These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

[Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

2010-07-01

2

Framework to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a framework that combines simulation optimization with Bayesian decision analysis to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas. A stochastic simulation optimization management model is employed to plan regionally distributed groundwater pumping while preserving the hydroecological balance in wetland areas. Because predictions made by an aquifer model are uncertain,

Luc Feyen; Steven M. Gorelick

2005-01-01

3

Framework to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a framework that combines simulation optimization with Bayesian decision analysis to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas. A stochastic simulation optimization management model is employed to plan regionally distributed groundwater pumping while preserving the hydroecological balance in wetland areas. Because predictions made by an aquifer model are uncertain, groundwater supply systems operate below maximum yield. Collecting data from the groundwater system can potentially reduce predictive uncertainty and increase safe water production. The price paid for improvement in water management is the cost of collecting the additional data. Efficient data collection using Bayesian decision analysis proceeds in three stages: (1) The prior analysis determines the optimal pumping scheme and profit from water sales on the basis of known information. (2) The preposterior analysis estimates the optimal measurement locations and evaluates whether each sequential measurement will be cost-effective before it is taken. (3) The posterior analysis then revises the prior optimal pumping scheme and consequent profit, given the new information. Stochastic simulation optimization employing a multiple-realization approach is used to determine the optimal pumping scheme in each of the three stages. The cost of new data must not exceed the expected increase in benefit obtained in optimal groundwater exploitation. An example based on groundwater management practices in Florida aimed at wetland protection showed that the cost of data collection more than paid for itself by enabling a safe and reliable increase in production.

Feyen, Luc; Gorelick, Steven M.

2005-03-01

4

100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

1993-09-01

5

Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology  

E-print Network

Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology Implications for Water Quality Risk hydrology was developed and applied to the New York City (NYC) water supply watersheds. According and are therefore hydrologically sensitive with respect to their potential to transport contaminants to perennial

Walter, M.Todd

6

ECOLOGICAL SITES IN RIPARIAN AREAS ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO  

E-print Network

(Retired) 91 First Road Whitehall, Montana 59759 (406) 287-5321 #12;ECOLOGICAL SITES · Landform & Production · Interpretations for use & management #12;#12;Ecological Sites Riparian Areas · Landform

7

Ecological sensitivity: a biospheric view of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is often characterized in terms of climate sensitivity, the globally averaged temperature rise associated with\\u000a a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 (equivalent) concentration. In this study, we develop and apply two new ecological sensitivity metrics, analogs of climate\\u000a sensitivity, to investigate the potential degree of plant community changes over the next three centuries. We use ten climate\\u000a simulations

Jon C. Bergengren; Duane E. Waliser; Yuk L. Yung

2011-01-01

8

Sensitivity analysis of coexistence in ecological communities: theory and application.  

PubMed

Sensitivity analysis, the study of how ecological variables of interest respond to changes in external conditions, is a theoretically well-developed and widely applied approach in population ecology. Though the application of sensitivity analysis to predicting the response of species-rich communities to disturbances also has a long history, derivation of a mathematical framework for understanding the factors leading to robust coexistence has only been a recent undertaking. Here we suggest that this development opens up a new perspective, providing advances ranging from the applied to the theoretical. First, it yields a framework to be applied in specific cases for assessing the extinction risk of community modules in the face of environmental change. Second, it can be used to determine trait combinations allowing for coexistence that is robust to environmental variation, and limits to diversity in the presence of environmental variation, for specific community types. Third, it offers general insights into the nature of communities that are robust to environmental variation. We apply recent community-level extensions of mathematical sensitivity analysis to example models for illustration. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the method, and some of the empirical questions the theoretical framework could help answer. PMID:25252135

Barabs, Gyrgy; Psztor, Liz; Meszna, Gza; Ostling, Annette

2014-12-01

9

Ecological problems of oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, the Republic of Azerbaijan is undergoing a historical period of social, economical and political changes. These reforms are bringing about problems that require immediate solutions. The pivotal point of the reforms taking place in Azerbaijan is the closure of agreements with foreign companies who are contracted for oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea region. The ecological sensitivity of this

I. M Efendiyeva

2000-01-01

10

Ecological correlates of infraorbital foramen area in primates.  

PubMed

The infraorbital foramen (IOF) transmits the infraorbital nerve (ION) to specialized sensory cells (mechanoreceptors) in the maxillary region. The size of the IOF has been used in numerous paleoecological interpretations of the fossil record. However, these interpretations have been applied without an explicit analysis of the relationship between ecological variables and the IOF. ION and IOF cross-sectional area show a strong positive correlation. As a result, IOF area can be a proxy for ION area, and it is hypothesized that IOF area may be a good measure for maxillary somatosensory acuity. Differences in diet, substrate preference, and/or activity pattern have been shown to correlate with differences in maxillary somatosensory acuity among mammals. This study examines how IOF area covaries with different ecological variables. IOF area was measured for 89 primate species. Ecological profiles were also created for each species and used to evaluate interspecific variation in relative IOF area within each ecological category. The results show a significant relationship between relative IOF area and diet, but not substrate preference or activity pattern. Frugivores have significantly larger relative IOFs than either folivores or insectivores, but the relative IOFs of folivores and insectivores do not differ significantly from one another. These results partially support the hypothesis that maxillary mechanoreception is a critical sensory cue for primates within a feeding context. Results for this study suggest the IOF can be used as an informative character in some paleoecological interpretations of the primate fossil record. PMID:19701916

Muchlinski, Magdalena N

2010-01-01

11

Ecological Processes in the Creation of Delinquency Areas: An Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences found in areas with high delinquency rates in relation to the ecological structure in Los Angeles County, California. Previous studies suggest that delinquency was the consequence of the availability of low cost housing found in deteriorating residential areas, and that the housing matched

Schuerman, Leo A.; Kobrin, Solomon

12

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

1994-06-01

13

Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

1995-03-01

14

Ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in Quercus ilex  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Several widespread tree species of temperate forests, such as species of the genus Quercus, produce recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds. However, the ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in temperate regions is largely unknown. Do seeds of such species suffer from drying during the period when they remain on the soil, between shedding in autumn and the return of conditions required for germination in spring? Methods To test this hypothesis, the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest was used as a model system. The relationships between the climate in winter, the characteristics of microhabitats, acorn morphological traits, and the water status and viability of seeds after winter were then investigated in 42 woodlands sampled over the entire French distribution of the species. Key Results The percentages of germination and normal seedling development were tightly linked to the water content of seeds after the winter period, revealing that in situ desiccation is a major cause of mortality. The homogeneity of seed response to drying suggests that neither intraspecific genetic variation nor environmental conditions had a significant impact on the level of desiccation sensitivity of seeds. In contrast, the water and viability status of seeds at the time of collection were dramatically influenced by cumulative rainfall and maximum temperatures during winter. A significant effect of shade and of the type of soil cover was also evidenced. Conclusions The findings establish that seed desiccation sensitivity is a key functional trait which may influence the success of recruitment in temperate recalcitrant seed species. Considering that most models of climate change predict changes in rainfall and temperature in the Mediterranean basin, the present work could help foresee changes in the distribution of Q. ilex and other oak species, and hence plant community alterations. PMID:23388882

Jot, Thierry; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Dussert, Stphane

2013-01-01

15

Ecological assessment plan for Waste Area Grouping 5  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping (WAG)5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contains 13 solid waste management units (SWMUs) covering a surface area of {approx}20 ha in Melton Valley south of the main plant area. The largest SWMUs are Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 and SWSA 5 North. These two SWMUs also contain most of the radioactive contamination. WAG 5 contains two surface impoundments and two intermittent streams; runoff from WAG 5 enters White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. Principal contaminants include fission-product radionuclides and transuranic elements, but trace metals and some organics may also be present. This document describes the ecological assessment that will perform to determine the ecological effects of contamination from WAG 5. This document also supports the baseline risk assessment and subsequent alternatives evaluations for WAG 5. Three specific tasks are incorporated in the WAG 5 ecological assessment: (1) threatened and endangered species surveys, (2) ambient toxicity tests of seeps, stream reaches, and soil that are identified as being contaminant sources, and (3) sampling of wildlife (specifically wild turkeys) that could potentially transfer contaminants from WAG 5 to humans.

Ashwood, T.L.

1992-04-01

16

Simulation analysis on the regulation of overflow ecological water consumption in arid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

After analyzing the regulation of overflow ecological water consumption in the Canmrik ecological area of mainstream zone\\u000a of the Tarim River, in this paper a model of ecological bifurcation is developed, the dynamic overflow process of ecological\\u000a bifurcation is simulated, and the quantitative relationships between the volume of ecological water consumption and the ecological\\u000a conservation extent and overflow time are

Xi Chen; Yue Huang; Jing Qian; HaiLong Liu; XianWei Feng; Ying Liu; AnMing Bao; WeiSheng Wang

2007-01-01

17

Reliable groundwater management in hydroecologically sensitive areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic groundwater management model is formulated to account for prediction uncertainty when maximizing regionally distributed groundwater production yet obeying regulations to maintain the hydroecological balance in wetland areas. The water table elevation in sensitive wetland areas is lowered by the withdrawal of groundwater at supply wells. Substantial uncertainty exists because drawdowns depend on both the unknown spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and regional boundary conditions. Planning in the face of uncertain predictions of water table changes means that optimal production must be prudently reduced. A stochastic simulation-optimization formulation is developed that provides a robust water production plan. Prediction uncertainty is dealt with through stochastic simulation-optimization using a multiple-realization approach. On the basis of analyses involving solution of over 8 million aquifer models and 36,000 stochastic-optimization solutions, the nature and reliability of the optimal groundwater production scheme are inspected to determine the effects of uncertainty in spatially variable hydraulic conductivity, conditioning on local measurements, and the type of boundary conditions imposed in the nonlinear aquifer model. We propose a new measure to predict the expected reliability of meeting water level constraints in wetland areas. Monte Carlo simulations based on numerous optimal groundwater production schemes confirm that the expected reliability is a quantifiable function of the number of hydraulic conductivity realizations included in the stochastic-optimization formulation and the variance of log hydraulic conductivity.

Feyen, Luc; Gorelick, Steven M.

2004-07-01

18

SPECIAL ECOLOGICAL AREAS: AN APPROACH TO ALIEN PLANT CONTROL IN HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Special Ecological Areas approach to alien plant management was adopted at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in 1985. The approach involves control of widespread, disruptive alien plant species in Special Ecological Areas, which are intensive management and research units in the Park. Special Ecological Areas management developed from these perceptions: 1) unmanaged alien species were affecting many of the most

J. Timothy Tunison; Charles P. Stone

19

X ray sensitive area detection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation sensitive area detection device is disclosed which comprises a phosphor-containing film capable of receiving and storing an image formed by a pattern of incoming x rays, UV, or other radiation falling on the film. The device is capable of fluorescing in response to stimulation by a light source in a manner directly proportional to the stored radiation pattern. The device includes: (1) a light source capable of projecting light or other appropriate electromagnetic wave on the film so as to cause it to fluoresce; (2) a means to focus the fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film after light stimulation; and (3) at least one charged coupled detector or other detecting element capable of receiving and digitizing the pattern of fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film. The device will be able to generate superior x ray images of high resolution from a crystal or other sample and will be particularly advantageous in that instantaneous near-real-time images of rapidly deteriorating samples can be obtained. Furthermore, the device can be made compact and sturdy, thus capable of carrying out x ray or other radiation imaging under a variety of conditions, including those experienced in space.

Carter, Daniel C. (inventor); Witherow, William K. (inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (inventor)

1990-01-01

20

Ecological security evaluation of sustainable agricultural development in karst mountainous area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological security is the main task and applied field of present geography, resources and environment sciences and ecology.Ecological\\u000a security evaluation will efficiently promote ecological security and environmental construction in regional land use. In this\\u000a thesis, the authors put forward the index system of ecological security evaluation in karst mountainous area on three aspects,\\u000a the pressure of resources and eco-environment, the

Chi-mei Liao; Lan Li; Zhi-qiang Yan; Bao-qing Hu

2004-01-01

21

Chapter 6: Ecology of the Everglades Protection Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The studies and findings discussed in this chapter of the 2006 South Florida Environmental Report - Volume I are presented within four main fields: (1) wildlife ecology, (2) plant ecology, (3) ecosystem ecology, and (4) landscape ecology. Programs of study were based on the short-term and long-term needs of the South Florida Water Management District (District or SFWMD) including

Fred Sklar; Mark Cook; Erynn Call; Robert Shuford; Mac Kobza; Robert Johnson; Shili Miao; Michael Korvela; Carlos Coronado; Laura Bauman; Jennifer Leeds; Brian Garrett; Jana Newman; Eric Cline; Susan Newman; Ken Rutchey; Christopher McVoy

2006-01-01

22

Chapter 6: Ecology of the Everglades Protection Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The studies and findings discussed in this chapter of the 2005 South Florida Environmental Report - Volume I are presented within four main fields: (1) wildlife ecology, (2) plant ecology, (3) ecosystem ecology, and (4) landscape ecology. Programs of study were based on the short-term and long-term needs of the South Florida Water Management District (District or SFWMD) including

Fred Sklar; Ken Rutchey; Scot Hagerthy; Mark Cook; Susan Newman; Shili Miao; Carlos Coronado-Molina; Jennifer Leeds; Laura Bauman; Jana Newman; Michael Korvela; Robert Wanvestraut; Andrew Gottlieb

2005-01-01

23

Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

E-print Network

Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding...

Giles, John R; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ameida, Alzira

2011-01-04

24

Planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban ecological networks are defined differently in ecology, urban planning and landscape ecology, but they all have linearity\\u000a and linkage in common. Early urban representations evolved from the constraints of deep ecological structure in the landscape\\u000a to built elements that must work around natural linear obstaclesrivers, coastlines, dunes, cliffs, hills and valley swamps.\\u000a Village commons were linked by roads. The

Maria IgnatievaGlenn; Glenn H. Stewart; Colin Meurk

2011-01-01

25

Calculation of Resources Carrying Capacitybased on Ecological Footprint in Beijingmountainous Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue uses ecological footprint method to research 7 target counties of Beijing and gains the per capita ecological deficit after 12 percent areas deduction for biological diversification. We found that target region has a magnified trend of ecological deficit and then, we try to offer some proposals about how to develop the mountainous counties.

Sun, Jiuwen; Liu, Chang; Luo, Biaoqiang

26

Urban Ecological Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies of terrestrial urban systems have been approached along several kinds of contrasts: ecology in as opposed\\u000a to ecology of cities; biogeochemical compared to organismal perspectives, land use planning versus biological, and disciplinary\\u000a versus interdisciplinary. In order to point out how urban ecological studies are poised for significant integration, we review\\u000a key aspects of these disparate literatures. We emphasize

S. T. A. Pickett; M. L. Cadenasso; J. M. Grove; C. H. Nilon; R. V. Pouyat; W. C. Zipperer; R. Costanza

27

URBAN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Ecological studies of terrestrial urban systems,have been approached along several kinds of contrasts: ecology,in as opposed,to ecology,of cities; biogeo- chemical compared to organismal perspectives, land use planning versus biological, and disciplinary versus interdisciplinary. In order to point out how,urban ecological studies are poised for significant integration, we review key aspects of these disparate literatures. We emphasize,an open definition

S. T. A. Pickett; M. L. Cadenasso; J. M. Grove; C. H. Nilon; R. V. Pouyat; W. C. Zipperer; R. Costanza

2001-01-01

28

Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous,

John Giles; A. Townsend Peterson; Alzira Almeida

2011-01-01

29

Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the continental United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future.

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

2013-01-01

30

SPS microwave health and ecological effects: Program area overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential microwave health and ecological effects due to the operations of the Satellite Power System are discussed. An outline of the research needed to insure public acceptance of the program is presented.

Cahill, D. F.

1980-01-01

31

Detecting Area Sensitivity: A Comment on Previous Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.Several studies have reported,that some,grassland birds are area sensitive; they exhibit a nonrandom avoidance of small fields. The methods used to test for area sensitivity, however, differed among studies. Some investigators sampled fields with sampling effort pro- portional to field size, whereas others used equal sampling effort in all fields. We created a simulation model,with the same,number,of fields and field

DAVID JOSEPH HORN; ROBERT J. FLETCHER; ROLF R. KOFORD

2000-01-01

32

Area-sensitive forest birds move extensively among forest patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation is thought to create a barrier to individual movements particularly for area-sensitive species which, by definition, prefer to breed in large tracts of forest. For two breeding seasons, we radio-tracked an area-sensitive species, the scarlet tanager Piranga olivacea, in a fragmented landscape in northeastern PA. We found that scarlet tanagers made extensive and frequent movements among fragments. Paired

Gail S Fraser; Bridget J. M Stutchbury

2004-01-01

33

Ungulate community structure and ecological processes: body size, hoof area and trampling in African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of bioenergetic, production, life history and ecological traits scale with body size in vertebrates. However, the consequences of differences in community body-size structure for ecological processes have not been explored. We studied the scaling relationships between body mass, shoulder height, hoof area, stride length and daily ranging distance in African ungulates ranging in size from the 5

David H. M. Cumming; Graeme S. Cumming

2003-01-01

34

Some ecological attributes and plutonium contents of perennial vegetation in Area 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported on work conducted at the Nevada Test Site under the ; auspices of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group, Office of Effects Evaluation, USAEC ; Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas. Nevada. Included are data on some ; ecological attributes of the vegetation within thc fenced portion of the Project ; 57 fallout pattern in Area 13. Also included

E. M. Romney; A. Wallace; R. O. Gilbert; S. A. Bamberg; J. D. Childress; J. E. Kinnear; T. L. Ackerman

1973-01-01

35

Ecological Modelling 134 (2000) 283297 Effects of leaf area profiles and canopy stratification on  

E-print Network

We investigated the effects of the shape of leaf area profiles and the number of canopy layersEcological Modelling 134 (2000) 283­297 Effects of leaf area profiles and canopy stratification leaf area in the vertical direction, how does the shape of the leaf area profile affect simulation

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

36

Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the Continental United States.  

PubMed

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future. PMID:23372754

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K; Gergely, Kevin J; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J Michael

2013-01-01

37

Ecological niche modelling and prioritizing areas for species reintroductions  

E-print Network

Species reintroduction programmes, in prioritizing areas for reintroductions, have traditionally used tools that include measures of habitat suitability and evaluations of area requirements for viable populations. Here ...

Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Serví n, Jorge I.; Kiff, Lloyd F.

2006-10-01

38

Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

2012-11-01

39

Area of influence (AOI) sensitivity analysis: Application to Atlanta, Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Area of influence (AOI) analysis was applied to determine the geographical extent of the air pollutant precursors contributing to various pollutant levels in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Receptor-oriented sensitivities of ozone and particulate matter (PM) species to emissions of NOx, SO2, NH3, anthropogenic VOC, and elemental carbon were calculated for various combinations of precursor emissions during 1-10 August, 1999. The episode had high observed concentrations of ozone and PM across several days. AOIs differed significantly by day for each sensitivity as well as spatially between pollutants. Ozone sensitivities peaked at 1.0 ppb per 1.0moles-1 (or per 4.0tonday-1) per 1212km2 model grid of emissions of NOx, but averaged around 0.1 ppb over much of Atlanta. Sulfate was the major component of PM, with an average sensitivity of 0.03?gm-3 per 1.0mols-1 (or per 5.5tond-1) per 1212km2 model grid of SO2 emissions and an average of 0.02?gm-3 per 1.0mols-1 per 1212km2 of NOx emissions. Ammonia had a significant impact on PM through the formation of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Elemental carbon had a geographically small area of influence with high values around the receptor.

Napelenok, Sergey L.; Habermacher, Florian D.; Akhtar, Farhan; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

40

Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

2011-12-01

41

Ecological Impacts of Seabuckthorn in the Pisha Sandstone Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is an area of more than 11,000 km2 in northwest China which is covered by Pisha Sandstone, a kind of loosely bonded sandstone which was formed during the Tertiary\\u000a period. The sandstone is hard when it is dry and easily changes into sand when wet. The area has a very high erosion rate\\u000a (over 20,000 t\\/km2yr) and very poor

Kang Zhang; Mengzhen Xu; Zhaoyin Wang; Xuehua Duan; Cifen Bi

42

[Assessment on ecological security spatial differences of west areas of Liaohe River based on GIS].  

PubMed

Ecological security assessment and early warning research have spatiality; non-linearity; randomicity, it is needed to deal with much spatial information. Spatial analysis and data management are advantages of GIS, it can define distribution trend and spatial relations of environmental factors, and show ecological security pattern graphically. The paper discusses the method of ecological security spatial differences of west areas of Liaohe River based on GIS and ecosystem non-health. First, studying on pressure-state-response (P-S-R) assessment indicators system, investigating in person and gathering information; Second, digitizing the river, applying fuzzy AHP to put weight, quantizing and calculating by fuzzy comparing; Last, establishing grid data-base; expounding spatial differences of ecological security by GIS Interpolate and Assembly. PMID:16366465

Wang, Geng; Wu, Wei

2005-09-01

43

A Method of Delineation of Homogeneous Social-Ecological Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional dichotomies of urban and rural may no longer be valid. Investigating whether or not there are socially significant areal units to redefine rural and urban areas, the report described one attempt to delineate such units and to test them for sociological utility. Counties were placed in homogeneous social units based upon the

Loebl, Andrew S.; Campbell, Rex R.

44

Ecologically enhanced areas a key habitat structure for re-introduced grey partridges Perdix perdix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the spatial distribution of home-ranges and the habitat use of re-introduced grey partridges Perdix perdix in relation to newly established ecologically enhanced areas, i.e. wild-flower strips and hedges, within an intensively cultivated area in Switzerland from which the species had become extinct. All birds settled within the ca. 30% of the study area where the proportion of enhanced

Francis Buner; Markus Jenny; Niklaus Zbinden; Beat Naef-Daenzer

2005-01-01

45

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

46

Predicting the sensitivity of populations from individual exposure to chemicals: the role of ecological interactions.  

PubMed

Population responses to chemical stress exposure are influenced by nonchemical, environmental processes such as species interactions. A realistic quantification of chemical toxicity to populations calls for the use of methodologies that integrate these multiple stress effects. The authors used an individual-based model for Daphnia magna as a virtual laboratory to determine the influence of ecological interactions on population sensitivity to chemicals with different modes of action on individuals. In the model, hypothetical chemical toxicity targeted different vital individual-level processes: reproduction, survival, feeding rate, or somatic growth rate. As for species interactions, predatory and competition effects on daphnid populations were implemented following a worst-case approach. The population abundance was simulated at different food levels and exposure scenarios, assuming exposure to chemical stress solely or in combination with either competition or predation. The chemical always targeted one vital endpoint. Equal toxicity-inhibition levels differently affected the population abundance with and without species interactions. In addition, population responses to chemicals were highly sensitive to the environmental stressor (predator or competitor) and to the food level. Results show that population resilience cannot be attributed to chemical stress only. Accounting for the relevant ecological interactions would reduce uncertainties when extrapolating effects of chemicals from individuals to the population level. Validated population models should be used for a more realistic risk assessment of chemicals. PMID:24114796

Gabsi, Faten; Schffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

2014-07-01

47

Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam. PMID:24587031

Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

48

Ecological Predictors of Range Areas and Use of Burrow Systems in the Diurnal Rodent, Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in animal space use patterns may be linked to numerous eco- logical factors affecting survival and reproduction. We examined the relationship between ecology and above- and below-ground components of space use by Octodon degus, a semi-fossorial rodent in Chile. We mon- itored the daytime minimum convex polygon and adaptive kernel range areas of 26 individuals and determined the number

Loren D. Hayes; Adrian S. Chesh; Luis A. Ebensperger

2007-01-01

49

Using Ecological Null Models to Assess the Potential for Marine Protected Area Networks to Protect Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected area (MPA) networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of

Brice X. Semmens; Peter J. Auster; Michelle J. Paddack; Stuart A. Sandin

2010-01-01

50

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS, IN AN OFFSHORE AREA OF THE  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS, IN AN OFFSHORE AREA OF THE EASTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN MAURICE BLACKBURN! AND FRANCIS WILLIAMS' ABSTRACT Distributions of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, were studied in the offshore eastern tropical Pacific between lat. 15°N and 50 S, long

51

Contact sensitization in the anal and genital area.  

PubMed

We analysed the patch test results in 1,374 patients suffering from dermatoses in the anogenital area (n = 561 genital dermatoses, n = 470 anal dermatoses, n = 343 anogenital dermatoses) patch tested in 44 dermatological departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology from 2004 to 2008. All other patients patch tested during this time period without anogenital dermatoses formed the control group (n = 49, 142). Of the total study group, 662 (48.2%) patients were male. 179 (13%) had a past or present atopic dermatitis. The vast majority of the patients was older than 40 years (n = 989, 72%). Suspected allergen sources were first of all topical medicaments, followed by cosmetics, cleansing agents, clothes, rubber products, systemic medicaments and disinfectants. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 409 (29.8%) of the tested patients. Patients with anogenital dermatoses were sensitized mainly to active agents of topical medicaments, in particular bufexamac (5.3%). Sensitization pattern and sensitization rates observed in patients with genital and anal involvement differed significantly. Patients with anal disease had significantly higher sensitization rates for bufexamac (9.4 vs. 1.1%), fragrance mix I (8.7 vs. 4.2%) and II (4.5 vs. 2.6%), propolis (5.4 vs. 1.9%) and methyldibromoglutaronitrile (6.3 vs. 4.1%). Patients with chronic anal dermatoses seem to have a higher risk to develop sensitizations to topically applied products and drugs than patients with genital dermatoses. Recommended patch test series (German Contact Dermatitis Research Group) are standard series, local anaesthetics series, topical antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids, ointment bases and preservative series as well as the patients' own products. PMID:21325848

Bauer, A; Oehme, S; Geier, J

2011-01-01

52

Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island.

Yeo, O. T. S.; Saito, K.; Said, I.

2014-02-01

53

Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

54

Ecological relevance and sensitivity depending on the exposure time for two biomarkers.  

PubMed

Biomarkers are widely used to assess pesticide stress, but their ecological relevance and exposure time dependent sensitivity is still heavily debated. We studied both aspects in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella, comparing the impact of low doses of atrazine, carbaryl, and endosulfan on two key biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] activity and fluctuating asymmetry [FA]) and their relationship with life history traits (mortality, development time, growth rate, and body size). Larvae exposed to the pesticides had, in general, longer development times. Size, growth rate, and mortality were not affected by any of the pesticides. In the long-term exposure, AChE activity was diminished by atrazine treatments and stimulated by carbaryl treatments, and was not affected in the endosulfan treatments. FA decreased with increasing endosulfan concentrations and showed no reaction to atrazine or carbaryl. Overall, short-term exposure tended to overestimate the results of long-term exposure decreasing growth rates and enhancing inhibition of AChE activity in atrazine and carbaryl treatments. In line with its ecological relevance, relationship between biomarkers and life history traits showed that AChE inhibition was positively correlated with mortality, while FA was traded off with size. These results show that caution should be exerted when using these biomarkers to assess pesticide pollution in field situations. PMID:18000848

Campero, Melina; Ollevier, Frans; Stoks, Robby

2007-12-01

55

Precision control of an invasive ant on an ecologically sensitive tropical island: a principle with wide applicability.  

PubMed

Effective management of invasive ants is an important priority for many conservation programs but can be difficult to achieve, especially within ecologically sensitive habitats. This study assesses the efficacy and nontarget risk of a precision ant baiting method aiming to reduce a population of the invasive big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala on a tropical island of great conservation value. Area-wide application of a formicidal bait, delivered in bait stations, resulted in the rapid decline of 8 ha of P. megacephala. Effective suppression remained throughout the succeeding 11-month monitoring period. We detected no negative effects of baiting on nontarget arthropods. Indeed, species richness of nontarget ants and abundance of other soil-surface arthropods increased significantly after P. megacephala suppression. This bait station method minimized bait exposure to nontarget organisms and was cost effective and adaptable to target species density. However, it was only effective over short distances and required thorough bait placement. This method would therefore be most appropriate for localized P. megacephala infestations where the prevention of nontarget impacts is essential. The methodology used here would be applicable to other sensitive tropical environments. PMID:22908700

Gaigher, R; Samways, M J; Jolliffe, K G; Jolliffe, S

2012-07-01

56

Temporal overlap of nesting duck and aquatic invertebrate abundances in the Grasslands Ecological Area, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic invertebrates are essential components of duckling diets, but little is known about temporal changes of invertebrate\\u000a populations in different types of brood habitats. In spring and summer 1996 and 1997, we conducted searches for duck nests\\u000a in upland fields in the Grasslands Ecological Area in California's Central Valley to determine timing of nest initiation and\\u000a hatching. We also sampled

Ferenc A. de Szalay; L. Chantelle Carroll; John A. Beam; Vincent H. Resh

2003-01-01

57

An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

2000-05-01

58

COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

59

Comparison of Two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Species Sensitivity Distribution Methods for Calculating Ecological Risk Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major methods used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to calculate ecological risk criteria using species sensitivity distributions (SSD) are compared using identical datasets. One method is the current USEPA Office of Water method for deriving acute numeric water quality criteria (EPA-FAV method). The 95% protection level generated by this method is the Final Acute Value (FAV).

Daniel J. Fisher; Dennis T. Burton

2003-01-01

60

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...communities are extremely vulnerable to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor...ecological communities are vulnerable to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor...any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of...

2012-10-01

61

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...communities are extremely vulnerable to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor...ecological communities are vulnerable to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor...any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of...

2011-10-01

62

49 CFR 195.6 - Unusually Sensitive Areas (USAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...communities are extremely vulnerable to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor...ecological communities are vulnerable to extinction due to some natural or man-made factor...any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of...

2013-10-01

63

Environmental issues and solutions for exploratory drilling in sensitive areas  

SciTech Connect

Chevron USA Production Company (CPDN), the National Forest Service (FS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) successfully utilized a multi-disciplinary team approach to design and implement innovative environmental solutions to drill the 8,000 foot deep, Hunter Creek exploratory well. The project was located in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, less than 20 miles from Grand Teton National Park. Acquiring permission from the FS, the BLM, and ultimately, the public to drill the Hunter Creek well involved substantial teamwork in identifying many potential, environmental pitfalls. Creative, workable and cost-effective mitigation measures employed at Hunter Creek included: utilizing a helicopter and limiting vehicle use of an existing road, conducting environmental and safety training, an erosion control and reclamation plan, designing an environmentally friendly, near-zero-discharge drilling location, initiating a water quality monitoring program to establish baseline data and to ensure protection of surface and ground water, designing a waste minimization plan, identifying threatened and endangered and special status species possibly affected by project activities, and ensuring compliance with all mitigation measures and Federal and State regulations. The Hunter Creek project successfully demonstrates that oil and gas exploration can be conducted with a soft footprint in environmentally sensitive areas if mitigation measures are front-end loaded in the project and honored by all personnel involved. Teamwork, training and communication were found to be indispensable components of achieving success at Hunter Creek.

Smith, R.M. [Chevron USA Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

64

Epidemiological evaluation of breast cancer in ecological areas of Kazakhstan--association with pollution emissions.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer in the ecological areas of Kazakhstan and assess the potential . A retrospective study of 11 years (1999 to 2009) was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. The incidence of breast cancer was the lowest in the Aral-Syr Darya area (18.60.80/100,000), and highest in the Irtysh area (48.91.90/100,000), with an increasing trends over time in almost all areas. A direct strong correlation between the degree of contamination with high pollution emissions in the atmosphere from stationary sources and the incidence of breast cancer (r=0.770.15; p=0.026). The results indicate an increasing importance of breast cancer in Kazakhstan and an etiological role for environmental pollution. PMID:22901219

Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinov, Nurbek; Moore, Malcolm; Igissinov, Saginbek; Sarsenova, Samal; Khassenova, Zauresh

2012-01-01

65

Last Updated 4/19/2013 Ecology and Evolution Emphasis Area Checklist  

E-print Network

Field Biology ____BI 474 Marine Ecology ____BI 448 Field Botany ____BI 475 Freshwater Ecology ____BI 452 Bacteria ____BI 474 Marine Ecology ____ BI432 Mycology ____BI 475 Freshwater Ecology ____BI 442 Systematic Infect Disease ____BI 457 Biology of Fishes ____BI 490 Theoretical Ecology ____BI 459 Field Ornithology

66

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

67

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

68

Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values, satellite-derived leaf area index and landscape cover. Ion exchange resin throughfall collectors and atmospheric simulation models have provided complementary data critical to better understanding of ecosystem responses to Nr in western North America. Such deposition data and maps have been used to set N deposition critical loads (CL) and to map areas of exceedance for a variety of ecosystem and biological effects. Empirical CL and exceedance areas have been established for many Western ecosystems including forest, desert, shrub, grassland, subalpine and aquatic habitats, thus providing an important management tool for protection of key ecosystems and the services they provide. An important finding is that biodiversity and community responses of sensitive elements of several Western aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems respond to relatively low levels of atmospheric N deposition (e.g., 3-6 kg N/ha/yr).

Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

2013-12-01

69

Sensitivity analysis: The approach to integrate ecological and socio-economic impact assessments  

SciTech Connect

Environmental policy in the oil and gas industry is guided by the overall objective to minimize arid, if possible, to eliminate discharges and to protect the environment. This challenge for environmental performance has resulted in considerable efforts by industry for progressive reductions in discharges and for continuous improvement in the use of natural resources and energy. Environmental impact assessment is the tool commonly applied for the identification of potential hazards, the assessment of their impact on the natural environment and the formulation of mitigation measures resulting in improved project design and operations. In recent years the approach to assess the socioeconomic impacts has become more structured as well. In general, mitigation mainly focuses on technology-based {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}environmental quality{close_quotes} standards. These approaches are limited to discharges into air, water and soil ad their eco-toxicological effects. They do not completely cover the especially long-term aspects of the natural environment, while sociocultural and socioeconomic aspects are generally not considered, and if so, in a non-systematic way. The analysis of ecological and socioeconomic sensitivities of the environment offers a more promising approach in this respect as it focuses on the key components and processes which are critical to the composition and integrity of both the environment and its functions to mankind. It is demonstrated that by assessing the sensitivities of the environment, all aspects of environmental protection are taken account of in a systematic and balanced cultural-economic aspects are integrated, and will lead to improved environmental performance in the oil and gas industry.

Bie, S. de

1996-11-01

70

Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about measuring the effectiveness of conserving biological diversity within protected areas. Managers of protected areas are under increasing pressure to measure their effectiveness in conserving native biological diversity in ways that are scientifically sound, practical, and comparable among protected areas over time. The Nature Conservancy and its partners have developed a "Measures of Success" framework with four core components: (1) identifying a limited number of focal conservation targets, (2) identifying key ecological attributes for these targets, (3) identifying an acceptable range of variation for each attribute as measured by properly selected indicators, and (4) rating target status based on whether or not the target's key attributes are within their acceptable ranges of variation. A target cannot be considered "conserved" if any of its key ecological attributes exceeds its acceptable range of variation. The framework provides a rigorous basis not only for measuring success but for setting conservation objectives, assessing threats to biodiversity, identifying monitoring and research needs, and communicating management information to nonspecialists.

JEFFREY D. PARRISH, DAVID P. BRAUN, and ROBERT S. UNNASCH (;)

2003-09-01

71

[Ecological relationships among artificial vegetations during their restoration in Antaibao mining area].  

PubMed

By the methods of TWINSPAN, DCA and DCCA, and from the aspects of the relations between plant species, communities and environmental factors, this paper studied the ecological relationships among artificial vegetations during their restoration in Antaibao mining area. 63 collected quadrates were classified into 12 community types by TWINSPAN, and the distribution of the communities could comprehensively reflect the influence of environmental factors. DCA ordination indicated that soil water content, which was increased with restoration time, was the main factor restricting the distribution of the communities. DCCA ordination showed that soil organic matter content was the decisive factor to the development of communities. PMID:15852977

Zhang, Guilian; Zhang, Jintun; Guo, Xiaoyu

2005-01-01

72

Are ecological compensation areas attractive hunting sites for common kestrels ( Falco tinnunculus ) and long-eared owls ( Asio otus )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and long-eared owls (Asio otus) in intensively farmed areas in Switzerland decreased markedly as a result of declining vole (Microtus spp.) populations. In order to counteract the loss of biodiversity in intensively farmed areas, the Swiss agri-environment scheme stipulates several types of ecological compensation areas, which together should take up 7% of the farmland. Among them

Janine Aschwanden; Simon Birrer; Lukas Jenni

2005-01-01

73

Ecological and social outcomes of a new protected area in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Balancing ecological and social outcomes of conservation actions is recognized in global conservation policy but is challenging in practice. Compensation to land owners or users for foregone assets has been proposed by economists as an efficient way to mitigate negative social impacts of human displacement from protected areas. Joint empirical assessments of the conservation and social impacts of protected area establishment involving compensation payments are scarce. We synthesized social and biological studies related to the establishment of the Derema forest corridor in Tanzania's biodiverse East Usambara Mountains. This lengthy conservation process involved the appropriation of approximately 960 ha of native canopy agroforest and steep slopes for the corridor and monetary compensation to more than 1100 claimants in the surrounding villages. The overarching goals from the outset were to conserve ecological processes while doing no harm to the local communities. We evaluated whether these goals were achieved by analyzing 3 indicators of success: enhancement of forest connectivity, improvement of forest condition, and mitigation of negative impacts on local people's livelihoods. Indicators of forest connectivity and conditions were enhanced through reductions of forest loss and exotic species and increases in native species and canopy closure. Despite great efforts by national and international organizations, the intervention failed to mitigate livelihood losses especially among the poorest people. The Derema case illustrates the challenges of designing and implementing compensation schemes for conservation-related displacement of people. Resultados Ecolgicos y Sociales de un rea Protegida Nueva en Tanzania. PMID:25046979

Hall, Jaclyn M; Burgess, Neil D; Rantala, Salla; Vihemki, Heini; Jambiya, George; Gereau, Roy E; Makonda, Fortunatus; Njilima, Fadhili; Sumbi, Peter; Kizaji, Adam

2014-12-01

74

Conservation for the landscape ecological diversity in Wulingyuan scenic area of China.  

PubMed

Wulingyuan is located at the mountainous area of the middle reach of the Yangtze River, it is one of the three nature heritages in China which ranks in the "List of World's Heritage" by UNESCO. It is characterized by quartz sandstone peaks landform with several landform components (pattern, corridor) and rich in landscape ecological diversity and biodiversity. The main patterns (ecosystem) include mid-height mountain peaks, rift-valley and streams among peaks, peaks and gullies on slopes, square mountain-platforms and peaks among blind valleys and so on. The corridor system consists of natural corridors and artificial corridors among which the stream corridors account for a major part. The fracturing of habitat is unfavorable for the biodiversity conservation, but meanwhile the habitat diversity leads to an increase in biodiversity. Therefore, it is still rich in landscape ecological diversity in Wulingyuan. The biodiversity at the level of landscape component (ecosystem) and the function of the Wulingyuan complex ecosystem, and the measures for the biodiversity conservation in Wulingyuan ecotourism area are discussed in this paper. PMID:12765273

Yan, Fu

2003-03-01

75

Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others] [and others

1996-05-01

76

Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.  

PubMed

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors. PMID:22180922

Hirons, Mark

2011-01-01

77

Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.  

PubMed

Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

2014-01-01

78

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

79

Sensitivity analysis of dispersion models for point and area sources  

SciTech Connect

Point and area source algorithms of PAL, RAM, and ISC-ST were analyzed to show the effect of various input assumptions on model output. Several important parameters were varied individually; receptor grid spacing, emission release height, area source size and source type. Each of these parameters was varied over a range of values while all other modeling parameters, both physical and meterological, were held constant. The outputs of each model are plotted for easy comparison. Results indicate that it would be inappropriate to make certain assumptions regarding source characteristics without knowing the behavior of each model. Graphs show how model predictions can vary for different input parameters when applied to point and area sources. The paper presents general rules of thumb for evaluating model results for many applications such as the bubble concept, emissions banking, offsets, and new source reviews. The results serve as a guide in selecting and using models for both point and area source.

Gschwandtner, G.; Eldridge, K.; Zerbonia, R.

1982-10-01

80

Ecological restoration and soil improvement performance of the seabuckthorn flexible dam in the Pisha Sandstone area of Northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion of the Pisha Sandstone area of Loess Plateau is extremely severe in China. The Pisha Sandstone is very hard when it is dry, while it is very frail when wet. The seabuckthorn flexible dam (SFD), a type of ecological engineering, was proposed to control soil erosion and meliorate soil within the Pisha Sandstone area. To assess its effectiveness and the ecological restoration and soil improvement performance, a field experiment was conducted in this area. We found the strong sediment retention capacity of the SFD is the basis of using it to restore the ecosystem. We compared some certain ecological factors and soil quality between a gully with the SFD and a gully without the SFD, including soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients (including Ammonia Nitrogen, available phosphorus and Potassium), vegetation coverage and biodiversity. The results showed that the SFD exhibits excellent performance for ecological restoration and soil improvement of this area. The results are as follows: (i) by the sediment retention action, the deposition commonly occurred in the SFD gully, and the deposition patterns are obviously different from upper to lower gully, (ii) more surprisingly, unlike trees or other shrubs, the seabuckthorn has good horizontal extending capacity by its root system, (iii) soil moisture, SOM, soil nutrients, vegetation coverage and biodiversity in the vegetated gully with the SFD are all markedly increased. The results showed the SFD is both effective and novel biological measure for ecological restoration and soil improvement within the Pisha Sandstone area.

Yang, F. S.; Cao, M. M.; Li, H. E.; Wang, X. H.; Bi, C. F.

2014-09-01

81

Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ethiopian wolf (Canissimensis) is a very rare, endangered, endemic species surviving in isolated mountain pockets in the Ethiopian highlands, with nearly 50% of the global population living outside protected areas. In this paper we compare the ecology and behaviour of an Ethiopian wolf population living in Guassa, a communally managed area in the Central Highlands, with that of the

Zelealem Tefera Ashenafi; Tim Coulson; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; Nigel Leader-Williams

2005-01-01

82

[Ecologically critical areas of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, China].  

PubMed

In order to improve the protection system to reduce the damage of biodiversity and protect broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest, 64 forest farms from 6 Forestry Bureaus around Changbai Mountains Nature Reserve were investigated and analyzed. A total of 41 plants were selected as key protected plants, and felling area, cropland, mining area, highway, railway and residential area were considered as the disturbance factors. GAP and GIS spatial analysis were used to draw the indicator plant and disturbance intensity distribution maps. The results showed that the indicator species distribution was uneven. The indicator plant enrichment regions were located on the north western and southern slopes centered with Shengli and Lenggouzi forest farms of Quanyang County, respectively, and single distributions of the endemic plants were found in Baoshan, Henshan, Lenggouzi and Heishan forest farms. The different disturbance severities were observed in the different forest farms, among which the north part in Lushuihe and Baihe forest farms were severely disrupted. Two ecologically critical areas, Quanyang-Lushuihe-Baihe on the north slope of Changbai Mountains and the east part of Changbai County on the south slope, were determined based on the comprehensive analysis. PMID:25129922

Yu, Lin-Qian; Li, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Xiu-Hai; Ma, Lin; Wu, Shang; Bai, Xue-Qi

2014-05-01

83

Trends of prevalent cancer incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=-6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=-0.5%). PMID:22296374

Igissinov, Nurbek; Igissinov, Saginbek; Moore, Malcolm A; Shaidarov, Mazhit; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy; Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinova, Gulnur; Nuralina, Indira; Kozhakhmetov, Saken

2011-01-01

84

Conformable large-area position-sensitive photodetectors based on luminescence-collecting silicone waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position sensitive detection schemes based on the lateral photoeffect rely on inorganic semiconductors. Such position sensitive devices (PSDs) are reliable and robust, but preparation with large active areas is expensive and use on curved substrates is impossible. Here we present a novel route for the fabrication of conformable PSDs which allows easy preparation on large areas, and use on curved

Petr Bartu; Robert Koeppe; Nikita Arnold; Anton Neulinger; Lisa Fallon; Siegfried Bauer

2010-01-01

85

Ecological Characteristics of a Gonystylus bancanus-rich Area in Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF) is a unique wetland ecosystem with distinct vegetation types. Due to the waterlogged environment, the stand characteristics in this ecosystem are different from those of other inland forests. This paper highlights stand characteristics of a PSF based on our investigation of a 1 ha ecological plot established in a Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR) at Compartment 100, Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. This site is considered a Gonystylus bancanus-rich area. From the inventory, we recorded a total of 49 tree species from 38 genera and 25 families among all trees of ? 10 cm in diameter at breast height. Calophyllum ferrugineum var. ferrugineum was the most abundant species, followed by G. bancanus. The forest appeared healthy, as all tree characteristics (crown shape, log grade and climber infestation) generally fell within Classes 1 and 2 (good and moderate categories), with the exception of crown illumination which majority of the trees were rated as class 3 (received less sunlight). The latter finding indicates that most of the trees living under the canopy received minimal illumination. In terms of total tree biomass, we estimated that about 414.6 tonnes exist in this 1 ha area; this tree biomass is higher than in some PSF areas of Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:24575176

Hamzah, Khali Aziz; Ismail, Parlan; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Hassan, Che Hashim; Akeng, Grippin; Said, Nizam Mohd

2009-01-01

86

Ecological Characteristics of a Gonystylus bancanus-rich Area in Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF) is a unique wetland ecosystem with distinct vegetation types. Due to the waterlogged environment, the stand characteristics in this ecosystem are different from those of other inland forests. This paper highlights stand characteristics of a PSF based on our investigation of a 1 ha ecological plot established in a Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR) at Compartment 100, Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. This site is considered a Gonystylus bancanus-rich area. From the inventory, we recorded a total of 49 tree species from 38 genera and 25 families among all trees of ? 10 cm in diameter at breast height. Calophyllum ferrugineum var. ferrugineum was the most abundant species, followed by G. bancanus. The forest appeared healthy, as all tree characteristics (crown shape, log grade and climber infestation) generally fell within Classes 1 and 2 (good and moderate categories), with the exception of crown illumination which majority of the trees were rated as class 3 (received less sunlight). The latter finding indicates that most of the trees living under the canopy received minimal illumination. In terms of total tree biomass, we estimated that about 414.6 tonnes exist in this 1 ha area; this tree biomass is higher than in some PSF areas of Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:24575176

Hamzah, Khali Aziz; Ismail, Parlan; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Hassan, Che Hashim; Akeng, Grippin; Said, Nizam Mohd

2009-12-01

87

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

88

Structure, function and context : the impact of morphometry and ecology on olfactory sensitivity  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the relationships of olfactory sensitivity to three biological variables were tested. The sensitivity of a marine mammal, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was measured in order to determine whether a marine ...

Hammock, Jennifer, 1974-

2005-01-01

89

Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Molli. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants. PMID:24618273

2014-01-01

90

The Dispersal Ecology of Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness Following Its Introduction to a New Area  

PubMed Central

Tsetse-transmitted human and animal trypanosomiasis are constraints to both human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa, and although these diseases have been known for over a century, there is little recent evidence demonstrating how the parasites circulate in natural hosts and ecosystems. The spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) within Uganda over the past 15 years has been linked to the movement of infected, untreated livestock (the predominant reservoir) from endemic areas. However, despite an understanding of the environmental dependencies of sleeping sickness, little research has focused on the environmental factors controlling transmission establishment or the spatially heterogeneous dispersal of disease following a new introduction. In the current study, an annually stratified case-control study of Rhodesian sleeping sickness cases from Serere District, Uganda was used to allow the temporal assessment of correlations between the spatial distribution of sleeping sickness and landscape factors. Significant relationships were detected between Rhodesian sleeping sickness and selected factors, including elevation and the proportion of land which was seasonally flooding grassland or woodlands and dense savannah. Temporal trends in these relationships were detected, illustrating the dispersal of Rhodesian sleeping sickness into more suitable areas over time, with diminishing dependence on the point of introduction in concurrence with an increasing dependence on environmental and landscape factors. These results provide a novel insight into the ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness dispersal and may contribute towards the implementation of evidence-based control measures to prevent its further spread. PMID:24130913

Wardrop, Nicola A.; Fevre, Eric M.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Welburn, Susan C.

2013-01-01

91

Ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy).  

PubMed

This work is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating the environmental sustainability of the Province of Siena and of its communes, by means of different indicators and methods of analysis. The research presented in this article uses ecological footprint and biocapacity as indicators to monitor the environmental conditions of the area of Siena, thus complementing previous studies carried out using Emergy, greenhouse gases balance and other methods. The calculations have been performed in such a way as to enable a disaggregation of the final results according to the classical categories of ecologically productive land and of consumption, but also according to citizen's and public administration's areas of influence. This information allows us to investigate in detail the socio-economic aspects of environmental resource use. Among the notable results, the Siena territory is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, a result contrasting with the national average and most of the other Italian provinces. Furthermore, the analysis has been carried out at different spatial scales (province, districts and communes), highlighting an inhomogeneous territorial structure consisting of subareas in ecological deficit compensated by zones in ecological surplus. PMID:17110019

Bagliani, Marco; Galli, Alessandro; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

2008-01-01

92

Native and Exotic Insects and Diseases in Forest Ecosystems in the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various native and exotic insects and diseases affect the forest ecosystems of the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Defoliating insects have had the great- est effects in forests where oak species predominate. Increases in oak decline are expected with the imminent establishment of the European gypsy moth. Insects and pathogens of the pine forests are artifacts of stand origin and age.

Dwight Scarbrough; Jennifer Juzwik

93

Research on relationship between wind power industry cultivation and government policies in Ecologically Vulnerable Areas in West China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper measures the industries in Wengniute Country of Inner Mongolia, using advantage industry of ecologically vulnerable areas in West China evaluation model and guideline system. The result proves that the competitiveness of generating electricity by wind power can be improved the soonest. By analyzing the factors affecting the competitiveness of generating electricity by wind power, we gain that government

Liu Ying-qi; Zhou Xue-jun; Zheng Tian-chi; Deng Yuan-hui

2008-01-01

94

Study on the changing trend of ecological environment of the Tarim River's main stream area based on remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tarim River is the longest continental river in China, and also one of the longest rivers in the world. The ecological environment of Tarim River drainage area has been gradually deteriorating in recent twenty years. By using 1 km NDVI data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and introducing an integrated vegetation index to the region of interest,

Meng Jihua; Wu Bingfang; Zhou Yuemin

2005-01-01

95

Outdoor air pollution, subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke - a small-area level ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes and severity is limited. We examined associations between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations modeled at a fine spatial resolution and etiological and clinical ischemic stroke subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke (19952007) occurring in a defined geographical area in South London (948 census output areas; population of 267839). Modeled PM10 and NO2 concentrations were available at a very fine spatial scale (20 meter by 20 meter grid point resolution) and were aggregated to output area level using postcode population weighted averages. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxford clinical classification, the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) etiological classification, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and a pragmatic clinical severity classification based on Glasgow coma score, ability to swallow, urinary continence and death <2days of stroke onset. Results Mean (SD) concentrations were 25.1 (1.2) ug/m3 (range 23.3-36.4) for PM10 and 41.4 (3.0) ug/m3 (range 35.4-68.0) for NO2. There were 2492 incident cases of ischemic stroke. We found no evidence of association between these pollutants and the incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes classified using the Oxfordand TOAST classifications. We found no significant association with stroke severity using NIHSS severity categories. However, we found that outdoor concentrations of both PM10 and NO2 appeared to be associated with increased incidence of mild but not severe ischemic stroke, classified using the pragmatic clinical severity classification. For mild ischemic stroke, the rate ratio in the highest PM10 category by tertile was 1.20 (1.05-1.38) relative to the lowest category. The rate ratio in the highest NO2 category was 1.22 (1.06-1.40) relative to the lowest category. Conclusions We found no evidence of association between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations and ischemic stroke subtypes but there was a suggestion that living in areas with elevated outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations might be associated with increased incidence of mild, but not severe, ischemic stroke. PMID:24939673

2014-01-01

96

SENSITIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM MODELS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR VULNERABILITY TO TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Published results of sensitivity experiments on agricultural models by international authors are analyzed with a simple univariate sensitivity index. Values for system parameter and response-effects at ratios greater than 2.0 or 3.0 are presented for different crop plants, ecosys...

97

Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The main vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, the absence of L. longipalpis in a region of autochthonous VL demonstrates the participation of other species in the transmission of the parasite. Studies conducted in La Banda, Argentina, and So Vicente Frrer, Pernambuco State, Brazil, have correlated the absence of L. longipalpis and the presence of L. migonei with autochthonous cases of VL. In So Vicente Frrer, Pernambuco, there was evidence for the natural infection of L. migonei with Leishmania infantum chagasi. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the ecology of the sand flies L. longipalpis and L. migonei in Fortaleza, an endemic area for VL. Insect capture was conducted at 22 sampling points distributed across four regions of Fortaleza. In total, 32,403 sand flies were captured; of these, 18,166 (56%) were identified as L. longipalpis and 14,237 (44%) as L. migonei. There were significant density differences found between the vectors at each sampling site (indoors and outdoors) (p <0.0001). These findings confirm that L. migonei and L. longipalpis are distributed throughout Fortaleza, where they have adapted to an indoor environment, and suggest that L. migonei may share the role as a vector with L. longipalpis in the transmission of VL in Fortaleza. PMID:25271451

Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque; Santos, Fabricio Kassio Moura; Sousa, Lindemberg Caranha de; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

2014-09-01

98

Climate changes in the Lake Titicaca area: Evidence from ostracod ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of lake and wetland paleoecology has undergone recently significant changes. Quantitative statistical methods (transfer functions) have been developed to infer past limnological conditions. The large number of altiplanean lakes in the Central Andes, distributed over a hydrologically and climatically diverse area between 14 and 22 south, provide an ideal natural laboratory for this kind of approach. Changes in the water volume and chemistry of these aquatic environments, which result from their hydrological response to seasonal and long-term trends in the regional evaporation-precipitation balance are archived in the sediment records as characteristic biological signatures. The taxonomy and biogeography of several different groups oforganisms have been studied in some detail, but relevant ecological studies have been done only on ostracods. This study attempts to reconstruct past environments of Lake Titicaca and adjacent lacustrine systems by using quantitative information about tbe response of ostracod communities to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability, especially lake-level and water chemistry. The high-amplitude paleoenvironmental variations indicated by the transfer function developed have important implications for regional climate dynamics. In particular, the inferred high-amplitude lake-level fluctuations are attributed primarily to drastic changes in ITCZ displacements during the last 10,000 years.

Mourguiart, Philippe; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia

99

Mapping oil spill environmental sensitivity in Cardoso Island State Park and surroundings areas, So Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an environmental oil spill sensitivity map of Cardoso Island State Park, located in So Paulo state, Brazil, including some of its surrounding areas. This map was designed following the procedures determined by the Brazilian Federal Environment Organ (Ministry of the Environment), which separates coastal habitats in different littoral sensitivity indexes (LSI) to oil spills. We have also

Arthur Wieczorek; Dimas Dias-Brito; Joo Carlos Carvalho Milanelli

2007-01-01

100

Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy. PMID:24813871

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

2014-09-01

101

Potential impact of climate change on aquatic insects: A sensitivity analysis for European caddisflies (Trichoptera) based on distribution patterns and ecological preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

.We analysed the sensitivity of European Trichoptera (caddisfly) species to climate change impacts based on their distribution\\u000a and ecological preferences, and compared the fraction of species potentially endangered by climate change between the European\\u000a ecoregions. The study covers 23 European ecoregions as defined by Illies (1978). For 1134 Trichoptera species and subspecies,\\u000a we coded 29 parameters describing biological and ecological

Daniel Hering; Astrid Schmidt-Kloiber; John Murphy; Sofie Lcke; Carmen Zamora-Muoz; Manuel Jess Lpez-Rodrguez; Thomas Huber; Wolfram Graf

2009-01-01

102

Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 20, No. 11, 1994 RISK-SENSITIVE HABITAT USE BY BROOK  

E-print Network

- nows (Pimephales promelas) to avoid areas of high predation risk. In this field experiment, we measured Words--Predation risk, area avoidance, brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans, fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, alarm pheromone, Schreckstoff. INTRODUCTION Fishes of the superorder Ostariophysi produce

Wisenden, Brian D.

103

Large area pixel detector WIDEPIX with full area sensitivity composed of 100 Timepix assemblies with edgeless sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superior properties of the single particle counting semiconductor pixel detectors in radiation imaging are well known. They are namely: very high dynamic range due to digital counting, absence of integration and read-out noise, high spatial resolution and energy sensitivity. The major disadvantage of current pixel devices preventing their broad exploitation has been their relatively small sensitive area of few cm2. This disadvantage is often solved using tiling method placing many detector units side by side forming a large matrix. The current tiling techniques require rather large gaps of few millimeters between tiles. These gaps stand as areas insensitive to radiation which is acceptable only in some applications such as diffraction imaging. However standard transmission radiography requires fully continuous area sensitivity. In this article we present the new large area device WIDEPIX composed of a matrix of 10 10 tiles of silicon pixel detectors Timepix (each of 256 256 pixels with pitch of 55 ?m) having fully sensitive area of 14.3 14.3 cm2 without any gaps between the tiles. The device contains a total of 6.5 mega pixels. This achievement was reached thanks to new technology of edgeless semiconductor sensors together with precise alignment technique and multilevel architecture of readout electronics. The mechanical construction of the device is fully modular and scalable. This concept allows replacing any single detector tile which significantly improves production yield. The first results in the field of X-ray radiography and material sensitive X-ray radiography are presented in this article.

Jakubek, J.; Jakubek, M.; Platkevic, M.; Soukup, P.; Turecek, D.; Sykora, V.; Vavrik, D.

2014-04-01

104

Study on ecological impact and countermeasures on ecological recovery project of Flower Lake core area of Zoige alpine wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core area of Flower Lake in Zoige alpine wetland withers, the natural grasslands around the lake degenerate, and the number of pests and mice continues to grow. The moist marsh is under the progress of developing into marshy grassland, and the storage runoff and water source conservation functions of the wetland have been drastically weakened. In order to protect

Wang Yan; Xing Bing

2011-01-01

105

Ecological Succession, Land use Changes and Soil Organic C Stock in a Lake Retreat Area (Main Ethiopian Rift Valley)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley, ecological succession is related to continuous lake retreat (Nyssen et al., 2004). Human activities, through their impact on land use and cover, affect this ecological succession. Through a remote sensing study, we extricated ecological succession and human activity as causative factors for land use and cover changes (LUCC) and explored which impact this has on soil organic C (SOC) stock in lake retreat areas. Remote sensing data used include a Landsat MSS from 1973, a Landsat TM from 1986 and a Landsat ETM+ from 2000. A conventional type of classification was used whereby supervised classification of the 2000 image was supplemented by unsupervised classification of the older datasets. Due to decreased rainfall and water abstraction for intense irrigated agriculture and floriculture in its catchment, Lake Abijata lost 46 % of its area between 2000 and 2006. On the emerged lands, a good ecological succession was observed between 1973 and 1986, with clear evidence for: emerged land -> grassland -> Acacia bushes -> open woodland. Between 1986 and 2000, LUCC tendencies were totally reversed and woody vegetation decreased strongly, indicating increased human impact (Habtamu et al., 2007). Based on an analysis of the Landsat imagery, coupled with soil and land use studies, determinants for SOC stock were found. Firstly, SOC stock significantly differs between cultivated land and grazing land (3301 and 2626 g m-2) on the one hand, and woodland (4594 g m-2) on the other. The strongest explanation of SOC stock is related to the duration of emergence and hence of pedogenesis. Its proxy, elevation, explains much of the variability of SOC (R2 = 0.48). Using a multiple regression model involving elevation and IR reflectance, the SOC stock in the study area could be assessed at 2196 (+ - 1517) g m-2 SOC in 2000, against 3222 (+ - 1639) g m-2 in 1973 (Nyssen et al., 2007), which is related to the post-1986 reversing of ecological succession in the lake retreat areas. Habtamu Temesgen, Nyssen, J., Amanuel Zenebe, Mengistie Kindu, Mitiku Haile, 2007. Ecological succession and land use changes in a lake retreat area (Main Ethiopian Rift Valley). Journal of Arid Environments, submitted. Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, J., Mitiku Haile, and Lang, A., 2004. Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean Highlands - a state of the art. Earth Science Reviews, 64: 273-320. Nyssen, J., Habtamu Temesgen, Mulugeta Lemenih, Amanuel Zenebe, Mitiku Haile, 2007. Soil organic C stock in a lake retreat area under increased human pressure (Main Ethiopian Rift Valley). Global Change Biology, submitted.

Nyssen, J.; Temesgen, H.; Lemenih, M.; Zenebe, A.; Kindu, M.; Haile, M.

2007-12-01

106

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

1992-09-01

107

[Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humait, State of Amazonas, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humait in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humait's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health. PMID:25272114

Schtz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro de; Cmara, Volney de Magalhes

2014-10-01

108

Sensitivity Analyses over the Service Area for Mobility Allowance Shuttle Transit (MAST) Services  

E-print Network

that a slim service area performs better in general, but also that the positive effects of a proper setting the fixed-route to serve customers as long as their service stops are within half a mile from either side the sensitivity to the shape of the service area of the performance of MAST systems and of the effectiveness

Dessouky, Maged

109

Characterization of the VEGA ASIC coupled to large area position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-noise, position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) are particularly useful for experiments in which a good energy resolution combined with a large sensitive area is required, as in the case of X-ray astronomy space missions and medical applications. This paper presents the experimental characterization of VEGA, a custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) used as the front-end electronics for XDXL-2, a large-area (30.5 cm2) SDD prototype. The ASICs were integrated on a specifically developed PCB hosting also the detector. Results on the ASIC noise performances, both stand-alone and bonded to the large area SDD, are presented and discussed.

Campana, R.; Evangelista, Y.; Fuschino, F.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Macera, D.; Bertuccio, G.; Grassi, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Malcovati, P.; Rachevski, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Andreani, L.; Baldazzi, G.; Del Monte, E.; Favre, Y.; Feroci, M.; Muleri, F.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vacchi, A.; Ficorella, F.; Giacomini, G.; Picciotto, A.; Zuffa, M.

2014-08-01

110

The sensitivity of topoclimatic models to fine-scale microclimatic variability and the relevance for ecological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microclimatic loggers are increasingly used to collect data from various habitats and interpolate ecologically meaningful landscape-scale topoclimatic grids. However, it is unknown how sensitive these grids are to finer-scale variations in microclimate. We performed a sensitivity analysis using three microclimatic loggers at 27 sites for 5 months in a semi-arid region of Western Australia. We partitioned the within- and between-site variance in temperature and produced 100 different topoclimatic models using a random sensor from each site. For the coldest temperatures, we found within-site variance was negligible (3 %), and models were strong ( r 2 = 0.74) and the coefficients consistent. However, for the hottest temperatures, there was substantial within-site variance (39 %), and models were weaker ( r 2 = 0.27) and more sensitive. We concluded that careful site design is needed to maximise the reliability of topoclimatic grids, including using large sample sizes, ensuring there is low predictor collinearity and sampling full environmental gradients.

Ashcroft, Michael B.; Gollan, John R.

2013-10-01

111

Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

2011-01-01

112

Characterization of mercury and other heavy metals in sediment of an ecological important backwater area of River Tisza (Hungary).  

PubMed

Sediment from a representative and ecologically important backwater wetland under the influence of River Tisza (Hungary) was chemically characterized for sediment pollutants. Phosphine production potential, methyl mercury, mercury, and other heavy metals were determined along with other sediment chemical and physical properties. The wetland site, which is relatively isolated, represents an important bird reserve and nature conservation area. Methyl mercury and total mercury content was also low reflecting little mercury pollution in the sediment. Results of heavy metal analysis showed that only copper was elevated with concentration slightly above the reported levels considered excessive in soils and sediments. Other sediment properties were in normal range except boron content, which was high. Results show sediment were relatively unpolluted but should be routinely monitored to insure that this ecologically important area remains environmentally safe for future generation. PMID:17558765

Devai, Istvan; Delaune, Ronald D; Dvai, Gyrgy; Aradi, Csaba; Gri, Szilvia; Nagy, Alex Sndor; Tlas, Zsuzsa

2007-06-01

113

Patterns of vegetation cover\\/dynamics in a protected Mediterranean mountain area: Influence of the ecological context and protection policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean mountains, the abandonment of traditional land-uses is promoting a rapid forest expansion. This trend may be exacerbated by nature reserves, which further limit human disturbance in mountain contexts. We investigated whether ecological parameters, landscape structure, and management policy influenced vegetation cover\\/dynamics over a 14-year period in the Pollino National Park, a large protected area in southern Italy. Based

D. Gargano; A. Mingozzi; A. Massolo; S. Rinaldo; L. Bernardo

2012-01-01

114

Serologic survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from two ecologically distinct areas of Utah.  

PubMed

The influence of habitat and associated prey assemblages on the prevalence of canine diseases in coyotes (Canis latrans) has received scant attention. From December 1997 through December 1999, we captured 67 coyotes in two ecologically distinct areas of Utah (USA): Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch and US Army Dugway Proving Ground. These areas differ in habitat and prey base. We collected blood samples and tested for evidence of various canine diseases. Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% in the Deseret population and 93% in the Dugway population. All juveniles in both populations had been exposed. We found no difference in the prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) between the two populations (7% versus 12%; P = 0.50). However, we did find an increase in antibodies with age in the Deseret population (P = 0.03). Evidence of exposure to canine adenovirus (CAV) was found in both populations (52% and 72%; P = 0.08). Prevalence of CAV antibodies was influenced by age on both areas (Deseret: P = 0.003; Dugway: P = 0.004). Antibodies to Francisella tularensis were low on both areas (2% and 4%). We found a significant difference (P = 0.001) in the prevalence of exposure to Yersinia pestis between the two populations: 73% in Deseret compared to 11% in Dugway. This difference is most likely due to the prey species available in the two ecologically distinct study areas. PMID:12910777

Arjo, Wendy M; Gese, Eric M; Bromley, Cassity; Kozlowski, Adam; Williams, Elizabeth S

2003-04-01

115

METHODS DEVELOPMENT AT THE NEAR LAB ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH AREA (NLERA) LOCATED IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN.  

EPA Science Inventory

This task supports the Agency's efforts on developing a proper risk assessment tools to address Ecological and eventually Human exposures. The Agency needs to be able to identify, measure and estimate ecosystem exposure to multiple stressors. The research under this task suppor...

116

Primary productivity of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research Area and the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (Palmer LTER) project is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various components of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Phytoplankton production plays a key role in this so-called high nutrient, low chlorophyll environment, and factors that regulate production include those that control cell growth (light, temperature, and nutrients) and those that

R. C. Smith; K. S. Baker; M. L. Byers; S. E. Stammerjohn

1998-01-01

117

Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell's area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm2 respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell's electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell's area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

Khatani, Mehboob; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin; Samsudin, Adel

2014-10-01

118

The results of an ecological risk assessment screening at the Idaho National Engineering`s waste area group 2  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho and occupies approximately 890 square miles on the northwestern portion of the eastern Snake River Plain. INEL has been devoted to nuclear energy research and related activities since its establishment in 1949. In the process of fulfilling this mission, wastes were generated, including radioactive and hazardous materials. Most materials were effectively stored or disposed of, however, some release of contaminants to the environment has occurred. For this reason, the INEL was listed by the US environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List (NPL), in November, 1989. This report describes the results of an ecological risk assessment performed for the Waste Area Groups 2 (WAG 2) at the INEL. It also summarizes the performance of screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERA).

VanHorn, R.

1995-11-01

119

Sensitivity analysis of sediment resuspension parameters in coastal area of southern Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model sensitivity analysis was performed to identify and compare quantitatively the important resuspension parameters in the coastal area of southern Lake Michigan. A one-dimensional resuspension and bed model capable of dealing with the type of mixed sediments (fine-grained+sand) common in the coastal area was developed and utilized to compare with measured suspended sediment concentrations. The results show that the most

Cheegwan Lee; David J. Schwab; Nathan Hawley

2005-01-01

120

SEU critical charge and sensitive area in a submicron CMOS technology  

SciTech Connect

This work presents SEU phenomena in advanced SRAM memory cells. Using mixed-mode simulation, the effects of scaling on the notions of sensitive area and critical charge is shown. Specifically, the authors quantify the influence of parasitic bipolar action in cells fabricated in a submicron technology.

Detcheverry, C.; Dachs, C.; Lorfevre, E.; Sudre, C.; Bruguier, G.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)] [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Ecoffet, R. [CNES, Toulouse (France)] [CNES, Toulouse (France)

1997-12-01

121

Assessing noise pollution in sensitive areas: Soundscape analysis in an alpine valley by psychoacoustic means  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine valleys are sensitive areas due to topography, meteorology, housing, and land-use pattern, that modify noise propagation and make protection against noise pollution rather difficult. The ``amphitheater'' effect was mentioned as explanation for deviating noise-annoyance curves and health effects observed at lower sound levels. However, detailed empirical analyses are lacking. In this study a series of simultaneous, binaural sound recordings

Peter Lercher; Klaus Genuit; Urs Reichart; Dietrich Heimann

2001-01-01

122

Activity in human reward-sensitive brain areas is strongly context dependent  

E-print Network

. Fourteen healthy volun- teers were scanned during the performance of a simple monetary gambling task, or no gain of money) and a bloseQ condition (in which the possible outcomes were a large monetary loss, a small loss, or no loss of money). We observed reward-sensitive activity in a number of brain areas

Yeung, Nick

123

Investigating area-sensitivity in shrubland birds: Responses to patch size in a forested landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population declines of shrubland birds in the eastern United States have been attributed to loss of early-successional habitat. Given that shrubland habitats are often ephemeral and patchily distributed, understanding the sensitivity of shrubland birds to patch characteristics is important for conservation. We tested the extent to which patch area was related to shrubland bird density, annual survival, and productivity by

Sarah E. Lehnen; Amanda D. Rodewald

2009-01-01

124

A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES) have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect). Tberefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs) from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any) of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. hi this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1) major faults in the vicinity; (2) highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3) local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring sites. European Geosciences Union ?? 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Balasis, G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Eftaxias, K.

2005-01-01

125

The Distribution and Ecology of Common Marine and Estuarine Gastropods in the Delaware Bay Area. Including a note: Northern Range Extension of the Bivalve, 'Paramya subovata' (Superfamily Myacea).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased attention locally to pollution problems has intensified interest in benthic ecology. In order to deal with these problems, a number of taxonomic surveys were conducted in the Delaware Bay area. The paper represents a synthesis of results from th...

W. Leathem, D. Maurer

1975-01-01

126

Evidence of negative impacts of ecological tourism on turtlegrass ( Thalassia testudinum ) beds in a marine protected area of the Mexican Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established in recent years. Some MPAs are open to tourists to foster environmental\\u000a education and generate revenue for the MPA. This has been coined ecological tourism. Here, we examine the impact of ecological\\u000a tourism on turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) health in one area of the Costa Occidental de Isla Mujeres, Punta Cancn y Punta

Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira; Just Cebrian; Jennifer Hauxwell; Javier Ramirez-Ramirez; Peter Ralph

2010-01-01

127

The Use of Ecological Niche Modeling to Infer Potential Risk Areas of Snakebite in the Mexican State of Veracruz  

PubMed Central

Background Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings Ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC); this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper), explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low). PMID:24963989

Yaez-Arenas, Carlos; Peterson, A. Townsend; Mokondoko, Pierre; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martnez-Meyer, Enrique

2014-01-01

128

Ecological conditions in wintering and passage areas as determinants of timing of spring migration in trans-Saharan migratory birds.  

PubMed

1.?Climate change has been associated with shifts in the timing of biological events, including the spring arrival of migratory birds. Early arrival at breeding sites is an important life-history trait, usually associated with higher breeding success and therefore, susceptible to selection and evolution in response to changing climatic conditions. 2.?Here, we examine the effect of changes in the environmental conditions of wintering and passage areas on the mean passage time of 13 trans-Saharan passerines during their spring migration through the western Mediterranean over the 15 years from 1993 to 2007. 3.?We found that most of the species studied have been advancing the timing of their passage in recent years. However, annual variation in the mean date of passage was positively correlated with vegetation growth (measured as the normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]) both in the Sahel (the region of departure) and in northern Africa (the passage area). Thus, migration dates were delayed in years with high primary productivity in passage and wintering zones. All species seem to respond similarly to NDVI in the Sahel; however, late migrants were less affected by ecological conditions in northern Africa than those migrating earlier, suggesting differences based on species ecology. 4.?Mean timing of passage was not related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), temperature or NDVI in the species-specific wintering areas (the overwintering region) when analysed in combination with the other covariates. 5.?Our findings show that ecological conditions in the winter quarters (specifically the Sahel) and en route are relevant factors influencing trends in the passage dates of trans-Saharan migratory birds on the southern fringe of Europe. Possible long-term consequences for late arriving spring migrants are discussed. PMID:21073454

Robson, David; Barriocanal, Carles

2011-03-01

129

Optimizing line intercept sampling and estimation for feral swine damage levels in ecologically sensitive wetland plant communities.  

PubMed

Ecological sampling can be labor intensive, and logistically impractical in certain environments. We optimize line intercept sampling and compare estimation methods for assessing feral swine damage within fragile wetland ecosystems in Florida. Sensitive wetland sites, and the swine damage within them, were mapped using GPS technology. Evenly spaced parallel transect lines were simulated across a digital map of each site. The length of each transect and total swine damage under each transect were measured and percent swine damage within each site was estimated by two methods. The total length method (TLM) combined all transects as a single long transect, dividing the sum of all damage lengths across all transects by the combined length of all transect lines. The equal weight method (EWM) calculated the damage proportion for each transect line and averaged these proportions across all transects. Estimation was evaluated using transect spacings of 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 m. Based on relative root mean squared error and relative bias measures, the TLM produced higher quality estimates than EWM at all transect spacings. Estimation quality decreased as transect spacing increased, especially for TLM. Estimation quality also increased as the true proportion of swine damage increased. Diminishing improvements in estimation quality as transect spacings decreased suggested 5 m as an optimal tradeoff between estimation quality and labor. An inter-transect spacing of 5 m with TLM estimation appeared an optimal starting point when designing a plan for estimating swine damage, with practical, logistical, economic considerations determining final design details. PMID:22707203

Thomas, Jacob F; Engeman, Richard M; Tillman, Eric A; Fischer, Justin W; Orzell, Steve L; Glueck, Deborah H; Felix, Rodney K; Avery, Michael L

2013-03-01

130

Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas  

PubMed Central

The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2012-01-01

131

[Concentration characteristics and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area].  

PubMed

Surface sediments were sampled from various surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, and four types of persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured. The purposes were to investigate the concentration characteristics of the four types of pollutants and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled from the Tianjin coastal area. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranged from 274.06 microg x kg(-1) to 2656.65 microg x kg(-1), with the average being 1 198.51 microg x kg(-1). Combustion of fossil fuel such as coal and gasoline was the major source of PAHs in the surface sediments, while input of petroleum products might occur in some locations. In the Dagu discharging river, the total concentration of 22 OCPs was 3 103.36 microg x kg(-1), the total concentration of 35 PCBs and the total concentration of 14 PBDEs were 87.31 microg x kg(-1) and 13.88 microg x kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs in other sampling locations were low. The total organic carbon in the surface sediments had good correlation with PAHs but not with OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs, and this might be due to the fact that PAHs mainly came from area pollution while the other compounds mainly came from point pollution. In the sediments, PAHs (particularly low molecular weight PAHs) had high ecological risk; in multiple locations, the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations, indicating that they were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. In the Dagu discharging river, the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane (gamma-BHC) exceeded their probable effect concentrations and were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. The OCPs in other sampling locations had low ecological risk. Overall, PCBs and PBDEs had low ecological risk. PMID:23233969

Lu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Chao-Qi; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Jun-Jun

2012-10-01

132

Assessment of flood-sensitive areas by hazard, vulnerability and risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free surface flow is strongly influenced by the presence of hydroengineering works. These structures also affect the size of the flooded areas, respectively the floodplain limits. Floods are extreme natural phenomena, not disaster themselves; they become disaster only as affecting the human factor and its activities. A very difficult problem about the assessment of flood-sensitive areas is to identify the actual damage, comparing and summing them, given that the damage has different causes. To define the concepts and elements for integrated risk assessment imply that all risks of the human and environment in a given region, can be systematically identified, analyzed and assessed.

Iustina Hr?an, Raluca; Pienaru, Adriana

2014-05-01

133

The assessment of environmentally sensitive forest road construction in Calabrian pine forest areas of Turkey.  

PubMed

Forest road construction by bulldozers in Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests on mountainous terrain of Turkey causes considerable damage to the environment and the forest standing alongside the road. This situation obliges a study of environmentally sound road construction in Turkey. This study was carried out in 4 sample sites of Antalya Forest Directorate in steep (34-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-70% gradient) conditions with bulldozer and excavator machine and direct damages to forest during road construction was determined, including forest area losses and damages to downhill trees in mountainous areas. It was determined that in steep terrain when excavators were used, less forest area (22.16%) was destroyed compared to bulldozers and 26.54% less area in very steep terrain. The proportion of damage on trees where bulldozer worked was nearly twofold higher than excavator was used. The results of this research show that the environmentally sensitive techniques applied for the road construction projects are considerably superior to the traditional use of bulldozers on steep slopes. The environmentally sound forest road construction by use of excavator must be considered an appropriate and reliable solution for mountainous terrain where areas of sensitive forest ecosystems are to be opened up. PMID:17402245

Tunay, Metin

2006-07-01

134

A fast large-area position-sensitive time-of-flight neutron detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel position-sensitive time-of-flight neutron detection and histograming system has been developed for use at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Spatial resolution of roughly 1 cm1 cm and time-of-flight resolution of ~1 ?s are combined in a detection system which can ultimately be expanded to cover several square meters of active detector area. This system is based on the use

R. K. Crawford; J. R. Haumann

1990-01-01

135

Role for D-Serine within the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Development of Cocaine's Sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to cocaine results in motor sensitization that, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is associated to enhanced glutamate release, which in turn leads to enhanced calcium levels in dopaminergic neurons. Calcium influx activates calciumcalmodulin-dependent protein kinases such as CaMKII. D-Serine could participate on these effects, and the objective was to discern the role of VTA D-serine after a

Emilio Fernandez-Espejo; Susana Ramiro-Fuentes; Manuel Portavella; Rocio Moreno-Paublete

2008-01-01

136

Spatial modeling of ecological areas by fitting the limiting factors for As in the vicinity of mine, Serbia.  

PubMed

Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in soil are often found in the vicinity of certain mineral deposits that have been, or are currently, under exploitation, regardless of the target resource. Detailed study of such areas for safe agriculture requires considerable financial costs and long periods of time. Application of an appropriate spatial model that describes the behavior of arsenic in soil and plants can significantly ease the whole investigation process. This paper presents a model of ecological security of an area that, in the past, was an antimony mine and has a naturally high content of arsenic. For simulation and modeling the geographic information science (GIS) technology with the inserted predictors influencing the accessibility of As and its content in plants was used. The results obtained were the following: (1) a categorization of contaminated soils according to soil properties was developed; (2) the proposed methodology allows focusing on particular suspect area saving an energy and human resource input; and (3) new safe areas for growing crops in contaminated area were modeled. The application of the proposed model of As solubility to various crops grown around a former antimony mine near the village of Lisa, southwest Serbia showed that significant expansion of the areas suitable for growing potato, raspberry, and pasture was possible. PMID:24281676

Cakmak, Dragan; Perovic, Veljko; Saljnikov, Elmira; Jaramaz, Darko; Sikiric, Biljana

2014-03-01

137

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2012-07-01

138

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2013-07-01

139

Trophic ecology of Mustelus schmitti (Springer, 1939) in a nursery area of northern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mustelus schmitti is an endangered endemic shark of the southwest Atlantic, and an important economical resource in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to describe the trophic ecology of M. schmitti in Anegada Bay, its feeding strategy and diet composition, along with the possible dietary shifts, due to season, sex, ontogeny and the different geographical features of the bay. Our results show that M. schmitti is a carnivorous opportunistic predator, feeding on a variety of benthic invertebrates. The diet presented seasonal and ontogenetic variations, while no differences in diet composition were observed between sexes or the different sampling sites. This species behave as a generalize feeder, with a wide trophic spectrum and a diverse diet.

Molina, Juan Manuel; Cazorla, Andrea Lpez

2011-05-01

140

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture-resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are related to AI virus prevalence and whether there are ecological consequences associated with AI virus infection in staging white-fronted geese. Mean seasonal (low pathogenic) AI virus prevalence ranged between 2.5 and 10.7 per cent, among the highest reported values for non-duck species, and occurred in distinct peaks with near-zero prevalence before and after. Throat samples had a 2.4 times higher detection frequency than cloacal samples. AI virus infection was significantly related to age and body mass in some but not other winters. AI virus infection was not related to resighting probability, nor to maximum distance travelled, which was at least 191 km during the short infectious lifespan of an AI virus. Our results suggest that transmission via the respiratory route could be an important transmission route of AI virus in this species. Near-zero prevalence upon arrival on their wintering grounds, in combination with the epidemic nature of AI virus infections in white-fronted geese, suggests that white-fronted geese are not likely to disperse Asian AI viruses from their Siberian breeding grounds to their European wintering areas. PMID:20200028

Kleijn, D; Munster, V J; Ebbinge, B S; Jonkers, D A; Mskens, G J D M; Van Randen, Y; Fouchier, R A M

2010-07-01

141

Restoration of the Marine Ecological Environment Along the Charting Coastal Area: Chemical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Charting coastal area is an important mariculture and fishery ground in Taiwan. Due to copper and organic pollution, mariculture has been prohibited by the Taiwan Government since the first case of green oysters appeared in this area in 1986. Growing algae in the polluted environment may improve water quality and re-establish the marine ecosystem. Since September, 1993, various algal

Tsu-Chang Hung; Pei-Jie Meng; Shu-Jen Wu; Aileen Chuang

1996-01-01

142

Vegetation and ecology of ice-free areas of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty tow lichen taxa, five bryophyte taxa and the algaPrasiola crispa were recorded from ice free areas at the coast and from an isolated mountain, 70 km inland of northern Victoria Land. Pattern and density of vegetation characterized the area as probably more desertic than others investigated in eastern Antarctica, although locally a biomass of up to 1 kg m-2

L. Kappen

1985-01-01

143

Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer

C. R. Groves; B. L. Keller

1983-01-01

144

Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

1983-01-01

145

Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities: Finite-field, intensity, and area corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance. Strong perturbations produce a nonlinear correction term that depends on the strength of the inhomogeneity. Solution of the specific case of a finite-sized circular inhomogeneity coaxial with a circular specimen suggests a first-order correction for the general case. Our results are confirmed by computer simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Nhlk et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.

Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole

2014-10-01

146

[Clinical hygienic substantiation for the individual biocorrection of ecologically dependent conditions in the critical population groups industrial areas of Ukraine].  

PubMed

In the article there is considered the problem of environmental and human body pollution with heavy metals, the effectiveness of individual biocorrection in critical population groups--pregnant females and children residing in technologically contaminated areas. It was established that, in spite of the correspondence of the content of abiotic heavy metals to their MACs in the environment, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the internal environment of the organism is 1,6-15,4 times larger than physiological norms and accompanied by substantial deficiency of essential trace elements. The similar situation in children was proved to cause the fall in mental capacity and learning ability, in pregnant females--to various complications. The obtained results were the scientific substantiation for the feasibility of performing of biocorrection for trace elements imbalance and ecologically dependent conditions in the population of the industrial region, proved its high clinical and hygienic efficiency, which is the basis for the wide introduction of pectin containing preparations with the aim to enforce the health, prevent ecologically dependent conditions and increasing the adaptive capacity of the organism. PMID:24749285

Beletskaya, E N; Onul, N M; Glavatskaya, V I; Antonova, E V; Golovkova, T A

2014-01-01

147

[Ecological effects of intercrops in comprehensive management patterns of hilly area plum orchard].  

PubMed

The study on the ecological effects of intercrops in four cropping patterns showed that with the increase of multiple cropping, the annual increase of soil organic matter, total N, total P and total K was 5% - 20%, 7% - 40%, 8% - 70% and 15% - 80%, respectively. Potato-soybean had the best benefit in soil and water conservation, followed by cole-peanut, potato-watermelon, and wheat. Compared with control, the average soil erosion module and runoff amount of 4 patterns were decreased by 44.19%, 39.55%, 38.24% and 37.56%, and 22.40%, 9.28%, 24.11% and 21.16%, respectively. Cole-peanut had the highest biomass, being averaged 100 276 kg . hm(-2) annually, and the second was potato-watermelon, with an average of 73 692 kg x hm(-2). Potato-watermelon had the highest productivity, which averaged 37 565 kg x hm(-2) annually, and the second was potato-soybean, averaged 25 934 kg x hm(-2). The efficiency of energy input was in order of cole-peanut, potato-watermelon, potato-soybean, and wheat, and the value was 2.96, 2.08, 2.01 and 0.96, respectively. PMID:16180746

Zhang, Tie; Huang, Xianpeng; Yang, Bin

2005-06-01

148

Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results  

SciTech Connect

During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

2011-09-01

149

Political Ecology and Coastal Conservation: A Case Study of Menai Bay Conservation Area, Tanzania  

E-print Network

Many of Africa's coastal areas are experiencing alarming levels of degradation. In response, marine conservation efforts there are on the rise, many of which claim community empowerment as an essential goal. Researchers have begun to use theories...

Shinn, Jamie Elizabeth

2010-06-04

150

Variability of magnetoencephalographic sensor sensitivity measures as a function of age, brain volume and cortical area  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility and appropriateness of magnetoencephalography (MEG) for both adult and pediatric studies, as well as for the developmental comparison of these factors across a wide range of ages. Methods For 45 subjects with ages from 1 to 24 years (infants, toddlers, school-age children and young adults), lead fields (LFs) of MEG sensors are computed using anatomically realistic boundary element models (BEMs) and individually-reconstructed cortical surfaces. Novel metrics are introduced to quantify MEG sensor focality. Results The variability of MEG focality is graphed as a function of brain volume and cortical area. Statistically significant differences in total cerebral volume, cortical area, MEG global sensitivity and LF focality are found between age groups. Conclusions Because MEG focality and sensitivity differ substantially across the age groups studied, the cortical LF maps explored here can provide important insights for the examination and interpretation of MEG signals from early childhood to young adulthood. Significance This is the first study to (1) investigate the relationship between MEG cortical LFs and brain volume as well as cortical area across development, and (2) compare LFs between subjects with different head sizes using detailed cortical reconstructions. PMID:24589347

Irimia, Andrei; Erhart, Matthew J.; Brown, Timothy T.

2014-01-01

151

Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

2011-11-01

152

Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.

Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.

2000-09-01

153

Benthic assessment of marine areas of particular ecological importance within the German Baltic Sea EEZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Habitats Directive is one of the main legal tools of the European Union to preserve biodiversity by maintaining and restoring natural habitats, and establishing a network of protected sites (NATURA 2000). One point of interest is the characterisation of marine habitats to localise the areas that fulfil the protection targets. Of the habitats listed in Annex I of the

Michael L. Zettler; Fritz Gosselck

154

Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three agro-ecological areas of central Oromiya, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis was conducted between September 2005 and March 2006 in three separate agroecological areas of central Oromiya, Ethiopia. In this study, a total of 176 clusters (farms) and 1,238 animals were selected, using the one-stage cluster sampling method. Fifty-nine clusters and 423 animals were selected from the lowland areas; 58 clusters and 385 animals from the midland areas and 59 clusters and 430 animals from the highlands. Serum samples were collected from a total of 1,238 animals older than six months. The rose bengal plate test and complement fixation test were used as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively, to detect Brucella seropositivity. Questionnaires were also administered to 176 households to gather information on the farm and livestock. Results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis at the individual animal level was 2.9% (low). The seroprevalence was 4.2% in the lowlands, 1.0% in the midlands and 3.4% in the highlands. The overall seroprevalence at the herd level was 13.6% (moderate). At the herd level, seroprevalence in the lowlands was 17%; in the midlands: 5.1%; and in highland areas: 18.6%. Logistic regression analysis, revealed that the breed of cattle and the method of disposing of aborted foetuses and foetal membranes had a statistically significant effect on individual animal seroprevalence (p < 0.05). In lowland areas, the breed (p < 0.05), animal management system (p <0.05), mating method (p < 0.05), herd size (p < 0.05) and source of replacement stock (p <0.05) all had significant effects on individual animal seroprevalence. PMID:20462151

Jergefa, T; Kelay, B; Bekana, M; Teshale, S; Gustafson, H; Kindahl, H

2009-12-01

155

Conformable large-area position-sensitive photodetectors based on luminescence-collecting silicone waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Position sensitive detection schemes based on the lateral photoeffect rely on inorganic semiconductors. Such position sensitive devices (PSDs) are reliable and robust, but preparation with large active areas is expensive and use on curved substrates is impossible. Here we present a novel route for the fabrication of conformable PSDs which allows easy preparation on large areas, and use on curved surfaces. Our device is based on stretchable silicone waveguides with embedded fluorescent dyes, used in conjunction with small silicon photodiodes. Impinging laser light (e.g., from a laser pointer) is absorbed by the dye in the PSD and re-emitted as fluorescence light at a larger wavelength. Due to the isotropic emission from the fluorescent dye molecules, most of the re-emitted light is coupled into the planar silicone waveguide and directed to the edges of the device. Here the light signals are detected via embedded small silicon photodiodes arranged in a regular pattern. Using a mathematical algorithm derived by extensive using of models from global positioning system (GPS) systems and human activity monitoring, the position of light spots is easily calculated. Additionally, the device shows high durability against mechanical stress, when clamped in an uniaxial stretcher and mechanically loaded up to 15% strain. The ease of fabrication, conformability, and durability of the device suggests its use as interface devices and as sensor skin for future robots.

Bartu, Petr; Koeppe, Robert; Arnold, Nikita; Neulinger, Anton; Fallon, Lisa; Bauer, Siegfried

2010-06-01

156

A primary study on diagnostic of ecological security in Dongting lake tourism area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A categorical depiction about the development of tourism industry is not suitable to be the single factor resulting to the negative impact of regional tourism eco-security is proposed. The effect caused by background and tourism development together is emphasized and as a result the conception of eco-security on tourism area covered tourism. A Background Pressure- (Social-Industrial-Pressure) -Community Respond (BP-(S-I-P)-CR) model

Nie Na

2010-01-01

157

Tuning the tide: creating ecological conditions for tidal marsh development in a flood control area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schelde estuary, characterised as a turbid, polluted and eutrophic system, has nowadays reached a turning point in the\\u000a restoration of its water quality. During the past century, human activities have reduced the intertidal areas, essential in\\u000a the estuarine ecosystem for nutrient cycling and the self-cleaning capacity. Today, in combination with a master plan to protect\\u000a the population from storm

T. Maris; T. J. S. Cox; S. Temmerman; P. De Vleeschauwer; S. Van Damme; T. De Mulder; E. Van den Bergh; P. Meire

2007-01-01

158

Ecological determinants of the occurrence and dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in offshore areas  

PubMed Central

The life cycle of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been conventionally associated with estuarine areas characterized by moderate salinity and warm seawater temperatures. Recent evidence suggests that the distribution and population dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus may be shaped by the existence of an oceanic transport of communities of this organism mediated by zooplankton. To evaluate this possibility, the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in the water column of offshore areas of Galicia was investigated by PCR monthly over an 18-month period. Analysis of zooplankton and seawater showed that the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in offshore areas was almost exclusively associated with zooplankton and was present in 80% of the samples. The influence of environmental factors assessed by generalized additive models revealed that the abundance and seasonality of V. parahaemolyticus in zooplankton was favoured by the concurrence of downwelling periods that promoted the zooplankton patchiness. These results confirm that offshore waters may be common habitats for V. parahaemolyticus, including strains with virulent traits. Additionally, genetically related populations were found in offshore zooplankton and in estuaries dispersed along 1500?km. This finding suggests that zooplankton may operate as a vehicle for oceanic dispersal of V. parahaemolyticus populations, connecting distant regions and habitats, and thereby producing impacts on the local community demography and the spread of Vibrio-related diseases. PMID:22094349

Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Blanco-Abad, Veronica; Rodriguez-Castro, Alba; Ansede-Bermejo, Juan; Miranda, Ana; Rodriguez-Alvarez, M Xose

2012-01-01

159

Ecological determinants of the occurrence and dynamics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in offshore areas.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been conventionally associated with estuarine areas characterized by moderate salinity and warm seawater temperatures. Recent evidence suggests that the distribution and population dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus may be shaped by the existence of an oceanic transport of communities of this organism mediated by zooplankton. To evaluate this possibility, the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in the water column of offshore areas of Galicia was investigated by PCR monthly over an 18-month period. Analysis of zooplankton and seawater showed that the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in offshore areas was almost exclusively associated with zooplankton and was present in 80% of the samples. The influence of environmental factors assessed by generalized additive models revealed that the abundance and seasonality of V. parahaemolyticus in zooplankton was favoured by the concurrence of downwelling periods that promoted the zooplankton patchiness. These results confirm that offshore waters may be common habitats for V. parahaemolyticus, including strains with virulent traits. Additionally, genetically related populations were found in offshore zooplankton and in estuaries dispersed along 1500?km. This finding suggests that zooplankton may operate as a vehicle for oceanic dispersal of V. parahaemolyticus populations, connecting distant regions and habitats, and thereby producing impacts on the local community demography and the spread of Vibrio-related diseases. PMID:22094349

Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Blanco-Abad, Veronica; Rodriguez-Castro, Alba; Ansede-Bermejo, Juan; Miranda, Ana; Rodriguez-Alvarez, M Xose

2012-05-01

160

Testing the role of patch openness as a causal mechanism for apparent area sensitivity in a grassland specialist.  

PubMed

Area sensitivity, species being disproportionately present on larger habitat patches, has been identified in many taxa. We propose that some apparently area-sensitive species are actually responding to how open a habitat patch is, rather than to patch size. We tested this hypothesis for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) by comparing density and occupancy to a novel openness index, patch area, and edge effects. Bobolink density and occupancy showed significant relationships with openness, but logistic models based on an openness occupancy threshold had greater explanatory power. Thresholds remained approximately consistent from June through August, and shifted to be more open in September. Variance partitioning supported the openness index as unique and relevant. We found no relationships between measures of body condition (body mass, body size, circulating corticosterone levels) and either openness or area. Our findings have implications for studies of area sensitivity, especially with regards to inconsistencies reported within species: specifically, (1) whether or not a study finds a species to be area sensitive may depend on whether small, open sites were sampled, and (2) area regressions were sensitive to observed densities at the largest sites, suggesting that variation in these fields could lead to inconsistent area sensitivity responses. Responses to openness may be a consequence of habitat selection mediated by predator effects. Finally, openness measures may have applications for predicting effects of habitat management or development, such as adding wind turbines, in open habitat. PMID:22159812

Keyel, Alexander C; Bauer, Carolyn M; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Reed, J Michael

2012-06-01

161

Macro-scale assessment of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes for Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution presents a GIS-based method for the identification of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes on the basis of existing flood maps and topographic features of flood plains. The approach enables the identification of flood prone river sections for large areas, as no additional hydrodynamic simulations are necessary or available. In our case an area of ~ 84.000 km2, including about 26.000 km of rivers and streams, is analysed. Even though the results of climate models are uncertain regarding the prediction of future changes in frequency and magnitude of floods, the recent accumulation of extreme flood events in parts of Austria makes it inevitable to account for possible changes in runoff characteristics. Therefore, an enhanced impact assessment of these changes and the identification of flood sensitive areas is necessary. The existing HORA data set (Natural Hazard Overview & Risk Assessment Austria) indicates flood plains for recurrence intervals of 30, 100 and 200 years for the entire area of Austria under current climate conditions. A variable climate change allowance is applied to the corresponding discharges of the 200 years return period data set (HQ200), with the aim of generating modified runoff values of equal recurrence intervals for all flood values (HQcc). This procedure guarantees a consistent data set, based on the underlying Gumbel flood statistics of the original data set. The HORA-data sets includes points with the information on discharge and water depth for the existing recurrence intervals. Based on the simplifying assumption of (1) a rectangular cross section, (2) the water depth for the HQ200 discharge value and (3) the modified HQcc value, a new water depth (hcc) and the change in water depth (?h) can be calculated for these locations. Changes in water depth are aggregated for municipalities by calculating a weighted mean depth change, using discharge as the weighting value. Based on the derived water depth changes, the existing flood areas are enlarged on the basis of the digital terrain model with a resolution of 10x10 m. For every existing boundary point Pi(xi,yi,zi) of the HORA-HQ200 flood plain a change in water depth ?h is added to the elevation value zi. For this point Pi all Points Pk,i in the surrounding area r are identified, where the elevation value zk is lower than zi + ?h. The surrounding area r, where valid points Pk,i can be situated, is defined by the drainage area of the existing boundary point Pi. Pi therefore represents an outlet point of a local subbasin. It is assumed, that points within the drainage area are inundated with rising water levels beginning from the outlet point. Local flows are thereby neglected. The derived flood plains look plausible and will be compared with 2-D hydrodynamic simulations for three case study areas in an on-going project.

Herrnegger, Mathew; Apperl, Benjamin; Senoner, Tobias; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

2014-05-01

162

Ecological Footprints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wondered what sort of impact your everyday existence has on the planet? The University of Texas at Austin offers this information as part of their training in Natural Resource Management. An ecological footprint is defined here as "the area on the surface of Earth that each person appropriates in order to live," including many kinds of ecological services -- from food, air, water, and living space, to the recycling of wastes. This site offers an introduction to the concept of Ecological Footprints, including links to spreadsheets for calculation, national footprints, and related scientific articles.

163

[Dynamics of plant community species diversity in the process of ecological rehabilitation in north Shaanxi loess area].  

PubMed

Based on the vegetation survey on 18 sampling plots in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, and by using the methods of substituting space series for time series and of contrastive analysis, the dynamics of plant community species diversity in the process of ecological rehabilitation in the County was analyzed from the aspects of succession time, rehabilitation mode, and slope direction. The results showed that in the 25 years natural succession series, the natural restoration community on previous cropland experienced the sequence of Salsola collina, Artemisia scoparia, Lespedeza davurica, Artemisia sacrorum, and Bothriochloa ischcemum, with the dominant species tended to be changed from annual to perennial and from low-class to high-class. The variations of species number, Margalef index, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou index in the succession process could all be described by a quadratic function y = at2 + bt + c, suggesting that after the outside pressure removed, the degraded ecosystem in loess area could naturally restore to an advanced and steady state, but the restoration rate would be very slow. With the same site factors and restoration periods, the Margalef index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of herb layer decreased in the order of naturally restoring on previous cropland (I) > converting cropland to grassland (II) > converting cropland to forestland (III) > afforestation on barren hills (IV), while Simpson index changed in adverse. Comparing with natural restoration, the community types of herb layer in II and III were at the more advanced stage of natural succession series though the species diversity index was lower, indicating that artificial planting would accelerate the succession process. In the same period of rehabilitation, the Margalef index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of natural restoration community were obviously higher on shady slope than on sunny slope, and the community type was at the more advanced stage of natural succession series, suggesting that the basic ecological rehabilitation condition on sunny slope was worse, and the succession rate was slower. PMID:19459383

Qin, Wei; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Zhao, Lei-Lei

2009-02-01

164

Concentration levels and ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area, China.  

PubMed

Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16?PAHs ranging from 274.06??g/kg to 2656.65??g/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24?OCPs, 35?PCBs, and 14?PBDEs were 3103.36??g/kg, 87.31??g/kg, and 13.88??g/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

2013-01-01

165

Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China  

PubMed Central

Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16?PAHs ranging from 274.06??g/kg to 2656.65??g/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24?OCPs, 35?PCBs, and 14?PBDEs were 3103.36??g/kg, 87.31??g/kg, and 13.88??g/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

2013-01-01

166

Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 198694 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area. Methods: The whole of Genoa and one of its 25 districts (Rivarolo) were selected as controls. The trend of risk around the coke oven was evaluated via Stone's method, while the geographic pattern of such risks across the Cornigliano district was evaluated by computing full Bayes estimates of standardised incidence ratio (FBE-SIR). Results: In males, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for all lymphohaematopoietic cancers (RR 1.7 v Rivarolo and 1.6 v Genoa), for NHL (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.7 v Genoa), and for leukaemia (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.9 v Genoa). In females, statistically non-significant RR were observed. In males no excess of risk was found close to the coke oven. In females, a rising risk for NHL was observed approaching the plant, although statistical significance was not reached, while the risk for leukaemia was not evaluable due to the small number of cases. Analysis of the geographic pattern of risk suggested the presence of a cluster of NHL in both sexes in the eastern part of the district, where a foundry had been operational until the early 1980s. A cluster of leukaemia cases was observed in males in a northern part of the area, where no major sources of benzene seemed to be present. Conclusions: The estimated risks seem to be slightly or not at all related to the distance from the coke oven. The statistically significant higher risks observed in males for NHL and leukaemia, and the clusters of leukaemia in males and of NHL in both sexes deserve further investigations in order to trace the exposures associated with such risks. PMID:12598665

Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F

2003-01-01

167

Allergic reactions to vespids: comparison of sensitivities to two species in a Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

We have studied a group of twenty-seven patients who suffer allergic reactions to vespids stings. Specific IgE antibodies to venom extracts from Polistes gallicus and Vespula germanica were measured by RAST, and the crossreactivity between the two venoms was compared using the RAST inhibition technique. We concluded that, in southern Spain, sensitization to P. gallicus was more prevalent than that to V. germanica, with 44% of the subjects in this study reacting to P. gallicus compared with 33% to V. germanica. However, there was a considerable degree of crossreactivity between the two species. It is evident that Polistes is an important species in this area; however, both in Spain and other Mediterranean countries, V. germanica venom is used almost exclusively for diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:3349589

Blanca, M; Miranda, A; Fernandez, J; Terrados, S; Vela, J M; Vega, J M; Gonzalez, J J; Juarez, C

1988-01-01

168

[A primary research on the population influence on ecological environment in the mountain area of the South An Hui Province].  

PubMed

The 16 counties in the mountain region of South Anhui Province have a land mass of 29,176 sq. km and a 1983 population of 491,720,000, a majority of whom are farmers. Forests, tea and grains are the villages' major sources of income. 80% of the area is hilly; the climate is temperate and rainfall is adequate. In recent years, a rapid population increase and inattention to proper use of natural resources have eroded the environment. Since 1949 the population of this area increased 70%, putting tremendous pressure on the land and fuel. The demand for housing, factories, transportation and communication to accomodate the population increase constantly decreases the availability of farmland. Arable land decreased by about 3,000,000 sq. acres between 1949 and 1983. Because the average individual acreage is small, production is low, leading to frequent grain shortages. Forests are then destroyed to make farmland, but in the process, the flora and fauna are disturbed while production remains low and uneven. In addition, firewood, the main source of fuel, will not be replenished rapidly enough to meet the needs of the growing population. The quality of this mountain population also influences ecology. Almost 80% of the people are semi-literate, traditional in their attitudes and customs, and unreceptive to new ideas. Family planning has not been successful here, nor is there a deep understanding of the consequences of deforestation. It is necessary, then, to control this area's population growth, improve the population's quality, raise its environmental consciousness, and utilize its resources effectively. PMID:12159299

Ren, Q

1987-09-01

169

Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of primary motor cortex activity produced by ventral tegmental area stimulation.  

PubMed

The primary motor cortex (M1) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the mesocortical dopamine pathway. However, few studies have focused on changes in M1 neuronal activity caused by VTA activation. To address this issue, we used voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of M1 activity induced by single-pulse stimulation of VTA in anesthetized rats. VSD imaging showed that brief electrical stimulation of unilateral VTA elicited a short-latency excitatory-inhibitory sequence of neuronal activity not only in the ipsilateral but also in the contralateral M1. The contralateral M1 response was not affected by pharmacological blockade of ipsilateral M1 activity, but it was completely abolished by corpus callosum transection. Although the VTA-evoked neuronal activity extended throughout the entire M1, we found the most prominent activity in the forelimb area of M1. The 6-OHDA-lesioned VTA failed to evoke M1 activity. Furthermore, both excitatory and inhibitory intact VTA-induced activity was entirely extinguished by blocking glutamate receptors in the target M1. When intracortical microstimulation of M1 was paired with VTA stimulation, the evoked forelimb muscle activity was facilitated or inhibited, depending on the interval between the two stimuli. These findings suggest that VTA neurons directly modulate the excitability of M1 neurons via fast glutamate signaling and, consequently, may control the last cortical stage of motor command processing. PMID:24966388

Kunori, Nobuo; Kajiwara, Riichi; Takashima, Ichiro

2014-06-25

170

Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports completed in 2004 and 2005 addressed each of the specific objectives and this final report focuses on the biological information gathered in support of local conservation efforts. Participation in the development of the Bi-State Local Area Conservation Plan was accomplished on multiple scales. Beginning in the fall of 2002, USGS personnel began participating in meetings of local stakeholders involved in the development of a sage-grouse conservation plan for the Bi-State planning area. This included attendance at numerous local PMU group meetings and field trips as well as participating on the technical advisory committee (TAC) for the Bi-State group. Whenever appropriate, ongoing results and findings regarding sage-grouse ecology in the local area were incorporated into these working group meetings. In addition, the USGS partnered with CDFG to help reorganize one of the local PMU groups (South Mono) and edited that portion of the Bi-State plan. The USGS also worked closely with CDFG to draft a description of the state of knowledge for sage-grouse genetic information for inclusion in the Bi-State Conservation Plan. The first edition of the Bi-State Conservation Plan for Greater Sage-Grouse was completed in June 2004 (Bi-State Sage-grouse Conservation Team 2004). This report is organized primarily by PMU to facilitate the incorporation of these research findings into the individual PMU plans that compose the Bi-State plan. Information presented in this report was derived from over 7,000 radio-telemetry locations obtained on 145 individual sage-grouse during a three year period (2003-2005). In addition, we collected detailed vegetation measurements at over 590 habitat sampling plots within the study area including canopy cover, shrubs, forbs, and grasses diversity. Vegetation data collection focused on sage-grouse nests, and brood-use areas. Additionally we collected data at random sites to examine sage-grouse habitat relationships within the study area. The majori

Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric

2009-01-01

171

Urban Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

172

The small area predictors of ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations: a comparison of changes over time.  

PubMed

The hospital admission for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) is a validated indicator of impeded access to good primary and preventive care services. The authors examine the predictors of ACSC admissions in small geographic areas in two cross-sections spanning an 11-year time interval (1995-2005). Using hospital discharge data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York for the years 1995 and 2005, the study includes a multivariate cross-sectional design, using compositional factors describing the hospitalized populations and the contextual factors, all aggregated at the primary care service area level. The study uses ordinary least squares regressions with and without state fixed effects, adjusting for heteroscedasticity. Data is pooled over 2 years to assess the statistically significant changes in associations over time. ACSC admission rates were inversely related to the availability of local primary care physicians, and managed care was associated with declines in ACSC admissions for the elderly. Minorities, aged elderly, and percent under federal poverty level were found to be associated with higher ACSC rates. The comparative analysis for 2 years highlights significant declines in the association with ACSC rates of several factors including percent minorities and rurality. The two policy-driven factors, primary care physician capacity and Medicare-managed care penetration, were not found significantly more effective over time. Using small area analysis, the study indicates that improvements in socioeconomic conditions and geographic access may have helped improve the quality of primary care received by the elderly over the last decade, particularly among some minority groups. PMID:24405202

Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R; Thumula, Vennela

2014-01-01

173

Geomorphological and ecological researches inferring swamp areas inside endorheic cacthment basin: The Asso graben-polje case study (south Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peoples living inside flat karstic areas frequently deal with both socio-economic and environmental problems related to the superficial waters management. Karst morphologies, such as dolines and water sinks mostly, characterize the plane territory of Salento (southern Italy). Since their first settlements, Salento landscapes had been modified to drain surface waters, discharge floods and reclaim marshlands. This contribution deals with the Asso graben-polje which is about 200 kmq wide and lies in a regional lowered tectonic structure. It is highly vulnerable owing to both flooding and groundwater pollution and the hazard due to the occurrence of sinkholes is impending. The Asso streams is network of natural and artificial channels which was linked to six water sinks about 75 years ago, i. e. during the last extensive hydrographic arrangement to solve flooding and epidemiological problems. At present, the terminal sinks of the Asso fluvial-karst system absolved the functions of: storm water drainage wells, aquifer remediation-related wells and underground injection regulated wastewater disposal systems. So, the water management of the system is an hard task, being the mitigation of the amplitude of flooding events, achieved by means of the increasing of water sinks discharge, in contrast with the safeguard aquifers by pollutant displacements and the need to protect the public health. In spite of the efforts made till now by Public Bodies, the knowledge related to the speleogenesis and the hydraulic properties of the sinks is disregarded by the current water resource management. The carried out geomorphological researches allow us to distinguish natural, partially modified and human bored water sinks. Some of the natural water sinks can be described us collapse dolines, but a number of them present different origin and development, as karst wells and karst shaft. To each water sink type, specific drainage properties can be assigned. Even if the depressions prone to be flooded are thought by geologists as hazard zones, they also represent ecologically significant habitats. Moreover, natural vegetation is a good indicator of the local environmental characteristics of the hydrographical system. So, this study also dealt with the definition of the plant communities and the characterization of the habitats related to such communities. Through the sampling and the analysis of the hydrophitic and riparian vegetation, a series of plant communities is been characterized. Such communities responds to the length of the period of flooding, to the typology of substratum and to the form of the river bed section. In order to make tools useful to the catchment basin management, existing and collected geological and ecological data are in phase of implementation in a Geographical Information System database.

Delle Rose, M.; Beccarisi, L.; Zuccarello, V.

2009-04-01

174

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

1992-09-01

175

Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

1994-09-01

176

Sustaining Visitor Use in Protected Areas: Future Opportunities in Recreation Ecology Research Based on the USA Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management,\\u000a is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50years. During this time, numerous studies have\\u000a improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes.\\u000a Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to

Christopher A. MonzDavid; David N. Cole; Yu-Fai Leung; Jeffrey L. Marion

2010-01-01

177

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link captureresighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture

D. Kleijn; V. J. Munster; B. S. Ebbinge; D. A. Jonkers; G. J. D. M. Mskens; Y. Van Randen; R. A. M. Fouchier

2010-01-01

178

Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009), using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107) and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136). The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significantly higher SMRs were identified for lung cancer (SMR = 145, 95% CI 100-203, p-value = 0.047) and cancer of the kidney and other genitourinary organs among women (SMR = 368, 95% CI 119-858, p-value = 0.025). Elevated SMRs for several other cancers were also noted (lip, oral cavity and pharynx 344, stomach 121, female breast 134, prostate 128, and leukaemias 168), but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations. PMID:21609468

2011-01-01

179

Sensitivity of large-aperture scintillometer measurements of area-average heat fluxes to uncertainties in topographic heights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements allow for estimations of the refractive index structure parameter Cn2 over large areas in the atmospheric surface layer. Turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum are inferred through coupled sets of equations derived from the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. One-dimensional sensitivity functions have been produced that relate the sensitivity of heat fluxes to uncertainties in single values of beam height over homogeneous and flat terrain. However, real field sites include variable topography and heterogeneous surfaces. We develop here the first analysis of the sensitivity of scintillometer derived sensible heat fluxes to uncertainties in spatially distributed topographic measurements. For large-aperture scintillometers and independent friction velocity u* measurements, sensitivity is shown to be concentrated in areas near the center of the beam path and where the underlying topography is closest to the beam height. Uncertainty may be greatly reduced by focusing precise topographic measurements in these areas. A new two-dimensional variable terrain sensitivity function is developed for quantitative error analysis. This function is compared with the previous one-dimensional sensitivity function for the same measurement strategy over flat and homogeneous terrain. Additionally, a new method of solution to the set of coupled equations is produced that eliminates computational error. The results are produced using a new methodology for error analysis involving distributed parameters that may be applied in other disciplines.

Gruber, M. A.; Fochesatto, G. J.; Hartogensis, O. K.

2014-01-01

180

Novel Data on the Ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura: Centrolenidae) and the Importance of Protected Areas for This Critically Endangered Glassfrog in the Neotropics  

PubMed Central

We studied a population of the endangered glassfrog, Cochranella mache, at Bilsa Biological Station, northwestern Ecuador, from 2008 and 2009. We present information on annual abundance patterns, behavioral ecology, habitat use and a species distribution model performed with MaxEnt. We evaluate the importance of the National System of Protected Areas (SNAP) in Colombia and Ecuador, under scenarios of climate change and habitat loss. We predicted a restricted environmental suitability area from 48,509 Km2 to 65,147 Km2 along western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia; ?8% of the potential distribution occurs within SNAP. We examined four aspects of C. mache ecology: (1) ecological data suggests a strong correlation between relative abundance and rainfall, with a high probability to observe frogs through rainy months (FebruaryMay); (2) habitat use and the species distribution model suggest that this canopy dweller is restricted to small streams and rivulets in primary and old secondary forest in evergreen lowland and piedmont forest of western Ecuador, with predictions of suitability areas in adjacent southern Colombia; (3) the SNAP of Colombia and Ecuador harbor a minimum portion of the predicted model of distribution (<10%); and (4) synergetic effects of habitat loss and climate change reduces in about 95% the suitability areas for this endangered frog along its distributional range in Protected Areas. The resulting model allows the recognition of areas to undertake conservation efforts and plan future field surveys, as well as forecasting regions with high probability of C. mache occurrence in western Ecuador and southern Colombia. Further research is required to assess population tendencies, habitat fragmentation and target survey zones to accelerate the discovery of unknown populations in unexplored areas with high probability of suitability. We recommend that Cochranella mache must be re-categorized as Critically Endangered species in national and global status, according with criteria and sub-criteria A4, B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv),E. PMID:24339973

Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Paucar, Christian

2013-01-01

181

A forest without trees: Development of high-surface-area materials for enhanced-sensitivity SAW arrays  

SciTech Connect

Chemical sensor arrays are an alternative to the tedious development of highly specific single-analyte detectors. Recent efforts have focused on the chemical and physical diversity of interface materials for SAW sensor arrays. However, the issues of wide dynamic range and high sensitivity must also be addressed for sensor arrays to compete in applications requiring low detection limits. Because SAW devices respond in proportion to change in mass per nominal unit area of the device surface, sensitivity is enhanced by surface modification with high-area, thin-film coating materials: a greater mass of analyte is adsorbed at a given ambient concentration. The authors are exploring several classes of electrochemically prepared high-area films, materials whose formulations and processing are well documented for applications other than chemical sensors. They present results from films formed by anodization, chemical conversion, and electroplating, yielding surface area enhancements as high as 170x.

Yelton, W.G.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.

1998-08-01

182

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color-Sensitive Areas  

E-print Network

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color- Sensitive Areas to as � synesthesia �, or union of the senses, since the end of the XIXth century (Supplementary Text S1). Here, we focus on much studied grapheme-color synesthesia, which concerns 1-5 people in 100 (Suarez de Mendoza

183

A contact-area model for rail-pads connections in 2-D simulations: sensitivity analysis of train induced vibrations  

E-print Network

A contact-area model for rail-pads connections in 2-D simulations: sensitivity analysis of train systems by means of a finite and discrete elements method. The rail defects and the case of out-of-round wheels are considered. The dynamic interaction between the wheel-sets and the rail is accomplished

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting  

SciTech Connect

The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

2006-01-01

185

The Use of Ecological Niche Modeling to Infer Potential Risk Areas of Snakebite in the Mexican State of Veracruz  

E-print Network

of Lyme disease in British Columbia, Canada. J Med Entomol 47: 99105. 55. Miller RH, Masuoka P, Klein TA, Kim HC, Somer T, et al. (2012) Ecological niche modeling to estimate the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e...

Yañ ez-Arenas, Carlos; Peterson, A. Townsend; Mokondoko, Pierre; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique

2014-06-24

186

PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity  

SciTech Connect

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT{sub 3} antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h after pergolide. The present study suggests that selective enhancement of the PI3K activity in the NAc shell may be one of key alterations underlying the long-term cocaine sensitization. To the extent cocaine sensitization is an important factor in human cocaine abuse, pharmacological interventions targeted toward the NAc shell PI3K alteration may be useful in cocaine abuse treatment.

Zhang Xiuwu [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: xwzhang@duke.edu; Mi Jing [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Wetsel, William C. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Davidson, Colin [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Xiong Xieying [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Chen Qiang [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Ellinwood, Everett H. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Lee, Tong H. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

2006-02-24

187

Assessing uncertainty in ecological systems using global sensitivity analyses: a case example of simulated wolf reintroduction effects on elk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often landmark conservation decisions are made despite an incomplete knowledge of system behavior and inexact predictions of how complex ecosystems will respond to management actions. For example, predicting the feasibility and likely effects of restoring top-level carnivores such as the gray wolf (Canis lupus) to North American wilderness areas is hampered by incomplete knowledge of the predator-prey system processes and

John Fieberg; Kurt J. Jenkins

2005-01-01

188

The study on remote sensing inversion of ecological environmental indices and their dynamic analysis in the six karst peak cluster areas, Guangxi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst Peak Cluster areas are main type of karst landform in Guangxi, which are as controllers of ecological environment to plays a important role in Guangxi. It has important practical significance to dynamic monitor and appraisal Guangxi's ecological environment. Paper choose EOS/MODIS remote sensing data for five period. Based on the necessity argument for giving domain and quantitative remote sensing, Doing a inversion to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI and Vegetation coverage FC remote-sensing of Du'an, Debao, Liujiang, Nandan, Jingxi and Fengshan, where the six main Karst Peak-Cluster giving domain areas of Guangxi, And paper studied the longitudinal variance analysis and the horizontal inversion variance analysis for the inversion result .it shows that, any calculations which involves applying statistical characteristics -- the average value-variance-covariance and maximum / minimum value of image processing algorithm, should adopt the giving domain image processing algorithm model. Analysis of six karst peak cluster area FC longitudinal changes ,we find that The tendency of vegetation coverage of Six major karst peak cluster is" down then up", but in general they were rising,; analysis of horizontal changes in Guangxi six major karst peak cluster vegetation coverage, Find that before 2008,the karst Peak-Cluster areas of Guangxi FC had West high and East low" spatial variation. after 2008, it had" North high South low" spatial variation.

Jia, Zhiqiang; Wu, Hong; Hao, Min; Xing, Lixin

2014-05-01

189

Summary of marine mammal and seabird surveys of the Southern California Bight area, 1975-1978. Volume III - investigators' reports. Part III. Seabirds - book II. Reproductive ecology and foraging habits of breeding seabirds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the findings of a three year study of the breeding seabirds of the Southern California Bight (SCB) area. The distribution, abundance, reproductive ecology, foods and foraging distribution of seabirds breeding in the SCB are discussed.

Hunt, G.L. Jr.; Pitman, R.L.; Naughton, M.; Winnett, K.; Newman, A.

1981-04-01

190

Ecological research can augment restoration practice in urban areas degraded by invasive speciesexamples from Chicago Wilderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban biodiversity conservation needs a firm scientific foundation, one that draws upon active and regionally calibrated research\\u000a programs. Until recently this foundation has not existed. In this paper we examine the way in which the emerging discipline\\u000a of restoration ecology in an urban context can learn from the experiences of ongoing restoration projects and in turn how\\u000a novel insights from

Liam Heneghan; Lauren Umek; Brad Bernau; Kevin Grady; Jamie Iatropulos; David Jabon; Margaret Workman

2009-01-01

191

Traditional ecological knowledge and community-based natural resource management: lessons from a Botswana wildlife management area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Botswana in the late 1980s ushered in a new paradigm in natural resource management. The strategy marked a change from state-controlled to community-controlled wildlife management. The expectation is that under community control, local expertise on biodiversity, termed in this paper as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), plays a significant role that is

T. C Phuthego; R Chanda

2004-01-01

192

Trophic ecology of the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in its introduced areas: a stable isotope approach in southwestern France.  

PubMed

During the last decades, non-native predatory fish species have been largely introduced in European lakes and rivers, calling for detailed information on the trophic ecology of co-existing native and non-native predators. The present study describes the trophic ecology of the introduced pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in two southwestern French rivers, using stable isotope analysis. Pikeperch could be categorized as a top-predator, and had a significantly higher trophic position (TP, mean+/-SE=4.2+/-0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP=3.7+/-0.1) and the introduced European catfish (Silurus glanis, TP=3.8+/-0.1). Most studies of resource use in freshwaters consider predatory fish as ecologically equivalent; however, this study showed that the pikeperch occupied a higher trophic niche compared to other predatory species in the Lot and Tarn rivers (Garonne River basin). This apparent specialization may thus have consequences upon interspecific relationships within the predatory guild and upon the functional organization of biological communities. PMID:19632657

Kopp, Dorothe; Cucherousset, Julien; Syvranta, Jari; Martino, Aurlia; Crghino, Rgis; Santoul, Frdric

2009-08-01

193

Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: Future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes. Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to recreation-related trampling on trails and recreation sites using indicators such as percent vegetation cover and exposed mineral soil. This applied approach has and will continue to yield important information for land managers. However, for the field to advance, more attention needs to be given to other ecosystem attributes and to the larger aspects of environmental conservation occurring at landscape scales. This article is an effort at initiating a dialog on needed advances in the field. We begin by reviewing broadly generalizable knowledge of recreation ecology, to separate what is known from research gaps. Then, based on the authors' perspective of research in the USA and North America, several research directions are suggested as essential for continued progress in this field including theoretical development, broadening scale, integration with other disciplines, and examination of synergistic effects.

Monz, Christopher A.; Cole, David N.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Marion, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

194

Constant surface tension simulations of lipid bilayers: The sensitivity of surface areas and compressibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight molecular dynamics simulations of a hydrated lipid bilayer have been carried out differing only in the applied surface tension, ?, defining the boundary conditions of the periodic cell. The calculated surface area per molecule and deuterium order parameter profile are found to depend strongly on ?. We present several methods to calculate the area compressibility modulus, KA, from the

Scott E. Feller; Richard W. Pastor

1999-01-01

195

Constant surface tension simulations of lipid bilayers: The sensitivity of surface areas and compressibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight molecular dynamics simulations of a hydrated lipid bilayer have been carried out differing only in the applied surface tension, gamma, defining the boundary conditions of the periodic cell. The calculated surface area per molecule and deuterium order parameter profile are found to depend strongly on gamma. We present several methods to calculate the area compressibility modulus, KA, from the

Scott E. Feller; Richard W. Pastor

1999-01-01

196

Sensitivity of Prices to Demand Shocks: A Natural Experiment in the San Francisco Bay Area  

E-print Network

into the area's main airports. The incident temporarily made Oakland airport a less attractive choice altered for a short time period the degree of substitutability between the area's main airports (most to the city of San Francisco would temporarily find Oakland a less attractive airport to fly into/from, due

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

197

Cerebral lateralization of face-sensitive areas in left-handers: only the FFA does not get it right.  

PubMed

Face perception is highly lateralized to the right hemisphere (RH) in humans, as supported originally by observations of face recognition impairment (prosopagnosia) following brain damage. Divided visual field presentations, neuroimaging and event-related potential studies have supported this view. While the latter studies are typically performed in right-handers, the few reported cases of prosopagnosia with unilateral left damage were left-handers, suggesting that handedness may shift or qualify the lateralization of face perception. We tested this hypothesis by recording the whole set of face-sensitive areas in 11 left-handers, using a face-localizer paradigm in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (faces, cars, and their phase-scrambled versions). All face-sensitive areas identified (superior temporal sulcus, inferior occipital cortex, anterior infero-temporal cortex, amygdala) were strongly right-lateralized in left-handers, this right lateralization bias being as large as in a population of right-handers (40) tested with the same paradigm (Rossion etal., 2012). The notable exception was the so-called 'Fusiform face area' (FFA), an area that was slightly left lateralized in the population of left-handers. Since the left FFA is localized closely to an area sensitive to word form in the human brain ('Visual Word Form Area'- VWFA), the enhanced left lateralization of the FFA in left-handers may be due to a decreased competition with the representation of words. The implications for the neural basis of face perception, aetiology of brain lateralization in general, and prosopagnosia are also discussed. PMID:23906596

Bukowski, Henryk; Dricot, Laurence; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Rossion, Bruno

2013-10-01

198

Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland conservation is first and foremost driven by the FSA signup choices. Environmental criteria used in FSA offer selection play a secondary role in farmland-to-fallow-land conversion. Farmer decision making is mainly influenced by the willingness to reduce the potential annual rental payments. As the case study demonstrates, our approach leads to ABM simplification without the loss of outcome variability. It also shows how to represent the magnitude of ABM complexity and isolate the effects of the interconnected explanatory variables on the simulated emergent phenomena. More importantly, the results of our research indicate that some of the parameters exert influence on model outcomes only if analyzed in combination with other parameters. Without evaluating the interaction effects among inputs, we risk losing important functional relationships among ABM components and, consequently, we potentially reduce its explanatory power.

Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

2012-12-01

199

Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950.  

SciTech Connect

White, D.L. 2004. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950. Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 324 pp. Abstract: The history of land use for an area is the history of the way in which humans have manipulated or altered the environment. Most land use activities can be viewed as disturbance to ecosystems. Within a given climatic regime, the interaction of the disturbance regime with vegetation, soil, and landform factors largely determines the distribution and composition of plant and associated animal communities. For these reasons, a greater understanding of the ecological impacts of both human and non-human related disturbance is needed to improve our ability to make natural resource management decisions. This document outlines the land use history of the Savannah River Site and surrounding areas from about 1780 thru 1950, when the site was converted to a government facility for the purposes of national defense.

D.L. White

2004-01-01

200

Analysis of Orbit Prediction Sensitivity to Thermal Emissions Acceleration Modeling for High Area-to-mass Ratio Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High area-to-mass ratio (A\\/m) inactive resident space objects (RSOs) in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) regime pose a hazard to active GEO RSOs. The combination of solar radiation pressure (SRP) and solar and lunar gravitational perturbations causes perturbations in the orbits of these RSOs. The high A\\/m nature of these RSOs results in greater sensitivity to SRP forces resulting in the

Tom Kelecy; M. Jah

2009-01-01

201

USE OF ECOLOGICAL REGIONS IN AQUATIC ASSESSMENTS OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological regions are areas of similar climate, landform, soil, potential natural vegetation, hydrology, or other ecologically relevant variables. The makeup of aquatic biological assemblages (e.g., fish, macroinvertebrates, algae, riparian birds, etc.) varies dramatically over ...

202

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area A Appendix A to Part 404 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL...

2011-10-01

203

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area A Appendix A to Part 404 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL...

2013-10-01

204

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area A Appendix A to Part 404 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL...

2012-10-01

205

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preservation Areas, and Midway Atoll Special Management Area A Appendix A to Part 404 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS...ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL...

2010-10-01

206

Position sensitivity in the visual word form area Andreas M. Rauscheckera,b,1  

E-print Network

). It is widely asserted that VWFA responses, which are essential for skilled reading, do not depend on the visual field position of the writing (position invariant). Such position invariance supports the hypothesis) cortex, specifically the visual word form area (VWFA) (1), is an essential part of the neural circuitry

Wandell, Brian A.

207

Effects of Aging on Sensitivity of the Pharyngeal and Supraglottic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one ages, sensory discrimination in the oral cavity progressively diminishes, and dysphagia and aspiration are more likely to occur. Whether similar age-related laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory abnormalities exist and contribute to dysphagia and aspiration is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if sensory discrimination in the area of the laryngopharynx innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve diminishes

Jonathan E Aviv

1997-01-01

208

Administrative Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

209

[Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].  

PubMed

This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in offshore waters were higher than those of inshore waters, and were higher in the bay-mouth than in the bay-head. However, the distributions of potential ERIs showed reversed trend during dry season. The comprehensive assessment results showed that Hg was the primary heavy metal with a high ecological risk whereas the potential ERIs for the other six heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters in Daya Bay were relatively low. PMID:25158480

Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

2014-06-01

210

Sensitivity of radiative forcing and surface temperature to sulfate injection area in stratospheric geoengineering.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoengineering by injecting sulfur to the stratosphere has been shown to have a potential to counteract global warming. In the future, such a method may be considered as an option in slowing down global warming, if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast and effectively enough. In the stratosphere sulfate particles reflect solar radiation back to space and thus cool the climate. Cooling effect would last 1-2 years because of the stability of the stratosphere combined with lack of effective removal processes. Usually sulfur is assumed to be injected as SO2 which oxidizes and forms sulfate particles after injections. However, if the amount of injected sulfur is increased, its effect can be saturated and the increase in the stratospheric sulfate burden and global radiative forcing becomes smaller. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes, which have a shorter lifetime in the atmosphere and do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and where sulfur is spread more or less equally to both hemispheres. Because of this, sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection would be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. In this study we use global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA to investigate radiative forcing from the different injection areas and to study if a more effective injection strategy would be varying the injection area seasonally. The model describes aerosol size distribution by 10 size sections and calculates the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation, coagulation and hydration. Thus the formation from gaseous SO2 to sulfate particles, particle growth and also how sulfate is distributed in the atmosphere after different injection strategies are described in the model. We will also use coupled climate-ocean model MPI-ESM to study climate effects from these scenarios by using aerosol effective radius and aod fields from simulations by ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. We carried out simulations, where 5 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Preliminary results show that global radiative forcing is slightly larger if the injection area is changed depending on the season of the year compared to a case where sulfur is injected to the area between 10 N and 10 S. Oxidation time from SO2 to sulfate particles and the time that new particles needs to grow particles large enough has major role to how effective temporally depended injection scenarios are.

Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

2014-05-01

211

Human Ecology Human ecology Research  

E-print Network

Human Ecology Impact of Human ecology Research Bonus Issue FROM SCHOLARSHIP TO POLICY MAKING OF HUMAN ECOLOGY APRIL 2005/VOLUME 33, NUMBER 1 #12;Human Ecology Volume 33, Number 1 April 2005 The New York State College of Human Ecology at Cornell University Lisa Staiano-Coico, Ph.D. Rebecca Q

Wang, Z. Jane

212

Sensitivity of sunspot area to the tidal effect of planet Mercury during solar cycle 23  

E-print Network

We present evidence that the allowed periods of equatorially trapped Rossby wave modes on the Sun coincide closely with the 88 day period and 176 day sub harmonic period of Mercury and evidence of Rossby waves on the Sun at the same periods. To test the hypothesis that Rossby waves trigger the emergence of sunspots we use band pass filtering to obtain the 88 day period and 176 day period components of hemispherical sunspot area and compare the variations to the tidal height variation on the surface of the Sun due to Mercury. We find that the two components of hemispherical sunspot area occur in several episodes or activations of duration 2 to 6 years during each solar cycle. When the activations are discrete the variation of the 88 day and 176 day period components are phase coherent with the tidal height variation and a 180 degree phase change is evident between successive activations. We use this result to demonstrate that Rieger type quasi-periodicities in sunspot activity are, in most reported cases, peri...

Edmonds, Ian

2014-01-01

213

Large area hole transporter deposition in efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell mini-modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the viability of large area processing for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. We fabricate mini-modules comprising two photoactive regions connected in series, of 8 cm2 total active area, using the technique of doctor blade coating to deposit the hole-transporter material. For the optimized protocol we lose only 25% of the power conversion efficiency when compared to standard test devices which are only 0.12 cm2. We estimate pore-filling fractions using reflectance spectroscopy, showing that device performance is linked to changes in the volume of the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode infiltrated with hole-transporter as deposition temperature is varied.

Hey, Andrew S.; Snaith, Henry J.

2013-11-01

214

NOTE: Initial evaluation of acoustic reflectors for the preservation of sensitive abdominal skin areas during MRgFUS treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids using ExAblate2000 (InSightec, Haifa, Israel), individual tissue ablations are performed extracorporeally through the patient's abdomen using an annular array FUS transducer embedded within the MR table. Ultrasound intensities in the near field are below therapeutic levels and, under normal conditions, heating of the patient skin is minimal. However, increased absorption of ultrasound energy within sensitive skin areas or areas with differing acoustic properties, such as scars, may lead to skin burns and therefore these areas must be kept outside the near field of the FUS beam. Depending on their location and size the sensitive areas may either obstruct parts of the fibroid from being treated or prevent the entire MRgFUS treatment altogether. The purpose of this work is to evaluate acoustic reflector materials that can be applied to protect skin and the underlying sensitive areas. Reflection coefficients of cork (0.88) and foam (0.91) based materials were evaluated with a hydrophone. An ExAblate 2000 MRgFUS system was used to simulate clinical treatment with discs of reflector materials placed in a near field underneath a gel phantom. MR thermometry was used to monitor temperature elevations as well as the integrity of the focal spot. The phantom measurements showed acoustic shadow zones behind the reflectors with zone depths changing between 7 and 27 mm, for reflector disc diameters increasing from 10 to 30 mm (40 mm diameter discs completely blocked the FUS beam at the depth evaluated). The effects on thermal lesions due to the presence of the reflectors in the FUS beam were found to diminish with decreasing disc diameter and increasing sonication depth. For a 20 mm diameter disc and beyond 50 mm sonication depth, thermal lesions were minimally affected by the presence of the disc. No heating was observed on the skin side of the foam reflectors, as confirmed by measurements performed with adhesive temperature labels. We present these data and discuss possible applications to clinical MRgFUS treatments.

Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Chen, Shigao; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Hesley, Gina K.; Woodrum, David A.; Brown, Douglas L.; Felmlee, Joel P.

2009-04-01

215

[Clinical and hygienic substantiation of individual biocorrection for ecologically dependent conditions in the critical groups of the population of Ukrainian industrial areas].  

PubMed

In the article there is considered the problem of pollution of the environment and human body with heavy metals, the effectiveness of individual biocorrection in critical groups of the population--pregnant women and children residing in technologically contaminated areas. In spite of the correspondence of the content of abiotic heavy metals to their MACs in the environment, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the internal environment of the organism in 1,6-15,4 times was found to exceed physiological norms that accompanied by a significant deficiency of essential trace elements. Similar situation has been proved to lead to a reduction in mental health and ability to learn in children, as well as to the various complications in pregnancy. The obtained results served as the scientific substantiation of the feasibility of biocorrection of the trace element imbalance ecological dependent states in the population of the industrial region. The proved high clinical effectiveness of this hygienic biocorrection is a scientific justification for widespread introduction of pectin preparations for health promotion, prevention of ecologically dependent states and increasing the adaptive capacity of the organism. PMID:25051736

Beletskaya, E N; Onul, N M; Glavatskaya, V I; Antonova, E V; Golovkova, T A

2014-01-01

216

Ecology of streams draining forested and non-forested catchments in an area of central Scotland subject to acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 12 streams draining forested and non-forested catchments was made in an area of central Scotland where slow-weathering bedrock was predominantly quartzite, schists and slates. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carriere) was the most common tree species. Precipitation in the area had an annual mean pH in the range 4.34.5. Streams within the planted zone were always more acid

R. Harriman; B. R. S. Morrison

1982-01-01

217

Sensitivity of fever for diagnosis of clinical malaria in a Kenyan area of unstable, low malaria transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in highland areas of Kenya affects children and adults. Local clinicians include symptoms other than fever when screening for malaria because they believe that fever alone does not capture all cases of malaria. Methods Individuals who presented to dispensaries in a highland Kenya site of low, unstable malaria transmission from 20072011 with 1 or more of 11 symptoms were tested by microscopy for malaria. Clinical malaria was defined as asexual Plasmodium falciparum infection on peripheral blood smear in an individual with any screening symptom. Asymptomatic P. falciparum infection was assessed in a cohort at ten time points to determine the extent to which symptomatic episodes with parasitaemia might be attributable to baseline (asymptomatic) parasitaemia in the community. Results 3,420 individuals were screened for malaria, 634?sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and15.4% in children <5years, and 55.8% and 54.4% in children ?5years, respectively. Adding the symptom of headache increased sensitivity to 94. 4% in children <5years and 96.8% in individuals ?5years, but decreased specificity to 9.9% and 11.6%, respectively, and increased the number of individuals who would be tested by 6% and 92%, respectively. No combination of symptoms improved upon the presence fever or headache for detection of clinical malaria. In the cohort of asymptomatic individuals, P. falciparum parasitaemia was infrequent (0.1%). Conclusion In areas of low, unstable malaria transmission, fever is a sensitive indicator of clinical malaria in children <5years, but not in older children and adults. Adding headache to fever as screening symptom increases sensitivity of detection in individuals ?5years old at the cost of decreased specificity. Screening for symptoms in addition to fever may be required to accurately capture all cases of clinical malaria in individuals ?5years old in areas of low malaria transmission. PMID:24885660

2014-01-01

218

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

Dennis Hansen, David Anderson, Derek Hall, Paul Greger, W. Kent Ostler

2008-03-01

219

The ecology of primate retroviruses An assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Ta national park area, Cte d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Ta National Park area, Cte dIvoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virushost interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research. PMID:25010280

Gogarten, Jan F.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Kon, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

2014-01-01

220

Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

2011-01-01

221

Balancing the Need to Develop Coastal Areas with the Desire for an Ecologically Functioning Coastal Environment: Is Net Ecosystem Improvement Possible?  

SciTech Connect

The global human population is growing exponentially, a majority lives and works near the coast, and coastal commerce and development are critical to the economies of many nations. Hence, coastal areas will continue to be a major focus of development and economic activity. People want and need the economics provided by coastal development but they also want and need the fisheries and social commodities supported by estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Because of these facts, we view the challenge of balancing coastal development with enhancing nearshore marine and estuarine ecosystems (i.e., net ecosystem improvement) as the top priority for coastal researchers in this century. Our restoration research in Pacific Northwest estuaries and participation in the design and mitigation of nearshore structures has largely dealt with these competing goals. To this end, we have applied conceptual models, comprehensive assessment methods, and principles of restoration ecology, conservation biology and adaptive management to incorporate science into decisions about use of estuarine systems. Case studies of Bainbridge Island and the Columbia River demonstrate the use of objective, defensible methods to prioritize estuarine areas for preservation, conservation and restoration. Case studies of Clinton, WA and Port Townsend, WA demonstrate the incorporation of an ecological perspective and technological solutions into design projects that affect the nearshore. Adaptive management has allowed coastal development and restoration uncertainties to be better evaluated, with the information used to improve management decisions. Although unproven on a large scale, we think that these kinds of methods can contribute to the net improvement of already degraded ecosystems. The challenges include applied science to understand the issues, education, incentives, empirical data (not rehashing of reviews), cumulative impact analysis, and an effective adaptive management program. Because the option of net ecosystem improvement is often more costly than other alternatives, commitment by the local or regional community to this approach is essential.

Thom, Ronald M.; Williams, Greg D.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

2005-03-01

222

Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities and specific methods for seeding and planting at each area. evegetation work is scheduled to commence during the first quarter of FY 2011 to minimize the amount of time that sites are unvegetated and more susceptible to invasion by non-native weedy annual species.

Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

2011-01-01

223

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988-2003: a population-based ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 19882003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02). We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89). In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10). This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area. This observation warrants further research, for example in a study with focus on substances in urban ambient air pollution, as similar findings were observed in Greater Amsterdam. PMID:16332253

Visser, Otto; van Wijnen, Joop H; van Leeuwen, Flora E

2005-01-01

224

Ecology of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Pass Cavallo area of Matagorda Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

, Texas. Estimated dolphin density var1ed throughout the year with1n the 75 kmz study area, peaking at 1. 29 + D. 161 1~sic s k 1 Feb y 1919 6 de ti 1 g to 0. 396 0. 094 ~Tio / kmz during the following April (+ values equal l SD about the mean). Twenty..., Texas. Estimated dolphin density var1ed throughout the year with1n the 75 kmz study area, peaking at 1. 29 + D. 161 1~sic s k 1 Feb y 1919 6 de ti 1 g to 0. 396 0. 094 ~Tio / kmz during the following April (+ values equal l SD about the mean). Twenty...

Gruber, Jody Ann

2012-06-07

225

Ecological Study on Hospitalizations for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Diseases in the Industrial Area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France  

PubMed Central

The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 20042007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO2 exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4?:?83] and 54% [14?:?110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2?:?57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO2 levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area. PMID:23864868

Pascal, Laurence; Stempfelet, Morgane; Declercq, Christophe

2013-01-01

226

The role of a bio-ecological assessment system in writing a culturally sensitive report: The importance of assessing other intelligences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how the bio-ecological assessment system is applied in assessing a child's cognitive intelligence beyond\\u000a a psychometric intelligence test. The authors conceive of intellectual behavior as an inextricable bio-ecological phenomenon\\u000a and argue for an assessment system consistent with this conception. The recognition that there are many types of intelligences\\u000a (such as musical and bodily kinesthetic) is discussed. The

Sharon-ann Gopaul-McNicol; Eleanor Armour-Thomas

1997-01-01

227

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This K-12 education program gives students (especially in the Phoenix, AZ area) opportunities to take part in real scientific research led by Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) scientists. Using this site, students learn data collection techniques used by scientists, called protocols. They collect initial data, using the protocols they have learned, and apply it in looking for patterns at their own research site (schoolyard or backyard). Their data can also be shared with other researchers and school kids to see what patterns in nature exist across the Phoenix metropolitan area. Their own hypotheses and experiments will lead to a better understanding of why those patterns exist and will help them to understand what real scientists are doing in their laboratories. Topics covered include arthropods, beetles, seeds, birds and vegetation.

228

Ecological relationships of fauna and flora on a pre-law coal surface-mined area in Perry County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Pre-law coal surface-mined lands in Pyramid State Park, Perry County, Illinois, were examined 1976-1980 to determine changes in fauna and flora from that on the area in 1954-1960. Vegetative development on naturally revegetated spoils reflected diverse habitat conditions with interspersion of cover types; some of oldest spoils displayed inhibited succession while others exhibited early flood plain forest development. Ground and overstory species richness and overstory density increased since mid 1950's and ground cover domination by therophytes in 1954-1956 shifted to phanerophytes and hemicryptophytes in 1976-1978. Thirty vegetative compositional and structural parameters indicated that ground cover was limited by subcanopy rather than large scattered trees. Aquatic vegetation communities developed but hydrosphere was not well represented; emergent vegetation was limited by morphology of basins. Although isolated sites exhibited deleterious conditions, vegetation was not generally inhibited by physico-chemical factors. The 29 mammals reflected an increase in species richness. Abundance of early successional forms decreased while occupants of shrub/forest increased. Past habitat enhancement influenced wildlife distribution; and plantations attracted woodland fauna. Leveled spoil crests, valleys and clearings with fescue retarded succession and provided open areas and edges for others.

Smith, J.R.

1986-01-01

229

Strategies for navigating large areas: a GIS spatial ecology analysis of the bearded saki monkey, Chiropotes sagulatus, in Suriname.  

PubMed

Animals with long day paths and large home ranges expend a considerable amount of energy on travel. Studies have shown that in the interest of reducing energy expenditure, animals selectively navigate the landscape using a variety of strategies. However, these studies have generally focused on terrestrial animals. Here we present data on an exceedingly mobile arboreal animal, bearded saki monkeys, in a topographically variable landscape in Suriname. Using ArcMap and Google Earth, we explore two potential navigation strategies: the nonrandom use of travel areas and the use of ridges in slope navigation. Over a year of data collection, bearded sakis were found to use relatively long travel paths daily, use some areas more intensely than others for travel, and when travel paths were converted to strings of points, 40.3% and 63.9% of the points were located on (50?m from the main ridgeline) or near (100?m from the main ridgeline) ridge tops, respectively. Thus in a habitat of high relief we found support for intensive use of ridge tops or slopes close to ridge tops by bearded sakis. Selective habitat use may be related to surveying tree crowns for fruit by large, fast moving groups of bearded sakis or monitoring the presence of potential predators. PMID:24375420

Gregory, Tremaine; Mullett, Amanda; Norconk, Marilyn A

2014-06-01

230

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-09-01

231

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta  

PubMed Central

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-01-01

232

Improving ecological risk assessment in the Mediterranean area: selection of reference soils and evaluating the influence of soil properties on avoidance and reproduction of two oligochaete species.  

PubMed

A current challenge in soil ecotoxicology is the use of natural soils as test substrates to increase ecological relevance of data. Despite the existence of six natural reference soils (the Euro-soils), some parallel projects showed that these soils do not accurately represent the diversity of European soils. Particularly, Mediterranean soils are not properly represented. To fill this gap, 12 natural soils from the Mediterranean regions of Alentejo, Portugal; Catalua, Spain; and Liguria, Italy, were selected and used in reproduction and avoidance tests to evaluate the soil habitat function for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). Predictive models on the influence of soil properties on the responses of these organisms were developed using generalized linear models. Results indicate that the selected soils can impact reproduction and avoidance behavior of both Oligochaete species. Reproduction of enchytraeids was affected by different soil properties, but the test validity criteria were fulfilled. The avoidance response of enchytraeids was highly variable, but significant effects of texture and pH were found. Earthworms were more sensitive to soil properties. They did not reproduce successfully in three of the 10 soils, and a positive influence of moisture, fine sand, pH, and organic matter and a negative influence of clay were found. Moreover, they strongly avoided soils with extreme textures. Despite these limitations, most of the selected soils are suitable substrates for ecotoxicological evaluations. PMID:21305581

Chelinho, Snia; Domene, Xavier; Campana, Paolo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Scheffczyk, Adam; Rmbke, Jrg; Andrs, Pilar; Sousa, Jos Paulo

2011-05-01

233

Efficient High Surface Area Vertically Aligned Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) differ from conventional semiconductor devices in that they separate the function of light absorption from charge carrier transport. At the heart of a DSSC is a metal oxide nanoparticle film, which provides a large effective surface area for adsorption of light harvesting molecules. The films need to be thick enough to absorb a significant fraction of the incident light but increased thickness results in diminished efficiencies due to augmented recombination. Losses in efficiency are due to the slow trap-limited diffusion process responsible for electron transport. This process limits the effective electron diffusion length to about 10 ?m and results in an efficiency-limiting trade-off between light absorption and carrier extraction. Here we introduce a new structural motif for the photoanode in which the traditional random nanoparticle oxide network is replaced by vertically aligned bundles of oxide nanocrystals. This structure improves absorbed photon to current efficiencies (APCE) to values above 90% over most of the dye absorption range. The bundled anode is fabricated by a simple laser deposition process and features a surface area 2 times larger than that of traditional anodes. The direct pathways provided by the vertical structures also appear to provide for an enhanced collection efficiency for carriers generated throughout the device.

Lopez, Rene

2011-03-01

234

Ecological land classification: A survey approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape approach to ecological land mapping, as illustrated in this article, proceeds by pattern recognition based on ecological theory. The unit areas delineated are hypotheses that arise from a knowledge of what is ecologically important in the land. Units formed by the mapper are likely to be inefficient or irrelevant for ecological purposes unless he possesses a sound rationale

J. Stan Rowe; John W. Sheard

1981-01-01

235

Ecological Footprint  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore their own Ecological Footprint in the context of how many Earths it would take if everyone used the same amount of resources they did. They compare this to the Ecological Footprint of individuals in other parts of the world and to the Ecological footprint of a family member when they were the student's age.

2007-01-01

236

Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 - 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontarios reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Morans I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Morans I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census family had the highest S. Enteritidis infection rates. These areas should be targeted when designing disease control and prevention programs. Future studies are needed in areas with high S. Enteritidis infection rates to identify sources of environmental contamination of the local food supply, to assess food safety practices at local food markets, retail stores, and restaurants, and to identify novel individual-level risk factors. PMID:24237666

2013-01-01

237

Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this work has been advancing. In urban areas, however, the problems of land use intransigence, political

E. A. Cook

2000-01-01

238

An Ecological Risk Assessment of Irrigation in the Ord River Catchment, a Highly Disturbed and Poorly Understood Area in the Wet-Dry Tropics of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological risk assessment of the impact of irrigation on the ecological values of the Ord River was undertaken. The Ord River is located in the wet-dry tropics of Western Australia and has been highly disturbed by grazing and irrigation developments. The construction of two dams has changed the river from being seasonally dry to now having permanent flows downstream

Mark A. Lund

2005-01-01

239

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resources worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

240

The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.  

PubMed

Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid deposition is predominantly in dry or occult forms. PMID:23085669

Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

2012-11-15

241

The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area  

PubMed Central

The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes. Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April. Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites. PMID:5297630

Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

1966-01-01

242

(International meetings on ecology)  

SciTech Connect

the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

1990-09-25

243

Transfer and assembly of large area TiO2 nanotube arrays onto conductive glass for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly ordered titanium oxide nanotube arrays are synthesized by a two-step anodic oxidation of pure titanium foil at constant voltage. It is found that the length of nanotube arrays firstly increased rapidly with the anodization time, and then the growth rate gradually slowed down with further increasing the anodization time. The mechanism of anodization time-dependent tube length growth is discussed. Large area free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays are detached from the underlying Ti foil and transferred onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates to serve as the photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoelectric performance of the DSSCs assembled by TNT/FTO films is strongly related to the tube length of titania and the surface treatment. For the photoanodes without any surface modification, the highest overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) that can be achieved is 4.12% in the DSSC assembled with 33-?m-thick TNT arrays, while the overall PCE of DSSC based on the 33-?m-thick TNT arrays increases to 9.02% in response to the treatment with TiCl4.

Zhang, Jun; Li, Siqian; Ding, Hao; Li, Quantong; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

2014-02-01

244

New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector  

SciTech Connect

A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Angstroem laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, {sup 1}H{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, and {sup 11}B{sup +}. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallen, A. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, Integrated Circuits and Devices, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden); Astroem, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Department of Physics, Ion Physics, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2012-09-15

245

New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector.  

PubMed

A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the A?ngstro?m laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, (1)H(+), (4)He(+), and (11)B(+). Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted. PMID:23020419

Linnarsson, M K; Halln, A; strm, J; Primetzhofer, D; Legendre, S; Possnert, G

2012-09-01

246

Involvement of D1/D2 dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area in the development of sensitization to antinociceptive effect of morphine.  

PubMed

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are two major areas for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system which are strongly involved in the development of behavioral sensitization. In the present study, we investigated the role of D1/D2 dopaminergic receptors within the NAc or VTA in response to sensitization to morphine by the tail-flick test as a model of acute pain. Sensitization was induced by subcutaneous (SC) injection of morphine (5 mg/kg), once daily for three days followed by 5 days free of drug. After the sensitization period, antinociceptive responses induced by an ineffective dose of morphine (1 mg/kg; SC) were obtained by the tail-flick test, and represented as maximal possible effect (%MPE). In experimental groups, D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, SCH-23390 and sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4 ?g/rat), were separately microinjected into the NAc or VTA, 10 min before morphine administration during the sensitization period, respectively. Results showed that injection of morphine during the sensitization period (development of sensitization) increased %MPE of the ineffective dose of morphine from 2.431.4% in naive to 47.754.01% in sensitized animals (P<0.001). Unilateral microinjections of different doses of the D1/D2 receptor antagonists, SCH-23390 and sulpiride, into the NAc dose-dependently decreased %MPEs in morphine-sensitized animals. Nonetheless, %MPEs were only affected by intra-VTA administration of SCH-23390 in morphine-sensitized animals (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that both the D1/D2 dopamine receptors in the NAc and the D1 receptors in the VTA may be of more important in the development of sensitization to morphine in rats. PMID:24418216

Reisi, Zahra; Bani-Ardalan, Mahtash; Zarepour, Leila; Haghparast, Abbas

2014-03-01

247

Observed and simulated sensitivities of summertime urban surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat in downtown areas of two Japanese Major Cities, Tokyo and Osaka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the sensitivities of surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat (AH) were investigated in downtowns of the two Japanese major cities, Tokyo and Osaka. First, meteorological measurements were made with the simultaneous monitoring of electricity demand in a contrastive couple of a downtown commercial area (C-area) and a residential area (R-area) within each city in summer 2007. From the measurements, the areal-mean surface air temperatures were obtained as and for each of the C-area and R-area, respectively. Using the actual electricity demand and the estimated motor fuels consumption, their areal total was evaluated as the energy-consumption-basis AH. The estimated C-areas' AH indicated greater values up to 220 W/m2 on weekdays and remarkable decrease about by half on weekends, whereas that in the R-areas showed less values of 10-20 W/m2 stably. Then, on calm and fine days were found to be systematically decreased from weekdays to weekends in both cities roughly indicating a proportional relationship with the reductions in the C-areas' AH on weekends. The result suggested a common afternoon sensitivity for both C-areas of around 1.0C/100 W/m2, which indicated an intensity of the AH impact on surface air temperature there. Next, to simulate the observed AH impact, the authors' CM-BEM (a multilayer urban canopy model coupled with a building energy model) was newly implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WMF) model. This new system, WRF-CM-BEM, was applied to Tokyo and almost reasonably validated from the aspects of the reproducibility of urban surface air temperature and electricity demand in the observation areas. The simulations also suggested that WRF-CM-BEM underestimated the observed air temperature sensitivity to AH in the Tokyo C-area roughly by half but still in the same order of magnitude.

Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Ai; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Ihara, Tomohiko; Shigeta, Yoshinori

2014-07-01

248

Ecology in Times of Scarcity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an energy-scarce future, ecosystem services will become more important in supporting the human economy. The primary role of ecology will be the sustainable management of ecosystems. Energy scarcity will affect ecology in a number of ways. Ecology will become more expensive, which will be justified by its help in solving societal problems, especially in maintaining ecosystem services. Applied research on highly productive ecosystems, including agroecosystems, will dominate ecology. Ecology may become less collegial and more competitive. Biodiversity preservation will be closely tied to preservation of productive ecosystems and provision of high ecosystem services. Restoration and management of rich natural ecosystems will be as important as protection of existing wild areas. Energy-intensive micromanagement of ecosystems will become less feasible. Ecotechnology and, more specifically, ecological engineering and self-design are appropriate bases for sustainable ecosystem management. We use the Mississippi River basin as a case study for ecology in times of scarcity.

John Day (Louisiana State University;Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences)

2009-04-01

249

Probing the molecular-level control of aluminosilicate dissolution: A sensitive solid-state NMR proxy for reactive surface area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two suites of volcanic aluminosilicate glasses, the accessible and reactive sites for covalent attachment of the fluorine-containing (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)dimethylchlorosilane (TFS) probe molecule were measured by quantitative 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The first set of samples consists of six rhyolitic and dacitic glasses originating from volcanic activity in Iceland and one rhyolitic glass from the Bishop Tuff, CA. Due to differences in the reactive species present on the surfaces of these glasses, variations in the rate of acid-mediated dissolution (pH 4) for samples in this suite cannot be explained by variations in geometric or BET-measured surface area. In contrast, the rates scale directly with the surface density of TFS-reactive sites as measured by solid-state NMR. These data are consistent with the inference that the TFS-reactive M-OH species on the glass surface, which are known to be non-hydrogen-bonded Q 3 groups, represent loci accessible to and affected by proton-mediated dissolution. The second suite of samples, originating from a chronosequence in Kozushima, Japan, is comprised of four rhyolites that have been weathered for 1.1, 1.8, 26, and 52 ka. The number of TFS-reactive sites per gram increases with duration of weathering in the laboratory for the "Icelandic" samples and with duration of field weathering for both "Icelandic" and Japanese samples. One hypothesis is consistent with these and published modeling, laboratory, and field observations: over short timescales, dissolution is controlled by fast-dissolving sites, but over long timescales, dissolution is controlled by slower-dissolving sites, the surface density of which is proportional to the number of TFS-reactive Q 3 sites. These latter sites are not part of a hydrogen-bonded network on the surface of the glasses, and measurement of their surface site density allows predictions of trends in reactive surface area. The TFS treatment method, which is easily monitored by quantitative 19F solid-state NMR, therefore provides a chemically specific and quantifiable proxy to understand the nature of how sites on dissolving silicates control dissolution. Furthermore, 27Al NMR techniques are shown here to be useful in identifying clays on the glass surfaces, and these methods are therefore effective for quantifying concentrations of weathering impurities. Our interpretations offer a testable hypothesis for the mechanism of proton-promoted dissolution for low-iron aluminosilicate minerals and glasses and suggest that future investigations of reactive surfaces with high-sensitivity NMR techniques are warranted.

Washton, Nancy M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Mueller, Karl T.

2008-12-01

250

Sensitive Species of Snakes, Frogs, and Salamanders in Southern California Conifer Forest Areas: Status and Management 1  

E-print Network

At least 35 species of amphibians and reptiles occur regularly in the conifer forest areas of southern California. Twelve of them have some or all of their populations identified as experiencing some degree of threat. Among the snakes, frogs, and salamanders that we believe need particular attention are the southern rubber boa (Charina bottae umbratica), San Bernardino mountain kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra), San Diego mountain kingsnake (L.z. pulchra), California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), mountain yellow-legged frog (R. muscosa), San Gabriel Mountain slender salamander (Batrachoseps gabrieli), yellow-blotched salamander (Ensatina eschscholtzii croceater), and large-blotched salamander (E.e. klauberi). To varying degrees, these taxa face threats of habitat degradation and fragmentation, as well as a multitude of other impacts ranging from predation by alien species and human collectors to reduced genetic diversity and chance environmental catastrophes. Except for the recently described San Gabriel Mountain slender salamander, all of these focus taxa are included on Federal and/or State lists of endangered, threatened, or special concern species. Those not federally listed as Endangered or Threatened are listed as Forest Service Region 5 Sensitive Species. All of these taxa also are the subjects of recent and ongoing phylogeographic studies, and they are of continuing interest to biologists studying the evolutionary processes that shape modern species of terrestrial vertebrates. Current information on their taxonomy, distribution, habits and problems is briefly reviewed and management recommendations are made. Further research is needed to elucidate their biological status and needs and to provide the basis for appropriate management programs. Programs must be monitored to ensure that desired objectives are achieved.

Glenn R. Stewart; Mark R. Jennings; Robert H. Goodman

251

Evaluating social and ecological vulnerability of coral reef fisheries to climate change.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need to evaluate the links between the social and ecological dimensions of human vulnerability to climate change. We use an empirical case study of 12 coastal communities and associated coral reefs in Kenya to assess and compare five key ecological and social components of the vulnerability of coastal social-ecological systems to temperature induced coral mortality [specifically: 1) environmental exposure; 2) ecological sensitivity; 3) ecological recovery potential; 4) social sensitivity; and 5) social adaptive capacity]. We examined whether ecological components of vulnerability varied between government operated no-take marine reserves, community-based reserves, and openly fished areas. Overall, fished sites were marginally more vulnerable than community-based and government marine reserves. Social sensitivity was indicated by the occupational composition of each community, including the importance of fishing relative to other occupations, as well as the susceptibility of different fishing gears to the effects of coral bleaching on target fish species. Key components of social adaptive capacity varied considerably between the communities. Together, these results show that different communities have relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of social-ecological vulnerability to climate change. PMID:24040228

Cinner, Joshua E; Huchery, Cindy; Darling, Emily S; Humphries, Austin T; Graham, Nicholas A J; Hicks, Christina C; Marshall, Nadine; McClanahan, Tim R

2013-01-01

252

Retama species growing in different ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria have a narrow range of rhizobia that form a novel phylogenetic clade within the Bradyrhizobium genus.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven isolates were isolated from nodules collected on roots of Mediterranean shrubby legumes Retama raetam and Retama sphaerocarpa growing in seven ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria. Genetic diversity of the Retama isolates was analyzed based on genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified fragments of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer (IGS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (IGS), and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. Eleven haplotypes assigned to the Bradyrhizobium genus were identified. Significant biogeographical differentiation of the rhizobial populations was found, but one haplotype was predominant and conserved across the sites. All isolates were able to cross-nodulate the two Retama species. Accordingly, no significant genetic differentiation of the rhizobial populations was found in relation to the host species of origin. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene grouped the isolates with Bradyrhizobium elkanii, but sequence analyses of IGS, the housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, recA), nifH, and nodC yielded convergent results showing that the Retama nodule isolates from the northeast of Algeria formed a single evolutionary lineage, which was well differentiated from the currently named species or well-delineated unnamed genospecies of bradyrhizobia. Therefore, this study showed that the Retama species native to northeastern Algeria were associated with a specific clade of bradyrhizobia. The Retama isolates formed three sub-groups based on IGS and housekeeping gene phylogenies, which might form three sister species within a novel bradyrhizobial clade. PMID:19231126

Boulila, Farida; Farida, Boulila; Depret, Graldine; Graldine, Depret; Boulila, Abdelghani; Abdelghani, Boulila; Belhadi, Djellali; Djellali, Belhadi; Benallaoua, Said; Said, Benallaoua; Laguerre, Gisle; Gisle, Laguerre

2009-07-01

253

General Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

254

Fabrication of nanoporous Au films with ultra-high surface area for sensitive electrochemical detection of glucose in the presence of Cl-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous Au films with ultra-high surface area (roughness factor greater than 1000) were prepared via one-step anodization of Au in citric acid solution. The as-prepared surface of nanoporous Au films was covered with carbonaceous materials, which could be removed by electrochemical methods to produce electrochemically active surfaces. The cleaned nanoporous Au films exhibited high electrochemical activities for glucose oxidation; however, the expansion of the surface area did not necessarily contribute to the sensitivity enhancement in the absence of Cl-. The ultra-high surface area of the nanoporous Au significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the electrochemical detection of glucose in the presence of 100 mM of Cl-, enabling sensitivity as high as 120 ?A mM-1 cm-2. Nafion-coated nanoporous Au exhibited a linear amperometric response to glucose with high sensitivity without interference from ascorbic acid. The preparation of nanoporous Au with ultra-high surface area will offer new opportunity for electroanalytical applications based on nanoporous Au structures.

Jeong, Hwakyeung; Kim, Jongwon

2014-04-01

255

Soil Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

Killham, Ken

1994-04-01

256

Spatial uncertainty and ecological models  

SciTech Connect

Applied ecological models that are used to understand and manage natural systems often rely on spatial data as input. Spatial uncertainty in these data can propagate into model predictions. Uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, error analysis, error budget analysis, spatial decision analysis, and hypothesis testing using neutral models are all techniques designed to explore the relationship between variation in model inputs and variation in model predictions. Although similar methods can be used to answer them, these approaches address different questions. These approaches differ in (a) whether the focus is forward or backward (forward to evaluate the magnitude of variation in model predictions propagated or backward to rank input parameters by their influence); (b) whether the question involves model robustness to large variations in spatial pattern or to small deviations from a reference map; and (c) whether processes that generate input uncertainty (for example, cartographic error) are of interest. In this commentary, we propose a taxonomy of approaches, all of which clarify the relationship between spatial uncertainty and the predictions of ecological models. We describe existing techniques and indicate a few areas where research is needed.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL

2004-07-01

257

HIV/AIDS and Tourism in the Caribbean: An Ecological Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research. PMID:19910343

Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

2010-01-01

258

Sensitivity to stress of the estuarine bivalve Macoma balthica from areas between the Netherlands and its southern limits (Gironde)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation in the sensitivity to stress of Macoma balthica was measured in several French and Dutch estuaries. For adult and juvenile Macoma balthica exposed to copper under conditions of starvation, differences in mortality rate, condition, glycogen, burrowing rate and copper content were assessed. No significant differences were observed between adults and juveniles; the influence of treatment and origin was always evident. Animals from the most southern estuaries, Loire and Gironde, near to the species's southern limit of distribution, showed, in the field, the strongest deviations for the ecophysiological traits measured, and were in the experiments the most sensitive to stress.

Hummel, H.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Bachelet, G.; Desprez, M.; Marchand, J.; Sylvand, B.; Amiard, J. C.; Rybarczyk, H.; Bogaards, R. H.; Sinke, J.; De Wit, Y.; De Wolf, L.

1996-06-01

259

Teaching Ecology in Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

260

Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G disposal facility is used for the disposal of radioactive waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. In compliance with that requirement, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for facilities that receive waste after September 26, 1988. Sites are also required to conduct composite analyses for facilities that receive waste after this date; these analyses account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (and will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with these facilities. LANL issued Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis in 2008. In support of those analyses, vertical and horizontal sediment flux data were collected at two analog sites, each with different dominant vegetation characteristics, and used to estimate rates of vertical resuspension and wind erosion for Area G. The results of that investigation indicated that there was no net loss of soil at the disposal site due to wind erosion, and suggested minimal impacts of wind on the long-term performance of the facility. However, that study did not evaluate the potential for contaminant transport caused by the horizontal movement of soil particles over long time frames. Since that time, additional field data have been collected to estimate wind threshold velocities for initiating sediment transport due to saltation and rates of sediment transport once those thresholds are reached. Data such as these have been used in the development of the Vegetation Modified Transport (VMTran) model. This model is designed to estimate patterns and long-term rates of contaminant redistribution caused by winds at the site, taking into account the impacts of plant succession and environmental disturbance. Aeolian, or wind-driven, sediment transport drives soil erosion, affects biogeochemical cycles, and can lead to the transport of contaminants. Rates of aeolian sediment transport depend in large part on the type, amount, and spatial pattern of vegetation. In particular, the amount of cover from trees and shrubs, which act as roughness elements, alters rates of aeolian sediment transport. The degree to which the understory is disturbed and the associated spacing of bare soil gaps further influence sediment transport rates. Changes in vegetation structure and patterns over periods of years to centuries may have profound impacts on rates of wind-driven transport. For recently disturbed areas, succession is likely to occur through a series of vegetation communities. Area G currently exhibits a mosaic of vegetation cover, with patches of grass and forbs over closed disposal units, and bare ground in heavily used portions of the site. These areas are surrounded by less disturbed regions of shrubland and pinon-juniper woodland; some ponderosa pine forest is also visible in the canyon along the road. The successional trajectory for the disturbed portions of Area G is expected to proceed from grasses and forbs (which would be established during site closure), to shrubs such as chamisa, to a climax community of pinon-juniper woodland. Although unlikely under current conditions, a ponderosa pine forest could develop over the site if the future climate is wetter. In many ecosystems, substantial and often periodic disturbances such as fire or severe drought can rapidly alter vegetation patterns. Such disturbances are likely to increase in the southwestern US where projections call for a warmer and drier climate. With respect to Area G, the 3 most likely disturbance types are surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced tree mortality. Each type of disturbance has a different frequency or likelihood of occurrence, but all 3 tend to reset the vegetation succession cycle to earlier stages. The Area G performance assessment and composite an

Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirchner, Thomas B. [New Mexico State University; Breshears, David D. [University of Arizona; Field, Jason P. [University of Arizona

2012-03-27

261

Coastal environmental sensitivity mapping for oil spills in the United Arab Emirates using remote sensing and GIS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental or intentional oil spills may impact ecologically sensitive areas such as the shoreline of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The environmental consequences can be compounded if there are no effective clean?up plans. An environmental sensitivity index (ESI) database developed with the aid of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) is an effective tool in clean?up operations. Three Landsat

John R. Jensen; Sunil Narumalani; Oliver Weatherbee; Maylo Murday; Walter J. Sexton; Colin J. Green

1993-01-01

262

A methodological approach to assess sensitivity to desertification in two sub-Saharan urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines desertification as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century and the African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land. In this geographic area, desertification processes are usually generated by soil erosion due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Preventing desertification requires an improved understanding of its causes, impact, degree and association with climate, soil, water, land cover, socio-economic factors and their combined effects. The development of methodologies capable of managing large amounts of data in an integrated approach is needed because of the complexity and variety of forms of desertification processes. The study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to estimate the sensitivity to land degradation in the urban and peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (MEditerranean Desertification and Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (climate, soil, vegetation) and anthropogenic factors (land management). The methodology is adaptable to the local conditions, considering that some key indicators can be operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters and the scores assigned in order to match the specific relevance of the factors. All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Indices of Environmental Sensitivity (ESAI). As expected, the results highlighted an overall high sensitivity to desertification. In Ouagadougou, the poorly vegetated peri-urban zone, affected by an increasing demographic pressure as the result of immigration from surrounding rural areas, was found as the most vulnerable area; in Saint Louis, the critical zones were located mostly in the northern part of the study area, where both low quality of soil and overexploitation of vegetation, due to grazing and domestic use, increase the sensitivity to desertification. The described methodological approach has a potential to represent a valuable tool to orientate effective policies preventing and mitigating land degradation processes. Model validation and comparison with other widely applied methods to assess desertification are in progress.

Iavazzo, P.; Terracciano, S.; Topa, M. E.; Adamo, P.; Coly, A.; De Paola, F.; Giordano, S.; Giugni, M.; Tour, H.

2012-04-01

263

Stream water quality in acid sensitive UK upland areas; an example of potential water quality remediation based on groundwater manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of variation in water quality for an acidic stream draining plantation forest overlying acidic and acid sensitive gley soils with shale and slate bedrock changed following the introduction of a 45 m deep borchole near to the stream. During drilling, air flushing of debris from the borehole cleared fracture routes for groundwater penetration to the stream via the

C. Neal; T. Hill; S. Alexander; B. Reynolds; S. Hill; A. J. Dixon; M. Harrow; M. Neal; C. J. Smith

1997-01-01

264

[Uncertainty analysis of ecological risk assessment caused by heavy-metals deposition from MSWI emission].  

PubMed

The CALPUFF model was applied to simulate the ground-level atmospheric concentrations of Pb and Cd from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, and the soil concentration model was used to estimate soil concentration increments after atmospheric deposition based on Monte Carlo simulation, then ecological risk assessment was conducted by the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the largest atmospheric concentrations of Pb and Cd were 5.59 x 109-3) microg x m(-3) and 5.57 x 10(-4) microg x m(-3), respectively, while the maxima of soil concentration incremental medium of Pb and Cd were 2.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively; High risk areas were located next to the incinerators, Cd contributed the most to the ecological risk, and Pb was basically free of pollution risk; Higher ecological hazard level was predicted at the most polluted point in urban areas with a 55.30% probability, while in rural areas, the most polluted point was assessed to moderate ecological hazard level with a 72.92% probability. In addition, sensitivity analysis of calculation parameters in the soil concentration model was conducted, which showed the simulated results of urban and rural area were most sensitive to soil mix depth and dry deposition rate, respectively. PMID:25158505

Liao, Zhi-Heng; Sun, Jia-Ren; Wu, Dui; Fan, Shao-Jia; Ren, Ming-Zhong; L, Jia-Yang

2014-06-01

265

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

266

Conservation Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conservation Ecology is a new, exclusively electronic, peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Resilience Alliance, with content ranging from the applied to the theoretical. Topics covered by the journal include: "the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations, and genetic diversity; the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and the management of resources." This site includes the full text version of the articles (including past issues), as well as instructions on how to submit papers and how to subscribe. Subscriptions to Conservation Ecology are free of charge and all materials are available for browsing without cost. Edited by ecosystem ecology expert, Dr. C. S. Holling, Conservation Ecology breaks new ground in an important, emerging science.

1997-01-01

267

Global ecology  

SciTech Connect

A general description of the earth as a biosphere is presented. Divergent views of near-future world scenarios are presented; the Global 2000 report, and the analysis of Simon and Kahn. The basic principles and trends in global ecology are outlined, and the basic pollution and environmental degradation problems are discussed. Humanistic considerations which affect global ecology (population control, the effects of largescale nuclear war, and third-world socio-economics) are discussed.

Southwick, C.H. (ed.)

1985-01-01

268

Aquatic Ecology Aquatic ecology group studies ecological interactions  

E-print Network

Aquatic Ecology Aquatic ecology group studies ecological interactions between biota and their environment in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The group focuses particularly on the ecological interactions and their underlying ecological processes necessary to sustain ecosystem structure and function in their natural state

269

Large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers for pH measurement at the Nernstian limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated and characterized large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers and demonstrated pH sensitivities approaching the Nernstian limit. Low temperature atomic layer deposition was used to deposit tantalum pentoxide atop large area graphene ISFETs. The charge neutrality point of graphene, inferred from quantum capacitance or channel conductance, was used to monitor surface potential in the presence of an electrolyte with varying pH. Bare graphene ISFETs exhibit negligible response, while graphene ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers show increased sensitivity reaching up to 55 mV/pH over pH 3 through pH 8. Applying the Bergveld model, which accounts for site binding and a Guoy-Chapman-Stern picture of the surface-electrolyte interface, the increased pH sensitivity can be attributed to an increased buffer capacity reaching up to 1014 sites/cm2. ISFET response was found to be stable to better than 0.05 pH units over the course of two weeks.

Fakih, Ibrahim; Sabri, Shadi; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Nannini, Matthieu; Siaj, Mohamed; Szkopek, Thomas

2014-08-01

270

Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of this tool also in other peri-urban areas of this region. As expected, both study areas were critically sensitive to desertification. In Ouagadougou peri-urban area, the zones poorly vegetated and overexploited as a result of heavy demographic pressure were found as the most sensitive to desertification. The northern part of Saint Louis area was critically sensitive to desertification mainly due to the overexploitation of natural resources by grazing and domestic use. Compared to Ouagadougou, worst climate features, due to lower Aridity Index and mean annual rainfall, have a major impact on the sensitivity to desertification in Saint Louis. Finally the developed desertification maps can represent a valuable tool to promote a more efficient management of the affected areas and to orientate effective policies of desertification prevention, mitigation and adaptation. At the same time, this approach provides the basis for future studies, considering the dynamic character of at least some of the considered environmental factors (e.g., vegetation cover).

Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traor, Seydou Eric

2013-04-01

271

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

272

Extreme precipitation during 1921 in the area of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research site, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusually high amount of precipitation, including a world record 24-h snowfall, was recorded in 1921 at Silver Lake, Colorado, near the Niwot Ridge alpine tundra Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. There was 68.3 in. (1735 mm) total annual precipitation which was over five standard deviations above the 1914-1992 mean and the April snowfall produced 76 inches (1.93 m) of

Greenland

1995-01-01

273

Evaluating Functionality and Sustainability of River widenings at the Kamp River\\/Austria concerning to flood protection and aquatic ecology including a numerical sensitivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catastrophic flood events of the years 2002 and 2005 in Central Europe showed clearly the necessity to act in terms of flood protection. The meaning of floodplain areas and the errors in land use management of the past became obvious by the occurred extraordinary discharges. Unfortunately a high use pressure exists in the surrounding of rivers and the important

Hauer Christoph; Schober Bernhard; Habersack Helmut

274

Sensitive Species of Snakes, Frogs, and Salamanders in Southern California Conifer Forest Areas: Status and Management1  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 35 species of amphibians and reptiles occur regularly in the conifer forest areas of southern California. Twelve of them have some or all of their populations identified as experiencing some degree of threat. Among the snakes, frogs, and salamanders that we believe need particular attention are the southern rubber boa (Charina bottae umbratica), San Bernardino mountain kingsnake (Lampropeltis

Glenn R. Stewart; Mark R. Jennings; Robert H. Goodman

275

Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine transmission dramatically increases sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in the ventral tegmental area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine produces rewarding and aversive motivational effects in humans and other animal species. Here, we report that the mammalian ventral tegmental area (VTA) represents a critical neural substrate for the mediation of both the rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine. We demonstrate that direct infusions of nicotine into the VTA can produce both rewarding and aversive motivational effects. While the

S R Laviolette; D van der Kooy

2003-01-01

276

Green material: ecological importance of imperative and sensitive chemi-sensor based on Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we illustrate a simple, easy, and low-temperature growth of Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods with high purity and crystallinity. The composite nanorods were structurally characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which confirmed that synthesized product have rod-like morphology having an average cross section of approximately 300 nm. Nanorods are made of silver, silver oxide, and zinc oxide and are optically active having absorption band at 375 nm. The composite nanorods exhibited high sensitivity (1.5823 ?A.cm-2.mM-1) and lower limit of detection (0.5 ?M) when applied for the recognition of phenyl hydrazine utilizing I-V technique. Thus, Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods can be utilized as a redox mediator for the development of highly proficient phenyl hydrazine sensor.

Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Sayari, Saleh A.; Al-Assiri, Mohammad Sultan

2013-09-01

277

Handy Compton camera using 3D position-sensitive scintillators coupled with large-area monolithic MPPC arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of radioactive isotopes (mainly 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I) from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant remains a serious problem in Japan. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we are developing a novel Compton camera weighting only 1 kg and measuring just ?10 cm2 in size. Despite its compactness, the camera realizes a wide 180 field of vision with a sensitivity about 50 times superior to other cameras being tested in Fukushima. We expect that a hotspot producing a 5 ?Sv/h dose at a distance of 3 m can be imaged every 10 s, with angular resolution better than 10 (FWHM). The 3D position-sensitive scintillators and thin monolithic MPPC arrays are the key technologies developed here. By measuring the pulse-height ratio of MPPC-arrays coupled at both ends of a Ce:GAGG scintillator block, the depth of interaction (DOI) is obtained for incident gamma rays as well as the usual 2D positions, with accuracy better than 2 mm. By using two identical 10 mm cubic Ce:GAGG scintillators as a scatterer and an absorber, we confirmed that the 3D configuration works well as a high-resolution gamma camera, and also works as spectrometer achieving typical energy resolution of 9.8% (FWHM) for 662 keV gamma rays. We present the current status of the prototype camera (weighting 1.5 kg and measuring 8.51416 cm3 in size) being fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Although the camera still operates in non-DOI mode, angular resolution as high as 14 (FWHM) was achieved with an integration time of 30 s for the assumed hotspot described above.

Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Nakamori, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.

2013-12-01

278

Highly sensitive visible-blind extreme ultraviolet Ni\\/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes with large detection area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni\\/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes of 5 mm5 mm area have been fabricated and characterized. The photodiodes show less than 0.1 pA dark current at -4 V and an ideality factor of 1.06. A quantum efficiency (QE) between 3 and 400 nm has been calibrated and compared with Si photodiodes optimized for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. In the EUV region, the QE

Jun Hu; Xiaobin Xin; Jian H. Zhao; Feng Yan; Bing Guan; John Seely; Benjawan Kjornrattanawanich

2006-01-01

279

Area under pH 4: a more sensitive parameter for the quantitative analysis of esophageal acid exposure in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Traditional quantitative analysis of 24-h esophageal pH monitoring data does not include the pH of reflux episodes. Area under pH 4 (AU4) is a recently introduced parameter that describes the acid exposure rate through both duration and depth of pH falls.Methods:In Study A, we enrolled 20 healthy controls and 42 patients (18 without esophagitis, 24 with Savary IIII esophagitis) in

Marco Dinelli; Sandro Passaretti; Italo Di Francia; Daniela Fossati; Alberto Tittobello

1999-01-01

280

SpecialFeature Ecology, 84(3), 2003, pp. 574577  

E-print Network

574 SpecialFeature Ecology, 84(3), 2003, pp. 574­577 2003 by the Ecological Society of America WHAT that genetics should be incorporated into ecological explanations (Collins 1986). C. C. Adams (1915) sug- gested. Evolutionary ecology emerged in the 1960s, driven by empirical results in three areas (Collins 1986

Antonovics, Janis

281

Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities  

SciTech Connect

Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01

282

Designing for ecology : the ecological park  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to define a) what an ecological park is, and b) whether it is a new model in park design. Reference to the literature on landscape ecology is used to analyze the natural ecological merit of these parks, ...

Power, Andres M

2006-01-01

283

Green material: ecological importance of imperative and sensitive chemi-sensor based on Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods  

PubMed Central

In this report, we illustrate a simple, easy, and low-temperature growth of Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods with high purity and crystallinity. The composite nanorods were structurally characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which confirmed that synthesized product have rod-like morphology having an average cross section of approximately 300 nm. Nanorods are made of silver, silver oxide, and zinc oxide and are optically active having absorption band at 375 nm. The composite nanorods exhibited high sensitivity (1.5823 ?A.cm?2.mM?1) and lower limit of detection (0.5 ?M) when applied for the recognition of phenyl hydrazine utilizing I-V technique. Thus, Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods can be utilized as a redox mediator for the development of highly proficient phenyl hydrazine sensor. PMID:24011288

2013-01-01

284

Geochemically induced shifts in catabolic energy yields explain past ecological changes of diffuse vents in the East Pacific Rise 9?50'N area  

PubMed Central

The East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 950'N hosts a hydrothermal vent field (Bio9) where the change in fluid chemistry is believed to have caused the demise of a tubeworm colony. We test this hypothesis and expand on it by providing a thermodynamic perspective in calculating free energies for a range of catabolic reactions from published compositional data. The energy calculations show that there was excess H2S in the fluids and that oxygen was the limiting reactant from 1991 to 1997. Energy levels are generally high, although they declined in that time span. In 1997, sulfide availability decreased substantially and H2S was the limiting reactant. Energy availability dropped by a factor of 10 to 20 from what it had been between 1991 and 1995. The perishing of the tubeworm colonies began in 1995 and coincided with the timing of energy decrease for sulfide oxidizers. In the same time interval, energy availability for iron oxidizers increased by a factor of 6 to 8, and, in 1997, there was 25 times more energy per transferred electron in iron oxidation than in sulfide oxidation. This change coincides with a massive spread of red staining (putative colonization by Fe-oxidizing bacteria) between 1995 and 1997. For a different cluster of vents from the EPR 950'N area (Tube Worm Pillar), thermodynamic modeling is used to examine changes in subseafloor catabolic metabolism between 1992 and 2000. These reactions are deduced from deviations in diffuse fluid compositions from conservative behavior of redox-sensitive species. We show that hydrogen is significantly reduced relative to values expected from conservative mixing. While H2 concentrations of the hydrothermal endmember fluids were constant between 1992 and 1995, the affinities for hydrogenotrophic reactions in the diffuse fluids decreased by a factor of 15 and then remained constant between 1995 and 2000. Previously, these fluids have been shown to support subseafloor methanogenesis. Our calculation results corroborate these findings and indicate that the 1992-1995 period was one of active growth of hydrogenotrophic communities, while the system was more or less at steady state between 1995 and 2000. PMID:22283983

2012-01-01

285

Sensitivity of human visual cortical area V6 to stereoscopic depth gradients associated with self-motion.  

PubMed

The principal visual cue to self-motion (egomotion) is optic flow, which is specified in terms of local 2D velocities in the retinal image without reference to depth cues. However, in general, points near the center of expansion of natural flow fields are distant, whereas those in the periphery are closer, creating gradients of horizontal binocular disparity. To assess whether the brain combines disparity gradients with optic flow when encoding egomotion, stereoscopic gradients were applied to expanding dot patterns presented to observers during functional MRI scanning. The gradients were radially symmetrical, disparity changing as a function of eccentricity. The depth cues were either consistent with egomotion (peripheral dots perceived as near and central dots perceived as far) or inconsistent (the reverse gradient, central dots near, peripheral dots far). The BOLD activity generated by these stimuli was compared in a range of predefined visual regions in 13 participants with good stereoacuity. Visual area V6, in the parieto-occipital sulcus, showed a unique pattern of results, responding well to all optic flow patterns but much more strongly when they were paired with consistent rather than inconsistent or zero-disparity gradients. Of the other areas examined, a region of the precuneus and parietoinsular vestibular cortex also differentiate between consistent and inconsistent gradients, but with weak or suppressive responses. V3A, V7, MT, and ventral intraparietal area responded more strongly in the presence of a depth gradient but were indifferent to its depth-flow congruence. The results suggest that depth and flow cues are integrated in V6 to improve estimation of egomotion. PMID:21653717

Cardin, Velia; Smith, Andrew T

2011-09-01

286

THE ECOLOGY OF ANTIOXIDANTS & OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ANIMALS Ecological, biomedical and epidemiological approaches  

E-print Network

THE ECOLOGY OF ANTIOXIDANTS & OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ANIMALS Ecological, biomedical Summary 1. Oxidative stress and antioxidants have been studied in a number of disciplines, but these disci and weaknesses of oxidative stress and antioxidant research in the areas of (i) ecology, (ii) ageing research

de Magalhães, João Pedro

287

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

288

Landscape ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors outline an approach to landscape study that employs a hierarchical paradigm of pattern and behavior. Although emphasis is on forested landscapes, we can generalize a theory of landscape ecology. Attention is focused on the wide range of phenomena in a natural terrestrial landscape by considering the apparent complexity of landscape dynamics and illustrating how a

Dean L. Urban; R. V. ONeill; Herman H. Shugart

1987-01-01

289

Trash Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who

Lind, Georgia J.

2004-01-01

290

Relationship between size summation properties, contrast sensitivity and response latency in the dorsomedial and middle temporal areas of the primate extrastriate cortex.  

PubMed

Analysis of the physiological properties of single neurons in visual cortex has demonstrated that both the extent of their receptive fields and the latency of their responses depend on stimulus contrast. Here, we explore the question of whether there are also systematic relationships between these response properties across different cells in a neuronal population. Single unit recordings were obtained from the middle temporal (MT) and dorsomedial (DM) extrastriate areas of anaesthetized marmoset monkeys. For each cell, spatial integration properties (length and width summation, as well as the presence of end- and side-inhibition within 15 of the receptive field centre) were determined using gratings of optimal direction of motion and spatial and temporal frequencies, at 60% contrast. Following this, contrast sensitivity was assessed using gratings of near-optimal length and width. In both areas, we found a relationship between spatial integration and contrast sensitivity properties: cells that summated over smaller areas of the visual field, and cells that displayed response inhibition at larger stimulus sizes, tended to show higher contrast sensitivity. In a sample of MT neurons, we found that cells showing longer latency responses also tended to summate over larger expanses of visual space in comparison with neurons that had shorter latencies. In addition, longer-latency neurons also tended to show less obvious surround inhibition. Interestingly, all of these effects were stronger and more consistent with respect to the selectivity for stimulus width and strength of side-inhibition than for length selectivity and end-inhibition. The results are partially consistent with a hierarchical model whereby more extensive receptive fields require convergence of information from larger pools of "feedforward" afferent neurons to reach near-optimal responses. They also suggest that a common gain normalization mechanism within MT and DM is involved, the spatial extent of which is more evident along the cell's preferred axis of motion. PMID:23840842

Lui, Leo L; Bourne, James A; Rosa, Marcello G P

2013-01-01

291

The neural bases of grapheme-color synesthesia are not localized in real color-sensitive areas.  

PubMed

The subjective experience of color by synesthetes when viewing achromatic letters and numbers supposedly relates to real color experience, as exemplified by the recruitment of the V4 color center observed in some brain imaging studies. Phenomenological reports and psychophysics tests indicate, however, that both experiences are different. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tried to precise the degree of coactivation by real and synesthetic colors, by evaluating each color center individually, and applying adaptation protocols across real and synesthetic colors. We also looked for structural differences between synesthetes and nonsynesthetes. In 10 synesthetes, we found that color areas and retinotopic areas were not activated by synesthetic colors, whatever the strength of synesthetic associations measured objectively for each subject. Voxel-based morphometry revealed no white matter (WM) or gray matter difference in those regions when compared with 25 control subjects. But synesthetes had more WM in the retrosplenial cortex bilaterally. The joint coding of real and synesthetic colors, if it exists, must therefore be distributed rather than localized in the visual cortex. Alternatively, the key to synesthetic color experience might not lie in the color system. PMID:21914631

Hup, Jean-Michel; Bordier, Ccile; Dojat, Michel

2012-07-01

292

Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic "tree" and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells. PMID:22842825

Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

2012-09-01

293

Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic ``tree'' and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells.

Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

2012-08-01

294

Highly sensitive visible-blind extreme ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes with large detection area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes of 5 mm5 mm area have been fabricated and characterized. The photodiodes show less than 0.1 pA dark current at -4 V and an ideality factor of 1.06. A quantum efficiency (QE) between 3 and 400 nm has been calibrated and compared with Si photodiodes optimized for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. In the EUV region, the QE of SiC detectors increases from 0.14 electrons/photon at 120 nmto30 electrons/photon at 3 nm. The mean energy of electron-hole pair generation of 4H-SiC estimated from the spectral QE is found to be 7.9 eV.

Hu, Jun; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Yan, Feng; Guan, Bing; Seely, John; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan

2006-06-01

295

Highly sensitive visible-blind extreme ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes with large detection area.  

PubMed

Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes of 5 mm x 5 mm area have been fabricated and characterized. The photodiodes show less than 0.1 pA dark current at -4 V and an ideality factor of 1.06. A quantum efficiency (QE) between 3 and 400 nm has been calibrated and compared with Si photodiodes optimized for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. In the EUV region, the QE of SiC detectors increases from 0.14 electrons/photon at 120 nm to 30 electrons/photon at 3 nm. The mean energy of electron-hole pair generation of 4H-SiC estimated from the spectral QE is found to be 7.9 eV. PMID:16688230

Hu, Jun; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H; Yan, Feng; Guan, Bing; Seely, John; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan

2006-06-01

296

Highly Sensitive Visible-Blind Extreme Ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Photodiodes with Large Detection Area  

SciTech Connect

Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes of 5 mm x 5 mm area have been fabricated and characterized. The photodiodes show less than 0.1 pA dark current at -4 V and an ideality factor of 1.06. A quantum efficiency (QE) between 3 and 400 nm has been calibrated and compared with Si photodiodes optimized for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. In the EUV region, the QE of SiC detectors increases from 0.14 electrons/photon at 120 nmto30 electrons/photon at 3 nm. The mean energy of electron-hole pair generation of 4H-SiC estimated from the spectral QE is found to be 7.9 eV.

Hu,J.; Xin, X.; Zhao, J.; Yan, F.; Guan, B.; Seely, J.; Kjornrattanawanich, B.

2006-01-01

297

Plant Ecology An Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Plant Ecology An Introduction Ecology as a Science Study of the relationships between living and causes of the abundance and distribution of organisms Ecology as a Science We'll use the perspective of terrestrial plants Basic ecology - ecological principles Applied ecology - application of principles

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

298

Use of ecological regions in aquatic assessments of ecological condition.  

PubMed

Ecological regions are areas of similar climate, landform, soil, potential natural vegetation, hydrology, or other ecologically relevant variables. The makeup of aquatic biological assemblages (e.g., fish, macroinvertebrates, algae, riparian birds, etc.) varies dramatically over the landscape, as do the environmental stresses that affect the condition of those assemblages. Ecoregions delineate areas where similar assemblages are likely to occur and, therefore, where similar expectations can be established. For this reason, ecological regions have proven to be an important tool for use in the process of ecological assessment. This article describes four examples of the use of ecological regions in important aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment: (1) design of monitoring networks; (2) estimating expected conditions (criteria development); (3) reporting of results; (4) setting priorities for future monitoring and restoration. By delineating geographic areas with similar characteristics, ecological regions provide a framework for developing relevant indicators, setting expectations through the use of regional reference sites, establishing ecoregion-specific criteria and/or standards, presenting results, focusing models based on relationships between landscape and surface water metrics, and setting regional priorities for management and restoration. The Environmental Protection Agency and many state environmental departments currently use ecoregions to aid the development of environmental criteria, to illustrate current environmental condition, and to guide efforts to maintain and restore physical, chemical and biological integrity in lakes, streams, and rivers. PMID:15696302

Stoddard, John L

2004-01-01

299

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be

T. F. Palik; J. T. Kunneke

1984-01-01

300

Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

1991-01-01

301

Extending Community Ecology to Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A goal of landscape ecology is to infer proces ses or constraints that generate spatial pattern in communities and ecosystems. The rich tradition of plant community,ecology is now being extended to address spatial pattern in vegetation over large spatial extents. The challenge in this is that vegetation pattern on landscapes is fine-grained,which presents sampling problems for large study areas.

Dean Urban; Sarah Goslee; Ken Pierce; Todd Lookingbill

302

Cocaine sensitization inhibits the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih and reduces cell size in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area  

PubMed Central

The progressive augmentation of motor activity that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed behavioral sensitization. This phenomenon is thought to be a critical component in compulsive drug taking and relapse. Still, the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensitization remain elusive. Cocaine abuse, nonetheless, is known to evoke neuroplastic adaptations in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission originating from the midbrain's ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we report that concomitant with the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) amplitude is depressed by ?40% in VTA DA cells. Such effect did not result from a negative shift in Ih voltage dependence. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis indicates that this inhibition was caused by an ?45% reduction in the number of h-channels with no change in their unitary properties. The cocaine-induced Ih depression was accompanied by a reduction in cell capacitance of similar magnitude (?33%), leaving h-current density unaltered. Two implications follow from these data. First, Ih inhibition may contribute to cocaine addiction by increasing bursting probability in DA cells and this effect could be intensified by the decrease in cell capacitance. Second, the cocaine-induced diminution of DA cell capacitance may also lead to reward tolerance promoting drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:22262829

Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; Vzquez, Rafael; Velsquez-Martinez, Mara C.

2012-01-01

303

High-resolution flash flood forecasting for large urban areas - Sensitivity to scale of precipitation input and model resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban flash flooding is a serious problem in large, highly populated areas such as the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW). Being able to monitor and predict flash flooding at a high spatiotemporal resolution is critical to mitigating its threat and cost-effective emergency management. The higher the resolution of the model and the precipitation input is, the better the spatiotemporal specificity of the model output is. Due to errors in the precipitation input, the model parameters and the model itself, however, there are practical limits to the scale of modeling. In this work, we assess this scale dependence using the National Weather Service (NWS) Hydrology Laboratory's Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) at different spatiotemporal resolutions ranging from ~250 m to ~4 km and from 1min to 1 hour for a large part of DFW. The high-resolution precipitation input is from the DFW Demonstration Network of CASA radars. The model simulation results are evaluated using the water level data obtained from the Cities of Fort Worth, Arlington and Grand Prairie in DFW.

rafieei nasab, A.; Norouzi, A.; Seo, D.; Kim, S.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, C. V.; Cosgrove, B.; Cannon, A.

2013-12-01

304

Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates.  

PubMed

The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10?000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ?10(11). This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform. PMID:25220106

Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

2014-10-01

305

Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform.The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the AAO membrane and bare polymer film, FEM simulations of anemone-like polymeric nanopillars depending on the time and pressure, and detailed calculation of the enhancement factor both including experimental and theoretical approaches. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03909b

Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

2014-10-01

306

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

307

Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerd et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Gimnez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerd and Lasanta, 2005; Cerd and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an increase in the rangeland vegetation that is dominated by scrubland, meanwhile the woodlands are reduced. Circa 50 % of the land that was classified as "Critical" to land degradation after 1985 had been previously classified as "Non-affected". However, not all changes occurred in the Cnyoles watershed are characterized by a negative change; i.e., 82 % of the land has turned from "Critical" values to "Non- sensitive" to land degradation between mid-20th century and recent times. We found this negative trend to be having been caused by the removal of those crops that are most sensitive to land degradation, such as rain-fed crops, and that are mainly located in the west of the studied watershed. Similar findings were found by Zema et al., (2012) when applying the AnnAGNPS model to the agriculture land in Belgiums, Prokop and Poreba (2012) to the India, Miao e t al., (2012) in China and Haile and Fetene (2012) in Ethiopia: man made changes in the landscape that trigger land degradation processes.. Acknowledgements This research was undertaken in the frame of the 7FP project LEDDRA - Land Ecosystem Degradation and Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses - ENV, 2009.2.1.3.2. We thank professor Costas Kosmas for his guidance. References Cerd, A., Doerr, S.H. 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010. Cerd, A., Gimnez-Morera, A. y Bod, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerd, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Gimnez Morera, A., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D. y Cerd, A. 2010. The impact of cotton geotextiles on soil and water losses in Mediterranean rainfed agricultural land. Land Degradation and Development , 210- 217. D

ngel Gonzlez Pealoza, Flix; Cerd, Artemi

2014-05-01

308

Nature conservation planning in Europe: developing ecological networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological networks are becoming an important issue in nature conservation policy in Europe. Nature conservation in Europe developed from site protection in its early phase into planning systems for nature conservation in the present time. Ecological networks are based on landscape ecological principles and consist of core areas, corridor zones, buffer zones and, if needed, nature rehabilitation areas for the

Rob H. G. Jongman

1995-01-01

309

15 CFR 922.167 - Permits for access to the Tortugas Ecological Reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Permits for access to the Tortugas Ecological Reserve. 922.167 Section...Permits for access to the Tortugas Ecological Reserve. (a) A person may...Tortugas North area of the Tortugas Ecological Reserve other than for...

2010-01-01

310

Source impact quantification of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on regional ozone in the Mexico-U.S. border area using direct sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Transboundary air pollution between the US and Mexico has received increased attention since the late '70s. The Mexico-US border area provides the opportunity to investigate ozone air pollution at urban and rural scales in the presence of very different anthropogenic and biogenic emission characteristics. In order to elucidate the impact of control strategies to reduce air pollution levels, an understanding of pollutant transport across the border is necessary, as well as a characterization of major anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources of ozone precursors. A previous air quality modeling study of the border area lacked a biogenic emissions inventory. In this study, an episodic biogenic hydrocarbon and nitric oxide emission inventory was developed for the Mexico-US border area using GIS data and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS2). Then, the evolution of air pollutants was simulated using an Eulerian photochemical airshed model with the emission inventory accounting for both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Ground-level ozone was compared with a previous simulation that only incorporated anthropogenic emissions. Ozone levels increased throughout the domain, especially in the urban areas. Model performance, in general, improved against the run without biogenics, though results were biased towards ozone overprediction. The sensitivity of the ozone field to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions was calculated using a decoupled direct method for three dimensional air quality models (DDM-3D). DDM-3D revealed NO{sub x}-inhibited and VOC-limited areas. Finally, DDM-3D was used to analyze quantitatively the impact of different emission sources on ground-level ozone at urban and rural scales.

Mendoza-Dominguez, A.; Wilkinson, J.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Russell, A.G.

1999-07-01

311

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 C and 17 C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-12-01

312

Extreme precipitation during 1921 in the area of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research site, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

An unusually high amount of precipitation, including a world record 24-h snowfall, was recorded in 1921 at Silver Lake, Colorado, near the Niwot Ridge alpine tundra Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. There was 68.3 in. (1735 mm) total annual precipitation which was over five standard deviations above the 1914-1992 mean and the April snowfall produced 76 inches (1.93 m) of snow in 24 h. An investigation of these phenomena brings to light the following points. The precipitation at Silver Lake, and presumably the Niwot Ridge LTER site, during 1921 was exceptionally high. The precipitation was highly localized. There are no obvious causes for the high precipitation to be found in the synoptic climatology for the year. However, moisture sources from the west in the winter and spring and from the south in the summer do seem to have been available. Despite well-marked, but temporary, impacts on humans and possibly other higher mammals, there is no evidence of any major or long-lasting impacts to the alpine tundra or subalpine forest ecosystems. Higher temperatures and persistent drought, as might be found with global climatic warming, are proposed as potentially more important disturbance factors to these systems. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Greenland, D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

1995-02-01

313

Migration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-15

314

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

315

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

316

Sensitivity tests on the criterion of potential vorticity index for discriminating the location of ozone sources and sinks over large continental areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of a statistical-dynamic model (ISOGASP, standing for Identification of SOurces of greenhouse GAS Plus), developed by our research group to reconstruct 3D concentration patterns of greenhouse gases in large and deep atmospheric regions over continental or oceanic areas and extending vertically from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The results of this analysis have shown the ability of the ISOGASP model to discriminate the locations of ozone sources, according to the geographical distribution patterns of atmospheric O3 concentration inside a limited number of atmospheric layers at different heights above sea level, reconstructed through the method of backward trajectories simulating the travel of air parcels from each different layer to the receptor points at their own height. The potential vorticity index has been used to discriminate the sub-sets of trajectories belonging to stratosphere or troposphere.

Cacpardo, T.; Ferrarese, S.; Longhetto, A.; Cassardo, C.

2004-03-01

317

Human-induced marine ecological degradation: micropaleontological perspectives  

PubMed Central

We analyzed published downcore microfossil records from 150 studies and reinterpreted them from an ecological degradation perspective to address the following critical but still imperfectly answered questions: (1) How is the timing of human-induced degradation of marine ecosystems different among regions? (2) What are the dominant causes of human-induced marine ecological degradation? (3) How can we better document natural variability and thereby avoid the problem of shifting baselines of comparison as degradation progresses over time? The results indicated that: (1) ecological degradation in marine systems began significantly earlier in Europe and North America (?1800s) compared with Asia (post-1900) due to earlier industrialization in European and North American countries, (2) ecological degradation accelerated globally in the late 20th century due to post-World War II economic growth, (3) recovery from the degraded state in late 20th century following various restoration efforts and environmental regulations occurred only in limited localities. Although complex in detail, typical signs of ecological degradation were diversity decline, dramatic changes in total abundance, decrease in benthic and/or sensitive species, and increase in planktic, resistant, toxic, and/or introduced species. The predominant cause of degradation detected in these microfossil records was nutrient enrichment and the resulting symptoms of eutrophication, including hypoxia. Other causes also played considerable roles in some areas, including severe metal pollution around mining sites, water acidification by acidic wastewater, and salinity changes from construction of causeways, dikes, and channels, deforestation, and land clearance. Microfossils enable reconstruction of the ecological history of the past 102103 years or even more, and, in conjunction with statistical modeling approaches using independent proxy records of climate and human-induced environmental changes, future research will enable workers to better address Shifting Baseline Syndrome and separate anthropogenic impacts from background natural variability. PMID:23301187

Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Breitburg, Denise; Tsujimoto, Akira; Katsuki, Kota

2012-01-01

318

Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads are maximized in cells located at or near the production wells. Additionally, the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in pumpage was about three times more for the area where confining-unit leakance is the highest than for other leakance zone areas of the well field. For many head control sites, optimal heads corresponding to optimal pumpage deviated from the desired target recovery heads. Overall, pumping solutions were constrained by the limiting recovery values, initial head conditions, and by upper boundary conditions of the ground-water flow model.

Yobbi, Dann K.

2002-01-01

319

Linking ecological and built components of urban mosaics: an open cycle of ecological design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. By the end of this decade, the majority of people will live in cities and suburban areas. Urban areas, including suburbs and exurbs, are expanding rapidly worldwide. 2. Plant ecology has largely ignored cities, or has primarily focused on the discrete urban green spaces within cities. 3. Plant ecology is increasingly engaging urban ecosystems as integrated natural-human systems,

2007-01-01

320

Ecotourism's Contribution to the Social-ecological Resilience of Protected Areas and Local Communities: A Comparative Analysis of Rural, Dryland Ecotourism in Costa Rica and Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of global environmental change, the reconciliation of economic development and environmental conservation becomes increasingly challenging, particularly in dryland regions. These pressures are heightened in developing countries and in rural areas worldwide, where short-term economic needs may override long-term environmental concerns. This scenario too often results in deforestation, resource exploitation and loss of biodiversity in some of the

Joanne Gallaher

321

What Happened to Gray Whales during the Pleistocene? The Ecological Impact of Sea-Level Change on Benthic Feeding Areas in the North Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. Methodology/Principal Findings We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. Conclusions/Significance Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf) during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes, similar to the resident gray whales found between northern Washington State and Vancouver Island. PMID:21754984

Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Lindberg, David R.

2011-01-01

322

Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 9. Viability and diversity of the seed bank. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of seed numbers present in topsoils indicated that seeds of the most prevalent colonizers (e.g. Kochia scoparia, Setaria virdis, and Salsola collins) were not present in the topsoil upon respreading but rather appeared by immigration from the surrounding areas. Seed bank analysis was also undertaken on mined sites ranging in age of 2 to 6 years. As with the previous part of this study there was a poor correlation between the aboveground flora and the belowground seed composition.

Iverson, L.R.; Brophy, L.

1982-06-01

323

Leukemia Ecology: Ecological Prophylaxis of Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Etiopathogenesis of leukemia; Ecological leukemogenic factors; Epidemiology of leukemias; Geochemical environment in relationship to health and disease; Leukemia risk factor bank; Perspectives of leukemia prophylaxis by ecological and dietary me...

J. Aleksandrowica, A. B. Skotnicki

1982-01-01

324

Chemical ecology of bumble bees.  

PubMed

Bumble bees are of major importance, ecologically and economically as pollinators in cool and temperate biomes and as model organisms for scientific research. Chemical signals and cues have been shown to play an outstanding role in intraspecific and interspecific communication systems within and outside of a bumble bee colony. In the present review we compile and critically assess the literature on the chemical ecology of bumble bees, including cuckoo bumble bees. The development of new and more sensitive analytical tools and improvements in sociogenetic methods significantly enhanced our knowledge about chemical compounds that mediate the regulation of reproduction in the social phase of colony development, about the interactions between host bumble bees and their social parasites, about pheromones involved in mating behavior, as well as about the importance of signals, cues and context-dependent learning in foraging behavior. Our review intends to stimulate new studies on the many unresolved questions concerning the chemical ecology of these fascinating insects. PMID:24160431

Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

2014-01-01

325

[Venous ecology].  

PubMed

The purpose of venous ecology is to study the effect of the environment on the peripheral vessels. It is very extensive but still little explored subject in need of multidisciplinary study. The author reviews some of the major problems of ecophlebology: --pollution and harmful effects of urban life (atmospheric pollution, stress and influence of noise on the vessels); --the influence of habitat (furniture, ergonomics, urbanism, sociological studies and under-floor heating); --the cites new research on terrestrial electro-magnettism, meteoropathology, biological clocks and the influence of the mass media. In conclusion he hopes that ecophlebology will be the object of research which will permit a better understanding, and hence better control, of the pathological mechanisms resulting from the environment. PMID:928510

Reinharez, D

1977-01-01

326

Ecology at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how rooftop gardens help the environment and the lives of people, especially in urban areas. They gain an understanding of how plants reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, provide agriculture space, reduce energy consumption and increase the aesthetic quality of cities. This draws upon the science of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation, materials, color) and ecology (plants, shade, carbon dioxide, photosynthesis), and the engineering requirements for rooftop gardens. In the associated activity, students apply their scientific knowledge to model and measure the effects of green roofs.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

327

ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, Joao Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

2014-01-01

328

Education for Today's Ecological Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

Singer, S. Fred

1970-01-01

329

Conceptual Uncertainty and Parameter Sensitivity in Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing CERCLA evaluation, the migration of contaminants through the hydrologically complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) were modeled. The 180-meter thick vadose zone beneath the SDA is primarily composed of extrusive basalt flows that are extensively fractured. These flows are interrupted by thin, mostly continuous sedimentary interbeds that were deposited through aeolian and fluvial processes during periods of volcanic quiescence. The subsurface pathway modeling for the CERCLA assessment has been conducted in phases utilizing the results of characterization activities. The most recent model for the SDA used an equivalent porous continuum approach in a three-dimensional domain to represent movement of water and contaminants in the subsurface. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. This presentation will provide an overview of the current modeling effort for the SDA and how conceptual uncertainty was addressed by modeling different scenarios. These scenarios included assignment of infiltration boundary conditions, the effect of superimposing gaps in the interbeds, including the effect within the vadose zone from Big Lost River water discharged to the spreading areas approximately 1 km away, and a simplistic approximation to represent facilitated transport. Parametric sensitivity simulations were used to determine possible effects from assigned transport parameters such as partition coefficients and solubility limits that can vary widely with presumed geochemical conditions. Comparisons of simulated transport results to measured field concentrations in both the vadose zone and in the underlying Snake River Plain aquifer were made to determine the representativeness of the model results. Results of the SDA subsurface transport modeling have been used in part to guide additional field characterization activities. Eventually, predicted concentrations from this SDA flow and transport model will be used to estimate human health risks for a potential future receptor as part of the CERCLA process.

Magnuson, S. O.

2002-05-01

330

Gram-scale synthesis of catalytic Co9S8 nanocrystal ink as a cathode material for spray-deposited, large-area dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We report the development of Co9S8 nanocrystals as a cost-effective cathode material that can be readily combined with spraying techniques to fabricate large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices and can be further connected with series or parallel cell architectures to obtain a relatively high output voltage or current. A gram-scale synthesis of Co9S8 nanocrystal is carried out via a noninjection reaction by mixing anhydrous CoCl2 with trioctylphosphine (TOP), dodecanethiol and oleylamine (OLA) at 250 C. The Co9S8 nanocrystals possess excellent catalytic ability with respect to I(-)/I3(-) redox reactions. The Co9S8 nanocrystals are prepared as nanoinks to fabricate uniform, crack-free Co9S8 thin films on different substrates by using a spray deposition technique. These Co9S8 films are used as counter electrodes assembled with dye-adsorbed TiO2 photoanodes to fabricate DSSC devices having a working area of 2 cm(2) and an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.02 0.18% under AM 1.5 solar illumination, which is comparable with the PCE of 7.2 0.12% obtained using a Pt cathode. Furthermore, six 2 cm(2)-sized DSSC devices connected in series output an open-circuit voltage of 4.2 V that can power a wide range of electronic devices such as LED arrays and can charge commercial lithium ion batteries. PMID:23992127

Chang, Shu-Hao; Lu, Ming-De; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

2013-10-22

331

NRE 509: Ecology: Science of Context and Interaction (2012) Instructors  

E-print Network

some prior instruction in these areas. It covers basic ecological concepts and processes including systems. #12;2 Test-out exam Students who enter the MS program with a strong background in ecology1 NRE 509: Ecology: Science of Context and Interaction (2012) Instructors William S. Currie

Awtar, Shorya

332

Ecological Integrity Assessment  

E-print Network

A. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 3 A.2 Classification Summary............................................................................................ 3 A.2 Ecological System Description................................................................................. 4

Riparian Shrublands; Ecological System; Prepared Joe Rocchio

2005-01-01

333

Ecology 2007 21, 455464  

E-print Network

Functional Ecology 2007 21, 455­464 455 © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd The speed of ecological speciation ANDREW P. HENDRY*, PATRIK on ecological time-scales (contemporary evolution) and adaptive divergence can cause reproductive isolation

Rieseberg, Loren

334

Ecology 2002 90, 223234  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2002 90, 223­234 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science Ltd and JILL LANCASTER Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Darwin Building-words: allometry, landscape pattern, peatland development, spatial processes Journal of Ecology (2002) 90, 223

335

ECOLOGY LABORATORY BIOLOGY 341  

E-print Network

Page 1 ECOLOGY LABORATORY BIOLOGY 341 Fall Semester 2008 Bighorn Sheep Rams at Bison Range National ecological data; and 3) oral and written communication skills. Thus, these ecology labs, and statistical analyses appropriate for ecological data. A major goal of this class will be for you to gain

Vonessen, Nikolaus

336

Development and applications of a new neutron single-crystal diffractometer based on a two-dimensional large-area curved position-sensitive detector  

PubMed Central

A new single-crystal neutron diffractometer based on a large-area curved two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (C-2DPSD) has been developed. The diffractometer commissioning is almost complete, together with development of the measurement methodology and the raw data processing software package, the Reciprocal Analyzer, and the instrument is now ready to be launched for users. Position decoding of the C-2DPSD is via a delay-line readout method with an effective angular range of 110 54 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with a nominal radius of curvature of 530?mm. The diffractometer is equipped with a Ge(311) mosaic monochromator and two supermirror vacuum guide paths, one before and one after the monochromator position. The commissioning incorporates corrections and calibration of the instrument using an NaCl crystal, various applications such as crystallographic and magnetic structure measurements, a crystallinity check on large crystals, and a study on the composition or dopant content of a mixed crystal of (TmxYb1?x)Mn2O5. The installation of the diffractometer and the measurement method, the calibration procedure and results, the raw data treatment and visualization, and several applications using the large C-2DPSD-based diffractometer are reported. PMID:23682194

Lee, Chang-Hee; Noda, Yukio; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kim, Shin Ae; Moon, Myungkook; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Dohi, Yuki

2013-01-01

337

Mesoporous TiO2 aggregate photoanode with high specific surface area and strong light scattering for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase-pure anatase TiO2 nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized by a continuous supercritical fluid process have been first used for fabricating mesoporous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Due to the small size (11 nm) of the TiO2 nanocrystallites in the aggregates, the mesoporous photoanode provides a high specific surface area, 80 m2/g, which ensures high dye loading. At the same time, the submicrometer-sized aggregates endow the mesoporous photoanode with strong light scattering effect. Therefore, the light harvesting efficiency of the photoanode is increased. With an improved short-circuit current density, a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.65% (100 mW/cm2, AM 1.5) is achieved without additional scattering layers, 12% enhanced compared with the DSCs fabricated from commercial Degussa P25 with exactly the same procedures. In addition, this supercritical fluid process is scalable and rapid (less than one minute) for TiO2 aggregates synthesis, which will push the commercialization of DSCs in the future.

Li, Chunhui; Luo, Yanhong; Guo, Xiaozhi; Li, Dongmei; Mi, Jianli; S, Lasse; Hald, Peter; Meng, Qingbo; Iversen, Bo B.

2012-12-01

338

AdipoR1 and 2 are expressed on warm sensitive neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area and contribute to central hyperthermic effects of adiponectin  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin can act in the brain to increase energy expenditure and reduce body weight by mechanisms not entirely understood. We found that adiponectin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in warm sensitive neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) which play a critical role in the regulation of core body temperature (CBT) and energy balance. Thus, we tested the ability of adiponectin to influence CBT in wild-type mice and in mice deficient for AdipoR1 or AdipoR2. Local injection of adiponectin into the POA induced prolonged elevation of core body temperature and decreased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indicating that increased energy expenditure is associated with increased oxidation of fat over carbohydrates. In AdipoR1 deficient mice, the ability of adiponectin to raise CBT was significantly blunted and its ability to decrease RER was completely lost. In AdipoR2 deficient mice, adiponectin had only diminished hyperthermic effects but reduced RER similarly to wild type mice. These results indicate that adiponectin can contribute to energy homeostasis by regulating CBT by direct actions on AdipoR1 and R2 in the POA. PMID:22000082

Klein, Izabella; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Tabarean, Iustin; Schaefer, Jean; Holmberg, Kristina H.; Klaus, Joe; Xia, Fengcheng; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Dubins, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, Brad; Zhukov, Viktor; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Mitsukawa, Kayo; Hadcock, John R.; Bartfai, Tamas; Conti, Bruno

2011-01-01

339

Comparative Ecology of Lynx in North America  

E-print Network

the contiguous United States diverge from the well-studied areas of the taiga. We caution against uncritical have much greater knowledge of lynx ecology in the taiga (Chapters 6, 9) than in southern boreal

340

Ecology Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project each student will research a biome that is found in North and Central America. They will create a detailed portfolio on this biome. Then they will research a zoo and how zoo\\'s act as a habitat for each of their animals. Once completed they will make a section of the zoo for their biome. Ecology Project Project Outline Biome Summary Earth Floor: Biome List of each Biome Individual Biome Resource NASA view of the BIOMES The World s Biomes World Biome You will need to make a climograph which includes average temperature and average precipitation. How to read a climograph For Section 2 Zoo Animal Planet Columbus Zoo & Aquarium Minnesota Zoo: Animals San Diego Zoo Kid Territory Smithsonian National Zoological Park: Animal Photo Galleries Woodland Park Zoo: Multimedia Zoos : A Historical Perspective : Smithsonian Institution Libraries On Display This will be a month long project. The overall project will include three sections. Section 1: Each student will conduct an extensive multimedia research project of the six biomes in North ...

Darragh, Miss.

2008-10-25

341

Effects of different regeneration scenarios and fertilizer treatments on soil microbial ecology in reclaimed opencast mining areas on the Loess Plateau, China.  

PubMed

The soil microbial community in reclaimed mining areas is fundamental to vegetative establishment. However, how this community responds to different regeneration scenarios and fertilizer treatments is poorly understood. This research evaluated plant and soil microbial communities from different regeneration scenarios and different fertilizer treatments. Regeneration scenarios significantly influenced soil bacterial, archaeal, and fungal rDNA abundance. The ratios of fungi to bacteria or archaea were increased with fertilizer application. The diversity of both plants and microbes was lowest in Lotus corniculatus grasslands. Regeneration scenario, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction influenced soil microbial richness, diversity and evenness indices. Labile carbon pool 2 was a significant factor affected plant and microbe communities in July, suggesting that plants and microbes may be competing for nutrients. The higher ratios of positive to negative association were found in soil bacteria and total microbe than in archaea and fungi. Stronger clustering of microbial communities from the same regeneration scenario indicated that the vegetative composition of regeneration site may have a greater influence on soil microbial communities than fertilizer treatment. PMID:23658819

Li, Junjian; Zheng, Yuanming; Yan, Junxia; Li, Hongjian; Wang, Xiang; He, Jizheng; Ding, Guangwei

2013-01-01

342

Journal of Pollination Ecology, 3(2), 2011, pp 8-23 POLLINATION ECOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY: KEY QUESTIONS FOR  

E-print Network

Journal of Pollination Ecology, 3(2), 2011, pp 8-23 8 POLLINATION ECOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY: KEY--To inspire new ideas in research on pollination ecology, we list the most important unanswered questions in the field. This list was drawn up by contacting 170 scientists from different areas of pollination ecology

Northampton, University of

343

Highly sensitive large-area bolometers for scintillation studies below 100 mK (from near IR to soft x rays)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At very low temperature large area bolometers may show a better sensitivity than photomultipliers or semiconductor diodes, while allowing fluorescence measurements of cool targets with no window, no infrared background, good optical couplings and a flat response on a large absorption bandpass. The optical absorber of these composite bolometers can be matched to the desired bandpass. Here we present the design, the performances and calibration tests of a new generation of large area (5 cm2) optical bolometers with a pure germanium disk absorbing on a wide spectral band from near-IR to X-rays. Performances obtained at 25 mK are very promising : Noise Equivalent Power as low as 4x10-17 W/?Hz in the photometry mode, energy threshold about 50 eV in the single photon detection mode, and time constant ?~3 ms. These detectors of low mass (0.25 g) have been recently successfully used for detecting the fluorescence emitted by much more massive bolometers, having for example a BGO (92 g), or a CaWO4 (54 g) target. The simultaneous detection of heat and light in these <> permits the identification of each event in the massive target (? decay, or ? cosmic ray interaction, neutron recoil). Thanks to the consecutive excellent subtraction of the radioactive and cosmic rays background, it is a powerful tool developed by several groups for fundamental research : study of very rare decays of atoms, measurement of internal very low radioactivity content in single crystals, direct detection of dark matter recoils in massive fluorescence targets, detection of solar neutrino fluorescence events in liquid 4HeRecently obtained results which support this new promising field are reminded: the first detection of the rare alpha decay of 209Bi, and new scintillation data on Al2O3 (sapphire), LiF or TeO2 at 20mK. We discuss the ultimate performances at 12 mK of the optical bolometers as a function of their area, as well as the optimisation of their absorbing part to the desired bandpass, and finally, we estimate achievable improvements of our current technology.

Coron, Noel J.; de Marcillac, Pierre; Leblanc, Jacques; Dambier, Grard; Moalic, Jean-Pierre

2004-02-01

344

Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism and fragmentary modes of existence, to a more relational (ecological) view of the world in which balance and harmony are achieved by ever-changing complexity and differentiation. Central to this view is the recognition that human communities will become increasingly more just and sustainable if their citizens understand, are committed to, and share, a set of values and ecological principles. Shared purposes and principles, however, cannot be handed down from above but must be developed from the bottom-up through community engagement and ecological citizenship.

Lopes, V. L.

2013-12-01

345

Early diagenesis of redox-sensitive trace metals in the Peru upwelling area - response to ENSO-related oxygen fluctuations in the water column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pore water and solid phase data for redox-sensitive metals (Mn, Fe, V, Mo and U) were collected on a transect across the Peru upwelling area (11S) at water depths between 78 and 2025 m and bottom water oxygen concentrations ranging from 0 to 93 ?M. By comparing authigenic mass accumulation rates and diffusive benthic fluxes, we evaluate the respective mechanisms of trace metal accumulation, retention and remobilization across the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and with respect to oxygen fluctuations in the water column related to the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Sediments within the permanent OMZ are characterized by diffusive uptake and authigenic fixation of U, V and Mo as well as diffusive loss of Mn and Fe across the benthic boundary. Some of the dissolved Mn and Fe in the water column re-precipitate at the oxycline and shuttle particle-reactive trace metals to the sediment surface at the lower and upper boundary of the OMZ. At the lower boundary, pore waters are not sufficiently sulfidic as to enable an efficient authigenic V and Mo fixation. As a consequence, sediments below the OMZ are preferentially enriched in U which is delivered via both in situ precipitation and lateral supply of U-rich phosphorites from further upslope. Trace metal cycling on the Peruvian shelf is strongly affected by ENSO-related oxygen fluctuations in bottom water. During periods of shelf oxygenation, surface sediments receive particulate V and Mo with metal (oxyhydr)oxides that derive from both terrigenous sources and precipitation at the retreating oxycline. After the recurrence of anoxic conditions, metal (oxyhydr)oxides are reductively dissolved and the hereby liberated V and Mo are authigenically removed. This alternation between supply of particle-reactive trace metals during oxic periods and fixation during anoxic periods leads to a preferential accumulation of V and Mo compared to U on the Peruvian shelf. The decoupling of V, Mo and U accumulation is further accentuated by the varying susceptibility to re-oxidation of the different authigenic metal phases. While authigenic U and V are readily re-oxidized and recycled during periods of shelf oxygenation, the sequestration of Mo by authigenic pyrite is favored by the transient occurrence of oxidizing conditions. Our findings reveal that redox-sensitive trace metals respond in specific manner to short-term oxygen fluctuations in the water column. The relative enrichment patterns identified might be useful for the reconstruction of past OMZ extension and large-scale redox oscillations in the geological record.

Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Noffke, Anna; Rohde, Anne; Liebetrau, Volker; Wallmann, Klaus

2011-11-01

346

Ecological Applications, 17(5), 2007, pp. 14991510 2007 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

Ecological Applications, 17(5), 2007, pp. 1499­1510 ? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America easily accessible remote sensing metrics (wetness, greenness, and brightness), derived from performing cover and decreased with residential area across sites. Conversely, the number of agriculture

Ranganathan, Jai

347

Ecology, 90(4), 2009, pp. 934944 2009 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

population of roost-switching bats enclosed in a small (barely 20 ha) isolated roosting area provided), among others. In our case, the use of trees as roosting sites by bats can also be described as a networkEcology, 90(4), 2009, pp. 934­944 ? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America The roosting spatial

Fortuna, Miguel A.

348

Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.  

PubMed

This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow regimes was recognized. Moreover, nearshore extensive shrimp culture ponds, irrigation canals, and surrounding mangrove habitats belonging to local households seemed to act as effective natural water treatment system that can yet provide food resources in turns. These remediation-production integrated functions should be deserved depth considerations for water quality development of the Tha Chin areas. PMID:19092208

Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

2008-01-01

349

Principles of ecological immunology  

PubMed Central

Defending self against nonself is a major problem in a world in which individuals are under constant pressure from parasites that gain fitness benefits at a cost to their host. Defences that have evolved are diverse, and range from behavioural adaptations to physiochemical barriers. The immune defence is a final line of protection and is therefore of great importance. Given this importance, variability in immune defence would seem counterintuitive, yet that is what is observed. Ecological immunology attempts to explain this variation by invoking costs and trade-offs, and in turn proposing that the optimal immune defence will vary over environments. Studies in this field have been highly successful in establishing an evolutionary ecology framework around immunology. However, in order enrich our understanding of this area, it is perhaps time to broaden the focus to include parasites as more than simply elicitors of immune responses. In essence, to view immunity as produced by the host, the environment, and the active involvement of parasites.

Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2009-01-01

350

Ecological relevance of Sentinels' biomarker responses: a multi-level approach.  

PubMed

In response to the need for more sensitive and rapid indicators of environmental quality, sublethal effects on the lowest levels of biological organization have been investigated. The ecological relevance of these responses assumes a prevailing role to assure effectiveness as indicator of ecological status. This study aimed to investigate the linkages between biomarker responses of caged bivalves and descriptive parameters of macrobenthic community structure. For this purpose a multi-level environmental assessment of marine and estuarine zones was performed in So Paulo coast, Brazil. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify linkages between biological responses and ecological indices, as well as to characterizing the studied stations. Individuals of the marine mussel Perna perna caged along Santos Bay showed signs of oxidative stress, lysosomal membrane destabilization, histological alterations and reduced embryonic development. The estuarine oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae caged along Santos Port Channel showed alterations on biotransformation enzymes and antioxidant system, DNA damage and lysosomal membrane destabilization. The benthic community analysis showed reduced richness and diversity in the same areas of the Santos bay and estuary where biomarker responses were altered. Our results revealed that xenobiotics are inducing physiological stress, which may lead to changes of the benthic community structure and deterioration of the ecological status over time. Integrating biomarker responses and ecological indexes improved certainty that alterations found at community level could be related to xenobiotic as stressors, which was very useful to improve the discriminatory power of the environmental assessment. PMID:24314371

Seabra Pereira, Camilo D; Abessa, Denis M S; Choueri, Rodrigo B; Almagro-Pastor, Victor; Cesar, Augusto; Maranho, Luciane A; Martn-Daz, Mara Laura; Torres, Ronaldo J; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma K; Almeida, Joo E; Cortez, Fernando S; Mozeto, Antonio A; Silbiger, Helcy L N; Sousa, Eduinetty C P M; Del Valls, Tommas Angel; Bainy, Afonso C D

2014-05-01

351

The Frontiers in Ecological Risk Assessment at Expanding Spatial and Temporal Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of ecological risk assessment is the expansion of the process to regional landscapes and appropriate temporal scales. In order to adapt ecological risk assessment to these larger scales risk assessors requires mechanistically-derived ecological paradigms and research into three specific areas. The hierarchical patch dynamic paradigm (HPDP) is a robust ecological and landscape framework for constructing conceptual models for

Wayne G. Landis

2003-01-01

352

Desertification: Global ecological problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that western practices and analyses of desertification fail to take social factors into account, and do not promote progressive technology that would preserve the environment while bringing progress. It is claimed that Soviet practices have minimized ecological damage by use of a different socioeconomic structure and by planning. In Central Asia, efforts since the 1930's have focused on controlling shifting sands with both dry grass and brush, as well as physicochemical means. In Turkmenistan sand dune damage to irrigated fields is completely controlled, although some local areas of desertification have been noted near well sites and in industrialized desert areas. Prevention of land damage in irrigated areas has required careful drainage system construction to avoid mineral deposits while making maximum use of ground water reserves. Technological backwardness is noted in some irrigated areas of Central Asia, and the extent of saline soils of various types is of concern. Disposal of irrigation water after its use is another problem still being resolved in Central Asia. Irrigation and water disposal in the basins of Syrdarya, Amudarya and Ili Rivers have caused a decline in the level of the Aral Sea. In addition, lands in the deltas of the Syrdarya and Amudarya have suffered desertification.

Orlovskiy, N. S.

1986-09-01

353

Wetlands ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS imagery analyzed provides approximately 2/3 coverage of the test site. Analysis was made using visual methods, density slicing, and multispectral analysis. Preliminary conclusions reached are that most, if not all, of the investigation objectives can be met. Saline and near-saline wetlands can be delineated from ERTS-1 images as the wetland-upland boundaries and land-water interface are clearly defined. Major plant species or communities such as Spartina alterniflora (high and low vigor forms), Spartina patens/Distichlis spicata, and Juncus roemarianus can be discriminated and spoil disposal areas identified.

Anderson, R. R. (principal investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

354

ecological area-network Christopher Moore  

E-print Network

species pool · comparison of mutualistic and trophic networks Monday, October 10, 11 #12;this contribution · comparison of mutualistic and trophic networks Monday, October 10, 11 #12;this contribution Monday, October

Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

355

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

356

Ecology or Economy  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: File this under "Statistics to the Rescue". Economy or ecology? Ecology or economy? Tough choice. Especially for China which is barreling recklessly ahead in its quest to become top consumer nation. A recent release from...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-07-18

357

Taoism and Deep Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

1988-01-01

358

Forest Fire Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

Zucca, Carol; And Others

1995-01-01

359

ETEKOS experimental ecological system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of changes in the ecology resulting, for example, in increases in water temperature because of discharges from large thermal power plants is considered. An experiment creating a model of such an ecological system is described.

Alekseyev, V. V.; Geogiyev, A. A.; Gorbatov, Y. I.; Lyamin, M. Y.; Maksimov, V. N.; Sapozhnikov, V. V.; Shinkar, G. G.; Shirokova, Y. L.

1980-01-01

360

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-11-01

361

Ecological Footprint Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the concept of ecological footprint, the overall impact of an individual on the environment. Topics include how ecological footprints are calculated, how individual footprints translate to entire nations or to the Earth, and the connection between ecological footprint and biodiversity. The students will consult some online resources on ecological footprint and use an online claculator to determine their individual fooprints, make some comparisons, and examine how making some changes in their consumption would reduce their footprints.

362

[Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].  

PubMed

By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method. PMID:19238861

Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

2008-11-01

363

Plant Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit is designed to be completed in six or more sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the many varied reasons that plant life flourishes in one plot but not another. Students speculate on why plants are more abundant in some areas of the site than others. They list factors that might account for the differences, such as temperature, humidity, light, soil, rainfall, wind, and human or animal activity, and figure out how they can collect more data on these factors. They discuss why it might be important to take a count of all the individual plants in each plot and develop a plan for conducting the field study. A reading selection describes how scientists count plants and gives students tips for conducting their own survey. Students then count plants and record their data. Several optional activities are provided.

364

Invertebrate Ecological Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological immunology is a rapidly expanding field that examines the causes and consequences of variation in immune function in the context of evolution and of ecology. Millions of invertebrate species rely solely on innate immunity, compared with only 45,000 vertebrate species that rely additionally on an acquired immune system. Despite this difference in diversity, most studies of ecological immunology focus

J. Rolff; M. T. Siva-Jothy

2003-01-01

365

Wildfire History and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

2008-09-17

366

Guide to Marine Ecology Research . . . a Curriculum for Secondary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological curriculum designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The background material and learning activities concern the study of the San Francisco Bay Area. The guide is divided into two major parts. In the first part, a history of the Bay Area is given. It includes the

Castellani, Marylynn L., Ed.

367

Ecology of Inland Saline Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the ecology and adaptive strategies of inland halophytes growing in natural saline areas, with special\\u000a reference to classification, metabolic products, soilwater relationships, the role of proline in their survival, etc. Studies\\u000a on eight saline plants, viz. Aeluropus lagopoides (Poaceae), Cressa cretica (Convolvulaceae), Salsola baryosma (Chenopodiaceae), Sesuvium sesuvioides (Aizoaceae), Sporobolus helvolus (Poaceae), Suaeda fruticosa (Chenopodiaceae), Trianthema triquetra (Aizoaceae),

Pawan K. Kasera; Sher Mohammed

368

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is based in Germany and their work encompasses a wide range of inquiry into the relationships between everything from bugs and symbiotic bacteria to odor activation in drosophila. Visitors can wander through the News area to get a sense of the ongoing research projects and overall mission. In the Institute area visitors can learn the basics of chemical ecology, the management of the Institute and their cooperative agreements with other like-minded organizations. The Departments area contains information about separate research groups, which are focused on entomology, bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular ecology. Scientists and others will want to look over the Publications area, as it contains hundreds of research papers which can be searched by department, year, or citation number. Finally, visitors can also search available job openings.

369

Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa  

E-print Network

Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa § Martin J. Whiting1 and geographic areas. Southern Africa has one of the most diverse gecko faunas per unit area in the world (Branch

Keogh, Scott

370

Cocaine sensitization and dopamine mediation of cue effects in rodents, monkeys, and humans: areas of agreement, disagreement, and implications for addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSensitization of mesocorticolimbic dopamine projections has been a valuable model of neurobiological adaptation to chronic\\u000a exposure to cocaine and other psychostimulants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DiscussionsIn addition to providing an explanation of exaggerated responses to drugs that might explain their increased ability to serve\\u000a as reinforcers, sensitization has also been incorporated into influential theories of how drug associated cues can acquire\\u000a increased salience and

Charles W. Bradberry

2007-01-01

371

Landscape Ecology + Planning NRE 687 Fall 2013  

E-print Network

in the field of landscape ecology. Hierarchy theory and methods for working across spatial scales. The social critical thinking, design, and technical skills needed to excel at landscape planning and analysis projects of scientific theory, data synthesis, contextual sensitivity, as well as creative design expression. In addition

Awtar, Shorya

372

New Laboratory Complex Department of Global Ecology  

E-print Network

of the Department of Global Ecology require offices, common spaces, areas for computer research, wet labs, dry labs. These are (1) offices, conference areas, and administrative space, (2) computer research space, (3) wet research space: Much of the research activity in the new department will be computer based. Approximately 1

373

Sensitive Agent: Sensitive Agent  

E-print Network

social interaction must be simulated. Conventional agents already have rich communication skills including nonverbal communication; however, lack the sensitivity that is necessary for social interaction-78. [13] MIT, Affective Computing, http://affect.media.mit.edu/AC_affect.html [14] Helmut Prendinger

Nakanishi, Hideyuki

374

Modeling patch occupancy: Relative performance of ecologically scaled landscape indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fragmented landscapes, the likelihood that a species occupies a particular habitat patch is thought to be a function of\\u000a both patch area and patch isolation. Ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLIs) combine a species ecological profile,\\u000a i.e., area requirements and dispersal ability, with indices of patch area and connectivity. Since their introduction, ESLIs\\u000a for area have been modified to incorporate

Carol E. Rizkalla; Jeffrey E. Moore; Robert K. Swihart

2009-01-01

375

Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different burn and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) areas, as well as areas with different burn/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of burned areas, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of burned area, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected areas; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of burned areas, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-burned areas comprising 45-55% burned area and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to burned areas in the NIR channel, whereas those areas are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely burned pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated areas where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of burned areas more than the spectral signal of vegetated areas in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the burned areas because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and burned areas are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.

Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos

2013-05-01

376

Health care access in rural areas: Evidence that hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions in the United States may increase with the level of rurality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether levels of rurality are associated with hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSH) in eight states of the United States. ACSH is an indicator of access to reasonably effective primary health care. ACSH for children did not vary systematically with rurality. Compared to the most urban counties, the adjusted rate in the most rural was 90% greater for

James N. Laditka; Sarah B. Laditka; Janice C. Probst

2009-01-01

377

SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

2006-03-01

378

Ecology and environment What ecology and environment course is  

E-print Network

Ecology and environment Essentials What ecology and environment course is there? Ecology 01273 876787 Why ecology and environment at Sussex? · You will be taught by lecturers who are leaders in research, with a broad range of experience and expertise including plant, bird and insect ecology, climate

Sussex, University of

379

Sensitivity and specificity of an operon immunochromatographic test in serum and whole-blood samples for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Spain, an area of nonendemicity.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an imported parasitic disease in Spain, and the majority of infected individuals are in the chronic phase of the disease. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Operon immunochromatographic test (ICT-Operon; Simple Stick Chagas and Simple Chagas WB [whole blood]; Operon S.A., Spain) for different biological samples. Well-characterized serum samples were obtained from chagasic patients (n = 63), nonchagasic individuals (n = 95), visceral leishmaniasis patients (n = 38), and malaria patients (n = 55). Noncharacterized specimens were obtained from Latin American immigrants and individuals at risk with a clinical and/or epidemiological background: these specimens were recovered serum or plasma samples (n = 450), whole peripheral blood (n = 94), and capillary blood (n = 282). The concordance of the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence test was considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis. Serum and plasma samples were analyzed by Stick Chagas, and whole blood was analyzed by Simple Chagas WB. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICT-Operon in well-characterized samples were 100% and 97.9%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with samples obtained from visceral leishmaniasis patients. In contrast, a false-positive result was obtained in 27.3% of samples from malaria patients. The sensitivities of the rapid test in noncharacterized serum or plasma, peripheral blood, and capillary blood samples were 100%, 92.1%, and 86.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 91.6%, 93.6%, and 95% in each case. ICT-Operon showed variable sensitivity, depending on the kind of sample, performing better when serum or plasma samples were used. It could therefore be used for serological screening combined with any other conventional test. PMID:22761296

Flores-Chavez, Mara; Cruz, Israel; Nieto, Javier; Grate, Teresa; Navarro, Miriam; Prez-Ayala, Ana; Lpez-Vlez, Rogelio; Caavate, Carmen

2012-09-01

380

Sensitivity and Specificity of an Operon Immunochromatographic Test in Serum and Whole-Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Spain, an Area of Nonendemicity  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an imported parasitic disease in Spain, and the majority of infected individuals are in the chronic phase of the disease. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Operon immunochromatographic test (ICT-Operon; Simple Stick Chagas and Simple Chagas WB [whole blood]; Operon S.A., Spain) for different biological samples. Well-characterized serum samples were obtained from chagasic patients (n = 63), nonchagasic individuals (n = 95), visceral leishmaniasis patients (n = 38), and malaria patients (n = 55). Noncharacterized specimens were obtained from Latin American immigrants and individuals at risk with a clinical and/or epidemiological background: these specimens were recovered serum or plasma samples (n = 450), whole peripheral blood (n = 94), and capillary blood (n = 282). The concordance of the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence test was considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Serum and plasma samples were analyzed by Stick Chagas, and whole blood was analyzed by Simple Chagas WB. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICT-Operon in well-characterized samples were 100% and 97.9%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with samples obtained from visceral leishmaniasis patients. In contrast, a false-positive result was obtained in 27.3% of samples from malaria patients. The sensitivities of the rapid test in noncharacterized serum or plasma, peripheral blood, and capillary blood samples were 100%, 92.1%, and 86.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 91.6%, 93.6%, and 95% in each case. ICT-Operon showed variable sensitivity, depending on the kind of sample, performing better when serum or plasma samples were used. It could therefore be used for serological screening combined with any other conventional test. PMID:22761296

Flores-Chavez, Maria; Cruz, Israel; Nieto, Javier; Garate, Teresa; Navarro, Miriam; Perez-Ayala, Ana; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio

2012-01-01

381

Effective panchromatic sensitization of electrochemical solar cells: strategy and organizational rules for spatial separation of complementary light harvesters on high-area photoelectrodes.  

PubMed

Dye-sensitized solar cells, especially those comprising molecular chromophores and inorganic titania, have shown promise as an alternative to silicon for photovoltaic light-to-electrical energy conversion. Co-sensitization (the use of two or more chromophores having complementary absorption spectra) has attracted attention as a method for harvesting photons over a broad spectral range. If implemented successfully, then cosensitization can substantially enhance photocurrent densities and light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies. In only a few cases, however, have significant overall improvements been obtained. In most other cases, inefficiencies arise due to unconstructive energy or charge transfer between chromophores or, as we show here, because of modulation of charge-recombination behavior. Spatial isolation of differing chromophores offers a solution. We report a new and versatile method for fabricating two-color photoanodes featuring spatially isolated chromophore types that are selectively positioned in desired zones. Exploiting this methodology, we find that photocurrent densities depend on both the relative and absolute positions of chromophores and on "local" effective electron collection lengths. One version of the two-color photoanode, based on an organic push-pull dye together with a porphyrin dye, yielded high photocurrent densities (J(SC) = 14.6 mA cm(-2)) and double the efficiency of randomly mixed dyes, once the dyes were optimally positioned with respect to each other. We believe that the organizational rules and fabrication strategy will prove transferrable, thereby advancing understanding of panchromatic sensitization as well as yielding higher efficiency devices. PMID:23130681

Jeong, Nak Cheon; Son, Ho-Jin; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Lee, Chang Yeon; Jensen, Rebecca A; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

2012-12-01

382

Fundamental Concepts in Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Even though exurban development claims millions of acres of privately owned wildlands, most Americans have a limited grasp\\u000a of the ecological impacts that development brings. This chapter bridges the knowledge gap in two ways. First, it explains\\u000a the role of ecology in understanding wildland ecosystems. Issues covered include the scope and objectives of ecology, its\\u000a history and background, and the

Guy McPherson

383

National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides, in full, a chapter excerpted from the book entitled "Ecosystem Management: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Resources" edited by M.S. Boyce and A. Haney, 1997. The hierarchical framework is a regionalization classification and mapping system for stratifying the Earth into progressively smaller areas of increasingly uniform ecological potentials. Ecological types are classified and ecological units are mapped based on associations of those biotic and environmental factors. Ecoregion and subregion levels of the hierarchy are developed by stratification as fine scale field classifications and inventories. The chapter stresses the connections between mapping ecological units and ecosystem management opportunities. A list of cited references appears at the end of the chapter.

384

Ecology 2002 16, 766772  

E-print Network

­body size allometry in two other natricine snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis, Storeria dekayi) suggest size, Nerodia sipedon, sexual dimorphism, Storeria dekayi, Thamnophis sirtalis Functional Ecology (2002

King, Richard B.

385

Journal of Applied Ecology 2002  

E-print Network

Journal of Applied Ecology 2002 39, 960­970 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science- tion, succession. Journal of Applied Ecology (2002) 39, 960­970 Introduction Efforts to reclaim@ucsc.edu). #12;961 Vegetation on reclaimed mines © 2002 British Ecological Society, Journal of Applied Ecology

Holl, Karen

386

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004  

E-print Network

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004 41, 922­933 © 2004 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing-scale, Sacramento River, succession, vegetation Journal of Applied Ecology (2004) 41, 922­933 Introduction More than@ucsc.edu). #12;923 Riparian forest restoration © 2004 British Ecological Society, Journal of Applied Ecology, 41

Holl, Karen

387

Population Ecology Philip M. Dixon  

E-print Network

Population Ecology Philip M. Dixon Department of Statistics Iowa State University 20 December 2001 Population ecology is the discipline in ecology that deals with the structure and dynamics (e.g. growth interacting populations. Population ecology is closely related to other ecological disciplines, e

388

Rattan: Ecological balance in a borneo rainforest swidden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various agricultural strategies have been tried in swidden areas of tropical rainforest. Some have focused on food production,\\u000a others on cash crops. Certain strategies have disrupted the ecological balance of the rainforest, while others developed with\\u000a ecological stability in mind, but rarely have food production and cash cropping been coterminous and maintained ecological\\u000a stability. Rattan in tropical rainforest swidden of

Joseph A. Weinstock

1983-01-01

389

Reflections on Plant and Soil Nematode Ecology: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments include response to stressors, environmental conditions, and management practices. Methodological advances will continue to influence the role nematodes have in addressing the nature of interactions between organisms, and of organisms with their environments. In particular, the C. elegans genetic model, nematode faunal analysis and nematode metagenetic analysis can be used by ecologists generally and not restricted to nematologists. PMID:23482864

Ferris, Howard; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Powers, Thomas O.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Tenuta, Mario

2012-01-01

390

Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia  

PubMed Central

A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in southsoutheastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

2013-01-01

391

Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

2013-06-01

392

Ecology and community health in the north.  

PubMed

Health of a nation is a sensitive barometer of the environmental situation, especially in the North, where vulnerable nature cannot resist intensive industrial development. The geographical location and severe climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) significantly sharpen any negative impact of industrial activity on the state of the environment. The impact of ecological factors on the health of population has been studied in the case of a diamond province (Vilyuy region), where a complex of chemical pollutants from diamond mining, products of wood decay in places of flooding of the water reservoir for the Vilyuisk power station, highly mineralised underground waters and consequences of underground explosions have caused a substantial negative effect on the environment and people. Studies on the health of the population in the Vilyuy region has shown that sickness and morbidity rates of viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, pathologies during pregnancy and other diseases are higher in comparison to rates in the Republic as a whole, a feature which has been attributed to environmental degradation in the area. PMID:11507966

Petrova, P G; Yakovleva, N P; Zakharova, F A

2001-04-01

393

Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.  

PubMed

Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length--a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes--but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts. PMID:23387120

Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

2012-12-01

394

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2002 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during fiscal year 2002. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species and important biological resources were conducted for 26 NTS projects. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 374 acres. Thirteen of the projects were in desert tortoise habitat, and 13.38 acres of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed at project areas or along paved roads. Compilation of historical wildlife data continued this year in efforts to develop faunal distribution maps for the NTS. Photographs associated with the NTS ecological landform units sampled to create the NTS vegetation maps were cataloged for future retrieval and analysis. The list of sensitive plant species for which long-term population monitoring is scheduled was revised. Six vascular plants and five mosses were added to the list. Plant density estimates from ten populations of Astragalus beatleyae were collected, and eight known populations of Eriogonum concinnum were visited to assess plant and habitat status. Minimal field monitoring of western burrowing owl burrows occurred. A report relating to the ecology of the western burrowing owl on the Nevada Test Site was prepared which summarizes four years of data collected on this species' distribution, burrow use, reproduction, activity patterns, and food habits. Bat roost sites within seven buildings slated for demolition were identified, and a BN biologist was a contributing author of the Nevada Bat Conservation Plan published by the Nevada Bat Working Group. Thirty-three adult horses and five foals were counted this year. Six active raptor nests (two American kestrel, two Red-tailed hawk, and two Great-horned owl nests) were found and monitored this year. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. The chemical release test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center on Frenchman Lake playa was reviewed. Seasonal sampling of downwind and upwind transects near the spill center was conducted to document baseline conditions of biota.

C. A. Wills

2002-12-01

395

Review of the ecology of malaria vectors in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region  

PubMed Central

On the basis of published records and unpublished reports to WHO, the author reviews the information available on the ecology of 15 anopheline malaria vectors occurring in areas of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region where attack measures are being applied. The information, which is still incomplete, relates chiefly to the period since 1956, the year when the malaria eradication programme in the Region was launched. An attempt is made to evaluate the control measures undertaken so far, and to provide data on the sensitivity to insecticides, behaviour, and mortality of vector populations. PMID:4549034

Zahar, A. R.

1974-01-01

396

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

397

ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION SEMINAR SERIES*  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION SEMINAR SERIES* WINTER 2013 ECL 296 (CRN 50337) / PBG 292 (CRN 64677 24 The Modern Ecology of Ice-Covered Lakes in Antarctica: A Journey Back JANUARY 31 Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation

Ishida, Yuko

398

Audubon Ecology Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

399

TENSAS ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological assessment in the Tensas River Basin, Louisiana, has been completed by the U.S. EPA in partnership with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality and other stakeholder groups. This assessment, conducted using landscape ecology and water quality methods, can...

400

Handbook for Ecology Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,

Eber, Ronald

401

Ecology 2005 93, 231243  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology (2005) 93, 231­243 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.00990.x Soil, science and civilization is typically the province of oceanographers rather than ecologists. A similar narrative applies to soil science. The subsequent development of soil science and ecology as separate disciplines has not been to either's advantage

Bruns, Tom

402

Ecology 2002 90, 188200  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2002 90, 188­200 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science Ltd differentiation, shifting competitive hierarchy or continuum concept). 2 Relationships were found between treeMichaelis- Menten equation. For five of six species, likelihood-ratio tests indicated that functions

403

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) Work Group, composed of scientists and risk assessors from EPA, Environment Canada, DOE, Army, Navy, Air Force, states, industry, academia, and consulting companies, has been working on the development of scientifically sound, ecologi...

404

Ecology 2006 20, 10701079  

E-print Network

chemical defences, predation risk, seed depredation Functional Ecology (2006) 20, 1070­1079 doi: 10.1111/j Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd Foraging by fearful frugivores: combined effect of fruit ripening of herbivore foraging, though empirical studies have seldom measured the combined effects of these two factors

Herrera, Carlos M.

405

Translational ecology for hydrogeology.  

PubMed

Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. PMID:23837514

Schlesinger, William H

2013-01-01

406

Ecological Inventory Exemplars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document contains 20 ecological inventories (developed at the University of Minnesota and the University of Alberta) to help severely disabled students learn functional living skills. The ecological approach is designed to uncover the functions critical for success in specific environments which the student frequently encounters. Matching the

Sobsey, Dick, Ed.

407

Marine Microbial Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich website from the Australian Antarctic Division's Biology program describes its research in marine microbial ecology. It includes an introduction of microbial ecology and microbial processes, followed by information about the research project. Field sampling, microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis, flourometry, HPLC, culturing, feeding experiments, and the research staff are each discussed using vivid imagery. Links are provided to related websites.

Division, Australian A.

408

Ecological Structure Activity Relationships  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Structure Activity Relationships, v1.00a, February 2009 ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships) is a personal computer software program that is used to estimate the toxicity of chemicals used in industry and discharged into water. The program predicts...

409

An Ecological Triangle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simplified model for summarizing ecological relationships. The components of the ecological triangle are biotic, abiotic materials, and abiotic conditions. Discusses three-way component interactions, population studies, limiting factors of pollution on humans, and difficulties in establishing casual relationships in field research. (CS)

Styron, C. E.

1977-01-01

410

Predictive systems ecology.  

PubMed

Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive. PMID:24089332

Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Daz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

2013-11-22

411

Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578m2/g which was 5.54m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855

2014-01-01

412

Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

2014-10-01

413

The movement ecology of seagrasses  

PubMed Central

A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The spacetime movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

2014-01-01

414

The movement ecology of seagrasses.  

PubMed

A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

2014-11-22

415

The sensitivity of modeled ozone to the temporal distribution of point, area, and mobile source emissions in the eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone remains one of the most recalcitrant air pollution problems in the US. Hourly emissions fields used in air quality models (AQMs) generally show less temporal variability than corresponding measurements from continuous emissions monitors (CEM) and field campaigns would imply. If emissions control scenarios to reduce emissions at peak ozone forming hours are to be assessed with AQMs, the effect of emissions' daily variability on modeled ozone must be understood. We analyzed the effects of altering all anthropogenic emissions' temporal distributions by source group on 2002 summer-long simulations of ozone using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) v4.5 and the Carbon Bond IV (CBIV) chemical mechanism with 12 km resolution. We find that when mobile source emissions were made constant over the course of a day, 8-h maximum ozone predictions changed by 7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in many urban areas on days when ozone concentrations greater than 80 ppbv were simulated in the base case. Increasing the temporal variation of point sources resulted in ozone changes of +6 and -6 ppbv, but only for small areas near sources. Changing the daily cycle of mobile source emissions produces substantial changes in simulated ozone, especially in urban areas at night; results suggest that shifting the emissions of NO x from day to night, for example in electric powered vehicles recharged at night, could have beneficial impacts on air quality.

Castellanos, Patricia; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ehrman, Sheryl H.

416

Ecological Factors in Migration in Nonmetropolitan Counties, 1950-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the dominant ecosystem types in nonmetropolitan counties and the role of ecological factors in determination of levels of total and age-specific migration patterns within nonmetropolitan areas and ecosystem types for 1950-60 and 1960-70, 30 ecological variables representing POET concepts of population, organization, environment, and

Murdock, Steve H.

417