were enduring the bigger pressure and should be taken considerable attention. Ecological service values damaged (30.54) and biodiversity decreased were facing the biggest risk pressure. PMID:22321901

Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Jingling; Ho, Kin Chung; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-08

110

Auditory sensitivity and ecological relevance: the functional audiogram as modelled by the bat detecting moth ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory sensitivity has often been measured by identifying neural threshold in real-time (online) which can introduce bias\\u000a in the audiograms that are produced. We tested this by recording auditory nerve activity of the notodontid moth Nadata gibbosa elicited by bat-like ultrasound and analysing the response offline. We compared this audiogram with a published online audiogram\\u000a showing that the bias introduced

Matthew E. Jackson; Navdeep S. Asi; James H. Fullard

2010-01-01

111

Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. PMID:23369878

Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

2013-01-29

112

Reward sensitivity modulates connectivity among reward brain areas during processing of anticipatory reward cues.  

PubMed

Reward sensitivity, or the tendency to engage in motivated approach behavior in the presence of rewarding stimuli, may be a contributory factor for vulnerability to disinhibitory behaviors. Although evidence exists for a reward sensitivity-related increased response in reward brain areas (i.e. nucleus accumbens or midbrain) during the processing of reward cues, it is unknown how this trait modulates brain connectivity, specifically the crucial coupling between the nucleus accumbens, the midbrain, and other reward-related brain areas, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Here, we analysed the relationship between effective connectivity and personality in response to anticipatory reward cues. Forty-four males performed an adaptation of the Monetary Incentive Delay Task and completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale. The results showed the modulation of reward sensitivity on both activity and functional connectivity (psychophysiological interaction) during the processing of incentive cues. Sensitivity to reward scores related to stronger activation in the nucleus accumbens and midbrain during the processing of reward cues. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that midbrain-medial orbitofrontal cortex connectivity was negatively correlated with sensitivity to reward scores for high as compared with low incentive cues. Also, nucleus accumbens-amygdala connectivity correlated negatively with sensitivity to reward scores during reward anticipation. Our results suggest that high reward sensitivity-related activation in reward brain areas may result from associated modulatory effects of other brain regions within the reward circuitry. PMID:23617942

Costumero, Victor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Bustamante, Juan C; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Fuentes, Paola; Ávila, César

2013-04-26

113

Sensitivity of a general circulation model to global changes in leaf area index  

Microsoft Academic Search

,u, area , p,,,,,, on equilibrium with current local climatic and soil conditions. The differences beeen the actual vegetation distribution and the potential vegetation distribution may reflect the impact of human activity on the Earth's surface. To examine model sensitivity to changes in leaf area index (LAI), global distributions of maximum LAI were used as surface boundaconditions in the National

Thomas N. Chase; Roger A. Pielke; Timothy G. F. Kittel; Ramakrishna Nemani; Steven W. Running

1996-01-01

114

Dynamic and Static Facial Expressions Decoded from Motion-Sensitive Areas in the Macaque Monkey  

PubMed Central

Humans adeptly use visual motion to recognize socially-relevant facial information. The macaque provides a model visual system for studying neural coding of expression movements, as its superior temporal sulcus (STS) possesses brain areas selective for faces and areas sensitive to visual motion. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging and facial stimuli to localize motion-sensitive areas (Mf areas), which responded more to dynamic faces compared to static faces, and face-selective areas, which responded selectively to faces compared to objects and places. Using multivariate analysis, we found that information about both dynamic and static facial expressions could be robustly decoded from Mf areas. By contrast, face-selective areas exhibited relatively less facial expression information. Classifiers trained with expressions from one motion type (dynamic or static) showed poor generalization to the other motion type, suggesting that Mf areas employ separate and non-confusable neural codes for dynamic and static presentations of the same expressions. We also show that some of the motion sensitivity elicited by facial stimuli was not specific to faces but could also be elicited by moving dots, particularly in FST and STPm/LST, confirming their already well-established low-level motion sensitivity. A different pattern was found in anterior STS, which responded more to dynamic than static faces but was not sensitive to dot motion. Overall, we show that emotional expressions are mostly represented outside of face-selective cortex, in areas sensitive to motion. These regions may play a fundamental role in enhancing recognition of facial expression despite the complex stimulus changes associated with motion.

Furl, Nicholas; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

2012-01-01

115

High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface area of a photonic crystal biosensor is greatly enhanced through the incorporation of a porous TiO2 film possessing the structure of nanorods into the device. The film is deposited by the glancing angle deposition technique in an e-beam evaporation system. The sensitivity of high surface area sensors is compared with sensors without the high surface area coating. Results

Wei Zhang; Nikhil Ganesh; Ian D. Block; Brian T. Cunningham

2008-01-01

116

Ecological Degradation in Protected Areas: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally perceived that biodiversity is better protected from human activities after an area is designated as a protected area. However, we found that this common perception was not true in Wolong Nature Reserve (southwestern China), which was established in 1975 as a ``flagship'' protected area for the world-renowned endangered giant pandas. Analyses of remote sensing data from pre-

Jianguo Liu; Marc Linderman; Zhiyun Ouyang; Li An; Jian Yang; Hemin Zhang

2001-01-01

117

Quantification of the temperature sensitivity of three substrate-enzyme pairings of soil-ecological relevance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbes obtain resources from substrates exhibiting variation in structural complexity, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N), and energy requirements for decomposition. Theory of enzyme kinetics predicts that the activation energy required for substrate decomposition decreases with increasing temperature, and that the magnitude of the decrease increases with structural complexity of the substrate. However, the temperature sensitivity of important substrate-enzyme reactions at soil-relevant temperatures is largely unknown. Predicting soil organic matter (SOM) decay with rising temperature may be further complicated by changing microbial resource uptake due to 1) direct physiological responses to temperature shifts and 2) altered C and N availability imposed by changing patterns of enzymatic SOM decomposition. This could generate departures from expectations of the overall temperature response of SOM decay. Thus, quantification of both factors (changes in single reaction rates and in microbial community functioning) is important to understand the mechanisms governing soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes with rising temperature. Here, we quantify the temperature sensitivity of substrate-enzyme pairings relevant to global soil biogeochemistry: (1) ?-D-cellobioside (BC) and ?-Glucosidase (BGase); (2) N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminide (NAG) and ?-N-Acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and (3) 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa) and peroxidase (representative of breakdown products of cellulose, chitin and lignin and associated enzymes, respectively). We assessed reaction rates of BC/BGase and NAG/NAGase with fluorophotometric techniques. Both pairings exhibited Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. When neither enzyme nor substrate was limiting, maximum specific activity (Vmax) of BGase was 28 ?mol h-1 unit -1 at 27 °C, approximately three orders of magnitude higher than NAGase (2.5 nmol h-1 unit-1 at 25 °C). Spectrophomometric measurements of L-Dopa degradation rates did not yield Michaelis-Menten kinetics, as Vmax increased linearly with increasing L-Dopa concentration; the best proxy for Vmax at the highest concentration obtainable while ensuring full solubility was 0.17 ?mol h-1 unit-1 at 25 °C. We characterized the temperature sensitivity of each reaction via Arrhenius plots using temperatures of 20, 15, 10, and 5 °C. As expected, the specific activities of all three pairings increased with higher temperature. Temperature sensitivities of BC/BGase and NAG/NAGase were similar, but that of L-Dopa/peroxidase was approximately four times higher. These results imply 1) an overall increase in efficiency of enzymatically-mediated substrate conversion with increasing temperature and 2) accordance with enzyme theory as the decomposition rate of the structurally more complex compound (L-Dopa) experienced the greatest increase with rising temperature. The results suggest that microorganisms experiencing rising temperatures in a landscape of cellulose, chitin, and lignin, in the absence of direct physiological responses, would generate and then respond to an increased C:N of liberated resources, due to the relative facilitation of lignin decay with increasing temperature.

Lehmeier, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

2011-12-01

118

Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004-2006  

PubMed Central

Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

2009-01-01

119

Maintaining ecological resilience by linking protected areas through biological corridors in Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity conservation at landscapes or eco-regions is emerging as a global priority. Landscape approach ensures ecosystem stability and benefits of its services increase when extended beyond national boundaries. Realizing the importance of biological resources a good network of protected areas have been created and managed in Bhutan. The protected areas cover 26% of the country which are linked by biological

SANGAY WANGCHUK

120

Nesting Ecology and Predation of Diamondback Terrapins, Malaclemys terrapin, at Gateway National Recreation Area, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied Diamondback Terrapins, Malaclemys terrapin, at Gateway National Recreation Area, New York. We found evidence of nesting terrapins at three locations within the Recreation Area and focused our research on the islands of Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. Female terrapins nested from early June through early August and oviposited at least two clutches per year. Mean clutch size was 10.9

Jeremy A. Feinberg; Russell L. Burke

2003-01-01

121

Satellite images as primers to target priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability in tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of tropical forests has been identified as one of the main objectives for global conservation of carbon stocks. In order to achieve this, managers need tools to establish whether or not their management practices are sustainable. Several tool development initiatives have undertaken the creation of sets of criteria and indicators to aid managers to target, if not achieve, sustainability. The question of how to assess these indicators remains to be answered from an operational viewpoint, where logistical constraints become critical and priorization becomes necessary. The present dissertation sought to determine whether satellite imagery can be used, in conjunction with standard forest management data, to identify priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability of managed tropical forests. It presents a novel approach to the assessment of CIFOR indicator I.2.1.2: "The change in diversity of habitats as a result of human interventions is maintained within critical limits as defined by natural variation and/or regional conservation objectives" by means of semivariography of remote sensing data. It shows the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) is a good alternative for the detection and quantification of tropical forests structural heterogeneity and its dynamic change. The differences observed between forest management units and natural areas forest structural heterogeneity were used to identify priority areas for field survey of ecological sustainability indicators and evaluate how these priorities were reflected in dung beetles community structure and composition. The link between forest structural heterogeneity dynamic change, forest logging intensity and dung beetle community structure and composition is established. A logging intensity threshold of 4 trees per hectare is identified as the limit between significant or not significant differences in forest structure dynamic changes and dung beetles community total species richness and diversity estimates.

Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa

122

Anopheline ecology and malaria transmission at a new irrigation project area (Bargi Dam) in Jabalpur (Central India).  

PubMed

Anopheline ecology and malaria transmission were studied in a newly irrigated area of the Bargi Project, District Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Observations were made for 2 years (1993-95) in 10 villages along the Bargi irrigation canal, which are situated between 44 km (head end of canal) and 78 km (tail end of canal) from the dam site. Anopheles annularis was the predominant species in the head-end villages and its abundance was directly related to the opening of the canal, whereas Anopheles culicifacies was the most abundant species in tail-end villages, where irrigation is limited. Anopheles culicifacies showed 2 typical peaks not related to canal irrigation. Site-related differences in species prevalence were significant in both immatures and adults. Malaria infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. The annual parasite incidence in children and adults was significantly higher in head-end villages (>4-fold) as compared to that in tail-end villages. However, seasonal trends in the prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax were the same in each group, with some fluctuations. In this study, preliminary results of the investigation are presented, demonstrating the trends in anopheline ecology and parasite prevalence in relation to the dynamics of irrigation development. PMID:11198914

Singh, N; Mishra, A K

2000-12-01

123

Anaerobic digestion potential for ecological and decentralised sanitation in urban areas.  

PubMed

The potential of anaerobic digestion in ecological and decentralised sanitation has been investigated in this research. Different anaerobic digestion systems were proposed for the treatment of sewage, grey water, black water and faeces. Moreover, mathematical models based on anaerobic digestion model no.1 (ADM1) were developed for determination of a suitable design for each system. For stable performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating sewage, the model results indicated that optimisation of wastewater conversion to biogas (not COD removal) should be selected for determination of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the reactor. For the treatment of sewage or black water in a UASB septic-tank, the model results showed that the sludge removal period was the main parameter for determination of the HRT. At such HRT, both COD removal and wastewater conversion are also optimised. The model results demonstrated that for treatment of faeces in an accumulation (AC) system at temperature > or = 25 degrees C, the filling period of the system should be higher than 60 days. For maximisation of the net biogas production (i.e. reduction of biogas losses as dissolved in the effluent), the separation between grey water, urine and faeces and reduction of water consumption for faeces flushing are required. Furthermore, the faeces and kitchen organic wastes and grey water are digested in, respectively, an AC system and UASB reactor, while the urine is stored. PMID:16841726

Elmitwalli, Tarek; Feng, Yucheng; Behrendt, Joachim; Otterpohl, Ralf

2006-01-01

124

The Statistics of Wildfire Burned Areas and Landslides: Implications for Ecology, Erosion, Risk and Government Reporting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence that the extremes of many natural hazards satisfy power-law or other heavy- tailed frequency-size statistics. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, forest and wildfires, meteorite impacts, and possibly floods. Although power-law distributions are commonly associated with the frequency-size distribution of small to large earthquakes, the frequency-size statistics of many other natural hazards are often associated with distributions that are more thin-tailed. The occurrence for large and very-large events using power-law frequency-size distributions is often much more conservative, with a greater chance of a large event occurring in a given period of time, compared to thinner tail distributions. The choice of the statistical distribution used or assumed has many implications to Earth Sciences research. In this paper we will present the frequency-size distributions for wildfires and landslides, both found to be robustly power-law for the medium and large events, and the implications of these statistics to erosion, ecology, risk and government reporting.

Malamud, B. D.

2008-12-01

125

Governance Responses to Rapid Growth in Environmentally Sensitive Areas of Coastal Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The twin forces of rising affluence and population are altering coastal communities around the world. High amenity, environmentally sensitive areas—particularly attractive, non-metropolitan coastal environments—are witnessing a tidal wave of in migration from former urbanites. As a result, these communities are struggling to accommodate growing numbers of people with urban tastes and rural dreams in areas with governance structures and physical

Nicole Gurran; Edward J. Blakely; Caroline Squires

2007-01-01

126

Sensitivity analysis of sediment resuspension parameters in coastal area of southern Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model sensitivity analysis was performed to identify and compare quantitatively the important resuspension parameters in the coastal area of southern Lake Michigan. A one-dimensional resuspension and bed model capable of dealing with the type of mixed sediments (fine-grained+sand) common in the coastal area was developed and utilized to compare with measured suspended sediment concentrations. The results show that the most

Cheegwan Lee; David J. Schwab; Nathan Hawley

2005-01-01

127

Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

2011-11-01

128

Combined Analysis Using River Flow and Leaf Area Index in an Evaluation of a Spatially-Distributed Hydro-Ecologic Model for Semi-Arid Shrubland Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed hydro-ecologic models which link seasonal streamflow, soil moisture and evapotranspiration patterns with spatial patterns of vegetation are important tools for understanding the sensitivity of Mediterranean shrubland ecosystems to future climate and land use change. Applying spatially distributed process based models to investigate these interactions, however, must address issues of parameter uncertainty and calibration. Monte-carlo based approaches that evaluate metrics

J. Choate; C. Tague; A. Hope; R. Bruce; L. Ploessel; M. Anaya

2003-01-01

129

Factors affecting the underwater noise of commercial vessels operating in environmentally sensitive areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater noise radiated from commercial vessels is becoming a concern for cruise vessels and work boats operating in environmentally sensitive areas. This paper assesses the primary noise sources and transmission paths controlling the vessel's signature. The relative contribution of machinery induced noise (diesel, gas turbine) and propulsor (propeller, water jet, azipod) induced noise will be highlighted. It is necessary to

R. W. Fischer; N. A. Brown

2005-01-01

130

Land-use planning to conserve habitat for area-sensitive forest birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models predicting the occurrence of area-sensitive bird species in forests were developed from bird survey data from 499 forests in Prince George's County, Maryland. The predicted probabilities of occurrence for species were integrated with forest cover data for the County in a Geographic Information System (GIS). This information was used in combination with local zoning and forest conservation requirements to

Lonnie J. Darr; Deanna K. Dawson; Chandler S. Robbins

1998-01-01

131

Assessing noise pollution in sensitive areas: Soundscape analysis in an alpine valley by psychoacoustic means  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine valleys are sensitive areas due to topography, meteorology, housing, and land-use pattern, that modify noise propagation and make protection against noise pollution rather difficult. The ``amphitheater'' effect was mentioned as explanation for deviating noise-annoyance curves and health effects observed at lower sound levels. However, detailed empirical analyses are lacking. In this study a series of simultaneous, binaural sound recordings

Peter Lercher; Klaus Genuit; Urs Reichart; Dietrich Heimann

2001-01-01

132

Designation of marine protected areas in Belgium: A legal and ecological success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Belgium a long process (1999–2005) led to the designation of several marine protected areas (MPAs). In order to analyse the designation process, the ‘policy arrangement approach’ was used as an analytical tool. Attention was given to four dimensions (actors and coalitions, arguments, rules and resources). Particular attention was paid to the switch from an authoritative to a more deliberated

Dirk Bogaert; An Cliquet; Frank Maes

2009-01-01

133

Ecological strategies in California chaparral: interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared

Brian Anacker; Nishanta Rajakaruna; David Ackerly; Susan Harrison; Jon Keeley; Michael Vasey

2011-01-01

134

Spatial variation in river runoff into a coastal area — An ecological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to investigate spatial variation in terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) input to a coastal area off the Tagus river estuary. Isotopic variation in higher trophic level organisms was also examined, along the coast. This study was carried out in late summer, after a period of 3months of low river flow. The overall aim

C. Vinagre; C. Máguas; H. N. Cabral; M. J. Costa

2011-01-01

135

Hantavirus ecology in rodent populations in three protected areas of Argentina.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified hantavirus genotypes and their reservoirs and evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of the virus in rodent population in three protected areas of Argentina over 3 years (2007-2010). A total of 837 rodents were captured with an effort of 22 117 trap-nights. We detected the genotype Lechiguanas in Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens and Pergamino in Akodon azarae. There was no correlation between seroprevalence and trap success of the host. The proportion of seropositive males was significantly higher than the proportion of seropositive females. The total length of seropositives was higher than that of seronegatives in each host species. Seropositive individuals were observed in warm months and not in cold months, which suggests an infection cycle. This investigation confirms that protected areas of central east Argentina are places with a variety of sylvan rodents species associated with different hantavirus genotypes where reservoirs are numerically dominant. Although there was more than one known reservoir of hantavirus, only one species had antibodies in each area. This can be explained because the transmission of the virus does need not only the presence of a rodent species but also a threshold density. Longevity of even a small proportion of the host population in cold months may provide a trans-seasonal mechanism for virus persistence. The seroprevalence detected was higher than the one found before in rodent populations of Argentina, and this explains the appearance of human cases in two of these three areas. PMID:21733047

Vadell, M V; Bellomo, C; San Martín, A; Padula, P; Gómez Villafañe, I

2011-07-06

136

The ecological and social basis for management of a Red Sea marine-protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farasan Islands in the southern Red Sea of Saudi Arabia have nationally and internationally significant conservation values, and are important for a range of marine-based resource uses. In preparation for the establishment of a marine protected area around the Farasan Islands and its management, surveys were undertaken to assess the state of the coastal and marine resources, and the

William Gladstone

2000-01-01

137

RESTORE CIRCULATION AND PROVIDE ECOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT IN THE FT. DESOTO PARK AQUATIC HABITAT MANAGEMENT AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will result in the design and environmental enhancement as it re-established circuitous flow in the bak bays of Mullet Key within the Ft. DeSoto Park Aquatic Habitat Management Area. Pinellas County is designing the project will use GMP funds for a portion of the co...

138

Large-area semi-transparent light-sensitive nanocrystal skins.  

PubMed

We report a large-area, semi-transparent, light-sensitive nanocrystal skin (LS-NS) platform consisting of single monolayer colloidal nanocrystals. LS-NS devices, which were fabricated over areas up to 48 cm(2) using spray-coating and several cm-squares using dip-coating, are operated on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, unlike the conventional charge collection. Implementing proof-of-concept devices using CdTe nanocrystals with ligand removal, we observed a substantial sensitivity enhancement factor of ~73%, accompanied with a 3-fold faster response time (<100 ms). With fully sealed nanocrystal monolayers, LS-NS is found to be highly stable under ambient conditions, promising for low-cost large-area UV/visible sensing in windows and facades of smart buildings. PMID:23187342

Akhavan, Shahab; Guzelturk, Burak; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

2012-11-01

139

Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological variation of waterbird habitats in Dongtan area of Chongming Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Landsat TM images, we explored the pattern of variation of suitable waterbird habitats from 1990 to 2008 in the Dongtan area of Chongming Island at the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. By applying our highly accurate indicator model ( R=0.999, P<0.01), we quantified the variations of fluctuation intensity for local waterbird habitats during 1990-2008, and for the main waterbird groups (Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae) from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate the impact of habitat quantity change on the waterbird habitat status and the population dynamics of the different waterbird groups. The results show that the aquaculture ponds (AP) and the Scirpus mariqueter zone (SMZ) underwent drastic habitat changes during certain periods (AP: 1997-2000, 2000-2003, 2005-2008; SMZ: 1997-2000), and the fluctuation intensity differed among habitat types in the order AP>SMZ>TSH (total suitable habitat)>BSA (bare mud flat and shallow water area). The abandonment of tracts of aquaculture ponds in Dongtan in mid-2006 brought about an intensive population fluctuation, caused by rapidly changing habitat with the population expanding to adjacent areas. At present, Anatidae and Ardeidae are threatened in the Dongtan area with declining populations because of their very "picky" habitat requirements (i.e., high reliance on AP). The Charadriidae experienced enormous population declines in the late 1990s, however, they have since recovered to normal levels as habitat change has stabilized. Our findings suggest that the current challenges for habitat management are the protection and stabilization of AP and SMZ habitats.

Fan, Xuezhong; Zhang, Liquan

2012-05-01

140

Adult anopheline ecology and malaria transmission in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan has been carried out on a large scale since the development of the Indus Basin Irrigation System in the late 19th century. The objective of our study was to understand how the population dynamics of adult anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) could be related to malaria transmission in rural areas with intensive irrigation and a history of malaria epidemics. In this paper we present our observations from three villages located along an irrigation canal in South Punjab. The study was carried out from 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000. Mosquitoes were collected from bedrooms using the pyrethroid spraycatch method and from vegetation and animal sheds using backpack aspirators. Overall, Anopheles subpictus Grassi sensu lato predominated (55.6%), followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l. (41.4%), An. culicifacies Giles s.l. (2.0%), An. pulcherrimus Theobald (1.0%) and An. peditaeniatus Leicester (0.1%). Most mosquitoes (98.8%) were collected from indoor resting-sites whereas collections from potential resting-sites outdoors accounted for only 1.2% of total anopheline densities, confirming the endophilic behaviour of anophelines in Pakistan. Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations peaked in August, September and October, respectively. High temperatures and low rainfall negatively affected seasonal abundance in our area. There were interesting differences in anopheline fauna between villages, with An. culicifacies occurring almost exclusively in the village at the head of the irrigation canal, where waterlogged and irrigated fields prevailed. Monthly house-to-house fever surveys showed that malaria transmission remained low with an overall slide positivity rate of 2.4% and all cases were due to infection with Plasmodium vivax. The most plausible explanation for low transmission in our study area seems to be the low density of Pakistan's primary malaria vector, An. culicifacies. The role of other species such as An. stephensi is not clear. Our observations indicate that, in South Punjab, irrigation-related sites support the breeding of anopheline mosquitoes, including the vectors of malaria. As our study was carried out during a year with exceptionally hot and dry climatic conditions, densities and longevity of mosquitoes would probably be higher in other years and could result in more significant malaria transmission than we observed. To assess the overall importance of irrigation-related sites in the epidemiology of malaria in the Punjab, more studies are needed to compare irrigated and non-irrigated areas. PMID:15189239

Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J; Mukhtar, M; van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F

2004-06-01

141

[Dynamics of plant community species diversity in the process of ecological rehabilitation in north Shaanxi loess area].  

PubMed

Based on the vegetation survey on 18 sampling plots in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, and by using the methods of substituting space series for time series and of contrastive analysis, the dynamics of plant community species diversity in the process of ecological rehabilitation in the County was analyzed from the aspects of succession time, rehabilitation mode, and slope direction. The results showed that in the 25 years natural succession series, the natural restoration community on previous cropland experienced the sequence of Salsola collina, Artemisia scoparia, Lespedeza davurica, Artemisia sacrorum, and Bothriochloa ischcemum, with the dominant species tended to be changed from annual to perennial and from low-class to high-class. The variations of species number, Margalef index, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou index in the succession process could all be described by a quadratic function y = at2 + bt + c, suggesting that after the outside pressure removed, the degraded ecosystem in loess area could naturally restore to an advanced and steady state, but the restoration rate would be very slow. With the same site factors and restoration periods, the Margalef index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of herb layer decreased in the order of naturally restoring on previous cropland (I) > converting cropland to grassland (II) > converting cropland to forestland (III) > afforestation on barren hills (IV), while Simpson index changed in adverse. Comparing with natural restoration, the community types of herb layer in II and III were at the more advanced stage of natural succession series though the species diversity index was lower, indicating that artificial planting would accelerate the succession process. In the same period of rehabilitation, the Margalef index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of natural restoration community were obviously higher on shady slope than on sunny slope, and the community type was at the more advanced stage of natural succession series, suggesting that the basic ecological rehabilitation condition on sunny slope was worse, and the succession rate was slower. PMID:19459383

Qin, Wei; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Zhao, Lei-Lei

2009-02-01

142

Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas.  

PubMed

The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2012-05-01

143

Temporal dynamics of malaria transmission in two rural areas of Burkina Faso with two ecological differences.  

PubMed

To determine the relationship between malaria transmission intensity, clinical malaria, immune response, plasmodic index, and to furthermore characterize a malaria vaccine trial site for potential malaria vaccines candidate testing, a study was conducted in Tensobtenga and Balonguen, two villages in Burkina Faso characterized by different malaria transmission levels. The study villages are located in a Sudan savanna area. Malaria transmission is seasonal and peaks in September in these villages. Tensobtenga and Balonguen are comparables in all aspects, except the presence of an artificial lake and wetlands in Tensobtenga. The mosquitoes sampling sites were randomly selected, taking into consideration the number of potential breeding sites, and the number of households in each village. Three times a week during 12 mo mosquitoes were collected by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention light traps in sentinel sites. To assess the infectivity the mosquitoes double ELISAs tests were performed on thoraces of female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) and Anopheles funestus. A total of 54,392 female Anopheles, representing 92.71% of the total mosquitoes, were collected. The peaks of aggressiveness because of either An. gambiae s.l. or An. funestus were observed in September in each of the villages. However, these peaks were lower in Balonguen compared with Tensobtenga. Malaria cumulative aggressiveness and transmission intensity because of both species peaked in September in each of the two villages, with lower values in Balonguen in comparison to Tensobtenga From February to May, malaria transmission intensity is negligible in Balonguen and <1 bite/person/mo is observed in Tensobtenga. These results have confirmed the marked seasonality of malaria transmission in the study area. PMID:20695277

Ilboudo-Sanogo, Edith; Tiono, B Alfred; Sagnon, N'Falé; Cuzin Ouattara, Nadine; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B

2010-07-01

144

Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area. Methods: The whole of Genoa and one of its 25 districts (Rivarolo) were selected as controls. The trend of risk around the coke oven was evaluated via Stone's method, while the geographic pattern of such risks across the Cornigliano district was evaluated by computing full Bayes estimates of standardised incidence ratio (FBE-SIR). Results: In males, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for all lymphohaematopoietic cancers (RR 1.7 v Rivarolo and 1.6 v Genoa), for NHL (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.7 v Genoa), and for leukaemia (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.9 v Genoa). In females, statistically non-significant RR were observed. In males no excess of risk was found close to the coke oven. In females, a rising risk for NHL was observed approaching the plant, although statistical significance was not reached, while the risk for leukaemia was not evaluable due to the small number of cases. Analysis of the geographic pattern of risk suggested the presence of a cluster of NHL in both sexes in the eastern part of the district, where a foundry had been operational until the early 1980s. A cluster of leukaemia cases was observed in males in a northern part of the area, where no major sources of benzene seemed to be present. Conclusions: The estimated risks seem to be slightly or not at all related to the distance from the coke oven. The statistically significant higher risks observed in males for NHL and leukaemia, and the clusters of leukaemia in males and of NHL in both sexes deserve further investigations in order to trace the exposures associated with such risks.

Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F

2003-01-01

145

Urban Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

146

High-surface-area microporous carbon as the efficient photocathode of dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of cornstalks-derived high-surface-area microporous carbon (MC) as the efficient photocathode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photocathode, which contains MC active material, Vulcan XC–72 carbon black conductive agent, and TiO2 binder, was obtained by a doctor blade method. Electronic impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the MC film uniformly coated on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) glass

Shengjie Peng; Fangyi Cheng; Jifu Shi; Jing Liang; Zhanliang Tao; Jun Chen

2009-01-01

147

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2013-07-01

148

Assessing uncertainty in ecological systems using global sensitivity analyses: a case example of simulated wolf reintroduction effects on elk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Often landmark conservation decisions are made despite an incomplete knowledge of system behavior and inexact predictions of how complex ecosystems will respond to management actions. For example, predicting the feasibility and likely effects of restoring top-level carnivores such as the gray wolf (Canis lupus) to North American wilderness areas is hampered by incomplete knowledge of the predator-prey system processes and properties. In such cases, global sensitivity measures, such as Sobola?? indices, allow one to quantify the effect of these uncertainties on model predictions. Sobola?? indices are calculated by decomposing the variance in model predictions (due to parameter uncertainty) into main effects of model parameters and their higher order interactions. Model parameters with large sensitivity indices can then be identified for further study in order to improve predictive capabilities. Here, we illustrate the use of Sobola?? sensitivity indices to examine the effect of parameter uncertainty on the predicted decline of elk (Cervus elaphus) population sizes following a hypothetical reintroduction of wolves to Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. The strength of density dependence acting on survival of adult elk and magnitude of predation were the most influential factors controlling elk population size following a simulated wolf reintroduction. In particular, the form of density dependence in natural survival rates and the per-capita predation rate together accounted for over 90% of variation in simulated elk population trends. Additional research on wolf predation rates on elk and natural compensations in prey populations is needed to reliably predict the outcome of predatora??prey system behavior following wolf reintroductions.

Fieberg, J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

2005-01-01

149

Ecology and host specificity of laelapine mites (Acari: Laelapidae) of small mammals in an Atlantic forest area of Brazil.  

PubMed

Mesostigmatic mites of the Laelapinae Berlese, 1892 (Acari: Laelapidae) are nidicolous arthropods that commonly occur in the fur of Neotropical small mammmals. In this 2-yr study, the laelapine acarofauna associated with the small mammal community in an area of Atlantic forest on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, was examined, including observations on patterns of host specificity, mite dispersal, ecology, and food habits. A total of 1,347 laelapines was sampled from the pelage of 6 species of small mammals (Marmosops incanus, Nectomys squamipes, Oryzomys russatus, Rhipidomys n. sp., Oxymycterus dasytrichus, and Trinomys dimidiatus), all of which occurred exclusively in monoxenous associations with their hosts. No evidence of a blood meal was observed in the gut of the mites. With the exception of the 2 species of Tur, mite populations on hosts were entirely or nearly restricted to adult females. These results, together with some morphological characteristics of laelapines, reinforce the hypotheses that Neotropical laelapine mites are not ectoparasitic, and that females disperse by phoresy. PMID:12053977

Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Gettinger, Donald; Bergallo, Helena G

2002-02-01

150

Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.  

PubMed

A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. PMID:21635640

Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

2011-06-01

151

[Ecological management model of agriculture-pasture ecotone based on the theory of energy and material flow--a case study in Houshan dryland area of Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

The degradation of ecological environment in the agriculture-pasture ecotone in northern China has been paid more attentions. Based on our many years' research and under the guide of energy and material flow theory, this paper put forward an ecological management model, with a hill as the basic cell and according to the natural, social and economic characters of Houshan dryland farming area inside the north agriculture-pasture ecotone. The input and output of three models, i.e., the traditional along-slope-tillage model, the artificial grassland model and the ecological management model, were observed and recorded in detail in 1999. Energy and material flow analysis based on field test showed that compared with traditional model, ecological management model could increase solar use efficiency by 8.3%, energy output by 8.7%, energy conversion efficiency by 19.4%, N output by 26.5%, N conversion efficiency by 57.1%, P output by 12.1%, P conversion efficiency by 45.0%, and water use efficiency by 17.7%. Among the models, artificial grassland model had the lowest solar use efficiency, energy output and energy conversion efficiency; while the ecological management model had the most outputs and benefits, was the best model with high economic effect, and increased economic benefits by 16.1%, compared with the traditional model. PMID:15334949

Fan, Jinlong; Pan, Zhihua; Zhao, Ju; Zheng, Dawei; Tuo, Debao; Zhao, Peiyi

2004-04-01

152

[Expansion of sensitivity area for magnetic resonance imaging of the hand using parallel-array coil].  

PubMed

It is difficult for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients to remain in a strenuous position for a long time during examinations. The field of view (FOV): 250 mm is needed for hand examinations from the wrist to the finger. Two channel phased array coils are effective to use when examinations of the 'off center' are taken for the upper and lower extremities. The area of the array coils' sensitivity can be expanded by shifting both coil elements 40-60% in the opposite direction of the element's diameter. This method is given credibility due to the increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the peripheral regions (shifted directions), but loses value in the central area, as indicated by the decrease in SNR. This was confirmed in the image of the hand using visual assessment including the fat suppression technique. It was verified that the sensitivity area was expanded using Scheffe's method of paired comparison (Ura's modified method). An application at the other regions of the body can be expected to be used in the case of using parallel positioned coils during clinical situation. PMID:23089837

Takatsu, Yasuo; Yamamura, Kenichirou; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Ishikuro, Akihiro

2012-01-01

153

A New Sensitivity Analysis and Solution Method for Scintillometer Measurements of Area-Averaged Turbulent Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length l_o and refractive index structure function C_n^2 allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as l_o. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.

Gruber, Matthew; Fochesatto, Gilberto J.

2013-07-01

154

Minnesota's Sensitive Lakeshore Identification Manual: A Conservation Strategy for Minnesota's Lakeshores, January 2009. Version 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual explains the survey protocol used to identify and map sensitive fish and wildlife shoreline habitat for Minnesota lakes. Sensitive areas are places that provide unique or critical ecological habitat, and they are important habitat for species ...

A. Carlson D. Perlegerg K. Thompson K. Woizeschke P. Perry P. Radomski S. Loso

2009-01-01

155

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

1992-09-01

156

Sustaining Visitor Use in Protected Areas: Future Opportunities in Recreation Ecology Research Based on the USA Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management,\\u000a is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have\\u000a improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes.\\u000a Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to

Christopher A. MonzDavid; David N. Cole; Yu-Fai Leung; Jeffrey L. Marion

2010-01-01

157

Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.

Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.

2000-09-01

158

Sensitivity Analysis of Remote Sensing Data: Comparing the Response of Vegetation Indices in Tropical Areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two decades, satellite remote sensing systems possessing high temporal resolution, but typically moderate or coarse spatial resolution, have increasingly been used to characterize and map vegetation dynamics. Assessing the seasonality of tropical vegetation has, however, been especially challenging. Tropical regimes of temperature and precipitation are generally less variable and pronounced than those in other biomes, and variations in plant growth are often more subtle. Using samples from selected tropical land cover types (tropical rain forest, tropical grasses, tropical deciduous forest, mixed forest and agricultural areas), sensitivity analysis will be carried out comparing different 'greenness' indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) derived from the MODIS/TERRA sensor. This analysis will potentially allow the selection of the best index to describe the particular behavior of tropical vegetation for further characterization of seasonal changes of such areas.

Bonifaz, R.

2005-12-01

159

Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009), using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107) and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136). The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significantly higher SMRs were identified for lung cancer (SMR = 145, 95% CI 100-203, p-value = 0.047) and cancer of the kidney and other genitourinary organs among women (SMR = 368, 95% CI 119-858, p-value = 0.025). Elevated SMRs for several other cancers were also noted (lip, oral cavity and pharynx 344, stomach 121, female breast 134, prostate 128, and leukaemias 168), but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

2011-01-01

160

Cycling of Sensitivity to Physical Dormancy-break in Seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) and Ecological Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

†Background and Aims Although a claim has been made that dormancy cycling occurs in seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) with physical dormancy, this would seem to be impossible since the water gap cannot be closed again after it opens (dormancy break). On the other hand, changes in sensitivity (sensitive $ non-sensitive) to dormancy-breaking factors have been reported in seeds of

K. M. G. G. J AYASURIYA; C. C. B ASKIN

161

Magnetolelluric data collection and analysis in the SES sensitive site of Ioannina area (Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two independent magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) studies in Ioannina (NW Greece) area have been reported. Their conclusions, however, differ essentially. To proceed in the correct understanding of the geoelectrical structure in that area, additional detailed observations in several sites were made. The analysis of the new data proves that the conclusion of Pham et al. [Pham, V.N., Boyer, D., Le Mouel, J.L., Chouliaras, G., Stavrakakis, G.N., 1999. Electromagnetic signals generated in the solid Earth by digital transmission of radio-waves as a plausible source for some so-called “seismic electric signals”. Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 114, 141 163] claiming a globally high resistivity structure in the area does not hold. Moreover the present analysis strengthens the model that the main geoelectrical structure of Ioannina area (being considered along a regional profile of the NE SW direction) is characterized by a high resistive formation in the upper crust, but inside it a set of narrow conductors (elongated in the NW SE direction) exists. These conductors provide support for the possibility that seismic electric signals emitted from distances of the order of 100 km can be recorded at the Ioannina SES sensitive site.

Rokityansky, Igor I.; Varotsos, Panayiotis A.

162

Testing the role of patch openness as a causal mechanism for apparent area sensitivity in a grassland specialist.  

PubMed

Area sensitivity, species being disproportionately present on larger habitat patches, has been identified in many taxa. We propose that some apparently area-sensitive species are actually responding to how open a habitat patch is, rather than to patch size. We tested this hypothesis for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) by comparing density and occupancy to a novel openness index, patch area, and edge effects. Bobolink density and occupancy showed significant relationships with openness, but logistic models based on an openness occupancy threshold had greater explanatory power. Thresholds remained approximately consistent from June through August, and shifted to be more open in September. Variance partitioning supported the openness index as unique and relevant. We found no relationships between measures of body condition (body mass, body size, circulating corticosterone levels) and either openness or area. Our findings have implications for studies of area sensitivity, especially with regards to inconsistencies reported within species: specifically, (1) whether or not a study finds a species to be area sensitive may depend on whether small, open sites were sampled, and (2) area regressions were sensitive to observed densities at the largest sites, suggesting that variation in these fields could lead to inconsistent area sensitivity responses. Responses to openness may be a consequence of habitat selection mediated by predator effects. Finally, openness measures may have applications for predicting effects of habitat management or development, such as adding wind turbines, in open habitat. PMID:22159812

Keyel, Alexander C; Bauer, Carolyn M; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Reed, J Michael

2011-12-10

163

Exploring the Sensitivity of Fuzzy Decision Models to Landscape Information Inputs in a Spatially Explicit Individual-Based Ecological Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This is part of an ongoing exploration of incorporating fuzzy logic into spatially explicit, individual-based ecological models\\u000a of dispersal. Following the theoretical discussion of Robinson (2002), a prototypical model of small mammal dispersal behavior\\u000a was used to demonstrate how the fuzzy control of dispersal agents could be implemented (Robinson and Graniero 2005a). The\\u000a implementation showed how the Extensible Component Objects

Vincent B. Robinson

2010-01-01

164

Retama species growing in different ecological–climatic areas of northeastern Algeria have a narrow range of rhizobia that form a novel phylogenetic clade within the Bradyrhizobium genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-seven isolates were isolated from nodules collected on roots of Mediterranean shrubby legumes Retama raetam and Retama sphaerocarpa growing in seven ecological–climatic areas of northeastern Algeria. Genetic diversity of the Retama isolates was analyzed based on genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified fragments of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer (IGS) region between the 16S and 23S

Boulila Farida; Depret Géraldine; Boulila Abdelghani; Belhadi Djellali; Benallaoua Said; Laguerre Gisèle

2009-01-01

165

Regionalisation of Climate Change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas.  

PubMed

This paper describes how to use sectoral planning information from forestry to predict and up-scale information on Climate Change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas. The method was developed and applied in the frame of the project RegioPower with focus on the case study region 'Oberes Elbtal-Osterzgebirge'. The data for our study was taken from forest management planning at level of the Federal State of Saxony, Germany. Here, a silvicultural system is implemented, which describes best practices to develop our actual forests into Climate Change adapted forest development types. That includes the selection of drought resistant tree species, a broad range of tree species mixtures per eligible forest development type and the tending, harvesting and regeneration strategies to be applied. This information however, exists only for forest areas and not for areas which could be potentially afforested. The eligibility of the forest development types within the actual forest areas depends on site information, such as nutrient potential, exposition and hydrological soil parameters. The regionalisation of the forest development types to landscape scale had to be based on topographical parameters from the digital elevation model and hydrological soil parameters from soil mapping. In result, we could provide maps for regional planning and decision making with spatially explicit information on the eligible forest development types based on forest management planning information. These maps form a valuable input for testing and optimising afforestation areas with regard to improving the ability of our case study region to mitigate Climate Change effects such as water erosion or drought. PMID:22925545

Witt, Anke; Fürst, Christine; Frank, Susanne; Koschke, Lars; Makeschin, Franz

2012-08-25

166

Efficient Damage Sensitivity Analysis of advanced Cu Low-k Bond Pad Structures Using Area Release Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient method to describe the damage sensitivity of three-dimensional multi-layered structures. The index that characterizes this failure sensitivity is an energy measure called the area release energy, which predicts the amount of energy that is released upon crack initiation at an arbitrary position along an interface. The benefits of the method are: (1) the criterion can

O. van der Sluis; R. A. B. Engelen; W. D. van Driel; M. A. J. van Gils; R. B. R. van Silfhout

2006-01-01

167

Application of ecological modelling to investigate the impact of domestic waste water to one natural river system in tropical area (the nhue river, outskirts of hanoi, vietnam)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality modelling has been employed as an effective tool to investigate the ecological situation of surface water sources. Within a researching collaboration of Vietnamese and French scientists, one portion, 40 km, of the Nhue river, outskirts of Hanoi city, northern Vietnam, has been investigated since the river has been highly impacted from anthropogenic activities and one 1-D ecological river model was formed based on the investigation. In this paper, biochemical process equations integrated with hydraulic conditions and human alterations are presented as the basis for ecological variation of this river system. Investigation showed that at the origin the river water remains untouched (nutrients are low in natural tropical water) while downstream the river is full of domestic pollutants (organic materials and nutrients). From the hydraulic, biological, chemical data and fieldwork experiments, the sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation have been carried out to verify the biochemical processes and optimise this model. Most calculations (simulation, sensitivity functions and parameter estimation) were performed with AQUASIM, a computer program designed for simulation and data analysis of 1-D river and other aquatic systems. The other supporting calculations for system analysis were implemented with IDENT based on output of a sensitivity analysis carried out with AQUASIM. The simulation results accomplished with available data indicate that the sediment exchanges and biodegradation processes emerge as the most important features that influence the water quality of the river where water is usually overloaded by domestic wastewater and where hydraulic characters are less pronounced. The model construction and simulation results have also pointed out that the river water quality has been spoiled dramatically after the main open-air sewer of the Hanoi city, the To Lich river, excesses to the Nhue. Beside, a metal speciation module was proposed to integrate with existing biochemical model in order to simulate the metal fractions in water column and metal exchange between river water and sediment.

Trinh Anh, D.; Bonnet, M. P.; Prieur, N.

2003-04-01

168

Ecological Society of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1915, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists that is dedicated to several primary goals related to the promotion of ecological science, raising the public's level of awareness of the importance of ecological science, and increasing the resources available for the conduct of ecological science. The website is an indispensable source of material about ecological science and the society's various activities, including the annual meeting, career opportunities, membership information, and publications. The publications section is particularly useful, as visitors can learn about society journals (such as _Ecology_), monographs, and the popular Issues in Ecology series. Visitors have complete access to the Issues in Ecology series (in English and Spanish). Journalists and the general public will want to look at the Public Affairs Office area which features news releases and the bi-weekly Policy News update, which summarizes major environmental and science policy news from the previous two weeks.

169

Identifying priority areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in Chiapas (Mexico): An operational approach combining ecological and socioeconomic criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of forest resources is a global issue and represents a considerable threat to both the functioning of ecosystems and the well-being of human communities. The recently introduced Forest Landscape Restoration approach focuses on building up a forest-based landscape that can improve biodiversity conservation, ecological functioning and the livelihoods of human communities. Reforestation, when properly planned, can mitigate the

Francesco Orsi; Davide Geneletti

2010-01-01

170

Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation o...

J. L. Downs L. L. Rozeboom R. E. Durham R. O. Cruz S. A. Mckee S. O. Link

2011-01-01

171

Ecologic studies revisited.  

PubMed

Ecologic studies use data aggregated over groups rather than data on individuals. Such studies are popular because they use existing databases and can offer large exposure variation if the data arise from broad geographical areas. Unfortunately, the aggregation of data that define ecologic studies results in an information loss that can lead to ecologic bias. Specifically, ecologic bias arises from the inability of ecologic data to characterize within-area variability in exposures and confounders. We describe in detail particular forms of ecologic bias so that their potential impact on any particular study may be assessed. The only way to overcome such bias, while avoiding uncheckable assumptions concerning the missing information, is to supplement the ecologic with individual-level information, and we outline a number of proposals that may achieve this aim. PMID:17914933

Wakefield, Jonathan

2008-01-01

172

Ecological Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The emerging subdiscipline of ecological aesthetics concerns the aesthetic appreciation of the world in its entirety, including\\u000a both the natural and built environments, and is consequently the broadest category of aesthetics. This area of study emerged\\u000a as a distinct field in the latter half of the twentieth century, although its historical roots may be traced to eighteenth\\u000a century British and

Ted Toadvine

173

Status and Ecology of Sensitive Aquatic Vertebrates in Lower San Simeon and Pico Creeks, San Luis Obispo County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes visual surveys during 1992 in San Simeon and Pico Creeks in coastal San Luis Obispo County, California. The authors objectives were to determine the status, habitats and relative abundance of five sensitive, aquatic species: the tidewa...

G. B. Rathbun M. R. Jennings N. R. Siepel T. G. Murphey

1993-01-01

174

BIAS IN ECOLOGICAL REGRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bias formulae are derived for ecological regression estima- tors. These formulae are useful for determining the direction and mag- nitude of bias in estimation. It is shown that when group cohesion is higher in areas with higher concentrations of group members and when polarization is higher in more homogeneous areas, ecological regression estimates of polarization will tend to be biased

STEPHEN ANSOLABEHERE; DOUGLAS RIVERS

175

Familial Aggregation of Skin Sensitization to Aeroallergens in a Rural Area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of allergic sensitization has increased all over the world during last years and allergic sensitization may be related to genetic or environmental factors or to both. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and assess the familial aggregation of allergic sensitization to aeroallergens in asthma index families. Methods: The skin

Yongtang Jin; Weiqin Wang; Yingchun Xu; Jinzhuo Zhao; Hao Liu; Saoli Xue

2009-01-01

176

An On-Demand Scheduling Algorithm for Time-Sensitive Transactions in Bluetooth Wireless Personal Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluetooth Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) is a new standard for low distance communications. In the WPAN, the time delay and bandwidth utilization are the bottleneck of network development. In this paper, an on-demand scheduling algorithm for time-sensitive transactions in the area of WPAN has been proposed. The algorithm referred in this paper is mainly composed of two important parts.

Tang Zhangjie; Pei Tingrui; Wang Xin; He Yunhua

2010-01-01

177

Summary of marine mammal and seabird surveys of the Southern California Bight area, 1975-1978. Volume III - investigators' reports. Part III. Seabirds - book II. Reproductive ecology and foraging habits of breeding seabirds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the findings of a three year study of the breeding seabirds of the Southern California Bight (SCB) area. The distribution, abundance, reproductive ecology, foods and foraging distribution of seabirds breeding in the SCB are discussed.

Hunt, G.L. Jr.; Pitman, R.L.; Naughton, M.; Winnett, K.; Newman, A.

1981-04-01

178

Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: Future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes. Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to recreation-related trampling on trails and recreation sites using indicators such as percent vegetation cover and exposed mineral soil. This applied approach has and will continue to yield important information for land managers. However, for the field to advance, more attention needs to be given to other ecosystem attributes and to the larger aspects of environmental conservation occurring at landscape scales. This article is an effort at initiating a dialog on needed advances in the field. We begin by reviewing broadly generalizable knowledge of recreation ecology, to separate what is known from research gaps. Then, based on the authors' perspective of research in the USA and North America, several research directions are suggested as essential for continued progress in this field including theoretical development, broadening scale, integration with other disciplines, and examination of synergistic effects.

Monz, Christopher A.; Cole, David N.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Marion, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

179

Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and analysis of sensitivity factors in the Tongbai-Dabie mountainous area of China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erosion reduces crop productivity and creates negative impacts on water quality. Soil erosion by water has become a problem worldwide and as concerns about the environment continue to grow, soil erosion remains a very active area of scientific research. In this study, based on advanced remote s...

180

Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950.  

SciTech Connect

White, D.L. 2004. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950. Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 324 pp. Abstract: The history of land use for an area is the history of the way in which humans have manipulated or altered the environment. Most land use activities can be viewed as disturbance to ecosystems. Within a given climatic regime, the interaction of the disturbance regime with vegetation, soil, and landform factors largely determines the distribution and composition of plant and associated animal communities. For these reasons, a greater understanding of the ecological impacts of both human and non-human related disturbance is needed to improve our ability to make natural resource management decisions. This document outlines the land use history of the Savannah River Site and surrounding areas from about 1780 thru 1950, when the site was converted to a government facility for the purposes of national defense.

D.L. White

2004-01-01

181

Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

1994-09-01

182

A low noise small area self switched CMOS charge sensitive readout chain  

SciTech Connect

A CMOS charge sensitive readout chain with self switched output and small layout area, suitable for pixel applications, has been developed. The system is capable of simultaneous position sensing and energy measurement on a real time basis. Each pixel circuit incorporates both analog and digital features to perform the dual task. The performance of several charge amplifiers was tested. The impact of type and channel length of the input transistor on the system noise was investigated. The read out electronics have been designed and fabricated in CMOS 0.8 {micro}m technology. The overall gain of the chain is 620 mV/fC, while the ENC is 58 e{sup {minus}} rms at a 140 nsec shaping time and a 105 fF detector capacitance. With a power consumption of 1.8 mW per pixel at 3.3V, it is a promising solution for X-ray pixel detectors. The paper describes the system architecture and reports experimental measurements.

Kapnistis, C.; Misiakos, K.; Haralabidis, N. [N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Athens (Greece). Inst. of Microelectronics

1999-06-01

183

Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For semi-arid regions, methods of assessing aquifer recharge usually consider the potential evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration rates can be below potential rates for long periods of time, even in irrigated systems. Accurate estimations of aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas under irrigated agriculture are essential for sustainable water-resources management. A method to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated farmland has been tested. The water-balance-modelling approach was based on VisualBALAN v. 2.0, a computer code that simulates water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer. The study was carried out in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain) in the period 1999-2008 for three different groups of crops: annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke) and fruit trees (citrus). Computed mean-annual-recharge values (from irrigation+precipitation) during the study period were 397 mm for annual row crops, 201 mm for perennial vegetables and 194 mm for fruit trees: 31.4, 20.7 and 20.5% of the total applied water, respectively. The effects of rainfall events on the final recharge were clearly observed, due to the continuously high water content in soil which facilitated the infiltration process. A sensitivity analysis to assess the reliability and uncertainty of recharge estimations was carried out.

Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Molinero, Jorge; Tamoh, Karim

2010-12-01

184

Assessing noise pollution in sensitive areas: Soundscape analysis in an alpine valley by psychoacoustic means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine valleys are sensitive areas due to topography, meteorology, housing, and land-use pattern, that modify noise propagation and make protection against noise pollution rather difficult. The ``amphitheater'' effect was mentioned as explanation for deviating noise-annoyance curves and health effects observed at lower sound levels. However, detailed empirical analyses are lacking. In this study a series of simultaneous, binaural sound recordings was carried out in several cross sections of the Wipp Valley along the central-European transportation route to the Brenner pass. During 6 weeks a wide variety of day- and week times was sampled with variable wind (``Foehn'') and weather conditions (dry, rain, snow). Sound recordings were paralleled by meteorological recordings near the source and on the slope. First analyses have revealed several facts. (1) The assumption of linear sound propagation to the slope is seriously in error. (2) Tonal components from gearboxes are a significant feature in the slope recordings. (3) Low-frequency modulations make the sound more intrusive on the slope-while near the source this feature is better masked. (4) Low background sound levels (<30 dB,A) on the slopes are in sharp contrast with incoming sound levels (52 dB,A,Leq about 1200 m from the source). (5) Meteorology leads to substantial changes in measured sound levels.

Lercher, Peter; Genuit, Klaus; Reichart, Urs; Heimann, Dietrich

2001-05-01

185

Use of remote sensing and GIS in mapping the environmental sensitivity areas for desertification of Egyptian territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is defined in the first art of the convention to combat desertification as "land degradation in arid, semiarid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from climatic variations and human activities". Its consequence include a set of important processes which are active in arid and semi arid environment, where water is the main limiting factor of land use performance in such ecosystem . Desertification indicators or the groups of associated indicators should be focused on a single process. They should be based on available reliable information sources, including remotely sensed images, topographic data (maps or DEM'S), climate, soils and geological data. The current work aims to map the Environmental Sensitivity Areas (ESA's) to desertification in whole territory of Egypt at a scale of 1:1 000 000. ETM satellite images, geologic and soil maps were used as main sources for calculating the index of Environmental Sensitivity Areas (ESAI) for desertification. The algorism is adopted from MEDALLUS methodology as follows; ESAI = (SQI * CQI * VQI)1/3 Where SQI is the soil quality index, CQI is the climate quality index and VQI is the vegetation quality index. The SQI is based on rating the parent material, slope, soil texture, and soil depth. The VQI is computed on bases of rating three categories (i.e. erosion protection, drought resistance and plant cover). The CQI is based on the aridity index, derived from values of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Arc-GIS 9 software was used for the computation and sensitivity maps production. The results show that the soil of the Nile Valley are characterized by a moderate SQI, however the those in the interference zone are low soil quality indexed. The dense vegetation of the valley has raised its VQI to be good, however coastal areas are average and interference zones are low. The maps of ESA's for desertification show that 86.1% of Egyptian territory is classified as very sensitive areas, while 4.3% as Moderately sensitive, and 9.6% as sensitive. It can be concluded that implementing the maps of sensitivity to desertification is rather useful in the arid and semi arid areas as they give more likely quantitative trend for frequency of sensitive areas. The integration of different factors contributing to desertification sensitivity may lead to plan a successful combating. The usage of space data and GIS proved to be suitable tools to rely estimation and to fulfill the needed large computational requirements. They are also useful in visualizing the sensitivity situation of different desertification parameters.

Gad, A.; Lotfy, I.

2008-06-01

186

Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in

Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

2006-01-01

187

Development of requirements for environmental specimen banking in ecological monitoring (exemplified by the Chernobyl NPP accident area).  

PubMed

Development of requirements for a data bank for natural media as a system of intercorrelated parameters to estimate system states are determined. The problems of functional agreement between experimental and calculation methods are analysed when organizing the ecological monitoring. The methods of forming the environmental specimen bank to estimate and forecast radioactive contamination and exposure dose are considered to be exemplified by the peculiarities of the spatial distribution of radioactive contamination in fields. Analysed is the temporal dynamics of contamination for atmospheric air, soil and water. PMID:8272829

Borzilov, V A

1993-11-01

188

Administrative Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

189

A forest without trees: Development of high-surface-area materials for enhanced-sensitivity SAW arrays  

SciTech Connect

Chemical sensor arrays are an alternative to the tedious development of highly specific single-analyte detectors. Recent efforts have focused on the chemical and physical diversity of interface materials for SAW sensor arrays. However, the issues of wide dynamic range and high sensitivity must also be addressed for sensor arrays to compete in applications requiring low detection limits. Because SAW devices respond in proportion to change in mass per nominal unit area of the device surface, sensitivity is enhanced by surface modification with high-area, thin-film coating materials: a greater mass of analyte is adsorbed at a given ambient concentration. The authors are exploring several classes of electrochemically prepared high-area films, materials whose formulations and processing are well documented for applications other than chemical sensors. They present results from films formed by anodization, chemical conversion, and electroplating, yielding surface area enhancements as high as 170x.

Yelton, W.G.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.

1998-08-01

190

Beyond positivist ecology: toward an integrated ecological ethics.  

PubMed

A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change. PMID:18946726

Norton, Bryan G

2008-10-23

191

Lateralization of a Sexually Dimorphic Brain Area Associated With Steroid-Sensitive Behavior in the Male Gerbil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission rates of an androgen-sensitive male courtship vocalization were positively correlated with the volume of only the left hypothalamic sexually dimorphic area, pars compacta (SDApc) nucleus in sexually active male Mongolian gerbils. The asymmetric relationship between brain nucleus and vocal behavior was confirmed in testosterone (T)-treated castrated adult males but was eliminated by castration of males and did not exist

S. D. Holman; J. B. Hutchinson

1993-01-01

192

The emergence of ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

By proclaiming that the protection of ecological health is as important as the protection of human health, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called attention to the relatively unexplored area of ecological risk assessment (ERA). The new field of ERA, while still in its infancy, is rapidly expanding and finding frequent application at many national hazardous waste sites. As with any new methodology, the rapid development of ERA has generated many unresolved questions: Should ecological risk be based on risks to individuals, populations, or ecosystems? How much is society willing to pay to save a small number of individual animals? What is a de minimis level of risk for an ecosystem? More importantly, the recent interest in ERAs has focused attention on the extreme sensitivity of ecological systems to environmental insults. In fact, the widely held belief among health risk assessors that protecting for human health will protect for ecological health is challenged by a recent EPA ecological risk assessment that illustrates that this may not be the case.

Travis, C.C.; Morris, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-06-01

193

The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Methods Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and ‘not good health’. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being ‘Mature Oaks’ and the least being ‘Urban Challenge’. Results Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of ‘not good health’ (?=0.312, p<0.001) and LLTI (?=0.278, p<0.001), after controlling for the deprivation of the area itself (‘not good health’—ß=0.655, p<0.001; LLTI—ß=0.548, p<0.001). The effect of the deprivation differential relative to the effect of deprivation was strongest in least deprived segments (e.g., for ‘not good health’, P2 segments ‘Mature Oaks’—?=0.638; ‘Rooted Households’—?=0.555). Conclusions Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that negative social comparisons between areas cause ill-health. This ‘psychosocial effect’ is greater still in least deprived segments of the population, supporting the notion that psychosocial effects become more important when material (absolute) deprivation is less relevant.

2013-01-01

194

Ecology of streams draining forested and non-forested catchments in an area of central Scotland subject to acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 12 streams draining forested and non-forested catchments was made in an area of central Scotland where slow-weathering bedrock was predominantly quartzite, schists and slates. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carriere) was the most common tree species. Precipitation in the area had an annual mean pH in the range 4.3–4.5. Streams within the planted zone were always more acid

R. Harriman; B. R. S. Morrison

1982-01-01

195

Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness.  

PubMed

The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans. PMID:21508614

Orrock, John L; Allan, Brian F; Drost, Charles A

2011-05-01

196

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This K-12 education program gives students (especially in the Phoenix, AZ area) opportunities to take part in real scientific research led by Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) scientists. Using this site, students learn data collection techniques used by scientists, called protocols. They collect initial data, using the protocols they have learned, and apply it in looking for patterns at their own research site (schoolyard or backyard). Their data can also be shared with other researchers and school kids to see what patterns in nature exist across the Phoenix metropolitan area. Their own hypotheses and experiments will lead to a better understanding of why those patterns exist and will help them to understand what real scientists are doing in their laboratories. Topics covered include arthropods, beetles, seeds, birds and vegetation.

197

The incidence and mortality for meningococcal disease associated with area deprivation: an ecological study of hospital episode statistics  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine whether incidence, mortality, and case fatality for meningococcal disease (MD) differs by area deprivation, and if this has changed over time. Methods: The population of children aged less than 5 years with MD was analysed as quintiles of area deprivation scores over two time periods, 1995–99 and 1991–94. Annual age standardised rates were calculated and the association between incidence, mortality, and area deprivation quintiles assessed using Poisson regression and the risk ratios determined. Case fatality was calculated from the odds ratio of mortality by area deprivation score for the two time periods. Results: There were 10 524 cases of MD and 441 deaths (4.2%). Incidence rates were higher for 1995–99 (45.4 per 100 000) compared to 1991–94 (27.4 per 100 000). Mortality rates remained stable over time, indicating a decline in risk of death of around 40%. The incidence rates for the most deprived quintile were around twice those for the most affluent quintile, but this gradient declined over time. A threefold gradient was seen for mortality rates across the top and bottom quintiles, which was constant over time. The odds of mortality did not show a linear pattern, with mortality being lowest in the first and highest in the second and fifth area deprivation quintiles. Conclusions: These data show that MD incidence and mortality are socially patterned. The determinants of case fatality are more complex and require further investigation.

Heyderman, R; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Brennan, C; Somerset, M

2004-01-01

198

Balancing the Need to Develop Coastal Areas with the Desire for an Ecologically Functioning Coastal Environment: Is Net Ecosystem Improvement Possible?  

SciTech Connect

The global human population is growing exponentially, a majority lives and works near the coast, and coastal commerce and development are critical to the economies of many nations. Hence, coastal areas will continue to be a major focus of development and economic activity. People want and need the economics provided by coastal development but they also want and need the fisheries and social commodities supported by estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Because of these facts, we view the challenge of balancing coastal development with enhancing nearshore marine and estuarine ecosystems (i.e., net ecosystem improvement) as the top priority for coastal researchers in this century. Our restoration research in Pacific Northwest estuaries and participation in the design and mitigation of nearshore structures has largely dealt with these competing goals. To this end, we have applied conceptual models, comprehensive assessment methods, and principles of restoration ecology, conservation biology and adaptive management to incorporate science into decisions about use of estuarine systems. Case studies of Bainbridge Island and the Columbia River demonstrate the use of objective, defensible methods to prioritize estuarine areas for preservation, conservation and restoration. Case studies of Clinton, WA and Port Townsend, WA demonstrate the incorporation of an ecological perspective and technological solutions into design projects that affect the nearshore. Adaptive management has allowed coastal development and restoration uncertainties to be better evaluated, with the information used to improve management decisions. Although unproven on a large scale, we think that these kinds of methods can contribute to the net improvement of already degraded ecosystems. The challenges include applied science to understand the issues, education, incentives, empirical data (not rehashing of reviews), cumulative impact analysis, and an effective adaptive management program. Because the option of net ecosystem improvement is often more costly than other alternatives, commitment by the local or regional community to this approach is essential.

Thom, Ronald M.; Williams, Greg D.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

2005-03-01

199

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

Dennis Hansen, David Anderson, Derek Hall, Paul Greger, W. Kent Ostler

2008-03-01

200

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988-2003: a population-based ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02). We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89). In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10). This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area. This observation warrants further research, for example in a study with focus on substances in urban ambient air pollution, as similar findings were observed in Greater Amsterdam.

Visser, Otto; van Wijnen, Joop H; van Leeuwen, Flora E

2005-01-01

201

Prediction of Areas Sensitive to Fertilizer Application in Thinly-Soiled Karst  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A careful analysis of surface depressions, fracture trace features, gas logs and aerial photography in conjunction with field surveys was used to identify karst features that are sensitive to groundwater contamination.. Our hypothesis is that portions of the watershed that are underlain by fractures and fast-dissolution pathways can be recognized from their surface topographic expression and relationship to fracture

Paul L. Richards

202

Cerebral lateralization of face-sensitive areas in left-handers: Only the FFA does not get it right.  

PubMed

Face perception is highly lateralized to the right hemisphere (RH) in humans, as supported originally by observations of face recognition impairment (prosopagnosia) following brain damage. Divided visual field presentations, neuroimaging and event-related potential studies have supported this view. While the latter studies are typically performed in right-handers, the few reported cases of prosopagnosia with unilateral left damage were left-handers, suggesting that handedness may shift or qualify the lateralization of face perception. We tested this hypothesis by recording the whole set of face-sensitive areas in 11 left-handers, using a face-localizer paradigm in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (faces, cars, and their phase-scrambled versions). All face-sensitive areas identified (superior temporal sulcus, inferior occipital cortex, anterior infero-temporal cortex, amygdala) were strongly right-lateralized in left-handers, this right lateralization bias being as large as in a population of right-handers (40) tested with the same paradigm (Rossion et al., 2012). The notable exception was the so-called 'Fusiform face area' (FFA), an area that was slightly left lateralized in the population of left-handers. Since the left FFA is localized closely to an area sensitive to word form in the human brain ('Visual Word Form Area' - VWFA), the enhanced left lateralization of the FFA in left-handers may be due to a decreased competition with the representation of words. The implications for the neural basis of face perception, aetiology of brain lateralization in general, and prosopagnosia are also discussed. PMID:23906596

Bukowski, Henryk; Dricot, Laurence; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Rossion, Bruno

2013-06-14

203

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. METHODS: In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer

Otto Visser; Joop H van Wijnen; Flora E van Leeuwen

2005-01-01

204

Ecological analysis in a polluted area of Algeciras Bay (southern Spain): External ‘versus’ internal outfalls and environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of organic effluents both inside and outside the Saladillo Harbour (Algeciras, southern Spain) are investigated. Although the external outfall has a greater rate of discharge, the low levels of hydrodynamism inside the harbour create an area of relatively stagnant water, with markedly different environmental conditions. A clear gradient of decreasing pollution levels was observed from the interior to

F. J. Estacio; E. M. García-adiego; D. A. Fa; J. C. García-Gómez; J. L. Daza; F. Hortas; J. L. Gómez-Ariza

1997-01-01

205

Application of ecological sanitation and permaculture techniques: food and water security for indigenous tribes and rural areas in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a demonstration project carried out in an indigenous tribe in Brazil. The project works with around 20 families and carries a demonstration site at the local school, including rainwater harvesting, greywater treatment and reuse, and application of urine as fertilizer. Around the area, 13 arborloo-type toilets and 2 banana tree circles receiving greywater were implemented. The project

Adriana F. Galbiati; Gustavo C. da Silva; Marcos V. G. Affonso; Paula L. Paulo

206

Monitoring the ecology and environment using remote sensing in the Jinta area\\/Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major monitoring area, a part of the middle reaches of Heihe basin, was selected. The Landsat TM data in summer of 1990 and 2000 were used with interpretation on the computer screen, classification and setting up environmental investigation database (1:100000) combined with DEM, land cover\\/land use, land type data and etc., according to the environmental classification system. Then towards

Anxin Lu; Lihong Wang; Xianzhang Chen

2003-01-01

207

Very efficient visible light energy harvesting and conversion by spectral sensitization of high surface area polycrystalline titanium dioxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using high surface area (roughness factor ca. 200) polycrystalline anatase films together with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II), RuLâ\\/sup 4 -\\/, as a sensitizer, the authors have achieved unprecedentedly high visible light to electric current conversion efficiencies in regenerative photoeletrochemical cells. Incident photon to current conversion efficiencies of 73% have been obtained at the wavelength of maximum absorption of the dye in the

Nick. Vlachopoulos; Paul. Liska; Jan. Augustynski; Michael. Graetzel

1988-01-01

208

Testosterone and Nandrolone Sensitization of Brain Anteroventral Area of Third Ventricle to Hypertonic NaCl-Induced Sympathetic Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgenic steroids increase atherogenesis, thrombogenicity and endothelial dysfunction when administered in high doses, however their effects on NaCl sensitivity of the brain anteroventral area of the third ventricle (?V3V) have not been explored. Sprague-Dawley male rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg\\/kg) and the femoral intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate monitored through a strain-gauge blood pressure transducer and

Francisco Rosa; Rafael Antequera; José Vásquez; Eduardo Romero-Vecchione; Angela Martínez

2005-01-01

209

[Ecological adaptability of leaf epidermis of erosion-resistant plants in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].  

PubMed

By the temporary slide method of leaf epidermis, an observation was made on the morphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of six erosion-resistant plant species in different soil erosion environments (gully, inter-gully, and inter-gully artificial Robinia pseudoacacia forest land) in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau. Compared with those in the gully, the stomata aperture, stomata density, stomata index, stomata apparatus length/width plasticity, stomata apparatus area plasticity, epidermal hair density, and epidermal cell density of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants in the inter-gully were 93.8% and 90.4%, 66.8% and 76.6%, 17.9% and 9.8%, 36.4% and 47.1%, 42.3% and 43.9%, 199.4% and 98.2%, and 46.5% and 50.1% higher, respectively; while in the inter-gully artificial R. pseudoacacia forest land, the same morphological indices of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants were 66.7% and 106.7%, 20.5% and 45.8%, 11.9% and 11.9%, 37.9% and 41.3%, 19.8% and 21.2%, 113.1% and 52.2%, and 10.8% and 28.1% higher than those in the gully, respectively. The epidermal hair length and epidermal cell area of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants in the inter-gully were 58.8% and 29.7%, and 40.3% and 37.0% lower than those in the gully, and the same morphological indices of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants in the intergully artificial R. pseudoacacia forest land were respectively 25.0% and 23.6%, and 22.2% and 19.2% lower than those in the gully, respectively. The results suggested that the erosion-resistant plants in the study area were able to adapt to various soil erosion environments by increasing their leaf stomata aperture, stomata density, stomata index, stomata apparatus length/width plasticity, stomata apparatus area plasticity, epidermal hair density, and epidermal cell density, and by reducing their epidermal hair length and epidermal cell area. PMID:23359923

Miao, Fang; Du, Hua-Dong; Qin, Cui-Ping; Jiao, Ju-Ying

2012-10-01

210

Spatiotemporal Frequency and Direction Sensitivities of Human Visual Areas Measured Using fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we have studied the variation in response magnitude, in each visual area (V1–V5), as a function of spatial frequency (SF), temporal frequency (TF) and unidirectional motion versus counterphase flicker. Each visual area was identified in each subject using a combination of retinotopic mapping fMRI and cortical flattening techniques. A drifting (or counterphasing) sinusoidal grating

K. D. Singh; A. T. Smith; M. W. Greenlee

2000-01-01

211

Ecology and technological capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated during Grillo grape vinification in the Marsala production area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapes of the “Grillo” variety, used to produce Marsala wine, were harvested from five vineyards with different climatic and\\u000a agronomic parameters, in order to obtain a first mapping of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inhabiting the production area. Marsala\\u000a base wine production was followed at a large-scale, and also two experimental vinifications, with different lysozyme and SO2 concentrations and in combination,

Nicola Francesca; Luca Settanni; Ciro Sannino; Maria Aponte; Giancarlo Moschetti

2011-01-01

212

Sensitivity, selectivity and stability of tin oxide nanostructures on large area arrays of microhotplates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of nanoparticle engineered tin oxide (SnO2) are reported, for microhotplate chemical sensing applications. 16 Å of metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, copper and silver were selectively evaporated onto each column of the microhotplate array. Following evaporation, the microhotplates were heated to 500 °C and SnO2 was deposited on top of the

Balaji Panchapakesan; Richard Cavicchi; Steve Semancik; Don L. DeVoe

2006-01-01

213

Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

1988-04-01

214

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta  

PubMed Central

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines.

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-01-01

215

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-07-22

216

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

An international symposium on ecological indicators was developed to explore both the potential of ecological indicators and the issues surrounding their development and implementation. his symposium presented state-of-the-science information on the identification, application re...

217

Locating Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in the Northeastern US: Internet Map Services as Tools for Improving Surface-Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northeastern US, runoff generation is governed largely by saturation excess, not Hortonian processes. As a result, simple methods of modeling locations and extents of saturated areas prone to generating runoff, also known as hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs), are in development for use by land managers to aid in timing application of potential contaminants, such as manure and nutrients in an agricultural setting, to avoid transport of these potential pollutants via runoff, thus protecting surface-water quality. To this end, a previously published relationship between Soil Topographic Index (STI) and probability of saturation was applied to a study area located in Lansing, New York, for displaying areas likely to saturate in an Internet Map Service (IMS) available online (see URL provided). These areas are delineated by a monthly percent chance of saturation from a 30 year Soil Moisture Routing model simulation. To increase the utility of this tool, current efforts employ an inexpensive array of wireless, near-real-time sensors for displaying current saturation conditions and HSA extents throughout the study area via IMS. This service will eventually incorporate HSA location forecasting capabilities with "stovepipe" linking to live National Weather Service forecasts and/or radar data to support planning and decision-making for land managers.

Seifert, S. L.; Lembo, A. J.; Schwarz, T. C.; Anderson, T. R.; Heavner, M.; Walter, M. T.; Fatland, D. R.; Knuth, E.

2006-12-01

218

What is dental ecology?  

PubMed

Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

2012-06-01

219

Backyard Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

2003-01-01

220

Ecological Footprint  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore their own Ecological Footprint in the context of how many Earths it would take if everyone used the same amount of resources they did. They compare this to the Ecological Footprint of individuals in other parts of the world and to the Ecological footprint of a family member when they were the student's age.

2007-01-01

221

Backyard Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

2003-01-01

222

Sensitivity of two dispersion models (AERMOD and ISCST3) to input parameters for a rural ground-level area source.  

PubMed

As of December 2006, the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model with Plume Rise Model Enhancements (AERMOD-PRIME; hereafter AERMOD) replaced the Industrial Source Complex Short Term Version 3 (ISCST3) as the EPA-preferred regulatory model. The change from ISCST3 to AERMOD will affect Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) increment consumption as well as permit compliance in states where regulatory agencies limit property line concentrations using modeling analysis. Because of differences in model formulation and the treatment of terrain features, one cannot predict a priori whether ISCST3 or AERMOD will predict higher or lower pollutant concentrations downwind of a source. The objectives of this paper were to determine the sensitivity of AERMOD to various inputs and compare the highest downwind concentrations from a ground-level area source (GLAS) predicted by AERMOD to those predicted by ISCST3. Concentrations predicted using ISCST3 were sensitive to changes in wind speed, temperature, solar radiation (as it affects stability class), and mixing heights below 160 m. Surface roughness also affected downwind concentrations predicted by ISCST3. AERMOD was sensitive to changes in albedo, surface roughness, wind speed, temperature, and cloud cover. Bowen ratio did not affect the results from AERMOD. These results demonstrate AERMOD's sensitivity to small changes in wind speed and surface roughness. When AERMOD is used to determine property line concentrations, small changes in these variables may affect the distance within which concentration limits are exceeded by several hundred meters. PMID:18939775

Faulkner, William B; Shaw, Bryan W; Grosch, Tom

2008-10-01

223

Directly grown large area single-walled carbon nanotube films with very high sensitivity to normal pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction thermal plasma was used to grow a large area, ~150 mm × 450 mm, and ~1000 ?m thick multi-layered carbon nanotube film. The film is made of a loosely woven structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes uniformly distributed among metallic impurities and carbon black particles. Under cyclic compressive strain, the film acts as a viscoelastic material. A model based on tunneling conduction was used to describe its high piezoresistive sensitivity to normal pressure. The gauge factor obtained for this film was 76.3, more than 20 times higher than the values achieved with a standard buckypaper made from the same nanotube source. This fast and straightforward approach for synthesizing pressure sensitive films is done directly inside the processing system during the growth of the carbon nanotubes. It could provide the means for producing low cost large-scale sensors, such as smart materials for civil and mechanical structures.

Genest, Jonathan; Su Kim, Keun; Sauvé, Annick; Boissy, Patrick; Soucy, Gervais; Beauvais, Jacques

2012-01-01

224

Mapping erosion-sensitive areas after wildfires using fieldwork, remote sensing, and geographic information systems techniques on a regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alterations in the hydrological cycle following wildfire due to the loss of ground cover vegetation and changes in soil properties have been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the rapid process of vegetation recovery reduces such negative effects. Vegetation cover before fire, fire severity, and geophysical properties are important factors that control spatial discontinuities involved in the vegetation-covering process. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability of high erosion in order to map erosion-sensitive areas after fire. The analysis was carried out in different plant communities burnt by summer wildfires in the pre-Pyrenean area (Spain). Three-year Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used for mapping wildfire areas and severity levels. Conversion to spectral reflectance has been applied for radiometric correction by normalizing topographic and atmospheric effects. Likewise, other physical variables have also been incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS): vegetation types, parent material, illumination, slope, aspect, and precipitation. The dependent variable has been characterized by means of fieldwork and a photointerpretation process based on high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs taken 11-12 years after the fire. Different logistic regression models have been used for mapping the probability of erosion. Results indicate that prefire normalized difference vegetation index values and aspect are the most important variables for estimating erosion-sensitive areas after fire (Nagelkerke r2 = 0.66; Kappa values = 0.65). Finally, the use of nonparametric models with environmental digital information based on GIS can facilitate the management of burnt areas.

PéRez-Cabello, F.; de La Riva FernáNdez, J.; Montorio LloveríA, R.; GarcíA-MartíN, A.

2006-12-01

225

Application of ecological modelling to investigate the impact of domestic waste water to one natural river system in tropical area (the nhue river, outskirts of hanoi, vietnam)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality modelling has been employed as an effective tool to investigate the ecological situation of surface water sources. Within a researching collaboration of Vietnamese and French scientists, one portion, 40 km, of the Nhue river, outskirts of Hanoi city, northern Vietnam, has been investigated since the river has been highly impacted from anthropogenic activities and one 1-D ecological river

D. Trinh Anh; M. P. Bonnet; N. Prieur

2003-01-01

226

Ecological footprint time series of Austria, the Philippines, and South Korea for 1961–1999: comparing the conventional approach to an ‘actual land area’ approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methodological advances for calculating Ecological Footprints in time series, and applies them to Austria, the Philippines, and South Korea for the time period from 1961 to 1999. Two different methodological approaches are taken: (1) The latest evolution of the conventional Ecological Footprint method expressed in ‘global hectares’, or normalized hectares with global average bioproductivity; (2) an ‘actual

Mathis Wackernagel; Chad Monfreda; Karl-Heinz Erb; Helmut Haberl; Niels B Schulz

2004-01-01

227

The Lazy Visual Word Form Area: Computational Insights into Location-Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

In a recent study, Rauschecker et al. convincingly demonstrate that visual words evoke neural activation signals in the Visual Word Form Area that can be classified based on where they were presented in the visual fields. This result goes against the prevailing consensus, and begs an explanation. We show that one of the simplest possible models for word recognition, a multilayer feedforward network, will exhibit precisely the same behavior when trained to recognize words at different locations. The model suggests that the VWFA initially starts with information about location, which is not being suppressed during reading acquisition more than is needed to meet the requirements of location-invariant word recognition. Some new interpretations of Rauschecker et al.'s results are proposed, and three specific predictions are derived to be tested in further studies.

Hannagan, Thomas; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-01-01

228

Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in the NTS operational areas 18, 19, 20, and 30) under the water table as a particle, those particles from the saturated zone detonations were tracked forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine the particles from which detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area. Out of the 71 detonations in the saturated zone, the flowpaths from 23 of the 71 detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, the flowpaths from 55 of the 71 detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area. Three different effective-porosity data sets compiled in support of regional models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport developed for the NTS and the proposed YM repository are used. The results illustrate that mean minimum travel time from underground nuclear testing areas on the NTS to the proposed YM repository area can vary from just over 700 to nearly 700,000 years, depending on the locations of the underground detonations, the pumping scenarios considered, and the effective-porosity value distributions used. Groundwater pumping scenarios are found to significantly impact minimum particle travel time from the NTS to the YM area by altering flowpath geometry. Pumping also attracts many more additional groundwater flowpaths from the NTS to the YM area. The sensitivity analysis further illustrates that for both the pre-pumping and 1998 pumping scenarios, the uncertainties in effective-porosity values for five of the 27 HGUs considered account for well over 90 percent of the effective-porosity-related travel time uncertainties for the flowpaths having the shortest mean travel times to YM.

J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

2009-09-10

229

An assessment of the attitudes of the inhabitants of Northern Karpathos, Greece: towards a framework for ecotourism development in environmentally sensitive areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study that sets out to explore the extent to which the local residents of the region of Northern Karpathos\\u000a and Saria in the southeast corner of the Aegean have positive attitudes and perceptions towards ecotourism ventures for sustainable\\u000a development. The area is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 and was chosen for studying

George Pipinos; Persa Fokiali

2009-01-01

230

Densely aligned rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays with high surface area for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

One-dimensional (1-D) TiO(2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with large inner surface area are desired in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). So far, good performance of DSSCs based on 1-D rutile TiO(2) NRAs remains a challenge mainly owing to their low dye-loading ability resulting from the insufficient specific surface area of 1-D TiO(2) nanostructures. In this paper, densely aligned TiO(2) NRAs with tunable thickness were grown directly on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by hydrothermal method, followed by a facile chemical etching route to further increase the specific surface area of the TiO(2) NRAs. The etching treatment leads to the split of TiO(2) nanorods into secondary nanorods with a reduced diameter, which markedly enlarges the inner surface area of the TiO(2) NRAs. The formation of 1-D rutile TiO(2) nanotube arrays (NTAs) is observed as well in the etched TiO(2) films. Finally, a DSSC efficiency of 5.94% was achieved by utilizing an etched TiO(2) NRA as the photoanode, which is so far the best DSSC efficiency that has been reported for the 1-D rutile TiO(2) NRA films. PMID:22899164

Lv, Miaoqiang; Zheng, Dajiang; Ye, Meidan; Sun, Lan; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Wenxi; Lin, Changjian

2012-08-17

231

Ecological studies on San José scale, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) as a new insect pest on pear trees in Burg El-Arab area, Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

The San José scale, D. perniciosus (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) was noticed on pear trees all the year round in Burg El-Arab area (50 km West of Alexandria). Bio ecology and population fluctuations of this serious scale insect were carried out during the two subsequent seasons of September, 2004 until August, 2006. The calculated infestation rates (%) assured the presence of three peaks in both seasons. The estimated densities of fluctuating individuals of D. perniciosus on the inspected pear trees showed two distinctly prominent peaks, in addition to an overlapping one between them. It means, that the San Josè scale, D. perniciosus had three overlapping annual generations on pear trees in Burg El-Arab area under an irrigation system. The individuals of all stages could be found on trees all over the year. The population of the inspected immature stages; adult females and adult males were recorded and discussed as well as the parasitized individuals by the aphilinid parasitoid, Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The population density of the San José scale (SJS) reached its maximum during spring, folLowed by summer, winter, whereas the least percentage was recorded in autumn months. The obtained data showed also variable effects of the prevailing abiotic factors on the dynamical oscillation of (SJS) individuals. The daily mean temperature and the dew point were not the dominant efficient physical factors. On the contrary, it has been proved that there were either significant strong negative or positive relationships between daily relative humidity, wind speed, infestation rate, and population density of this studied insect pest. PMID:19226784

Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

2008-01-01

232

General Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

233

Woody Plant Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Pierre Binggeli, who earned his doctorate studying invasive woody plants at the University of Ulster (UK), provides this interesting site on Woody Plant Ecology -- with a special emphasis on invasive species. The site addresses a number of topics in varied detail (based on the author's experiences), including Invasive woody plants, Tree autecology and biology, Temperate and Tropical forest ecology, Forestry, Sand dune ecology, and an ecological glimpse at several areas (East Usambaras in Tanzania, and Pitcairn Islands in the South Pacific). A separate Publications section lists Binggeli's papers on invasive woody plants and related topics. Note: to avoid the advertising pop-up screen, navigate the site using the links (and not the Back button on your browser).

Binggeli, Pierre.

234

[Regional ecological construction and mission of landscape ecology].  

PubMed

The eco-construction on regional and landscape scale is the one which can be used to specific landscape and intercrossing ecosystem in specific region including performing scientific administration of ecosystem and optimizing environmental function. Recently, the government has taken a series of significant projects into action, such as national forest protection item, partly forest restoration, and adjustment of water, etc. Enforcing regional eco-construction and maintaining the ecology security of the nation have become the strategic requisition. In various regions, different eco-construction should be applied, for example, performing ecological safeguard measure in ecological sensitive zone, accommodating the ecological load in ecological fragile zone, etc., which can control the activities of human being, so that, sustainable development can be reached. Facing opportunity and challenge in the development of landscape ecology, we have some key topics: landscape pattern of ecological security, land use and ecological process, landscape changes under human activity stress, quantitative evaluation of the influence on human being activities, evaluation of zonal ecological security and advance warning of ecological risk, and planning and optimizing of model in landscape eco-construction. PMID:15624799

Xiao, Duning; Xie, Fuju; Wei, Jianbing

2004-10-01

235

Retama species growing in different ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria have a narrow range of rhizobia that form a novel phylogenetic clade within the Bradyrhizobium genus.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven isolates were isolated from nodules collected on roots of Mediterranean shrubby legumes Retama raetam and Retama sphaerocarpa growing in seven ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria. Genetic diversity of the Retama isolates was analyzed based on genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified fragments of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer (IGS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (IGS), and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. Eleven haplotypes assigned to the Bradyrhizobium genus were identified. Significant biogeographical differentiation of the rhizobial populations was found, but one haplotype was predominant and conserved across the sites. All isolates were able to cross-nodulate the two Retama species. Accordingly, no significant genetic differentiation of the rhizobial populations was found in relation to the host species of origin. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene grouped the isolates with Bradyrhizobium elkanii, but sequence analyses of IGS, the housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, recA), nifH, and nodC yielded convergent results showing that the Retama nodule isolates from the northeast of Algeria formed a single evolutionary lineage, which was well differentiated from the currently named species or well-delineated unnamed genospecies of bradyrhizobia. Therefore, this study showed that the Retama species native to northeastern Algeria were associated with a specific clade of bradyrhizobia. The Retama isolates formed three sub-groups based on IGS and housekeeping gene phylogenies, which might form three sister species within a novel bradyrhizobial clade. PMID:19231126

Boulila, Farida; Farida, Boulila; Depret, Géraldine; Géraldine, Depret; Boulila, Abdelghani; Abdelghani, Boulila; Belhadi, Djellali; Djellali, Belhadi; Benallaoua, Said; Said, Benallaoua; Laguerre, Gisèle; Gisèle, Laguerre

2009-02-23

236

Soil Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

Killham, Ken

1994-04-01

237

Ecological Consultancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

2004-01-01

238

Warfare Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

239

Evaluating Social and Ecological Vulnerability of Coral Reef Fisheries to Climate Change  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need to evaluate the links between the social and ecological dimensions of human vulnerability to climate change. We use an empirical case study of 12 coastal communities and associated coral reefs in Kenya to assess and compare five key ecological and social components of the vulnerability of coastal social-ecological systems to temperature induced coral mortality [specifically: 1) environmental exposure; 2) ecological sensitivity; 3) ecological recovery potential; 4) social sensitivity; and 5) social adaptive capacity]. We examined whether ecological components of vulnerability varied between government operated no-take marine reserves, community-based reserves, and openly fished areas. Overall, fished sites were marginally more vulnerable than community-based and government marine reserves. Social sensitivity was indicated by the occupational composition of each community, including the importance of fishing relative to other occupations, as well as the susceptibility of different fishing gears to the effects of coral bleaching on target fish species. Key components of social adaptive capacity varied considerably between the communities. Together, these results show that different communities have relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of social-ecological vulnerability to climate change.

Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; Darling, Emily S.; Humphries, Austin T.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hicks, Christina C.; Marshall, Nadine; McClanahan, Tim R.

2013-01-01

240

Evaluating social and ecological vulnerability of coral reef fisheries to climate change.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need to evaluate the links between the social and ecological dimensions of human vulnerability to climate change. We use an empirical case study of 12 coastal communities and associated coral reefs in Kenya to assess and compare five key ecological and social components of the vulnerability of coastal social-ecological systems to temperature induced coral mortality [specifically: 1) environmental exposure; 2) ecological sensitivity; 3) ecological recovery potential; 4) social sensitivity; and 5) social adaptive capacity]. We examined whether ecological components of vulnerability varied between government operated no-take marine reserves, community-based reserves, and openly fished areas. Overall, fished sites were marginally more vulnerable than community-based and government marine reserves. Social sensitivity was indicated by the occupational composition of each community, including the importance of fishing relative to other occupations, as well as the susceptibility of different fishing gears to the effects of coral bleaching on target fish species. Key components of social adaptive capacity varied considerably between the communities. Together, these results show that different communities have relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of social-ecological vulnerability to climate change. PMID:24040228

Cinner, Joshua E; Huchery, Cindy; Darling, Emily S; Humphries, Austin T; Graham, Nicholas A J; Hicks, Christina C; Marshall, Nadine; McClanahan, Tim R

2013-09-11

241

Functionalization of nanomaterials by non-thermal large area atmospheric pressure plasmas: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of non-thermal radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the non-thermal APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti(3+) ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of non-thermal APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing. PMID:23831925

Jung, Heesoo; Park, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Eun Sang; Han, Gill-Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho

2013-09-01

242

Linking field-based ecological data with remotely sensed data using a geographic information system in two malaria endemic urban areas of Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Remote sensing technology provides detailed spectral and thermal images of the earth's surface from which surrogate ecological indicators of complex processes can be measured. Methods Remote sensing data were overlaid onto georeferenced entomological and human ecological data randomly sampled during April and May 2001 in the cities of Kisumu (population ? 320,000) and Malindi (population ? 81,000), Kenya. Grid cells of 270 meters × 270 meters were used to generate spatial sampling units for each city for the collection of entomological and human ecological field-based data. Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite data in the visible spectrum at five meter resolution were acquired for Kisumu and Malindi during February and March 2001, respectively. The MTI data were fit and aggregated to the 270 meter × 270 meter grid cells used in field-based sampling using a geographic information system. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated and scaled from MTI data for selected grid cells. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between NDVI values and entomological and human ecological variables at the grid cell level. Results Multivariate linear regression showed that as household density increased, mean grid cell NDVI decreased (global F-test = 9.81, df 3,72, P-value = <0.01; adjusted R2 = 0.26). Given household density, the number of potential anopheline larval habitats per grid cell also increased with increasing values of mean grid cell NDVI (global F-test = 14.29, df 3,36, P-value = <0.01; adjusted R2 = 0.51). Conclusions NDVI values obtained from MTI data were successfully overlaid onto georeferenced entomological and human ecological data spatially sampled at a scale of 270 meters × 270 meters. Results demonstrate that NDVI at such a scale was sufficient to describe variations in entomological and human ecological parameters across both cities.

Eisele, Thomas P; Keating, Joseph; Swalm, Chris; Mbogo, Charles M; Githeko, Andrew K; Regens, James L; Githure, John I; Andrews, Linda; Beier, John C

2003-01-01

243

Teaching Ecology in Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

244

Sterols as ecological indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plots of the C-27, C-28 and C-29 sterol contents of marine plankton, higher plants, soils, and lacustrine and marine sediments form discrete areas in a triangular diagram. Because the positions of these plots of the various samples are relatable to biological sources, sterol analyses may be used to define ecological systems.

Wen-Yen Huang; W. G. Meinschein

1979-01-01

245

Achieving Whole-Landscape Management across Multiple Land Management Units: A case study from the Lake District Environmentally Sensitive Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many landscape and ecological features, such as riparian corridors, may span a number of different landholdings, and management practices are often inconsistent across those boundaries. Obtaining the co-operation of landowners thus emerges as one of the major obstacles to the attainment of Agri-Environmental Policy objectives, which are, to a greater or lesser degree, conditional on appropriate management practices being carried

Robert Macfarlane

2000-01-01

246

DECREASED SENSITIVITY OF NMDA RECEPTORS ON DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS FROM THE POSTERIOR VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA FOLLOWING CHRONIC NONDEPENDENT ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION  

PubMed Central

Background The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system mediates the reinforcing effects of salient stimuli, including drugs of abuse. Nondependent chronic alcohol consumption modifies this system, resulting in an increased number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Enhanced responses of postsynaptic glutamate receptors may contribute to the increase in active dopamine neurons. Thus, excitations of putative dopamine neurons to locally-applied NMDA (glutamate receptor subtype agonist) were evaluated. Methods P rats were assigned to alcohol naïve (water only) or alcohol drinking (continuous access to 15% alcohol and water for 8 consecutive weeks) groups. Responses of 23 putative dopamine neurons from naïve rats and 19 putative dopamine neurons from drinking rats were assessed in vivo using microiontophoretically-applied NMDA. Current-response curves for firing frequency and burst activity were constructed using nonlinear mixed effects models. Between-group comparisons were made for EC50 (effective current producing a half maximal excitatory response), Emax (maximal excitatory effect) and the CDB (the current at which depolarization block - marked decrease in neuronal activity - occurred). Results Drinking P rats steadily consumed alcohol over the eight-week protocol and did not exhibit signs of dependence or withdrawal. Putative dopamine neurons from drinking rats exhibited resistance to depolarization block (higher CDB values) and required larger doses of NMDA to elicit moderate excitatory responses (higher EC50 values), consistent with decreased receptor affinity. Maximal excitatory responses (Emax) did not differ between the groups, consistent with no change in receptor number. Blood alcohol was at undetectable levels at the time of experimentation. Conclusions NMDA receptor sensitivity is decreased on posterior VTA putative dopamine neurons in P rats on a nondependent schedule of alcohol consumption. Mechanisms underlying increased spontaneous dopamine neuron activity may be independent of changes in NMDA receptor function. Decreased NMDA receptor sensitivity may precede the development of dependence.

Fitzgerald, Griffin J.; Liu, Hai; Morzorati, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

247

Ecological inference  

PubMed Central

Ecological inference is the process of drawing conclusions about individual-level behavior from aggregate-level data. Recent advances involve the combination of statistical and deterministic means to produce such inferences.

Schuessler, Alexander A.

1999-01-01

248

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

249

Ecology of Subterranean Fishes: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ecological data available for subterranean fishes throughout the world is presented, and comparatively analyzed in an evolutionary context. Methods of ecological research are described, and their potential and limitations for the study of hypogean fishes are discussed. Ecology of troglobitic (exclusively subterranean) fishes is discussed with focus on distribution areas, population densities and sizes, use of habitat

Eleonora Trajano

2001-01-01

250

The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.  

PubMed

Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid deposition is predominantly in dry or occult forms. PMID:23085669

Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

2012-10-22

251

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

252

Signal and noise performance of large-area PIN photodiodes and charge-sensitive preamplifiers for gamma radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 5 cm long CsI (Tl) crystal scintillators, large-area PIN-type photodiodes of 1 cm×1 cm, and a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier, two gamma-ray detectors were manufactured. One detector used PIN-type photodiodes fabricated in the process of Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) and the other one was based on Hamamatsu PIN-type photodiodes of S-3590-01. Gamma spectroscopies were performed and analyzed for both Co-60 and Cs-137 gamma sources. The first detector showed energy resolutions (FWHM) of 6.4% and 5.5% for 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, which were similar to energy resolutions of the second detector for Co-60, but the second detector showed 6.6% better resolution than the first detector's 11.8% for Cs-137. For 10 h exposure of Co-60 (14.5 ?Ci), noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and spectroscopy for both detectors have been investigated in detail. The NEQ of 25% increased after the exposure and degradations of the FWHMs of 26% and 11% have been found for 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, respectively.

Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Jung Soo

2008-06-01

253

An in-vivo study of falciparum malaria sensitivity to Chloroquine in unstable malaria endemic area of central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The role of Chloroquine as a first line drug to treat P. falciparum is almost universally becoming questionable. This study was conducted in one of the country's unstable malaria endemic area, North Shoa with the objective of assessing the in-vivo treatment efficacy of Chloroquine to falciparum malaria using the standard WHO 14 days treatment response monitoring guideline. A total of 427 patients were followed among which 87.8% showed treatment failure. This was more pronounced in children than in adults (Chi-square for trend = 8.16; P < 0.01). Clinical presentation with high grade fever on day 0 was found to be more predictive of treatment failure in children (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.26, 3.36; P < 0.005). Tendency to remain febrile on subsequent follow up days was also more observed in children compared to adults. Treatment failure was further associated with high Parasite Density Index (PDI) on day 0 in all age groups (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.83; P < 0.05). Supplemented with large scale sensitivity studies, it is high time that switch to alternate drugs needs due consideration by policy makers. PMID:11957310

Kebede, F; Taffa, N; Tedla, T

1999-04-01

254

HIV/AIDS and Tourism in the Caribbean: An Ecological Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research.

Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

2010-01-01

255

Probing the molecular-level control of aluminosilicate dissolution: A sensitive solid-state NMR proxy for reactive surface area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two suites of volcanic aluminosilicate glasses, the accessible and reactive sites for covalent attachment of the fluorine-containing (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)dimethylchlorosilane (TFS) probe molecule were measured by quantitative 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The first set of samples consists of six rhyolitic and dacitic glasses originating from volcanic activity in Iceland and one rhyolitic glass from the Bishop Tuff, CA. Due to differences in the reactive species present on the surfaces of these glasses, variations in the rate of acid-mediated dissolution (pH 4) for samples in this suite cannot be explained by variations in geometric or BET-measured surface area. In contrast, the rates scale directly with the surface density of TFS-reactive sites as measured by solid-state NMR. These data are consistent with the inference that the TFS-reactive M-OH species on the glass surface, which are known to be non-hydrogen-bonded Q 3 groups, represent loci accessible to and affected by proton-mediated dissolution. The second suite of samples, originating from a chronosequence in Kozushima, Japan, is comprised of four rhyolites that have been weathered for 1.1, 1.8, 26, and 52 ka. The number of TFS-reactive sites per gram increases with duration of weathering in the laboratory for the "Icelandic" samples and with duration of field weathering for both "Icelandic" and Japanese samples. One hypothesis is consistent with these and published modeling, laboratory, and field observations: over short timescales, dissolution is controlled by fast-dissolving sites, but over long timescales, dissolution is controlled by slower-dissolving sites, the surface density of which is proportional to the number of TFS-reactive Q 3 sites. These latter sites are not part of a hydrogen-bonded network on the surface of the glasses, and measurement of their surface site density allows predictions of trends in reactive surface area. The TFS treatment method, which is easily monitored by quantitative 19F solid-state NMR, therefore provides a chemically specific and quantifiable proxy to understand the nature of how sites on dissolving silicates control dissolution. Furthermore, 27Al NMR techniques are shown here to be useful in identifying clays on the glass surfaces, and these methods are therefore effective for quantifying concentrations of weathering impurities. Our interpretations offer a testable hypothesis for the mechanism of proton-promoted dissolution for low-iron aluminosilicate minerals and glasses and suggest that future investigations of reactive surfaces with high-sensitivity NMR techniques are warranted.

Washton, Nancy M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Mueller, Karl T.

2008-12-01

256

Ecological niche  

SciTech Connect

The ecological niche of an organism is the set of environmental conditions under which the particular functions of the organism could be expected to assure its survival. It comprises both the set of conditions where the organism lives (often termed the habitat of the organism) and the functional role of the organism in the ecosystem. Recent works in niche theory have enabled ecologists to develop predictions and actual applications. The history of the niche concept, applications of niche theory, and ecological differences between similar species are discussed.

Shugart, H.H.

1980-01-01

257

Defending Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

Margolis, Brian

2000-01-01

258

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

259

Trash Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

Lind, Georgia J.

2004-01-01

260

Defending Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

Margolis, Brian

2000-01-01

261

Monitoring of clinical efficacy and in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in area along Thai Myanmar border during 2009-2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In Thailand, the proportion of Plasmodium vivax infection has become equal to Plasmodium falciparum. Reports of a trend of gradual decline of in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax to chloroquine in some areas of the country, together with accumulating evidences of chloroquine resistance P. vivax in other parts of the world, emphasize the need for closely and continuously monitoring clinical

Poonuch Muhamad; Ronnatrai Ruengweerayut; Wanna Chacharoenkul; Kanchana Rungsihirunrat; Kesara Na-Bangchang

2011-01-01

262

O3NO x -VOC sensitivity and NO x -VOC indicators in Paris: Results from models and Atmospheric Pollution Over the Paris Area (ESQUIF) measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional photochemical model has been used to interpret aircraft measurements from the Atmospheric Pollution Over the Paris Area campaign near Paris, with special attention to measurements that are related to predicted O3-NO x -volatile organic compound (VOC) sensitivity. The model (CHIMERE) includes a representation of ozone formation over Europe and a more detailed spatial representation of the region around

Sanford Sillman; Robert Vautard; Laurent Menut; Dieter Kley

2003-01-01

263

Small area estimation of the homeless in Los Angeles: An application of cost-sensitive stochastic gradient boosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many metropolitan areas efforts are made to count the homeless to ensure proper provision of social services. Some areas are very large, which makes spatial sampling a viable alternative to an enumeration of the entire terrain. Counts are observed in sampled regions but must be imputed in unvisited areas. Along with the imputation process, the costs of underestimating and

Brian Kriegler; Richard Berk

2010-01-01

264

Estimation of ecological high flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods can destroy fish habitat. During a flood a fish has to seek shelters (refuges) to survive. It is necessary to know the maximum discharge that the fish can sustain against the strong current. Ecological and hydraulic engineers can simulate the flow condition of high flow for designing the refuge when restoring and enhancing the rivers are needed. Based on the average ratio of the mean and maximum velocities invariant with time, discharge and water level, this paper tries to introduce the concept of ecological high flow. The mean-maximum velocity ratio can be used to estimate the mean velocity of the river. If the maximum velocity of the cross section is replaced by the maximum sustained swimming speeds of fish, the mean velocity of ecological high flow can be calculated with the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area can be estimated by the gage height. Then the ecological high flow can be estimated as the product of mean velocity of ecological high flow multiplied by the cross-sectional area. The available data of the upstream of the Dacha River where is the habitat of the Formosan landlocked salmon were used to illustrate the estimation of the ecological high flow. Any restoration project at Sonmou that try to improve the stream habitat can use the ecological high flow to design the hydraulic structure at suitable location to offer refuges for the Formosan landlocked salmon that is an endangered species in Taiwan

Lin, Jen-Yang; Chen, Yen-Chang; Hsienshao Tsao, Eric

2006-02-01

265

Oak Savanna Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will study the oak savannah ecosystems in Oregon to determine the environmental conditions that support this specific ecosystem. This lesson will be an inquiry based lesson that will create the foundation of a larger class project in which students explore the ecological changes to an area over time, and, using this data, develop an ecosystem determination and restoration plan for a site east of Cottage Grove. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Aumack, Stefan

2011-09-15

266

Scintillation Hodoscope with 50X50 cm sup 2 Sensitive Area on the Basis of Hodoscopic FEhU'S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems of choosing optimal constructions of sensitive elements of large hodoscopes on the base of hodoscopic photamultipliers are considered. The obtained results of numerical calculations for choosing optimal constructions and materials of hodoscop...

V. V. Borog V. V. Dronov V. G. Vasil'chenko V. I. Rykalin A. B. Demekhin

1986-01-01

267

Energy and ecology  

SciTech Connect

The use of any renewable or nonrenewable energy form has ecological and environmental consequences. To comprehend these consequences, we must first understand the technology of each energy form: solar, biomass, coal, petroleum, nuclear, and such alternative energy sources as ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal, wind, hydroelectric, ocean tidal, and ocean wave. The author examines the ecological principles, the food chains, and the effects of physical factors, biogeochemical cycles, and population growth. Separate chapters deal with the atmosphere, individual energy sources, carbon dioxide and climate change, electric power generation, and alternative energy sources. Intended for the lay reader, the book offers a multi-disciplinary awareness of the dangers of energy misuse and overexploitation while encouraging a sensible, sensitive stewardship. 234 references, 106 figures, 23 tables.

Gates, D.M.

1985-01-01

268

Geochemically induced shifts in catabolic energy yields explain past ecological changes of diffuse vents in the East Pacific Rise 9?50'N area  

PubMed Central

The East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50'N hosts a hydrothermal vent field (Bio9) where the change in fluid chemistry is believed to have caused the demise of a tubeworm colony. We test this hypothesis and expand on it by providing a thermodynamic perspective in calculating free energies for a range of catabolic reactions from published compositional data. The energy calculations show that there was excess H2S in the fluids and that oxygen was the limiting reactant from 1991 to 1997. Energy levels are generally high, although they declined in that time span. In 1997, sulfide availability decreased substantially and H2S was the limiting reactant. Energy availability dropped by a factor of 10 to 20 from what it had been between 1991 and 1995. The perishing of the tubeworm colonies began in 1995 and coincided with the timing of energy decrease for sulfide oxidizers. In the same time interval, energy availability for iron oxidizers increased by a factor of 6 to 8, and, in 1997, there was 25 times more energy per transferred electron in iron oxidation than in sulfide oxidation. This change coincides with a massive spread of red staining (putative colonization by Fe-oxidizing bacteria) between 1995 and 1997. For a different cluster of vents from the EPR 9°50'N area (Tube Worm Pillar), thermodynamic modeling is used to examine changes in subseafloor catabolic metabolism between 1992 and 2000. These reactions are deduced from deviations in diffuse fluid compositions from conservative behavior of redox-sensitive species. We show that hydrogen is significantly reduced relative to values expected from conservative mixing. While H2 concentrations of the hydrothermal endmember fluids were constant between 1992 and 1995, the affinities for hydrogenotrophic reactions in the diffuse fluids decreased by a factor of 15 and then remained constant between 1995 and 2000. Previously, these fluids have been shown to support subseafloor methanogenesis. Our calculation results corroborate these findings and indicate that the 1992-1995 period was one of active growth of hydrogenotrophic communities, while the system was more or less at steady state between 1995 and 2000.

2012-01-01

269

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be

T. F. Palik; J. T. Kunneke

1984-01-01

270

Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

1991-01-01

271

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

272

Ecological Theory and Community Restoration Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community ecological theory may play an important role in the development of a science of restoration ecology. Not only will the practice of restoration bene- fit from an increased focus on theory, but basic re- search in community ecology will also benefit. We pose several major thematic questions that are rele- vant to restoration from the perspective of community ecological

Margaret A. Palmer; Richard F. Ambrose; N. LeRoy Poff

1997-01-01

273

Evaluating Functionality and Sustainability of River widenings at the Kamp River\\/Austria concerning to flood protection and aquatic ecology including a numerical sensitivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catastrophic flood events of the years 2002 and 2005 in Central Europe showed clearly the necessity to act in terms of flood protection. The meaning of floodplain areas and the errors in land use management of the past became obvious by the occurred extraordinary discharges. Unfortunately a high use pressure exists in the surrounding of rivers and the important

Hauer Christoph; Schober Bernhard; Habersack Helmut

274

A methodological approach to assess sensitivity to desertification in two sub-Saharan urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines desertification as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century and the African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land. In this geographic area, desertification processes are usually generated by soil erosion due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Preventing desertification requires an improved understanding of its causes, impact, degree and association with climate, soil, water, land cover, socio-economic factors and their combined effects. The development of methodologies capable of managing large amounts of data in an integrated approach is needed because of the complexity and variety of forms of desertification processes. The study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to estimate the sensitivity to land degradation in the urban and peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (MEditerranean Desertification and Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (climate, soil, vegetation) and anthropogenic factors (land management). The methodology is adaptable to the local conditions, considering that some key indicators can be operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters and the scores assigned in order to match the specific relevance of the factors. All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Indices of Environmental Sensitivity (ESAI). As expected, the results highlighted an overall high sensitivity to desertification. In Ouagadougou, the poorly vegetated peri-urban zone, affected by an increasing demographic pressure as the result of immigration from surrounding rural areas, was found as the most vulnerable area; in Saint Louis, the critical zones were located mostly in the northern part of the study area, where both low quality of soil and overexploitation of vegetation, due to grazing and domestic use, increase the sensitivity to desertification. The described methodological approach has a potential to represent a valuable tool to orientate effective policies preventing and mitigating land degradation processes. Model validation and comparison with other widely applied methods to assess desertification are in progress.

Iavazzo, P.; Terracciano, S.; Topa, M. E.; Adamo, P.; Coly, A.; De Paola, F.; Giordano, S.; Giugni, M.; Touré, H.

2012-04-01

275

Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development

Mark Colyvan; Stefan Linquist; William Grey; Paul E. Griffiths; Jay Odenbaugh; Hugh P. Possingham

2009-01-01

276

Two-stage focus-hold system for rapid ultra-sensitive read-out of large-area biochips  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the development of a method for holding the focal plane in a fluorescence based biochip scanner. The fast readout of large (multiple cm²) glass slides as used in modern chip technology imposes severe constraints on the focal system. The limited focal depth of high-NA objectives together with the demand for single molecule sensitivity challenges traditional focus hold

Clemens Hesch; Jan Hesse; Jaroslaw Jacak; Gerhard J. Schütz

2009-01-01

277

Changes in Sensitization Rate to Weed Allergens in Children with Increased Weeds Pollen Counts in Seoul Metropolitan Area  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases in children has increased for several decades. We evaluated the correlation between pollen count of weeds and their sensitization rate in Seoul, 1997-2009. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from 3 stations around Seoul. Skin prick tests to pollen were performed on children with allergic diseases. Ragweed pollen gradually increased between 1999 and 2005, decreased after 2005 and plateaued until 2009 (peak counts, 67 in 2003, 145 in 2005 and 83 grains/m3/day in 2007). Japanese hop pollen increased between 2002 and 2009 (peak counts, 212 in 2006 and 492 grains/m3/day in 2009). Sensitization rates to weed pollen, especially ragweed and Japanese hop in children with allergic diseases, increased annually (ragweed, 2.2% in 2000 and 2.8% in 2002; Japanese hop, 1.4% in 2000 and 1.9% in 2002). The age for sensitization to pollen gradually became younger since 2000 (4 to 6 yr of age, 3.5% in 1997 and 6.2% in 2009; 7 to 9 yr of age, 4.2% in 1997 and 6.4% in 2009). In conclusion, sensitization rates for weed pollens increase in Korean children given increasing pollen counts of ragweed and Japanese hop.

Kim, Joo-Hwa; Lee, Ha-Baik; Kim, Seong-Won; Kang, Im-Joo; Kook, Myung-Hee; Kim, Bong-Seong; Park, Kang-Seo; Baek, Hey-Sung; Kim, Kyu-Rang; Choi, Young-Jean

2012-01-01

278

Changes in sensitization rate to weed allergens in children with increased weeds pollen counts in Seoul metropolitan area.  

PubMed

The prevalence of allergic diseases in children has increased for several decades. We evaluated the correlation between pollen count of weeds and their sensitization rate in Seoul, 1997-2009. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from 3 stations around Seoul. Skin prick tests to pollen were performed on children with allergic diseases. Ragweed pollen gradually increased between 1999 and 2005, decreased after 2005 and plateaued until 2009 (peak counts, 67 in 2003, 145 in 2005 and 83 grains/m(3)/day in 2007). Japanese hop pollen increased between 2002 and 2009 (peak counts, 212 in 2006 and 492 grains/m(3)/day in 2009). Sensitization rates to weed pollen, especially ragweed and Japanese hop in children with allergic diseases, increased annually (ragweed, 2.2% in 2000 and 2.8% in 2002; Japanese hop, 1.4% in 2000 and 1.9% in 2002). The age for sensitization to pollen gradually became younger since 2000 (4 to 6 yr of age, 3.5% in 1997 and 6.2% in 2009; 7 to 9 yr of age, 4.2% in 1997 and 6.4% in 2009). In conclusion, sensitization rates for weed pollens increase in Korean children given increasing pollen counts of ragweed and Japanese hop. PMID:22468096

Kim, Joo-Hwa; Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Kim, Seong-Won; Kang, Im-Joo; Kook, Myung-Hee; Kim, Bong-Seong; Park, Kang-Seo; Baek, Hey-Sung; Kim, Kyu-Rang; Choi, Young-Jean

2012-03-21

279

Green material: ecological importance of imperative and sensitive chemi-sensor based on Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we illustrate a simple, easy, and low-temperature growth of Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods with high purity and crystallinity. The composite nanorods were structurally characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which confirmed that synthesized product have rod-like morphology having an average cross section of approximately 300 nm. Nanorods are made of silver, silver oxide, and zinc oxide and are optically active having absorption band at 375 nm. The composite nanorods exhibited high sensitivity (1.5823 ?A.cm-2.mM-1) and lower limit of detection (0.5 ?M) when applied for the recognition of phenyl hydrazine utilizing I-V technique. Thus, Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods can be utilized as a redox mediator for the development of highly proficient phenyl hydrazine sensor.

Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Sayari, Saleh A.; Al-Assiri, Mohammad Sultan

2013-09-01

280

Designing eco-villages for revitalizing Japanese rural areas 1 Paper presented at ICEE 96—International Conference on Ecological Engineering, Beijing, China, 7–11 October 1996. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reestablishing a sound environment in rural areas has become one of the most important environmental issues in Japan, not only in rural policy but also in national land policy. Physically speaking, regeneration of natural ecosystems, reestablishment of sound material flows, and the design of rural landscapes are important areas of research and practice. Another important issue in the management of

Kazuhiko Takeuchi; Yutaka Namiki; Hiroyasu Tanaka

1998-01-01

281

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed Central

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress.

Patel, C K

1992-01-01

282

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

283

Watershed Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another informative Web site from the Environmental Protection Agency is the Online Training in Watershed Management page. Here, citizens have access to a wealth of information and tools to help them understand and protect their water resources. Six "modules" are offered, each of which take between a half to two hours to complete. They are organized by theme including an Introduction, watershed ecology, watershed change, analysis and planning, management practices, and community/ social/ water law. Each includes easy-to-follow and thorough descriptions, along with any additional resources that may be needed.

2000-01-01

284

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

285

Analysis of Orbit Prediction Sensitivity to Thermal Emissions Acceleration Modeling for High Area-to-mass Ratio (HAMR) Objects (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) inactive resident space objects (RSOs) in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) regime pose a hazard to active GEO RSOs. The combination of solar radiation pressure (SRP), and solar and lunar gravitational perturbations causes pert...

M. Jah T. Kelecy

2009-01-01

286

Modeling of Ecological Succession and Production in Estuarine Marshes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid disappearance and deterioration of wetlands as a consequence of increasing human utilization coupled with growing recognition by the scientific community of the ecological importance of these areas indicate the need to investigate ecologically sound...

J. C. Zieman W. E. Odum

1977-01-01

287

Bias magnification in ecologic studies: a methodological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As ecologic studies are often inexpensive to conduct, consideration of the magnitude and direction of ecologic biases may be useful in both study design and sensitivity analysis of results. This paper examines three types of ecologic bias: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. METHODS: Bias of the risk difference on the individual and

Thomas F Webster

2007-01-01

288

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. II. The badger population, its ecology and tuberculosis status.  

PubMed Central

Following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in Dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. The sets were found predominantly in areas of Portland Sand. A high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. The removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. Re-colonization of the area has progressed slowly and the cattle have remained free from infection for a period of 5 years.

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

289

Area under the Maximum Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve – A Sensitive Parameter in the Evaluation of Airway Patency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The most frequently used parameters for assessing bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation are forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Objectives: To assess the sensitivity of other parameters after induced bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation. Methods: From maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves, forced vital capacity, FEV1, PEF, maximum expiratory flows (MEF) at 25, 50 and 75% of vital

Alois Zapletal; Marie Hladíková; Jana Chalupová; Tamara Svobodová; Véra Vávrová

2008-01-01

290

Extreme precipitation during 1921 in the area of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research site, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

An unusually high amount of precipitation, including a world record 24-h snowfall, was recorded in 1921 at Silver Lake, Colorado, near the Niwot Ridge alpine tundra Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. There was 68.3 in. (1735 mm) total annual precipitation which was over five standard deviations above the 1914-1992 mean and the April snowfall produced 76 inches (1.93 m) of snow in 24 h. An investigation of these phenomena brings to light the following points. The precipitation at Silver Lake, and presumably the Niwot Ridge LTER site, during 1921 was exceptionally high. The precipitation was highly localized. There are no obvious causes for the high precipitation to be found in the synoptic climatology for the year. However, moisture sources from the west in the winter and spring and from the south in the summer do seem to have been available. Despite well-marked, but temporary, impacts on humans and possibly other higher mammals, there is no evidence of any major or long-lasting impacts to the alpine tundra or subalpine forest ecosystems. Higher temperatures and persistent drought, as might be found with global climatic warming, are proposed as potentially more important disturbance factors to these systems. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Greenland, D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

1995-02-01

291

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 °C and 17 °C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-08-09

292

Mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) community structure as an indicator of the ecological status of a stream in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Ephemeroptera is an important group of insects used in the bioassessment and monitoring of freshwater bodies worldwide because of their relative abundance in a wide variety of substrates and their increasing chances of detecting pollution impacts. In this study, their faunistic composition and spatiotemporal variations in density and diversity in River Orogodo (Southern Nigeria) was investigated at five ecologically distinct stations over a 12-month period. The mayfly nymph community responses to environmental variables were evaluated by means of biological measures and multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis [RDA]). Thirteen morphologically distinct taxa belonging to six families were identified. The dominant taxa were Afrobaetodes pusillus (23.1%), Baetis sp. (13.7%), and Caenis cibaria (11.4%). The density of Ephemeroptera differed significantly (p < 0.05) both in space and time. Diversity was influenced by substrate heterogeneity which in turn was influenced by catchment processes such as flooding and anthropogenic activities especially abattoir effluent. Based on the RDA ordination and relative abundance data, Baetis sp. dominated at impacted stations while a more equitable distribution of species were observed in less disturbed sites. Water velocity, canopy cover, nature of bottom sediments, and the amount of dissolved oxygen also accounted for the variations in Ephemeroptera densities at the different stations. Shannon diversity, taxa richness, and evenness were lowest in station 3 (the abattoir discharge site). PMID:19543701

Arimoro, Francis O; Muller, Wilhelmine J

2009-06-19

293

Potential ecological risk assessment of soil heavy metals contamination around coal gangue piles of Baodian coal mine area of Shandong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soil samples from 12 sampling sites around coal gangue piles of Baodian coal mine area in Shandong Province, China were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in soil of Baodian coal mine area were up to 30.91, 1.97, 37.78 and 101.81 mg\\/kg, respectively, which are much higher than their

Yande Jing; Baoyu Gao; Zongqi Ma

2011-01-01

294

Linking ecological and built components of urban mosaics: an open cycle of ecological design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. By the end of this decade, the majority of people will live in cities and suburban areas. Urban areas, including suburbs and exurbs, are expanding rapidly worldwide. 2. Plant ecology has largely ignored cities, or has primarily focused on the discrete urban green spaces within cities. 3. Plant ecology is increasingly engaging urban ecosystems as integrated natural-human systems,

2007-01-01

295

Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine transmission dramatically increases sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in the ventral tegmental area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine produces rewarding and aversive motivational effects in humans and other animal species. Here, we report that the mammalian ventral tegmental area (VTA) represents a critical neural substrate for the mediation of both the rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine. We demonstrate that direct infusions of nicotine into the VTA can produce both rewarding and aversive motivational effects. While the

S R Laviolette; D van der Kooy

2003-01-01

296

Principles of Political Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the concepts and principles of political ecology, i.e., the application of ecological principles to public affairs. The public issues of direct concern in political ecology are environmental quality; energy, materials, and other natural reso...

R. L. Shelton

1976-01-01

297

Landscape pattern and its effect on ecosystem functions in Seoul Metropolitan area: urban ecology on distribution of the naturalized plant species.  

PubMed

During land transformation process in the human history, naturalized plants were introduced to several land use patterns by the different ways of plant itself. Including some naturalized plants that had been contribute to land restoration, many naturalized plants have been invaded to original habitat or landscape for native plants. Once the plants were colonized, they extend their area and population size. Urban developed areas often give an important role of source habitat for naturalized plants and expanding their population size. In recent, this situation is appearing as one of environmental problem about the urban landscape management controlling the naturalized plants that invaded in the developed area and conserving the native vegetation. This paper is focusing on relationships between distribution of habitat of naturalized plants and landscape patch in urban areas in Seoul. Gangdong-Gu, one of the administrative areas in Seoul was selected for this study. We examined the recent land use change using LANDSAT TM data and spreading of the representative naturalized plants (Robinia pseudocacia and Eupatorium rugosum) by Seoul Biotope Mapping Project and field survey in 1999. As a result, these two species were often occurred in the same habitat and distributed in forest edge disturbed by man. Their distribution patterns were related to landscape indices (patch size and shape) in the forest edge. PMID:12765262

Hong, Sun-Kee; Song, In-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Eung-Kyong

2003-03-01

298

Ecological inference with R: the ecoreg package  

Microsoft Academic Search

In typical small-area studies of health and environment we wish to make inference on the rela- tionship between individual-level quantities using aggregate, or ecological, data. Such ecological inference is often subject to bias and imprecision, due to the lack of individual-level information in the data. Simple regressions of area-level mean outcomes on area-level mean exposures are usually biased. Well-specified models

Christopher Jackson

299

Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities  

SciTech Connect

Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01

300

A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE PLANKTON OF THE CLEVELAND HARBOR AREA, OHIO. III. THE ZOOPLANKTON, AND GENERAL ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON PRODUCTION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the year September, 1950 through September, 1951, a study was made of the Cleveland Harbor area in connection with a survey of pollution condi- tions in Lake Erie. The chemical and physical results of this study were pre- viously reported by Davis (1953) and Davis and Roney (1953). The results of the phytoplankton analyses were reported by Davis (1954).

CHARLES C. DAVIS

301

Glucose oxidase entrapped in polypyrrole on high-surface-area Pt electrodes: a model platform for sensitive electroenzymatic biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme entrapped in an electrosynthesized polymer film on a high-surface-area electrode is shown to be an attractive platform for the important class of amperometric biosensors based on oxidases and electrooxidation of the H2O2 generated by enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of analyte. Two Pt electrode surface morphologies, Pt black (Pt-BLK) and Pt nanowire brush (Pt-NW) were electrodeposited from chloroplatinic acid. Glucose oxidase (GOx)

Jianjun Wang; Nosang V. Myung; Minhee Yun; Harold G. Monbouquette

2005-01-01

302

A Nitric Oxide Synthesis Inhibitor in the Medial Preoptic Area Inhibits Copulation and Stimulus Sensitization in Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates copulation in male rats, and nitric oxide (NO) regulates basal and female-stimulated MPOA dopamine release. Microinjection of L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an NO synthesis inhibitor) into the MPOA blocked copulation in naive rats and impaired copulation in sexually experienced males. In other naive rats, L-NAME or saline was microinjected into the MPOA

Gwen Lagoda; John W. Muschamp; Anna Vigdorchik; Elaine M. Hull

2004-01-01

303

The Sensitivity of Schistosoma japonicum to Praziquantel: A Field Evaluation in Areas with Low Endemicity of China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility of Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in low endemic foci of China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a total of 43 of 1,242 subjects were identified as being infected with the parasite using parasitological stool examinations in two low-endemicity areas of China, with a prevalence rate of 3.46%. All stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg for two successive days. Six weeks post-treatment, no S. japonicum eggs were detected in the 43 treated villagers. The results indicate that the current efficacy of praziquantel against S. japonicum seems satisfactory and has not changed over the past three decades in the low endemic areas of China. It is also suggested that no evidence of tolerance or resistance to praziquantel in S. japonicum is detected in areas with low endemicity in China.

Wang, Wei; Dai, Jian-Rong; Li, Hong-Jun; Shen, Xue-Hui; Liang, You-Sheng

2012-01-01

304

Ecological Niche Modelling of the Bacillus anthracis A1.a sub-lineage in Kazakhstan  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a globally distributed zoonotic pathogen that continues to be a veterinary and human health problem in Central Asia. We used a database of anthrax outbreak locations in Kazakhstan and a subset of genotyped isolates to model the geographic distribution and ecological associations of B. anthracis in Kazakhstan. The aims of the study were to test the influence of soil variables on a previous ecological niche based prediction of B. anthracis in Kazakhstan and to determine if a single sub-lineage of B. anthracis occupies a unique ecological niche. Results The addition of soil variables to the previously developed ecological niche model did not appreciably alter the limits of the predicted geographic or ecological distribution of B. anthracis in Kazakhstan. The A1.a experiment predicted the sub-lineage to be present over a larger geographic area than did the outbreak based experiment containing multiple lineages. Within the geographic area predicted to be suitable for B. anthracis by all ten best subset models, the A1.a sub-lineage was associated with a wider range of ecological tolerances than the outbreak-soil experiment. Analysis of rule types showed that logit rules predominate in the outbreak-soil experiment and range rules in the A1.a sub-lineage experiment. Random sub-setting of locality points suggests that models of B. anthracis distribution may be sensitive to sample size. Conclusions Our analysis supports careful consideration of the taxonomic resolution of data used to create ecological niche models. Further investigations into the environmental affinities of individual lineages and sub-lineages of B. anthracis will be useful in understanding the ecology of the disease at large and small scales. With model based predictions serving as approximations of disease risk, these efforts will improve the efficacy of public health interventions for anthrax prevention and control.

2011-01-01

305

High ethanol sensitivity of palladium/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures dominated by enlarged surface area and nano-Schottky junctions.  

PubMed

TiO(2) nanobelts were prepared by the hydrothermal growth method. The surface of the nanobelts was coarsened by selective acid corrosion and functionalized with Pd catalyst particles. Three nanobelt samples (TiO(2) nanobelts, surface-coarsened TiO(2) nanobelts and Pd nanoparticle/TiO(2) nanobelt surface heterostructures) were configured as gas sensors and their sensing ability was measured. Both the surface-coarsened nanobelts and the Pd nanoparticle-decorated TiO(2) nanobelts exhibited dramatically improved sensitivity to ethanol vapor. Pd nanoparticle-decorated TiO(2) nanobelts with surface heterostructures exhibited the best sensitivity, selectivity, working temperature, response/recovery time, and reproducibility. The excellent ethanol sensing performance is attributed to the large surface area and enhancement by Schottky barrier-type junctions between the Pd nanoparticles and TiO(2) nanobelts. PMID:23010318

Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Weijia; Hu, Peiguang; Guan, Yu; Chen, Limei; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jiyang; Cao, Guozhong; Jiang, Huaidong

2012-08-28

306

Sensitivity of human visual cortical area V6 to stereoscopic depth gradients associated with self-motion.  

PubMed

The principal visual cue to self-motion (egomotion) is optic flow, which is specified in terms of local 2D velocities in the retinal image without reference to depth cues. However, in general, points near the center of expansion of natural flow fields are distant, whereas those in the periphery are closer, creating gradients of horizontal binocular disparity. To assess whether the brain combines disparity gradients with optic flow when encoding egomotion, stereoscopic gradients were applied to expanding dot patterns presented to observers during functional MRI scanning. The gradients were radially symmetrical, disparity changing as a function of eccentricity. The depth cues were either consistent with egomotion (peripheral dots perceived as near and central dots perceived as far) or inconsistent (the reverse gradient, central dots near, peripheral dots far). The BOLD activity generated by these stimuli was compared in a range of predefined visual regions in 13 participants with good stereoacuity. Visual area V6, in the parieto-occipital sulcus, showed a unique pattern of results, responding well to all optic flow patterns but much more strongly when they were paired with consistent rather than inconsistent or zero-disparity gradients. Of the other areas examined, a region of the precuneus and parietoinsular vestibular cortex also differentiate between consistent and inconsistent gradients, but with weak or suppressive responses. V3A, V7, MT, and ventral intraparietal area responded more strongly in the presence of a depth gradient but were indifferent to its depth-flow congruence. The results suggest that depth and flow cues are integrated in V6 to improve estimation of egomotion. PMID:21653717

Cardin, Velia; Smith, Andrew T

2011-06-08

307

Sensitivity of human visual cortical area V6 to stereoscopic depth gradients associated with self-motion  

PubMed Central

The principal visual cue to self-motion (egomotion) is optic flow, which is specified in terms of local 2D velocities in the retinal image without reference to depth cues. However, in general, points near the center of expansion of natural flow fields are distant, whereas those in the periphery are closer, creating gradients of horizontal binocular disparity. To assess whether the brain combines disparity gradients with optic flow when encoding egomotion, stereoscopic gradients were applied to expanding dot patterns presented to observers during functional MRI scanning. The gradients were radially symmetrical, disparity changing as a function of eccentricity. The depth cues were either consistent with egomotion (peripheral dots perceived as near and central dots perceived as far) or inconsistent (the reverse gradient, central dots near, peripheral dots far). The BOLD activity generated by these stimuli was compared in a range of predefined visual regions in 13 participants with good stereoacuity. Visual area V6, in the parieto-occipital sulcus, showed a unique pattern of results, responding well to all optic flow patterns but much more strongly when they were paired with consistent rather than inconsistent or zero-disparity gradients. Of the other areas examined, a region of the precuneus and parietoinsular vestibular cortex also differentiate between consistent and inconsistent gradients, but with weak or suppressive responses. V3A, V7, MT, and ventral intraparietal area responded more strongly in the presence of a depth gradient but were indifferent to its depth-flow congruence. The results suggest that depth and flow cues are integrated in V6 to improve estimation of egomotion.

Cardin, Velia

2011-01-01

308

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 9. Viability and diversity of the seed bank. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of seed numbers present in topsoils indicated that seeds of the most prevalent colonizers (e.g. Kochia scoparia, Setaria virdis, and Salsola collins) were not present in the topsoil upon respreading but rather appeared by immigration from the surrounding areas. Seed bank analysis was also undertaken on mined sites ranging in age of 2 to 6 years. As with the previous part of this study there was a poor correlation between the aboveground flora and the belowground seed composition.

Iverson, L.R.; Brophy, L.

1982-06-01

309

What Happened to Gray Whales during the Pleistocene? The Ecological Impact of Sea-Level Change on Benthic Feeding Areas in the North Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. Methodology/Principal Findings We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. Conclusions/Significance Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf) during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes, similar to the resident gray whales found between northern Washington State and Vancouver Island.

Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Lindberg, David R.

2011-01-01

310

An ecological field study of the water-rat Nectomys squamipes as a wild reservoir indicator of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in an endemic area.  

PubMed

Small mammals are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni, becoming a confounding factor for control programs of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: to investigate the infection rates by S. mansoni on the water-rat Nectomys squamipes during four years in endemic areas of Sumidouro, state of Rio de Janeiro, using mark-recapture technique; to compare two diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis; and to evaluate the effects of the chemotherapy in the human infected population on the rodent infection rates. The rodent infection rates of S. mansoni increased when rodent population sizes were lower. Coprology and serology results presented the same trends along time and were correlated. Serology could detect recent infection, including the false negatives in the coprology. The chemotherapy in the humans could not interrupt the rodent infection. Rodents can increase the schistosomiaisis transmission where it already exists, they probably maintain the transmission cycle in the nature and can be considered as biological indicators of the transmission sites of this parasite since they are highly susceptible to infection. The water-rats may present different levels of importance in the transmission dynamics of S. mansoni infection cycle for each area, and can be considered important wild-reservoirs of this human disease. PMID:17308757

Gentile, Rosana; Costa-Neto, Sócrates F; Gonçalves, Margareth M L; Bonecker, Simone T; Fernandes, Fabiano A; Garcia, Juberlan S; Barreto, Magali G M; Soares, Marisa S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Peralta, José M; Rey, Luis

2006-09-01

311

In Vitro Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum from China-Myanmar Border Area to Major ACT Drugs and Polymorphisms in Potential Target Genes  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance has always been one of the most important impediments to global malaria control. Artemisinin resistance has recently been confirmed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and efforts for surveillance and containment are intensified. To determine potential mechanisms of artemisinin resistance and monitor the emergence and spread of resistance in other regions of the GMS, we investigated the in vitro sensitivity of 51 culture-adapted parasite isolates from the China-Myanmar border area to four drugs. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of dihydroartemisinin, mefloquine and lumefantrine were clustered in a relatively narrow, 3- to 6-fold range, whereas the IC50 range of artesunate was 12-fold. We assessed the polymorphisms of candidate resistance genes pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfATP6, pfmdr6 and pfMT (a putative metabolite/drug transporter). The K76T mutation in pfcrt reached fixation in the study parasite population, whereas point mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 had low levels of prevalence. In addition, pfmdr1 gene amplification was not detected. None of the mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 was associated significantly with in vitro sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives. The ABC transporter gene pfmdr6 harbored two point mutations, two indels, and number variations in three simple repeats. Only the length variation in a microsatellite repeat appeared associated with altered sensitivity to dihydroartemisinin. The PfMT gene had two point mutations and one codon deletion; the I30N and N496– both reached high levels of prevalence. However, none of the SNPs or haplotypes in PfMT were correlated significantly with resistance to the four tested drugs. Compared with other parasite populations from the GMS, our studies revealed drastically different genotype and drug sensitivity profiles in parasites from the China-Myanmar border area, where artemisinins have been deployed extensively for over 30 years.

Wu, Lanou; Li, Jia; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Rongping; Fan, Qi; Wang, Haiyan; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

2012-01-01

312

Progressive, potassium-sensitive epileptiform activity in hippocampal area CA3 of pilocarpine-treated rats with recurrent seizures.  

PubMed

Rat hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells synchronously discharge in rhythmic bursts of action potentials after acute disinhibition or convulsant treatment in vitro. These burst discharges resemble epileptiform activity, and are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms underlying limbic seizures. However, few studies have examined CA3 burst discharges in an animal model of epilepsy, because a period of prolonged, severe seizures (status epilepticus) is often used to induce the epileptic state, which can lead to extensive neuronal loss in CA3. Therefore, the severity of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was decreased with anticonvulsant treatment to reduce damage. Rhythmic burst discharges were recorded in the majority of slices from these animals, between two weeks and nine months after status epilepticus. The incidence and amplitude of bursts progressively increased with time after status, even after spontaneous behavioral seizures had begun. The results suggest that modifying the pilocarpine models of temporal lobe epilepsy to reduce neuronal loss leads to robust network synchronization in area CA3. The finding that these bursts increase long after spontaneous behavioral seizures begin supports previous arguments that temporal lobe epilepsy exhibits progressive pathophysiology. PMID:21880468

McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2011-08-30

313

Relationship between Size Summation Properties, Contrast Sensitivity and Response Latency in the Dorsomedial and Middle Temporal Areas of the Primate Extrastriate Cortex  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the physiological properties of single neurons in visual cortex has demonstrated that both the extent of their receptive fields and the latency of their responses depend on stimulus contrast. Here, we explore the question of whether there are also systematic relationships between these response properties across different cells in a neuronal population. Single unit recordings were obtained from the middle temporal (MT) and dorsomedial (DM) extrastriate areas of anaesthetized marmoset monkeys. For each cell, spatial integration properties (length and width summation, as well as the presence of end- and side-inhibition within 15° of the receptive field centre) were determined using gratings of optimal direction of motion and spatial and temporal frequencies, at 60% contrast. Following this, contrast sensitivity was assessed using gratings of near-optimal length and width. In both areas, we found a relationship between spatial integration and contrast sensitivity properties: cells that summated over smaller areas of the visual field, and cells that displayed response inhibition at larger stimulus sizes, tended to show higher contrast sensitivity. In a sample of MT neurons, we found that cells showing longer latency responses also tended to summate over larger expanses of visual space in comparison with neurons that had shorter latencies. In addition, longer-latency neurons also tended to show less obvious surround inhibition. Interestingly, all of these effects were stronger and more consistent with respect to the selectivity for stimulus width and strength of side-inhibition than for length selectivity and end-inhibition. The results are partially consistent with a hierarchical model whereby more extensive receptive fields require convergence of information from larger pools of “feedforward” afferent neurons to reach near-optimal responses. They also suggest that a common gain normalization mechanism within MT and DM is involved, the spatial extent of which is more evident along the cell’s preferred axis of motion.

Lui, Leo L.; Bourne, James A.; Rosa, Marcello G. P.

2013-01-01

314

Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.  

PubMed

The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious. PMID:22783614

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

2012-01-01

315

CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Light scattering of nanocrystalline TiO2 film used in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the light scattering and adsorption of nanocrystalline TiO2 porous films used in dye-sensitized solar cells composed of anatase and/or rutile particles by using an optical four-flux radiative transfer model. These light properties are difficult to measure directly on the functioning solar cells and they can not be calculated easily from the first-principle computational or quantitative theoretical evaluations. These simulation results indicate that the light scattering of 1-25 nm TiO2 particles is negligible, but it is effective in the range of 80 and 180 nm. A suitable mixture of small particles (10 nm radius), which are resulted in a large effective surface, and of larger particles (150 nm radius), which are effective light scatterers, have the potential to enhance solar absorption significantly. The rutile crystals have a larger refractive index and thus the light harvest of the mixtures of such larger rutile and relatively small anatase particles is improved in comparison with that of pure anatase films. The light absorption of the 10 ?m double-layered films is also examined. A maximal light absorption of double-layered film is gotten when the thickness of the first layer of 10 nm-sized anatase particles is comparable to that of the second larger rutile layer.

Xiong, Bi-Tao; Zhou, Bao-Xue; Bai, Jing; Zheng, Qing; Liu, Yan-Biao; Cai, Wei-Min; Cai, Jun

2008-10-01

316

Ecological Effects of Climate Fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate influences a variety of ecological processes. These effects operate through local weather parameters such as temperature, wind, rain, snow, and ocean currents, as well as interactions among these. In the temperate zone, local variations in weather are often coupled over large geographic areas through the transient behavior of atmospheric planetary-scale waves. These variations drive temporally and spatially averaged exchanges

Nils Chr; Atle Mysterud; James W. Hurrell; Kung-Sik Chan

2002-01-01

317

Risk mapping for sensitive species to underwater anthropogenic sound emissions: model development and validation in two Mediterranean areas.  

PubMed

Recent observations of cetacean mass strandings, coincident with anthropogenic sounds emissions, have raised concerns on the potential environmental impact of underwater noise. Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) was reported in all the cited stranding events. Within the NATO Marine Mammal Risk Mitigation project (MMRM), multiple interdisciplinary sea trials have been conducted in the Mediterranean Sea with the objective of developing tools and procedures to mitigate the impact of underwater sound emissions. During these cruises, visual observations, passive acoustic detections and environmental data were collected. The aim of this study was to evaluate "a priori" predictions of Cuvier's beaked whale presence in the Alboran Sea, using models developed in the Ligurian Sea that employ bathymetric and chlorophyll features as predictors. The accuracy of these predictions was found adequate and elements are given to account for the uncertainties associated to the use of models developed in areas different from their calibration site. PMID:21349554

Azzellino, A; Lanfredi, C; D'Amico, A; Pavan, G; Podestà, M; Haun, J

2011-02-24

318

FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): High Sensitivity Transmission-Type SPR Sensor by Using Metallic Dielectric Mixed Gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically investigate transmission-type SPR sensors with novel metallic-dielectric mixed gratings by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), compared to the conventional dielectric gratings based structure. It is found that the transmittance efficiency and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the transmission curve can be modulated by increasing or decreasing the metallic part. Therefore, appropriate proportion of metal part will induce enhancement factor of sensor merit. Furthermore, this novel structure will also bring enhancement of resonant angle shift, which can be explained by plasmonic interpretation based on a surface limited increase of interaction area and excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs). The proposed configuration has a wide range of potential applications not only as sensor but also other optical devices.

Wu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Kang

2008-05-01

319

A network of occipito-temporal face-sensitive areas besides the right middle fusiform gyrus is necessary for normal face processing.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies have identified at least two bilateral areas of the visual extrastriate cortex that respond more to pictures of faces than objects in normal human subjects in the middle fusiform gyrus [the 'fusiform face area' (FFA)] and, more posteriorly, in the inferior occipital cortex ['occipital face area' (OFA)], with a right hemisphere dominance. However, it is not yet clear how these regions interact which each other and whether they are all necessary for normal face perception. It has been proposed that the right hemisphere FFA acts as an isolated ('modular') processing system for faces or that this region receives its face-sensitive inputs from the OFA in a feedforward hierarchical model of face processing. To test these proposals, we report a detailed neuropsychological investigation combined with a neuroimaging study of a patient presenting a deficit restricted to face perception, consecutive to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions. Due to the asymmetry of the lesions, the left middle fusiform gyrus and the right inferior occipital cortex were damaged but the right middle fusiform gyrus was structurally intact. Using functional MRI, we disclosed a normal activation of the right FFA in response to faces in the patient despite the absence of any feedforward inputs from the right OFA, located in a damaged area of cortex. Together, these findings show that the integrity of the right OFA is necessary for normal face perception and suggest that the face-sensitive responses observed at this level in normal subjects may arise from feedback connections from the right FFA. In agreement with the current literature on the anatomical basis of prosopagnosia, it is suggested that the FFA and OFA in the right hemisphere and their re-entrant integration are necessary for normal face processing. PMID:12876150

Rossion, Bruno; Caldara, Roberto; Seghier, Mohamed; Schuller, Anne-Marie; Lazeyras, Francois; Mayer, Eugene

2003-07-22

320

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be utilized for the outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing program, in developing management plans for pipeline corridors, and onshore facilities planning. The production of this ecological atlas included four major tasks: the collection and synthesis of the latest available data on biological, socioeconomic, soil, oil and gas, hydrology, and climatological parameters; the assimilation of these data into a format which is compatible with the requirements of 1:100,000 scale mapping; the compilation of 90 ecological atlas maps; and the preparation of an atlas narrative serving to describe more fully the mapped parameters. This ecological atlas will embrace the habitat mapping study, the socioeconomic study, and the environmental synthesis being conducted for the study area.

Palik, T.F.; Kunneke, J.T.

1984-09-01

321

Eglin Air Force Base Ecological Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) tested indicators of sandhill ecological condition, confirming the usefulness of some groundcover (graminoid, Solidago odora, woody vine, and legume density, and herbaceous cover) while discarding others (Hyperic...

C. Kindell A. Johnson

2000-01-01

322

Divergent biases in ecologic and individual-level studies.  

PubMed

Several authors have shown that ecologic estimates can be biased by effect modification and misclassification in a different fashion from individual-level estimates. This paper reviews and discusses ecologic biases induced by model misspecification; confounding; non-additivity of exposure and covariate effects (effect modification); exposure misclassification; and non-comparable standardization. Ecologic estimates can be more sensitive to these sources of bias than individual-level estimates, primarily because ecologic estimates are based on extrapolations to an unobserved conditional (individual-level) distribution. Because of this sensitivity, one should not rely on a single regression model for an ecologic analysis. Valid ecologic estimates are most feasible when one can obtain accurate estimates of exposure and covariate means in regions with internal exposure homogeneity and mutual covariate comparability; thus, investigators should seek out such regions in the design and analysis of ecologic studies. PMID:1509221

Greenland, S

1992-06-30

323

Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples by Canberra with HP-Ge detector. To evaluate 137Cs and 90Sr mobility a sequential extraction of radionuclides has been performed in the selected soil in radiochemical laboratory. Obtained data has been compared with the results of air-gamma survey of the area carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA (grid size: 100 m x100 m) and the data of RPA "TYPHOON" on contamination density of settlements. A comparison of these data with that of the experimental plots at different scales proved the selected monitoring scheme to be suitable for extrapolation of the obtained experimental data on radionuclide contamination the settlement and regional scale.

Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

2013-04-01

324

Ecological studies on the greedy scale, Hemiberlisia rapax (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on pear trees in burg El-Arab area, Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

The greedy scale, Hemiberlisia rapax (Comstock) causes economic damage on pear trees under irrigation system in Burg El-Arab area (50 Km. West of Alexandria). The infestation rate of H. rapax reached its first maximum rate during August to October, and the second one occurred from January to March. The 1st highest peak of insect population occurred during September and October; the second was during January and February, and the third one corresponded to April for the 1st and the 2nd successive seasons. The statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship among the weather factors of mean daily temperature, daily relative humidity, wind speed, and dew point in relation to the population activity of Hemiberlisia rapax. The immature stages had two peaks of fluctuation during October to November and July to August. The adult females reached their maximum rates during winter and spring months. Adult males appeared in late March in few numbers. The insect was parasitized by Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in maximum numbers in June and July. This parasitoid had three overlapping generations all the year round. The first in September-October; the second extended from March to May; while the third one lasted from July to September. PMID:19226794

Mesbah, H A; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

2008-01-01

325

H.R. 73: A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to the south Florida coast. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session  

SciTech Connect

This document contains H.R. 73, A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to south Florida. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 4, 1995.

NONE

1995-12-31

326

Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

2008-02-01

327

Bayes Computation for Ecological Inference  

PubMed Central

Ecological data are available at the level of the group, rather than at the level of the individual. The use of ecological data in spatial epidemiological investigations is particularly common. Though the computational methods described are more generally applicable, this paper concentrates on the situation in which the margins of 2 × 2 tables are observed in each of n geographical areas, with a Bayesian approach to inference. We consider auxiliary schemes that impute the missing data, and compare with a previously suggested normal approximation. The analysis of ecological data is subject to ecological bias, with the only reliable means of removing such bias being the addition of auxiliary individual-level information. Various schemes have been suggested for this supplementation, and we illustrate how the computational methods may be applied to the analysis of such enhanced data. The methods are illustrated using simulated data and two examples. In the first example the ecological data are supplemented with a simple random sample of individual-level data, and in this example the normal approximation fails. In the second example case-control sampling provide the additional information.

Wakefield, Jon; Haneuse, Sebastien; Dobra, Adrian; Teeple, Betsy

2011-01-01

328

Ecological Footprint Analysis Applied to Mobile Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ecological footprints (EF) have been used for more than 15 yr as an aggregate measure of sustainability of geographical re- gions, but also for certain products and activities. EF anal- ysis measures the bioproductive areas required to produce resources such as crops and timber, the directly occupied areas for infrastructure, and areas for absorbing waste flows (mostly limited to

Sibylle D. Frey; David J. Harrison; Eric H. Billett

2008-01-01

329

Principles of ecological immunology  

PubMed Central

Defending self against nonself is a major problem in a world in which individuals are under constant pressure from parasites that gain fitness benefits at a cost to their host. Defences that have evolved are diverse, and range from behavioural adaptations to physiochemical barriers. The immune defence is a final line of protection and is therefore of great importance. Given this importance, variability in immune defence would seem counterintuitive, yet that is what is observed. Ecological immunology attempts to explain this variation by invoking costs and trade-offs, and in turn proposing that the optimal immune defence will vary over environments. Studies in this field have been highly successful in establishing an evolutionary ecology framework around immunology. However, in order enrich our understanding of this area, it is perhaps time to broaden the focus to include parasites as more than simply elicitors of immune responses. In essence, to view immunity as produced by the host, the environment, and the active involvement of parasites.

Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2009-01-01

330

Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads are maximized in cells located at or near the production wells. Additionally, the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in pumpage was about three times more for the area where confining-unit leakance is the highest than for other leakance zone areas of the well field. For many head control sites, optimal heads corresponding to optimal pumpage deviated from the desired target recovery heads. Overall, pumping solutions were constrained by the limiting recovery values, initial head conditions, and by upper boundary conditions of the ground-water flow model.

Yobbi, Dann K.

2002-01-01

331

Cocaine disinhibits dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via use-dependent blockade of GABA neuron voltage-sensitive sodium channels  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cocaine on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Utilizing single-unit recordings in vivo, microelectrophoretic administration of DA enhanced the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons via D2/D3 DA receptor activation. Lower doses of intravenous cocaine (0.25–0.5 mg/kg), or the DA transporter (DAT) blocker methamphetamine, enhanced VTA GABA neuron firing rate via D2/D3 receptor activation. Higher doses of cocaine (1.0–2.0 mg/kg) inhibited their firing rate, which was not sensitive to the D2/D3 antagonist eticlopride. The voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) blocker lidocaine inhibited the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons at all doses tested (0.25–2.0 mg/kg). Cocaine or lidocaine reduced VTA GABA neuron spike discharges induced by stimulation of the internal capsule (ICPSDs) at dose levels 0.25–2 mg/kg (IC50 1.2 mg/kg). There was no effect of DA or methamphetamine on ICPSDs, or of DA antagonists on cocaine inhibition of ICPSDs. In VTA GABA neurons in vitro, cocaine reduced (IC50 13 ?m) current-evoked spikes and TTX-sensitive sodium currents in a use-dependent manner. In VTA DA neurons, cocaine reduced IPSCs (IC50 13 ?m), increased IPSC paired-pulse facilitation and decreased spontaneous IPSC frequency, without affecting miniature IPSC frequency or amplitude. These findings suggest that cocaine acts on GABA neurons to reduce activity-dependent GABA release on DA neurons in the VTA, and that cocaine's use-dependent blockade of VTA GABA neuron VSSCs may synergize with its DAT inhibiting properties to enhance mesolimbic DA transmission implicated in cocaine reinforcement.

Steffensen, Scott C.; Taylor, Seth R.; Horton, Malia L.; Barber, Elise N.; Lyle, Laura T.; Stobbs, Sarah H.; Allison, David W.

2010-01-01

332

Receptive field properties and sensitivity to edges defined by motion in the postero-lateral lateral suprasylvian (PLLS) area of the cat.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the spatial properties of cells in the postero-lateral lateral suprasylvian (PLLS) area of the cat and assessed their sensitivity to edges defined by motion. A total of one hundred and seventeen (117) single units were isolated. First, drifting sinusoidal gratings were used to assess the spatial properties of the cells' receptive fields and to determine their spatial frequency tuning functions. Second, random-dot kinematograms were used to create illusory edges by drifting textured stimuli (i.e. a horizontal bar) against a similarly textured but static background. Almost all the cells recorded in PLLS (96.0%) were binocular, and a substantial majority of receptive fields (79.2%) were end-stopped. Most units (81.0%) had band-pass spatial frequency tuning functions and responded optimally to low spatial frequencies (mean spatial frequency: 0.08 c./degree). The remaining units (19.0%) were low-pass. All the recorded cells responded vigorously to edges defined by motion. The vast majority (96.0%) of cells responded optimally to large texture elements; approximately half the cells (57.3%) also responded to finer texture elements. Moreover, 38.5% of the cells were selective to the width of the bar (i.e., the distance between the leading and the trailing edges). Finally, some (9.0%) cells responded in a transient fashion to leading and to trailing edges. In conclusion, cells in the PLLS area are low spatial frequency analyzers that are sensitive to texture and to the distance between edges defined by motion. PMID:18005943

Robitaille, N; Lepore, F; Bacon, B A; Ellemberg, D; Guillemot, J-P

2007-10-22

333

Applications of an amorphous silicon-based area detector for high resolution, high sensitivity and fast time-resolved pair distribution function measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The application of a large-area (41 x 41 cm, 2048 x 2048 or 1024 x 1024 pixel) high-sensitivity (detective quantum efficiency > 65%) fast-readout (up to 7.5 or 30 Hz) flat-panel detector based on an amorphous silicon array system to the collection of high-energy X-ray scattering data for quantitative pair distribution function (PDF) analysis is evaluated and discussed. Data were collected over a range of exposure times (0.13 s-7 min) for benchmark PDF samples: crystalline nickel metal and amorphous silica (SiO2). The high real-space resolution of the resultant PDFs (with Q{sub max} up to {approx} 40 Angstroms{sup -1})and the high quality of fits to data [RNi(0.13s) = 10.5%, RNi(1.3s) = 6.3%] obtained in short measurement times indicate that this detector is well suited to studies of materials disorder. Further applications of the detector to locate weakly scattering H2 molecules within the porous Prussian blue system, Mn{sup II}{sub 3}[CoIII(CN)6]2 x xH2, and to follow the in situ reduction of PtIVO2 to Pt0 at 30 Hz, confirm the high sensitivity of the detector and demonstrate a new potential for fast time-resolved studies.

Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Lee, P. L.; X-Ray Science Division

2007-01-01

334

Ecological Inference in the Social Sciences  

PubMed Central

Ecological inference is a problem of partial identification, and therefore reliable precise conclusions are rarely possible without the collection of individual level (identifying) data. Without such data, sensitivity analyses provide the only recourse. In this paper we review and critique approaches to ecological inference in the social sciences, and describe in detail hierarchical models, which allow both sensitivity analysis and the incorporation of individual level data into an ecological analysis. A crucial element of a sensitivity analysis in such models is prior specification, and we detail how this may be carried out. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the inclusion of a small amount of individual level data can dramatically improve the properties of such estimates.

Glynn, Adam; Wakefield, Jon

2009-01-01

335

Desertification: Global ecological problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that western practices and analyses of desertification fail to take social factors into account, and do not promote progressive technology that would preserve the environment while bringing progress. It is claimed that Soviet practices have minimized ecological damage by use of a different socioeconomic structure and by planning. In Central Asia, efforts since the 1930's have focused on controlling shifting sands with both dry grass and brush, as well as physicochemical means. In Turkmenistan sand dune damage to irrigated fields is completely controlled, although some local areas of desertification have been noted near well sites and in industrialized desert areas. Prevention of land damage in irrigated areas has required careful drainage system construction to avoid mineral deposits while making maximum use of ground water reserves. Technological backwardness is noted in some irrigated areas of Central Asia, and the extent of saline soils of various types is of concern. Disposal of irrigation water after its use is another problem still being resolved in Central Asia. Irrigation and water disposal in the basins of Syrdarya, Amudarya and Ili Rivers have caused a decline in the level of the Aral Sea. In addition, lands in the deltas of the Syrdarya and Amudarya have suffered desertification.

Orlovskiy, N. S.

1986-09-01

336

Quantifying ecological thresholds in a complex world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological thresholds are abrupt changes of ecological state. Most empirical methods detect ecological thresholds in time or across geographic space. Although useful, these approaches do not quantify the direct drivers of a threshold response. Causal understanding of thresholds detected empirically requires their investigation in a domain containing the direct drivers (often referred to as state space). Currently, no method quantifies thresholds with respect to more than one driver in state space. Here, we present an approach designed to better accomodate complexity; the approach quantifies thresholds in state space with more than one driver. We present two indices of shape attributes measured from 3-D response surfaces, threshold strength (T) and diagonality (D). We use 48 simulated response surfaces of different shapes to test the efficacy of the indices. T is sensitive to the steepness of the transition from one state to the next, with various forms of abrupt, centralized thresholds yielding the highest values among the simulated surfaces. D represents the orientation of the response surface in state space or the simultaneous influence of more than one predictor in eliciting the response. Strongly diagonal surfaces have the most diagonal surface area demonstrated by sharply undulating diagonal surfaces. Given that the success of T and D requires a regression method to accurately capture any shape of complex data structure as a response surface, we also test the accuracy of regression methods known to be tractable with complex data. We test Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Random Forest, and Non-Parametric Multiplicative Regression (NPMR) for binary and continuous responses. We use the 48 simulated response surfaces to test the methods, and we find that prediction accuracy depends on both the T and D of the simulated data for each method. We choose the most accurate method among those we test for capturing any shape of response surface from real data, NPMR. Finally, we use NPMR to build response surfaces from which we quantify T and D for real ecological data sets. We demonstrate how measurement of threshold strength and diagonality from multi-factor response surfaces can advance our understanding of thresholds using several examples: tree mortality from bark beetles, woody plant vulnerability curves, and species probability of occurrence with respect to climate.

Lintz, H. E.; McCune, B.; Gray, A. N.; McCulloh, K. A.

2010-12-01

337

Quantifying chaos for ecological stoichiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of ecological stoichiometry considers ecological interactions among species with different chemical compositions. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have shown the importance of species composition in the outcome of the population dynamics. A recent study of a theoretical three-species food chain model considering stoichiometry [B. Deng and I. Loladze, Chaos 17, 033108 (2007)] shows that coexistence between two consumers predating on the same prey is possible via chaos. In this work we study the topological and dynamical measures of the chaotic attractors found in such a model under ecological relevant parameters. By using the theory of symbolic dynamics, we first compute the topological entropy associated with unimodal Poincaré return maps obtained by Deng and Loladze from a dimension reduction. With this measure we numerically prove chaotic competitive coexistence, which is characterized by positive topological entropy and positive Lyapunov exponents, achieved when the first predator reduces its maximum growth rate, as happens at increasing ?1. However, for higher values of ?1 the dynamics become again stable due to an asymmetric bubble-like bifurcation scenario. We also show that a decrease in the efficiency of the predator sensitive to prey's quality (increasing parameter ?) stabilizes the dynamics. Finally, we estimate the fractal dimension of the chaotic attractors for the stoichiometric ecological model.

Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

2010-09-01

338

Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.  

PubMed

This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow regimes was recognized. Moreover, nearshore extensive shrimp culture ponds, irrigation canals, and surrounding mangrove habitats belonging to local households seemed to act as effective natural water treatment system that can yet provide food resources in turns. These remediation-production integrated functions should be deserved depth considerations for water quality development of the Tha Chin areas. PMID:19092208

Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

2008-01-01

339

Plant Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit is designed to be completed in six or more sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the many varied reasons that plant life flourishes in one plot but not another. Students speculate on why plants are more abundant in some areas of the site than others. They list factors that might account for the differences, such as temperature, humidity, light, soil, rainfall, wind, and human or animal activity, and figure out how they can collect more data on these factors. They discuss why it might be important to take a count of all the individual plants in each plot and develop a plan for conducting the field study. A reading selection describes how scientists count plants and gives students tips for conducting their own survey. Students then count plants and record their data. Several optional activities are provided.

340

Ecological Footprint Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the concept of ecological footprint, the overall impact of an individual on the environment. Topics include how ecological footprints are calculated, how individual footprints translate to entire nations or to the Earth, and the connection between ecological footprint and biodiversity. The students will consult some online resources on ecological footprint and use an online claculator to determine their individual fooprints, make some comparisons, and examine how making some changes in their consumption would reduce their footprints.

341

Applications of ecological niche modeling for species delimitation: a review and empirical evaluation using day geckos (Phelsuma) from Madagascar.  

PubMed

Although the systematic utility of ecological niche modeling is generally well known (e.g., concerning the recognition and discovery of areas of endemism for biogeographic analyses), there has been little discussion of applications concerning species delimitation, and to date, no empirical evaluation has been conducted. However, ecological niche modeling can provide compelling evidence for allopatry between populations, and can also detect divergent ecological niches between candidate species. Here we present results for two taxonomically problematic groups of Phelsuma day geckos from Madagascar, where we integrate ecological niche modeling with mitochondrial DNA and morphological data to evaluate species limits. Despite relatively modest levels of genetic and morphological divergence, for both species groups we find divergent ecological niches between closely related species and parapatric ecological niche models. Niche models based on the new species limits provide a better fit to the known distribution than models based upon the combined (lumped) species limits. Based on these results, we elevate three subspecies of Phelsuma madagascariensis to species rank and describe a new species of Phelsuma from the P. dubia species group. Our phylogeny continues to support a major endemic radiation of Phelsuma in Madagascar, with dispersals to Pemba Island and the Mascarene Islands. We conclude that ecological niche modeling offers great potential for species delimitation, especially for taxonomic groups exhibiting low vagility and localized endemism and for groups with more poorly known distributions. In particular, niche modeling should be especially sensitive for detecting recent parapatric speciation driven by ecological divergence, when the environmental gradients driving speciation are represented within the ecological niche models. PMID:18066927

Raxworthy, Christopher J; Ingram, Colleen M; Rabibisoa, Nirhy; Pearson, Richard G

2007-12-01

342

Invertebrate Ecological Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological immunology is a rapidly expanding field that examines the causes and consequences of variation in immune function in the context of evolution and of ecology. Millions of invertebrate species rely solely on innate immunity, compared with only 45,000 vertebrate species that rely additionally on an acquired immune system. Despite this difference in diversity, most studies of ecological immunology focus

J. Rolff; M. T. Siva-Jothy

2003-01-01

343

Ecological Consciousness and Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores competing stories around consciousness, ecology and education, with particular reference to conceptual refinement of the idea of an "ecological consciousness." Phenomenological and functional models of consciousness are examined in terms of their implications for developing ecological consciousness in and for education.…

Morris, Marla

2002-01-01

344

Mediating dual ecologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigated systems for supporting remote collaboration using mobile robots as communication media. It is argued that the use of a remote-controlled robot as a device to support communication involves two distinct ecologies: an ecology at the remote (instructor's) site and an ecology at the operator's (robot) site. In designing a robot as a viable communication medium,

Hideaki Kuzuoka; Jun'ichi Kosaka; Keiichi Yamazaki; Yasuko Suga; Akiko Yamazaki; Paul Luff; Christian Heath

2004-01-01

345

Wildfire History and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

2008-09-17

346

Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

2011-01-01

347

An Approach to Engaging in Culturally Sensitive Research on Puerto Rican Youth. Working Papers Series No. 275.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two culturally-sensitive longitudinal studies of normal development of Puerto Rican adolescents and children growing up in the United States. A number of areas pertinent to Puerto Ricans and other minorities that have previously been neglected are studied. Both projects are grounded in a cultural-ecological approach in which…

Alarcon, Odette; And Others

348

[Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].  

PubMed

By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method. PMID:19238861

Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

2008-11-01

349

Warning and controlling of ecological security in Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the analytic hierarchy process was used to make evaluation on ecological security in Xinjiang, China , we have calculated the degree of environmental subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem and total system of ecological security system in Xinjiang from 1988 to 2010. We have analyzed warning and controlling ecological security of Xinjiang in short-medium range(2004-2010). By using sensitivity factors that influence ecological security system of Xinjiang, which includes environmental subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem and total system. The main conclusions as follows: From 2004 to 2010,the ecological security situations of environmental subsystem are rising and economic subsystems are obviously ascendant in Xinjiang; According to the contributions of these three subsystem, the list is successively: Environmental subsystem >Social subsystem >Economic subsystem; proved that the ecological environment structure of Xinjiang is very fragile and unstable from holistic standard of ecological security and quantity.

Lü, Guanghui; Yang, Jianjun; Ma, Yuan; Shi, Qingdong; Meng, Jixiang

2007-10-01

350

Guide to Marine Ecology Research . . . a Curriculum for Secondary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological curriculum designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The background material and learning activities concern the study of the San Francisco Bay Area. The guide is divided into two major parts. In the first part, a history of the Bay Area is given. It includes…

Castellani, Marylynn L., Ed.

351

Spatial ecology of cheetahs on north-central Namibian farmlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of a species' ranging behaviour is both fundamental to understanding its behavioural ecology and a prerequisite to planning its management. Few data exist on the spatial ecology of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus outside protected areas, but such areas are particularly important to their conservation. Cheetahs on Namibian farmlands occupied exceptionally large home ranges, averaging 1651 km2 ( ? 1594 km2),

L. L. Marker; A. J. Dickman; M. G. L. Mills; R. M. Jeo; D. W. Macdonald

2008-01-01

352

Filling key gaps in population and community ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose research to fill key gaps in the areas of population and community ecology, based on a National Science Foundation workshop identifying funding priorities for the next 5-10 years. Our vision for the near future of ecology focuses on three core areas: predicting the strength and context-dependence of species interactions across multiple scales; identifying the importance of feedbacks from

Anurag A. Agrawal; David D. Ackerly; Fred Adler; A Elizabeth Arnold; Carla Cáceres; Daniel F. Doak; Eric Post; Peter J. Hudson; John Maron; Kailen A. Mooney; Mary Power; Doug Schemske; Jay Stachowicz; Sharon Strauss; Monica G. Turner; Earl Werner

2007-01-01

353

Assessing ecological risk on a regional scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society needs a quantitative and systematic way to estimate and compare the impacts of environmental problems that affect\\u000a large geographic areas. This paper presents an approach for regional risk assessment that combines regional assessment methods\\u000a and landscape ecology theory with an existing framework for ecological risk assessment. Risk assessment evaluates the effects\\u000a of an environmental change on a valued natural

Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Robin L. Graham; Glenn W. Suter; Robert V. O'Neill; Lawrence W. Barnthouse; Robert H. Gardner

1990-01-01

354

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-05-01

355

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is based in Germany and their work encompasses a wide range of inquiry into the relationships between everything from bugs and symbiotic bacteria to odor activation in drosophila. Visitors can wander through the News area to get a sense of the ongoing research projects and overall mission. In the Institute area visitors can learn the basics of chemical ecology, the management of the Institute and their cooperative agreements with other like-minded organizations. The Departments area contains information about separate research groups, which are focused on entomology, bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular ecology. Scientists and others will want to look over the Publications area, as it contains hundreds of research papers which can be searched by department, year, or citation number. Finally, visitors can also search available job openings.

356

Commentary: Does the spectre of ecologic bias haunt epidemiology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning students of epidemiology learn that non-differential exposure misclassification biases results (on average) toward the null. Ecologic studies are one of the most interesting excep- tions. As shown by Brenner et al. in 1992, ecologic studies are biased away from the null when exposure is non-differentially misclassified with the same sensitivity and specificity in each group. 1 In this issue,

Thomas Webster

2002-01-01

357

Art, Ecology, and Art Education: Practices and Linkages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Profiles a number of projects and activities enacted during the 1996 Summer Colloquium, "Art and Ecology: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Curriculum." Participants created ecologically sensitive structures for pond life at a nearby wetland and attended a dramatic presentation about early mound dwellers performed on the site. (MJP)|

Neperud, Ronald W.

1997-01-01

358

The spatial patterns of initial errors related to "winter predictability barrier" of Indian Ocean dipole and sensitive areas in targeted observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) CM2p1 coupled model, the "winter predictability barrier" (WPB) phenomenon of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events is revealed from the view of error growth. Quite a few initial errors exhibit significant season-dependent evolutions with maximum growth rate in winter, finally inducing a significant WPB phenomenon. These initial errors can be classified into two groups. In one group, the initial errors tend to present positive sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western Indian Ocean and negative SSTA in the eastern Indian Ocean; while in the other group, the initial errors are inclined to have patterns almost opposite to the former. Furthermore, the anomaly signal in the subsurface temperature component of initial errors is more notable than that in the surface temperature. For the initial errors that don't show considerable season-dependent evolutions, it is difficult to identify a common characteristic of the patterns. Besides, numerical experiments demonstrate that there is no season-dependent evolution with the random initial errors, and WPB phenomenon disappears. All these indicate that the WPB of IOD events is closely related to the particular spatial patterns of initial errors. The two types of initial errors feature that the large errors concentrate a localized region; the benefits from reductions of initial errors in this localized region are quite larger than those in other regions. This region may therefore represent the sensitive areas of IOD predictions. If we increase observations in these areas and then the accuracy of initial fields, the IOD forecast skill may be greatly improved.

Feng, Rong; Mu, Mu; Duan, Wansuo

2013-04-01

359

Gram-Scale Synthesis of Catalytic Co9S8 Nanocrystal Ink as a Cathode Material for Spray-Deposited, Large-Area Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.  

PubMed

We report the development of Co9S8 nanocrystals as a cost-effective cathode material that can be readily combined with spraying techniques to fabricate large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices and can be further connected with series or parallel cell architectures to obtain a relatively high output voltage or current. A gram-scale synthesis of Co9S8 nanocrystal is carried out via a noninjection reaction by mixing anhydrous CoCl2 with trioctylphosphine (TOP), dodecanethiol and oleylamine (OLA) at 250 °C. The Co9S8 nanocrystals possess excellent catalytic ability with respect to I(-)/I3(-) redox reactions. The Co9S8 nanocrystals are prepared as nanoinks to fabricate uniform, crack-free Co9S8 thin films on different substrates by using a spray deposition technique. These Co9S8 films are used as counter electrodes assembled with dye-adsorbed TiO2 photoanodes to fabricate DSSC devices having a working area of 2 cm(2) and an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.02 ± 0.18% under AM 1.5 solar illumination, which is comparable with the PCE of 7.2 ± 0.12% obtained using a Pt cathode. Furthermore, six 2 cm(2)-sized DSSC devices connected in series output an open-circuit voltage of 4.2 V that can power a wide range of electronic devices such as LED arrays and can charge commercial lithium ion batteries. PMID:23992127

Chang, Shu-Hao; Lu, Ming-De; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

2013-09-10

360

The Historical Ecology of the Southern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological history of the southern Appalachians encompasses an enormous area. Western North Carolina alone encompasses events occurring in an area of 6000 square miles, more than 3.8 million acres. Where we begin to tell this story depends upon what we mean by history and what questions we expect history to answer for us. My question is how did forests

Gary B. Blank

361

Specialized ommatidia of the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area in the eye of monarch butterflies have non-functional reflecting tapeta.  

PubMed

Many insects exploit sky light polarization for navigation or cruising-course control. The detection of polarized sky light is mediated by the ommatidia of a small specialized part of the compound eye: the dorsal rim area (DRA). We describe the morphology and fine structure of the DRA in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). The DRA consists of approximately 100 ommatidia forming a narrow ribbon along the dorsal eye margin. Each ommatidium contains two types of photoreceptor with mutually orthogonal microvilli orientations occurring in a 2:6 ratio. Within each rhabdomere, the microvilli are well aligned. Rhabdom structure and orientation remain constant at all retinal levels, but the rhabdom profiles, as seen in tangential sections through the DRA, change their orientations in a fan-like fashion from the frontal to the caudal end of the DRA. Whereas these properties (two microvillar orientations per rhabdom, microvillar alignment along rhabdomeres, ommatidial fan array) are typical for insect DRAs in general, we also report and discuss here a novel feature. The ommatidia of monarch butterflies are equipped with reflecting tapeta, which are directly connected to the proximal ends of the rhabdoms. Although tapeta are also present in the DRA, they are separated from the rhabdoms by a space of approximately 55 mum effectively inactivating them. This reduces self-screening effects, keeping polarization sensitivity of all photoreceptors of the DRA ommatidia both high and approximately equal. PMID:19876649

Labhart, Thomas; Baumann, Franziska; Bernard, Gary D

2009-10-30

362

Local sensitivity to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency within the receptive fields of neurons in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys  

PubMed Central

We used dynamic dense noise stimuli and local spectral reverse correlation methods to reveal the local sensitivities of neurons in visual area 2 (V2) of macaque monkeys to orientation and spatial frequency within their receptive fields. This minimized the potentially confounding assumptions that are inherent in stimulus selections. The majority of neurons exhibited a relatively high degree of homogeneity for the preferred orientations and spatial frequencies in the spatial matrix of facilitatory subfields. However, about 20% of all neurons showed maximum orientation differences between neighboring subfields that were greater than 25 deg. The neurons preferring horizontal or vertical orientations showed less inhomogeneity in space than the neurons preferring oblique orientations. Over 50% of all units also exhibited suppressive profiles, and those were more heterogeneous than facilitatory profiles. The preferred orientation and spatial frequency of suppressive profiles differed substantially from those of facilitatory profiles, and the neurons with suppressive subfields had greater orientation selectivity than those without suppressive subfields. The peak suppression occurred with longer delays than the peak facilitation. These results suggest that the receptive field profiles of the majority of V2 neurons reflect the orderly convergence of V1 inputs over space, but that a subset of V2 neurons exhibit more complex response profiles having both suppressive and facilitatory subfields. These V2 neurons with heterogeneous subfield profiles could play an important role in the initial processing of complex stimulus features.

Tao, X.; Zhang, B.; Smith, E. L.; Nishimoto, S.; Ohzawa, I.

2012-01-01

363

Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application. PMID:22543517

Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

2012-04-30

364

Reacquisition of heroin and cocaine place preference involves a memory consolidation process sensitive to systemic and intra-ventral tegmental area naloxone.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of naloxone on a putative memory consolidation process underlying reacquisition of heroin and cocaine conditioned place preference, four studies were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats using a common procedure involving: place conditioning (0.3 or 1mg/kg heroin or 20mg/kg cocaine; x4 sessions), extinction (vehiclex4 sessions), and reconditioning (0 or 1mg/kg heroin or 20mg/kg cocaine; x1 session). Systemic naloxone injections (0, 1 and 3mg/kg) or bilateral intra-ventral tegmental area (VTA) naloxone methiodide infusions (2 nmol in 0.5 microl x side) were administered at different times following reconditioning. Post-reconditioning administration of naloxone dose-dependently blocked, attenuated and had no effect on reacquisition of heroin CPP when administered immediately, 1h and 6h after reconditioning, respectively. The highest dose of naloxone also blocked reacquisition of cocaine CPP, and did not produce a conditioned place aversion in heroin-naïve and heroin pre-treated animals. Post-reconditioning infusions in the VTA, but not in adjacent structures, blocked reacquisition of heroin CPP when administered immediately, but not 6h, after reconditioning. These data suggest that reacquisition of drug-cues associations involves a memory consolidation process sensitive to manipulations of the endogenous opioid system, and indicate that opioid receptors in the VTA may be critically involved in the re-emergence of drug seeking behavior. PMID:19857583

Sticht, Martin; Mitsubata, Jackie; Tucci, Mark; Leri, Francesco

2009-10-24

365

Movement-sensitive and direction and orientation-selective cutaneous receptive fields in the hand area of the post-central gyrus in monkeys.  

PubMed Central

1. In the hand area of the post-central gyrus of three alert Macaca speciosa monkeys neurones related to cutaneous receptors but not activated by simple touch on the receptive field were recorded using the transdural micro-electrode recording technique. Thirty-six cells were found to have complex cutaneous receptive field properties. These neurones were subdivided into the following three groups. 2. Nine neurones were not activated by punctate stimuli on the receptive fields but responded well to movement along the skin. The activity of these neurones was not affected by the direction of movement; nor was it sensitive to different textures of the moving surface. 3. Eighteen neurones responded to cutaneous movement along the skin surface in a particular direction giving no response to stimulation in the opposite direction and intermediate responses to intermediate directions. Similar responses were evoked from different subparts of the receptive field. 4. Nine neurones responded well to an edge placed on the skin in an optimal orientation or moved along the skin in a direction perpendicular to the edge. A maximal response was produced by stimuli of the same optimal orientation in different parts of the receptive field. The significance of the stimuli to the monkey had only a minor influence on the magnitude of the responses of these neurones and no influence on the receptive field properties. 5. The occurrence of the complex cutaneous cells increased from anterior to posterior within the post-central gyrus and most of them were found in Brodmann's area 2. Thus we postulate that the complex receptive field properties arise as a consequence of cortical processing in a network in which postsynaptic one-way lateral inhibition generates the directional properties of the neurones. 6. The complex cutaneous neurones constituted only 6% of the neurones studied in the hand area of the post-central gyrus. Thus the prevalence of neurones with elongated and direction-selective receptive fields is low in the primary somatosensory cortex in comparison with the visual cortex. These neurones may, however, serve the sterognostic capcity of the hand by contributing information about stimulus motion, orientation and direction of movement on the skin.

Hyvarinen, J; Poranen, A

1978-01-01

366

SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

2006-03-01

367

Fire Ecology Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website provides information gathered by the Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) about the importance of wildfires to ecosystem processes in the Pacific Southwest. Details are provided about fire history and ecology in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Nevada forests, California shrub lands, and Mojave and Sonoran deserts. Topics include the ecological impacts of fire suppression, livestock grazing, invasive species, timber harvests, and changes in climate.

368

Algal Sensory Chemical Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory chemical ecology is the branch of chemical ecology that focuses on chemical communications between organisms and chemical\\u000a sensing of the environment by organisms. Algae are well known to have numerous physiological responses to variations in their\\u000a chemical environment, particularly with respect to nutrients (Lobban and Harrison 1994). However, with respect to environmental\\u000a sensing it is typical for “chemical ecology

Charles D. Amsler

369

Refining the ecological footprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological footprint measures how much of the biosphere’s annual regenerative capacity is required to renew the natural resources\\u000a used by a defined population in a given year. Ecological footprint analysis (EFA) compares the footprint with biocapacity.\\u000a When a population’s footprint is greater than biocapacity it is reported to be engaging in ecological overshoot. Recent estimates\\u000a show that humanity’s footprint exceeds

Jason Venetoulis; John Talberth

2008-01-01

370

[Ecological security assessment of Daling River watershed in West Liaoning Province].  

PubMed

Ecological security covers natural ecological security, economic ecological security, and social ecological security. The particular points of natural and semi-natural ecosystem security encompass the integrity and health of the ecosystem. Ecological security describes a state that the area, country, and even global ecological environment are not threatened, which may provide ecological guarantee for the sustainable development of whole ecological-economic system. To construct the comprehensive index system of ecological security assessment of Daling River watershed, a total of 28 indices were chosen from the aspects of ecological status, ecological press, and ecological effect. The results showed that the integrated assessment values of 1987 and 2002 were 7.48 and 7.51, respectively, indicating that the ecological security of Daling River watershed was well, whereas the ecological press of 2002 was increased by 32.5%, compared with that of 1987. The main reason of the constant ecological security of Daling River watershed was the implementation of catchment management, which made the ecological status and ecological effect of 2002 be 2.29 and 2.42 times higher than that of 1987, respectively. PMID:17330494

Wang, Hongchang; Wei, Jing; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Gang

2006-12-01

371

National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides, in full, a chapter excerpted from the book entitled "Ecosystem Management: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Resources" edited by M.S. Boyce and A. Haney, 1997. The hierarchical framework is a regionalization classification and mapping system for stratifying the Earth into progressively smaller areas of increasingly uniform ecological potentials. Ecological types are classified and ecological units are mapped based on associations of those biotic and environmental factors. Ecoregion and subregion levels of the hierarchy are developed by stratification as fine scale field classifications and inventories. The chapter stresses the connections between mapping ecological units and ecosystem management opportunities. A list of cited references appears at the end of the chapter.

372

Sunflower genetic, genomic and ecological resources.  

PubMed

Long a major focus of genetic research and breeding, sunflowers (Helianthus) are emerging as an increasingly important experimental system for ecological and evolutionary studies. Here, we review the various attributes of wild and domesticated sunflowers that make them valuable for ecological experimentation and describe the numerous publicly available resources that have enabled rapid advances in ecological and evolutionary genetics. Resources include seed collections available from germplasm centres at the USDA and INRA, genomic and EST sequences, mapping populations, genetic markers, genetic and physical maps and other forward- and reverse-genetic tools. We also discuss some of the key evolutionary, genetic and ecological questions being addressed in sunflowers, as well as gaps in our knowledge and promising areas for future research. PMID:23039950

Kane, Nolan C; Burke, John M; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Vear, Felicity; Baute, Gregory; Knapp, Steven J; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H

2012-10-08

373

Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease  

PubMed Central

We used ecologic niche modeling of outbreaks and sporadic cases of filovirus-associated hemorrhagic fever (HF) to provide a large-scale perspective on the geographic and ecologic distributions of Ebola and Marburg viruses. We predicted that filovirus would occur across the Afrotropics: Ebola HF in the humid rain forests of central and western Africa, and Marburg HF in the drier and more open areas of central and eastern Africa. Most of the predicted geographic extent of Ebola HF has been observed; Marburg HF has the potential to occur farther south and east. Ecologic conditions appropriate for Ebola HF are also present in Southeast Asia and the Philippines, where Ebola Reston is hypothesized to be distributed. This first large-scale ecologic analysis provides a framework for a more informed search for taxa that could constitute the natural reservoir for this virus family.

Bauer, John T.; Mills, James N.

2004-01-01

374

Prospective ecological risk assessment of sediment resuspension in an estuary.  

PubMed

This study assesses potential ecological risk of resuspended sediment in the water column during the construction of a viaduct in the estuary of the Ulla river (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula), a shellfish production area. Chemical analyses and toxicity bioassays with elutriates were performed with sediments from the area where the three pillars of the viaduct will be located (CT1, CT2 and CT3) and a reference sediment (A2). Acute toxicity of the elutriate was evaluated in five species of three trophic levels (Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Venerupis pullastra and Siriella armata). The sediments of the pillars showed moderate levels of contamination by trace elements (Cu, Cr). Clam and sea urchin embryo-larval toxicity tests showed slightly higher sensitivity than mussel embryo tests, and toxicity was not detected for phytoplankton and mysid bioassays. The predicted no-effect environmental concentration (PNEC) was calculated from the arithmetic mean of the lowest calculated EC(50)s for each sampling site. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated from a simple dilution model and the PEC/PNEC ratio was calculated according to different scenarios of resuspension. Negligible ecological risk in the water column is expected during construction of the pillars. PMID:22763505

Rial, Diego; Beiras, Ricardo

2012-07-05

375

Use of a sensitivity study to identify risk assessment modeling data gaps at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s subsurface disposal area  

SciTech Connect

A common question in the CERCLA remedial investigation (RI) process is, {open_quotes}What are the data gaps that must be filled in order to perform a risk assessment for a given site?{close_quotes} Often a method that can be used to identify and rank data gaps is needed to help allocate scarce remedial investigation funds, and to help prepare for a CERCLA site`s baseline risk assessment (BRA). A CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is a radioactive waste disposal site where transuranic (TRU) waste, mixed waste (MW), and low-level waste (LLW) has been buried in pits, trenches, and soil vaults since 1952. The procedures described in this paper have been developed for the identification of risk assessment data gaps at the SDA. In preparation for the SDA RI/FS, three major investigations have been performed over the past two years. The first of these investigations identified all of the waste streams that were buried in the SDA from 1952 through 1983. The second investigation identified all of the SDA waste streams that were buried from 1984 through the present, and made predictions of the waste volumes that will be buried through the year 2003. The third investigation was the Preliminary Scoping Risk Assessment (PSRA) for the SDA. The PSRA was an initial evaluation of the human health risk associated with the SDA`s buried waste, and it was developed with the intent of identifying risk assessment data gaps for the SDA. The following paragraphs give a brief description of the PSRA, and of the sensitivity study within the PSRA that was used to identify data gaps.

Burns, D.E.

1995-11-01

376

Area-level poverty is associated with an increased risk of ambulatory-care-sensitive hospitalizations among older breast cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of ambulatory-care-sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH) and to examine risk of ACSH among breast cancer survivors living in high (compared with low) poverty areas. DESIGN Prospective, multilevel study. SETTING We analyzed the national, population-based 1991-1999 National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data linked with Medicare claims data throughout the United States. PARTICIPANTS Breast cancer survivors age 66 or older. MEASUREMENTS ACSH was classified according to diagnosis at hospitalization. The percentage of the population living below the US federal poverty line was calculated at the census-tract level. Potential confounders included demographic characteristics, comorbidity, tumor and treatment factors, and availability of medical care. RESULTS 13.3% of 47,643 women had at least one ACSH. Women who lived in high-poverty census tracts (? 30% poverty rate) were 1.52 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-1.72) more likely to have at least one ACSH after diagnosis than women who lived in low-poverty census tracts (< 10% poverty rate). After adjusting for most confounders, results remained unchanged. After adjustment for comorbidity, the hazard ratio (HR) was reduced to 1.34 (95% CI: 1.18-1.52), but adjusting for all variables did not further reduce the risk of ACSH associated with poverty rate beyond adjustment for comorbidity (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58). CONCLUSION Elderly breast cancer survivors who lived in high-poverty census tracts may be at increased risk of reduced post-treatment follow-up care, preventive care, or symptom management as a result of not having adequate, timely, and high-quality ambulatory primary care as suggested by ACSH.

Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.; Lian, Min; Deshpande, Anjali D.; Gillanders, William E.; Aft, Rebecca; Sumner, Walton

2009-01-01

377

Repeated exposure of the posterior ventral tegmental area to nicotine increases the sensitivity of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of ethanol  

PubMed Central

Clinical evidence indicates a frequent co-morbidity of nicotine and alcohol abuse and dependence. The posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) appears to support the reinforcing and dopamine-stimulating effects of both drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure of the pVTA to one drug would increase the sensitivity of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of the other drug. Female Wistar rats received repeated daily microinjections of either 100 ?M nicotine or vehicle directly into the pVTA for 7 days. On the 8th day, rats received microinjections of either vehicle or ethanol (100 or 200 mg%) into the pVTA while extracellular dopamine samples were collected from the ipsilateral nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) with microdialysis. Another experiment tested the effects of challenge microinjections of 200 ?M nicotine in the pVTA on extracellular dopamine levels in the NACsh following 7 daily pretreatments with 200 mg% ethanol in the pVTA. Nicotine pretreatments increased the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol in the pVTA (100 mg% ethanol: 115% vs 160% of baseline in the vehicle and nicotine groups, respectively, p < 0.05; 200 mg% ethanol: 145% vs 190% of baseline in the vehicle and nicotine groups, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, ethanol pretreatments did not alter the stimulating effects of nicotine in the pVTA. The results suggest that repeated exposure of the pVTA to nicotine increased the response of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of ethanol, whereas repeated exposure of the pVTA to ethanol did not alter the responses of pVTA dopamine neurons to nicotine.

Ding, Zheng-Ming; Katner, Simon N.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Truitt, William; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Engleman, Eric A.; McBride, William J.

2012-01-01

378

Repeated exposure of the posterior ventral tegmental area to nicotine increases the sensitivity of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of ethanol.  

PubMed

Clinical evidence indicates a frequent co-morbidity of nicotine and alcohol abuse and dependence. The posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) appears to support the reinforcing and dopamine-stimulating effects of both drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure of the pVTA to one drug would increase the sensitivity of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of the other drug. Female Wistar rats received repeated daily microinjections of either 100 ?M nicotine or vehicle directly into the pVTA for 7 days. On the 8th day, rats received microinjections of either vehicle or ethanol (100 or 200 mg%) into the pVTA while extracellular dopamine samples were collected from the ipsilateral nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) with microdialysis. Another experiment tested the effects of challenge microinjections of 200 ?M nicotine in the pVTA on extracellular dopamine levels in the NACsh following 7 daily pretreatments with 200 mg% ethanol in the pVTA. Nicotine pretreatments increased the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol in the pVTA (100 mg% ethanol: 115% vs 160% of baseline in the vehicle and nicotine groups, respectively, p < 0.05; 200 mg% ethanol: 145% vs 190% of baseline in the vehicle and nicotine groups, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, ethanol pretreatments did not alter the stimulating effects of nicotine in the pVTA. The results suggest that repeated exposure of the pVTA to nicotine increased the response of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of ethanol, whereas repeated exposure of the pVTA to ethanol did not alter the responses of pVTA dopamine neurons to nicotine. PMID:22449786

Ding, Zheng-Ming; Katner, Simon N; Rodd, Zachary A; Truitt, William; Hauser, Sheketha R; Deehan, Gerald A; Engleman, Eric A; McBride, William J

2012-03-25

379

The role of policies in land use\\/cover change since the 1970s in ecologically fragile karst areas of Southwest China: A case study on the Maotiaohe watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of land use\\/cover change and its driving forces is one of the most significant fields in global environmental change research. Karst land is a type of important and unique terrain on the Earth's surface because of its extensive distribution, impressive landforms, and high ecological fragility. Recently, more and more researchers have realized that irrational land use practices are leading

J. Peng; Y. Q. Xu; Y. L. Cai; H. L. Xiao

2011-01-01

380

An Ecological Triangle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a simplified model for summarizing ecological relationships. The components of the ecological triangle are biotic, abiotic materials, and abiotic conditions. Discusses three-way component interactions, population studies, limiting factors of pollution on humans, and difficulties in establishing casual relationships in field research.…

Styron, C. E.

1977-01-01

381

Soil Biology and Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'Soil Biology', the study of organism groups living in soil, predates 'Soil Ecology', the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. Soil Ecology evolved between the late 1950's and the 1970's from ...

P. T. Rygiewicz E. R. Ingham

1993-01-01

382

The ecology of law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical paper is a plea for grafting yet another branch onto the flourishing tree of what may be called the social sciences of law: an ecology of law. In a nutshell, ecology deals with the evolution of (populations of) physical and social entities, well-known examples being animals and organizations. In the current paper, the argument is that the application

Arjen van Witteloostuijn

2003-01-01

383

Ecological Investigations, Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities which stress ecological concepts make up the major portion of this curriculum guide. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents the course schedule, including time requirements, lists the ecological concepts to be studied, and correlates the concepts with the activities. Following…

Washington City Board of Education, NC.

384

Ecological modernisation, American style  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States lags behind European countries in adopting ecological modernisation policies and practices. Ecological modernisation (EM), as it has been developed in the EU, emphasises industrial efficiency and technological development in order to move beyond the perceived conflict between economic development and environmental quality. Despite early attempts by individuals and groups to promote such ideas in the United States,

David Schlosberg; Sara Rinfret

2008-01-01

385

Modeling genre ecologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genre ecology framework is an analytical framework for studying how people use multiple artifacts - such as documentation, interfaces, and annotations - to mediate their work activities. Unlike other analytical frameworks, the genre ecology framework has been developed particularly for technical communication research, particularly in its emphasis on interpretation, contingency, and stability. Although this framework shows much promise, it

Clay Spinuzzi

2002-01-01

386

Ecological Structure Activity Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Structure Activity Relationships, v1.00a, February 2009 ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships) is a personal computer software program that is used to estimate the toxicity of chemicals used in industry and discharged into water. The program predicts...

387

TENSAS ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological assessment in the Tensas River Basin, Louisiana, has been completed by the U.S. EPA in partnership with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality and other stakeholder groups. This assessment, conducted using landscape ecology and water quality methods, can...

388

The Ecological Design Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecological Design Institute is an organization that seeks ways to design and construct buildings that meet human needs within the balance of nature. Users can explore design projects, education projects, and the five principles of ecological design on the website. The American Youth Hostel Design Studio at UC Berkeley is just one example of the several interesting demonstration educational projects.

2008-03-03

389

Translational ecology for hydrogeology.  

PubMed

Translational ecology-a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers-will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. PMID:23837514

Schlesinger, William H

2013-07-09

390

Audubon Ecology Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

391

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) Work Group, composed of scientists and risk assessors from EPA, Environment Canada, DOE, Army, Navy, Air Force, states, industry, academia, and consulting companies, has been working on the development of scientifically sound, ecologi...

392

Energy and ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of any renewable or nonrenewable energy form has ecological and environmental consequences. To comprehend these consequences, we must first understand the technology of each energy form: solar, biomass, coal, petroleum, nuclear, and such alternative energy sources as ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal, wind, hydroelectric, ocean tidal, and ocean wave. The author examines the ecological principles, the food chains,

Gates

1985-01-01

393

Predictive systems ecology.  

PubMed

Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive. PMID:24089332

Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

2013-10-02

394

Phage evolution and ecology.  

PubMed

Bacteriophages (phages) are the viruses of bacteria and the study of phage biology can be differentiated, roughly, into molecular, environmental, evolutionary, ecological, and applied aspects. While for much of the past fifty-plus years molecular and then applied aspects have dominated the field, more recently environmental concerns, especially the phage impact on biogeochemical cycles, have driven an increase in the appreciation of phage ecology. Over approximately the same time frame, decreasing sequencing costs have combined with phage molecular characterization to give rise to an inescapable consideration of phage comparative genomics. That, along with environmental metagenomics, has stimulated, especially among molecular biologists, a more general interest in phage evolutionary biology. However, while reviews of phage ecology have become exceedingly common, overviews of phage evolutionary biology are comparatively rare, and broad considerations of phage evolutionary biology drawn from an ecological perspective rarer still. In this chapter I jump into this latter void, providing an overview of phage evolutionary biology as viewed from the perspective of phage-environment interactions, that is, from the perspective of phage ecology. This I do over five sections constituting (1) an introduction to phages and how, phenotypically, they can be differentiated into three basics types that correlate, more or less, with genomic size, that is, tailed (generally larger genomes), lipid-containing (medium-sized genomes), and single-stranded (small genomes); (2) a brief introduction to phage ecology as considered particularly from a classical ecological perspective; (3) an extended introduction to evolutionary biology as viewed from a phage and phage-ecological standpoint; (4) phage evolutionary ecology, that is, consideration of phage adaptations from the vantage of why, in terms of phage fitness, those adaptations may have evolved; and (5) phage evolutionary biology, including evolutionary ecology, as viewed from the perspective of phage genomics. PMID:19245935

Abedon, Stephen T

2009-01-01

395

Emphasizing the ecology in parasite community ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural systems, individuals are often co-infected by many species of parasites. However, the significance of interactions between species and the processes that shape within-host parasite communities remain unclear. Studies of parasite community ecology are often descriptive, focusing on patterns of parasite abundance across host populations rather than on the mechanisms that underlie interactions within a host. These within- host

Amy B. Pedersen; Andy Fenton

2006-01-01

396

Polyaromatic hydrocarbon exposure: an ecological impact ambiguity.  

PubMed

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons and are currently one of the foremost sources of generating energy in today's contemporary society. However, evidence highlighted in this review show that PAH pollution, as a result of oil spills, hazardous PAH-contaminated working environments and technologies which do not efficiently utilise fuels, as well as natural sources of emissions (e.g. forest fires) may have significant health implications for all taxa. The extent of damage to organisms from PAH exposure is dependent on numerous factors including degree and type of PAH exposure, nature of the environment contaminated (i.e. terrestrial or aquatic), the ability of an organism to relocate to pristine environments, type and sensitivity of organism to specific hydrocarbon fractions and ability of the organism to metabolise different PAH fractions. The review highlights the fact that studies on the potential damage of PAHs should be carried out using mixtures of hydrocarbons as opposed to individual hydrocarbon fractions due to the scarcity of individual fractions being a sole contaminant. Furthermore, potential damage of PAH-contaminated sites should be assessed using an entire ecological impact outlook of the affected area. PMID:23529398

Ball, Andrew; Truskewycz, Adam

2013-03-26

397

Detecting ecological change on coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing offers the potential to observe the response of coral reef ecosystems to environmental perturbations on a geographical scale not previously accessible. However, coral reef environments are optically, spatially, and temporally complex habitats which all present significant challenges for extracting meaningful information. Virtually every member of the reef community possesses some degree of photosynthetic capability. The community thus generates a matrix of fine scale features with bio-optical signatures that blend as the scale of observation increases. Furthermore, to have any validity, the remotely sensed signal must be "calibrated" to the bio-optics of the reef, a difficult and resource intensive process due to a convergence of photosynthetic light harvesting by green, red, and brown algal pigment systems. To make matters more complex, reefs are overlain by a seawater skin with its own set of hydrological optical challenges. Rather than concentrating on classification, my research has attempted to track change by following the variation in geo-referenced pixel brightness over time with a technique termed temporal texture. Environmental periodicities impart a phenology to the variation in brightness and departures from the norm are easily detected as statistical outliers. This opens the door to using current orbiting technology to efficiently examine large areas of sea for change. If hot spots are detected, higher resolution sensors and field studies can be focused as resources permit. While this technique does not identify the type of change, it is sensitive, simple to compute, easy to automate and grounded in ecological niche theory

Dustan, P.

2011-12-01

398

Ecology and community health in the north.  

PubMed

Health of a nation is a sensitive barometer of the environmental situation, especially in the North, where vulnerable nature cannot resist intensive industrial development. The geographical location and severe climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) significantly sharpen any negative impact of industrial activity on the state of the environment. The impact of ecological factors on the health of population has been studied in the case of a diamond province (Vilyuy region), where a complex of chemical pollutants from diamond mining, products of wood decay in places of flooding of the water reservoir for the Vilyuisk power station, highly mineralised underground waters and consequences of underground explosions have caused a substantial negative effect on the environment and people. Studies on the health of the population in the Vilyuy region has shown that sickness and morbidity rates of viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, pathologies during pregnancy and other diseases are higher in comparison to rates in the Republic as a whole, a feature which has been attributed to environmental degradation in the area. PMID:11507966

Petrova, P G; Yakovleva, N P; Zakharova, F A

2001-04-01

399

Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.  

PubMed

Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length--a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes--but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts. PMID:23387120

Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

2012-12-01

400

Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

2013-04-22

401

Reflections on Plant and Soil Nematode Ecology: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments include response to stressors, environmental conditions, and management practices. Methodological advances will continue to influence the role nematodes have in addressing the nature of interactions between organisms, and of organisms with their environments. In particular, the C. elegans genetic model, nematode faunal analysis and nematode metagenetic analysis can be used by ecologists generally and not restricted to nematologists.

Ferris, Howard; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Powers, Thomas O.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Tenuta, Mario

2012-01-01

402

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE) is a peer-reviewed web-based collection of ecological educational materials. It is "a resource for busy ecology faculty who are looking for new ways to reach their students, or who perhaps want to learn more about teaching and learning." Each of the volumes here contains Experiments, Issues, and Teaching. In the Experiments area, visitors can find resources for laboratory settings, while the Issues section features classroom exercises and web-based materials. On the site's homepage, visitors will find the All Volumes link, which will allow them to look over all the resources dating back to 2004. The field experiments area includes resources such as "Using Steam Leaf Packs to Explore Community Assembly" and "Biodiversity Responses Across a Gradient of Human Influence."

2012-08-10

403

Evolutionary versus ecological success in Antarctic benthic invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusually high proportion of brooding compared with broadcaster species among coastal Antarctic invertebrates has been traditionally interpreted as an adaptation to local environmental conditions. However, species with a planktotrophic developmental mode are ecologically dominant (in terms of abundance of individuals) along Antarctic coastal areas. Therefore, is the apparent ecological success of broadcasters related to their developmental mode? We argue

Elie Poulin; Alvaro T. Palma; Jean-Pierre Féral

2002-01-01

404

Creating local ecological footprints in a North American context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many urban areas face conflicts between economic growth and environmental limitations. The ecological footprint is popular for communicating the global impacts of local activities, and if calculated at the local level, should be useful in emphasising the impacts of local planning, engaging community members, and allowing intra-community comparisons. We compare the two dominant methods for local ecological footprints: the compound

Sonja Klinsky; Reneé Sieber; Thom Meredith

2009-01-01

405

Ecological Factors in Migration in Nonmetropolitan Counties, 1950-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To determine the dominant ecosystem types in nonmetropolitan counties and the role of ecological factors in determination of levels of total and age-specific migration patterns within nonmetropolitan areas and ecosystem types for 1950-60 and 1960-70, 30 ecological variables representing POET concepts of population, organization, environment, and…

Murdock, Steve H.

406

Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide\\/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis

R. G. Kuperman; C. P. Dunn

1994-01-01

407

The Ecological Footprint: an Indicator of Progress Toward Regional Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define regional sustainability as the continuous support of human quality of life within a region's ecological carrying capacity. To achieve regional sustainability, one must first assess the current situation. That is, indicators of status and progress are required. The ecological footprint is an area-based indicator which quantifies the intensity of human resource use and waste discharge activity in relation

Mathis Wackernagel; J. David Yount

1998-01-01

408

IMPRINT OF THE PAST: ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR  

EPA Science Inventory

To have an understanding of ecological conditions in a highly impacted area, it is important to look at how past events affected current conditions. Historical studies provide an understanding of how current ecological conditions arose, provide information to identify past pollut...

409

Ecological response surfaces nested in a process-based vegetation-water blance model to investigate species-level sensitivity to projected climatic chanage in the North American Central Grasslands  

SciTech Connect

Empirical ecological response surfaces were nested in MAPSS, a process-based vegetation-water balance model, to increase the taxonomic resolution of simulations of vegetation change under altered climates in the Central Grasslands. Response surfaces developed for dominant grass species predict the probability of dominance as a function of both climatic variables and variables derived by MAPSS. The former include indices of warmth and moisture more directly related to the response of plants than annual or monthly measures of temperature or precipitation commonly used in ecological response surface modeling. The MAPSS-derived predictor variables include evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and lifeform LAI. Under current climatic conditions, the response surfaces provide estimates of grass species dominance with a high degree of success. Much of the variation in the simulated probability of dominance is related to the species` individualistic response to regional gradients of temperature and moisture. The equilibrium response under different doubled-CO2 climatic scenarios suggests the potential for significant change in the distribution of species dominance consistent with biome-level change simulated by MAPSS.

Lenihan, J.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Neilson, R.P. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-09-01

410

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2002 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during fiscal year 2002. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species and important biological resources were conducted for 26 NTS projects. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 374 acres. Thirteen of the projects were in desert tortoise habitat, and 13.38 acres of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed at project areas or along paved roads. Compilation of historical wildlife data continued this year in efforts to develop faunal distribution maps for the NTS. Photographs associated with the NTS ecological landform units sampled to create the NTS vegetation maps were cataloged for future retrieval and analysis. The list of sensitive plant species for which long-term population monitoring is scheduled was revised. Six vascular plants and five mosses were added to the list. Plant density estimates from ten populations of Astragalus beatleyae were collected, and eight known populations of Eriogonum concinnum were visited to assess plant and habitat status. Minimal field monitoring of western burrowing owl burrows occurred. A report relating to the ecology of the western burrowing owl on the Nevada Test Site was prepared which summarizes four years of data collected on this species' distribution, burrow use, reproduction, activity patterns, and food habits. Bat roost sites within seven buildings slated for demolition were identified, and a BN biologist was a contributing author of the Nevada Bat Conservation Plan published by the Nevada Bat Working Group. Thirty-three adult horses and five foals were counted this year. Six active raptor nests (two American kestrel, two Red-tailed hawk, and two Great-horned owl nests) were found and monitored this year. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. The chemical release test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center on Frenchman Lake playa was reviewed. Seasonal sampling of downwind and upwind transects near the spill center was conducted to document baseline conditions of biota.

C. A. Wills

2002-12-01

411

Efficient Discrimination of Temporal Patterns by Motion-Sensitive Neurons in Primate Visual Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although motion-sensitive neurons in macaque middle temporal (MT) area are conventionally characterized using stimuli whose velocity remains constant for 1–3 s, many ecologically relevant stimuli change on a shorter time scale (30–300 ms). We compared neuronal responses to conventional (constant-velocity) and time-varying stimuli in alert primates. The responses to both stimulus ensembles were well described as rate-modulated Poisson processes but

Anthony M. Zador; Michael R. DeWeese; Thomas D. Albright

1998-01-01

412

[Parasitism and ecological parasitology].  

PubMed

Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given. PMID:21874841

Balashov, Iu S

413

Society for Vector Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed in 1968, the Society for Vector Ecology (SOVE) is dedicated to studying "all aspects of the biology, ecology, and control of arthropod vectors and the interrelationships between the vectors and the disease agents they transmit." Comprised of researchers and operational and extension personnel around the globe, SOVE tracks and studies the biological organisms that transmit diseases. The SOVE Website contains information related to the Society (e.g., mission, history), its publications (journal, newsletter -- both .pdf format), and professional opportunities (conferences, employment). Several dozen links to additional vector ecology resources are provided.

2002-01-01

414

Quantitative Population Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Alexei Sharov of the Department of Entomology at Virginia Tech has put together this excellent teaching resource on quantitative population ecology. The online resource contains thirteen lecture handouts and eight labs, targeting beginning graduate or advanced undergraduate students; the course requires a basic understanding of statistics and ecology. Each chapter contains a concise introduction to the topic plus several more detailed subsections. The chapters are well organized and easy to navigate, and include useful color illustrations and mathematical equations. For educators and students of quantitative population ecology alike, this exceptional resource is hard to beat.

415

JSTOR: Journal of Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999 JSTOR made available online the British Ecological Society's publication Journal of Ecology, containing "original research papers on all aspects of ecology of plants (including algae) in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems." Online issues include Volumes 1-87, spanning the years 1913-1999 (issues will be added as they become more than three years old). The journal may be searched by keyword in several fields -- full-text, title, author, and abstract -- or browsed by date of publication. A list of JSTOR participants is provided at the JSTOR site.

416

Ecological integrity of streams related to human cancer mortality rates.  

PubMed

Assessments of ecological integrity have become commonplace for biological conservation, but their role for public health analysis remains largely unexplored. We tested the prediction that the ecological integrity of streams would provide an indicator of human cancer mortality rates in West Virginia, USA. We characterized ecological integrity using an index of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, SCI) and quantified human cancer mortality rates using county-level data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression and spatial analyses revealed significant associations between ecological integrity and public health. SCI was negatively related to age-adjusted total cancer mortality per 100,000 people. Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and breast cancer rates increased with ecological disintegrity, but genital and oral cancer rates did not. Smoking, poverty, and urbanization were significantly related to total cancer mortality, but did not explain the observed relationships between ecological integrity and cancer. Coal mining was significantly associated with ecological disintegrity and higher cancer mortality. Spatial analyses also revealed cancer clusters that corresponded to areas of high coal mining intensity. Our results demonstrated significant relationships between ecological integrity and human cancer mortality in West Virginia, and suggested important effects of coal mining on ecological communities and public health. Assessments of ecological integrity therefore may contribute not only to monitoring goals for aquatic life, but also may provide valuable insights for human health and safety. PMID:20361230

Hitt, Nathaniel P; Hendryx, Michael

2010-04-02

417

Evaluation of the ecological state of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk using the DNase test system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the state of the Russian coastal marine ecosystems of the Sea of Japan (the Tumen River mouth) and the Sea of Okhotsk (the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island and the Sakhalin Gulf) and Kraternya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands) was carried out during the 29th expedition of the R/V Akademik Oparin. A highly sensitive express analysis using the DNase of the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin was utilized in order to evaluate the quality of the natural marine water of the areas experiencing different degrees of anthropogenic impact. The marine water quality was evaluated according to the degree of the DNase inhibition in the samples. The presence of ecological stress was shown at the aforementioned sites excluding Kraternya Bight. The method allows the fast (1 hour) analysis of the pollution of marine areas and, coupled with data on the hydrological, hydrochemical, and microbiological studies of water samples, provides the possibility to make an ecological forecast.

Menzorova, N. I.; Rasskazov, V. A.

2009-12-01

418

Koa (Acacia koa) Ecology and Silvicuture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been convert...

J. J. Ewel P. G. Scowcroft P. J. Baker

2009-01-01

419

Expanding the Horizons of Urban Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights the educational potential of the local environment for field teaching in both junior and secondary high schools. Describes a project which focused on the development and utilization of nearby ecological study areas. Reviews this projects' goals, activities, and future plans. (ML)|

Hale, Monica

1985-01-01

420

The Ecology of the Nitrogen Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the general processes of the nitrogen cycle and then gives examples to show how the cycle is modified for particular ecological geographical situations. They are drawn from all major areas of the world and the impact of man on agriculture, forestry, and fuel combustion is discussed.

Janet I. Sprent

1987-01-01

421

Ciguatera: Ecological, clinical, and socioeconomic perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera fish poisoning, found throughout the world in warm waters, is the most common type of marine biotoxin ingestion. A polymorphous disease caused by toxins produced by coral reef dinoflagellate(s) and which concentrate up the food chain, ciguatera poses important health, nutritional, economic, and social problems for inhabitants of endemic areas. Despite considerable recent study and progress, the ecology and

Richard J. Lewis; Tilman A. Ruff

1993-01-01

422

[Ecological footprint and available ecological capacity in Chongqing region].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical data of Chongqing, the ecological footprint of Chongqing was calculated in this paper. The results showed that the per capita ecological footprint was 1.653566 hm2, per capita ecological capacity was 0.280393 hm2, and ecological surplus of deficit was 1.373173 hm2. The per capita ecological footprint was 0.5335 hm2 (47.64%) higher but the per capita ecological capacity was 0.5196 hm2 (64.95%) lower, and the ecological surplus of deficit was about 3.43 times of the average national level. These results showed that the ecological footprint of Chongqing was beyond the available ecological capacity, and its social and economic development was not sustainable. The strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region, such as reducing ecosystem population, increasing public finance income, and controlling environmental pollution, were also put forward. PMID:16252886

Sun, Fan; Mong, Linbing

2005-07-01

423

Center for Applied Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Kentucky, the Center for Applied Ecology at Northern Kentucky University provides professional environmental services to University and local community, as well as courses. Read about the staff and their responsibilities.

Ecology, Center F.

424

The Ecology Supercourse Concept  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the history and events leading to the creation of an ecology supercourse at the University of California. It introduces the concept of this course and provides a course syllabus.

Macmillen, Richard E.

2010-02-16

425

Invasion Ecology (Student Edition)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a guide to learning skills for investigating the behaviors on non-native and native species. Studying invaders such as zebra mussels, chestnut blight, purple loosestrife, and Phragmites, you will explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. This Student Edition has three sections: (1) Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species (2) Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies (3) A series of helpful worksheets to guide you through your own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show you how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

426

Ecological restoration - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Ecology and management of a forested landscape. ... drainage, dam construction , stream channeling, fire protection, subsistence hunting and ... of the degree of human impact (e.g., Batson and Kelley 1953; Freeman 1954; Freeman 1955).

427

Advances in ecological research  

SciTech Connect

A Theory of Gradient Analysis. Sunflecks and Their Importance to Forest Understorey Plants. Geochemical Monitoring of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Theory and Applications. Population Cycles in Forest Lepidoptera. Mycorrhizal Links Between Plants: Their Functioning and Ecological Significance.

Macfadyen, A.

1988-01-01

428

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

As ecological risk assessment evolves, it is moving beyond focus on single species toward addressing multiple species and their interactions, and from assessing effects of simple chemical toxicity to the cumulative impacts of multiple interacting chemical, physical, and biologica...