Note: This page contains sample records for the topic ecologically sensitive area from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

[Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

2010-07-01

2

Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cave ecosystems are considered one of the most poorly studied and fragile systems on Earth. Belize caves are no exception. This paper represents the first effort to synthesize information on both invertebrate and vertebrate observations from a Belize cave. Based on limited field research and a review of literature, we identified two ecologically sensitive areas, and developed a species inventory list containing 41 vertebrate and invertebrate morphospecies in Actun Chapat, Vaca Plateau, west-central Belize. Actun Chapat contains two ecologically sensitive areas: (1) a large multiple species bat roost, and (2) a subterranean pool containing troglobites and stygobites. The inventory list is a product of sporadic research conducted between 1973 and 2001. Ecological research in this cave system remains incomplete. An intensive systematic ecological survey of Actun Chapat with data collection over multiple seasons using a suite of survey techniques will provide a more complete inventory list. To minimize human disturbance to the ecologically sensitive areas, associated with ecotourism, we recommend limited to no access in the areas identified as "sensitive".

Wynne, J. J.; Pleytez, W.

2005-01-01

3

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal\\u000a mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the\\u000a whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened

Ma Xi-jun; Lu Zhao-hua; Cheng Jian-long

2008-01-01

4

Ecological Suitability Evaluation for Ecotourism in Qipanshan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitability evaluation for eco-tourism is the basis of eco-tourism planning and development. Based on the multi-factors evaluation approach and landscape visual sensitivity analysis, the ecological suitability for eco-tourism in Qipanshan was evaluated using GIS technology. We chose seven factors, including topography, land use, distance to nearest reservoir, distance to nearest roads, landscape visual sensitivity to reservoir, landscape visual sensitivity to

Li Jun-ying; Hu Yuan-man; Liu Zhi-hua; Liu Miao

2010-01-01

5

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area.  

PubMed

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened out as risk resources, soil wireworm as the receiver of heavy metals risk, biotope ecosystem as the receiver of soil erosion and coast risk; ecological indexes are calculated with species background index, biological diversity index and natural degree index, ecological friability indexes are calculated with soil fertility index, plant coverage, plant species diversity index, soil wireworm index and maturity index, and the typical coal mine area assessment indexes system is established. In addition, the regional ecological risk assessment is conducted on the friable ecological system of Fuxin Haizhou open coal mine area. Examples are researched of Haizhou open coal mine, the coal mine risk distribution is established, and foundations are provided for the administrative decision-making. PMID:18301998

Xi-jun, Ma; Zhao-hua, Lu; Jian-long, Cheng

2008-12-01

6

Ecological Processes in the Creation of Delinquency Areas: An Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences found in areas with high delinquency rates in relation to the ecological structure in Los Angeles County, California. Previous studies suggest that delinquency was the consequence of the availability of low cost housing found in deteriorating residential areas, and that the housing matched…

Schuerman, Leo A.; Kobrin, Solomon

7

Ecological problems of oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, the Republic of Azerbaijan is undergoing a historical period of social, economical and political changes. These reforms are bringing about problems that require immediate solutions. The pivotal point of the reforms taking place in Azerbaijan is the closure of agreements with foreign companies who are contracted for oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea region. The ecological sensitivity of this

I. M Efendiyeva

2000-01-01

8

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

1994-06-01

9

59 FR- Environmentally Sensitive Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...other areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding...the release of a hazardous liquid from a pipeline could create...other areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding...by a release of a hazardous liquid ? (5) Would the above...

1994-06-15

10

Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

1995-03-01

11

Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history.

Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

2011-01-01

12

Ecology and geography of plague transmission areas in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation-rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

Giles, John; Peterson, A Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

2011-01-01

13

Disentangling sampling and ecological explanations underlying species-area relationships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a probabilistic approach to address the influence of sampling artifacts on the form of species-area relationships (SARs). We developed a model in which the increase in observed species richness is a function of sampling effort exclusively. We assumed that effort depends on area sampled, and we generated species-area curves under that model. These curves can be realistic looking. We then generated SARs from avian data, comparing SARs based on counts with those based on richness estimates. We used an approach to estimation of species richness that accounts for species detection probability and, hence, for variation in sampling effort. The slopes of SARs based on counts are steeper than those of curves based on estimates of richness, indicating that the former partly reflect failure to account for species detection probability. SARs based on estimates reflect ecological processes exclusively, not sampling processes. This approach permits investigation of ecologically relevant hypotheses. The slope of SARs is not influenced by the slope of the relationship between habitat diversity and area. In situations in which not all of the species are detected during sampling sessions, approaches to estimation of species richness integrating species detection probability should be used to investigate the rate of increase in species richness with area.

Cam, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Alpizar-Jara, R.; Flather, C.H.

2002-01-01

14

Ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in Quercus ilex  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Several widespread tree species of temperate forests, such as species of the genus Quercus, produce recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds. However, the ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in temperate regions is largely unknown. Do seeds of such species suffer from drying during the period when they remain on the soil, between shedding in autumn and the return of conditions required for germination in spring? Methods To test this hypothesis, the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest was used as a model system. The relationships between the climate in winter, the characteristics of microhabitats, acorn morphological traits, and the water status and viability of seeds after winter were then investigated in 42 woodlands sampled over the entire French distribution of the species. Key Results The percentages of germination and normal seedling development were tightly linked to the water content of seeds after the winter period, revealing that in situ desiccation is a major cause of mortality. The homogeneity of seed response to drying suggests that neither intraspecific genetic variation nor environmental conditions had a significant impact on the level of desiccation sensitivity of seeds. In contrast, the water and viability status of seeds at the time of collection were dramatically influenced by cumulative rainfall and maximum temperatures during winter. A significant effect of shade and of the type of soil cover was also evidenced. Conclusions The findings establish that seed desiccation sensitivity is a key functional trait which may influence the success of recruitment in temperate recalcitrant seed species. Considering that most models of climate change predict changes in rainfall and temperature in the Mediterranean basin, the present work could help foresee changes in the distribution of Q. ilex and other oak species, and hence plant community alterations.

Joet, Thierry; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Dussert, Stephane

2013-01-01

15

Study on monitoring ecological restoration in Jiuli mining area by SAR image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological restoration in mining area is one of the study hot spots in the field of resources and environment at present. The vegetation biomass is used as the ecological restoration evaluation index in mining area in the paper. The synthetic aperture radar image after ecological restoration in mining area is used to classify different kinds of vegetation covers. Integrating

Na Wei; Fu Chen; Qian Tang

2011-01-01

16

Study on the Ecological Carrying Capacity in Mining Areas: A Case Study in Panxi Mining Concentrated Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale and super-strength development of mineral resources in mining concentrated area in long term has made great contributions to Chinese economic construction and development, but it has caused serious damage to the ecological environment even ecological imbalance at the same time. In this study, according to the characteristics of mining concentrated area, the scientific and practical ecological carrying capacity

Xian Wei; Zhou Wancun; Shao Huaiyong

2009-01-01

17

Individual differences in the accuracy of detecting social covariations: Ecological sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological sensitivity refers to the ability to detect covariations in the social environment. The goal of this research was to investigate one operational definition of ecological sensitivity, the ability to observe covariations occurring between group membership and particular behaviors exhibited by group members. A 15-excerpt videotape was devised in which such covariations were scripted into the behavior of the people

Jason D. Carter; Judith A. Hall

2008-01-01

18

Sensitivity analysis as an aid in modelling and control of (poorly-defined) ecological systems. [closed ecological systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review of the use of sensitivity analyses in modelling nonlinear, ill-defined systems, such as ecological interactions is presented. Discussions of previous work, and a proposed scheme for generalized sensitivity analysis applicable to ill-defined systems are included. This scheme considers classes of mathematical models, problem-defining behavior, analysis procedures (especially the use of Monte-Carlo methods), sensitivity ranking of parameters, and extension to control system design.

Hornberger, G. M.; Rastetter, E. B.

1982-01-01

19

Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of the Species-Area Relation in Caribbean Anoline Lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-area relations were studied for anoline lizards on 147 islands in the Caribbean. The relative importance of ecological and evolutionary factors in determining species number varied with island size. On small islands, only ecological factors affect the species-area relation. Further, the importance of different ecological factors such as colonization, competition, and extinction, varied among different types of islands. On landbridge

Jonathan B. Losos

1996-01-01

20

Planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban ecological networks are defined differently in ecology, urban planning and landscape ecology, but they all have linearity\\u000a and linkage in common. Early urban representations evolved from the constraints of deep ecological structure in the landscape\\u000a to built elements that must work around natural linear obstacles—rivers, coastlines, dunes, cliffs, hills and valley swamps.\\u000a Village commons were linked by roads. The

Maria IgnatievaGlenn; Glenn H. Stewart; Colin Meurk

2011-01-01

21

Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous,

John Giles; A. Townsend Peterson; Alzira Almeida

2011-01-01

22

Soil Quality in Mining Areas Undergoing Ecological Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining is one of the anthropogenic activities most impactful to natural resources, and can profoundly affect the resilience of ecosystems depending on the level of soil degradation. Ecological restoration has generated promising results even in situations of degradation as intense as those of mining. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the soil in areas explored by the bauxite extraction undergoing restoration: recently mined, seven years, 20 years and native forest. The studied areas are located in the municipality of Poços de Caldas-MG, belonging to ALCOA Alumínio. The mined-out areas for seven and twenty years were uncompressed and received topsoil, liming and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Samples for chemical analyses of soil fertility were carried out at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Soil quality was evaluated by pondered additive model. The parameters were considered organic matter (0.6) and bases saturation (0.4) for soil fertility function (0.6) and calcium (0.5) and aluminum saturation (0.5) for the function root development (0.4) - (the numbers in parentheses represent the weights attributed). Despite the high content, only the organic matter was not a parameter enough to classify the soil quality, once the native forest has very low base saturation (7%). The soil quality index(SQI) obtained allowed to classify the areas, being the first restored 20 years ago with SQI equal to 0.7 followed of the restored 7 years ago, native forest and newly mined with SQIs equal to 0.6, 04 and 0.3, respectively. The native tropical forests have low soil fertility, keeping by the cycling of nutrients. This demonstrates the need for the degraded areas, especially the mined, are uncompressed to allow storage of water and root development, in addition to the replacement of nutrients and soil acidity correction, especially high levels of aluminum saturation (66%) and low calcium (3 mmolcdm-3).

Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Bizuti, Denise T. G.; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.

2014-05-01

23

Representation of Ecological Systems within the Protected Areas Network of the Continental United States  

PubMed Central

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future.

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

2013-01-01

24

Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the continental United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future.

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

2013-01-01

25

Ecological approach to resource survey and planning for environmentally significant Areas: The ABC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resource survey and planning method for parks, reserves, and other environmentally significant areas (ESAs) is presented in the context of a holistic balanced approach to land use and environmental management. This method provides a framework for the acquisition, analysis, presentation, and application of diverse ecological data pertinent to land use planning and resource management within ESAs. Through the independent analysis and subsequent integration of abiotic, biotic, and cultural or ABC information, land areas within an ESA are identified in terms of their relative environmental significance and environmental constraints. The former term encompasses wildlife, historic, and other resource values, while the latter term reflects biophysical hazards and sensitivities, and land use conflicts. The method thus calls for a matching of an ESA's distinctive attributes with appropriate land use and institutional arrancements through an analysis of available acts, regulations, agencies, and other conservation and land use management mechanisms. The method culminates with a management proposal showing proposed park or reserve allocations, buffer areas, or other land use controls aimed at preserving an ESA's special ecological qualities, while providing for resource development. The authors suggest that all resource management decisions affecting ESA's should be governed by a philosophical stance that recognizes a spectrum of broad land use types, ranging from preservation to extractive use and rehabilitation.

Bastedo, Jamie D.; Nelson, J. Gordon; Theberge, John B.

1984-03-01

26

X ray sensitive area detection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation sensitive area detection device is disclosed which comprises a phosphor-containing film capable of receiving and storing an image formed by a pattern of incoming x rays, UV, or other radiation falling on the film. The device is capable of fluorescing in response to stimulation by a light source in a manner directly proportional to the stored radiation pattern. The device includes: (1) a light source capable of projecting light or other appropriate electromagnetic wave on the film so as to cause it to fluoresce; (2) a means to focus the fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film after light stimulation; and (3) at least one charged coupled detector or other detecting element capable of receiving and digitizing the pattern of fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film. The device will be able to generate superior x ray images of high resolution from a crystal or other sample and will be particularly advantageous in that instantaneous near-real-time images of rapidly deteriorating samples can be obtained. Furthermore, the device can be made compact and sturdy, thus capable of carrying out x ray or other radiation imaging under a variety of conditions, including those experienced in space.

Carter, Daniel C. (inventor); Witherow, William K. (inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (inventor)

1990-01-01

27

[Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].  

PubMed

According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes. PMID:24830253

Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

2014-02-01

28

Study on monitoring ecological restoration in Jiuli mining area by SAR image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological restoration in mining area is one of the study hot spots in the field of resources and environment at present. The vegetation biomass is used as the ecological restoration evaluation index in mining area in the paper. The synthetic aperture radar image after ecological restoration in mining area is used to classify different kinds of vegetation covers. Integrating the field data and the data of L band, the average total backward scattering coefficient which corresponds to the synthetic aperture radar image is calculated and the relation model between the average total backward scattering coefficient and vegetation biomass is established. At last the vegetation biomass is assessed in Jiuli mining area. The results show that the vegetation biomass characteristics which are assessed by using synthetic aperture radar image data and the field data of vegetation biomass characteristics have better consistency in Jiuli mining area. The effects of ecological restoration can be evaluated by using this relation model effectively and accurately.

Wei, Na; Chen, Fu; Tang, Qian

2011-06-01

29

Patterns of sensitivity to cadmium and pentachlorophenol among nematode species from different taxonomic and ecological groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of acute toxicity data among nematode species belonging to different taxonomic and ecological groups was investigated. Twelve different nematode species were extracted from the soil and directly exposed to cadmium and pentachlorophenol. LC50-values were estimated after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure in aqueous solutions. The species exhibited large differences in sensitivity. LC50-values (72 h) for

J. E. Kammenga; C. A. M. Van Gestel; J. Bakker

1994-01-01

30

Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

2012-11-01

31

Land Use Change around Protected Areas: Management to Balance Human Needs and Ecological Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case

Ruth Defries; Andrew Hansen; B. L. Turner; Robin Reid; Jianguo Liu

2007-01-01

32

Area-heterogeneity tradeoff and the diversity of ecological communities  

PubMed Central

For more than 50 y ecologists have believed that spatial heterogeneity in habitat conditions promotes species richness by increasing opportunities for niche partitioning. However, a recent stochastic model combining the main elements of niche theory and island biogeography theory suggests that environmental heterogeneity has a general unimodal rather than a positive effect on species richness. This result was explained by an inherent tradeoff between environmental heterogeneity and the amount of suitable area available for individual species: for a given area, as heterogeneity increases, the amount of effective area available for individual species decreases, thereby reducing population sizes and increasing the likelihood of stochastic extinctions. Here we provide a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis. First we analyze an extensive database of breeding bird distribution in Catalonia and show that patterns of species richness, species abundance, and extinction rates are consistent with the predictions of the area–heterogeneity tradeoff and its proposed mechanisms. We then perform a metaanalysis of heterogeneity–diversity relationships in 54 published datasets and show that empirical data better fit the unimodal pattern predicted by the area–heterogeneity tradeoff than the positive pattern predicted by classic niche theory. Simulations in which species may have variable niche widths along a continuous environmental gradient are consistent with all empirical findings. The area–heterogeneity tradeoff brings a unique perspective to current theories of species diversity and has important implications for biodiversity conservation.

Allouche, Omri; Kalyuzhny, Michael; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio; Pizarro, Manuel; Kadmon, Ronen

2012-01-01

33

Ecological Biology (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... in the following areas. Ecology: Supports studies of community ecology and population interactions ... 7) co-evolution, and (8) chemical ecology. Ecology particularly encourages studies that reveal ...

34

Analysis of the ecological environment change by geoinformatics technology at special erosion area in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the poor condition of soil and micro-climate condition, the mudstone area in the southwestern Taiwan has been difficult for plants to grow. The area is always in such a bare condition that it is nicknamed "Moon World." Serious erosion and natural disasters in the mudstone area are the significant problems for soil and water conservation, and the area of bald mudstones is expanding. Statistical data show that bare area has increased 3 times during the past 10 years. The mudstone area in the southwestern Taiwan was hard to plant and then it always in bare condition which got a nickname of The Moon World. The distribution of each land-use type in mudstone area, and spatial information in years were integrated into GIS by ArcView. In the respect of ecosystem, ecological index in different periods were calculated based upon landscape ecological theory. To explain its meanings and the danger behind the bare mudstone area, the results indicated that mosaic gathering was caused by mudstone and thorn bamboo. The results illustrated that the ecological factor of landscape such as patch shape factor, and Shannon evenness factor that have significant canonical correlation with water qualities and erosion of the study area. In study area, there are many styles of fracture, variation, and mosaic distribution landscape.

Chang, Chun-Pin; Tsai, Shang-Te; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Liang, Ta-Ching

2008-10-01

35

Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

Esser, Robert

36

Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam.

Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

37

What Ecological Factors Shape Species-Area Curves in Neutral Models?  

PubMed Central

Understanding factors that shape biodiversity and species coexistence across scales is of utmost importance in ecology, both theoretically and for conservation policies. Species-area relationships (SARs), measuring how the number of observed species increases upon enlarging the sampled area, constitute a convenient tool for quantifying the spatial structure of biodiversity. While general features of species-area curves are quite universal across ecosystems, some quantitative aspects can change significantly. Several attempts have been made to link these variations to ecological forces. Within the framework of spatially explicit neutral models, here we scrutinize the effect of varying the local population size (i.e. the number of individuals per site) and the level of habitat saturation (allowing for empty sites). We conclude that species-area curves become shallower when the local population size increases, while habitat saturation, unless strongly violated, plays a marginal role. Our findings provide a plausible explanation of why SARs for microorganisms are flatter than those for larger organisms.

Cencini, Massimo; Pigolotti, Simone; Munoz, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

38

Lyme disease: a proposed ecological index to assess areas of risk in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Recent public awareness has resulted in a demand for information about ways to reduce the risk of acquiring Lyme disease. METHODS: Twenty-two school properties and recreational areas within a Lyme disease endemic area of central Monmouth County, New Jersey were evaluated for risk of transmission using an ecological index on the suitability, amount, and access to Ixodes dammini habitat by target human populations and the abundance of infected adult ticks. RESULTS: The characterization of tick habitat accurately predicted the elimination of 11 sites from concern. Of the remaining 11 sites, six were classified high risk and five as moderate risk. On-site tick surveys identified infected I. dammini adults at only four sites (three risk; one moderate risk). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the use of selected ecological parameters provides a cost-effective method to rapidly identify areas at risk for Lyme disease transmission.

Schulze, T L; Taylor, R C; Taylor, G C; Bosler, E M

1991-01-01

39

Predicting the sensitivity of populations from individual exposure to chemicals: The role of ecological interactions.  

PubMed

Population responses to chemical stress exposure are influenced by nonchemical, environmental processes such as species interactions. A realistic quantification of chemical toxicity to populations calls for the use of methodologies that integrate these multiple stress effects. The authors used an individual-based model for Daphnia magna as a virtual laboratory to determine the influence of ecological interactions on population sensitivity to chemicals with different modes of action on individuals. In the model, hypothetical chemical toxicity targeted different vital individual-level processes: reproduction, survival, feeding rate, or somatic growth rate. As for species interactions, predatory and competition effects on daphnid populations were implemented following a worst-case approach. The population abundance was simulated at different food levels and exposure scenarios, assuming exposure to chemical stress solely or in combination with either competition or predation. The chemical always targeted one vital endpoint. Equal toxicity-inhibition levels differently affected the population abundance with and without species interactions. In addition, population responses to chemicals were highly sensitive to the environmental stressor (predator or competitor) and to the food level. Results show that population resilience cannot be attributed to chemical stress only. Accounting for the relevant ecological interactions would reduce uncertainties when extrapolating effects of chemicals from individuals to the population level. Validated population models should be used for a more realistic risk assessment of chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1449-1457. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24114796

Gabsi, Faten; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

2014-07-01

40

Sensitive Animals of the Jarbidge Resource Area, Idaho: Additions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report supplements the original report issued in 1996 by adding two mammals and twenty-nine bird species to the endangered or sensitive species list for the Jarbridge Resource Area managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Bird species listed include...

J. Klott

1997-01-01

41

Low Sensitivity to Alcohol: Relations With Hangover Occurrence and Susceptibility in an Ecological Momentary Assessment Investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective: The current investigation tested whether low sensitivity to alcohol, as measured by the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) form, is associated with hangover occurrence or resistance, two potentially important predictors of later problematic drinking outcomes. Method: Drinkers who reported using alcohol at least four times in the past month (N = 402) completed the SRE at baseline and used ecological momentary assessment methods with an electronic diary to record drinking behaviors and related experiences over 21 days. Each morning, the diary assessed prior-night drinking behaviors and the presence of current hangover. Results: After adjustments for sex, body weight, age, and smoking status, higher SRE scores (indicating lower alcohol sensitivity) predicted hangover occurrence on postdrinking mornings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 per interquartile range [IQR], p = .003). However, when the number of drinks consumed in the drinking episode was covaried, SRE scores were negatively associated with hangover (OR = 0.67 per IQR, p <.001). An interaction between SRE scores and the number of drinks consumed indicated that low-sensitivity drinkers tend to be differentially resistant to hangover at a given number of drinks. Higher SRE scores were associated with consuming more drinks on average (generalized estimating equations coefficient = 2.20 per IQR, p <.001). Conclusions: Individuals lower in alcohol sensitivity appear to be more resistant to hangovers per unit of alcohol. However, they are also more likely to engage in excessive drinking, and this may account for their increased odds of experiencing hangover during an arbitrary monitoring period. Heavy consumption, hangover resistance, and hangover frequency may each be manifestations of low sensitivity to alcohol, an established risk factor for alcohol use disorder.

Piasecki, Thomas M.; Alley, Kyle J.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Wood, Phillip K.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Shiffman, Saul; Heath, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

42

Epidemiological evaluation of breast cancer in ecological areas of Kazakhstan--association with pollution emissions.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer in the ecological areas of Kazakhstan and assess the potential . A retrospective study of 11 years (1999 to 2009) was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. The incidence of breast cancer was the lowest in the Aral-Syr Darya area (18.6±0.80/100,000), and highest in the Irtysh area (48.9±1.90/100,000), with an increasing trends over time in almost all areas. A direct strong correlation between the degree of contamination with high pollution emissions in the atmosphere from stationary sources and the incidence of breast cancer (r=0.77±0.15; p=0.026). The results indicate an increasing importance of breast cancer in Kazakhstan and an etiological role for environmental pollution. PMID:22901219

Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinov, Nurbek; Moore, Malcolm; Igissinov, Saginbek; Sarsenova, Samal; Khassenova, Zauresh

2012-01-01

43

Fuzzy adaptive management of social and ecological carrying capacities for protected areas.  

PubMed

Commonly used methods of evaluating the degree of consistency of protected area ecosystems with social and ecological carrying capacities are likely to result in decision errors. This occurs because such methods do not account for imprecision and uncertainty in inferring the degree of ecosystem consistency from an observed ecosystem indicator. This paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive management approach to determine whether a protected area ecosystem is consistent with ecological and social carrying capacities and, if not, to identify management actions that are most likely to achieve consistency when there is uncertainty about the current degree of consistency and how alternative management actions are likely to influence that consistency. The proposed approach is illustrated using a hypothetical example that uses an ecosystem indicator that reflects combinations of different levels of user satisfaction and conservation of threatened and endangered species. Application of the proposed fuzzy adaptive management approach requires a protected area manager to: (1) identify alternative management actions for achieving ecosystem consistency with social and ecological carrying capacities in each of several management zones in a protected area; (2) randomly assign alternative management actions to management zones; (3) define fuzzy sets for the ecosystem indicator and degree of ecosystem consistency, and fuzzy relations between the ecosystem indicator and the degree of ecosystem consistency; (4) monitor the indicator in each management zone; (5) define fuzzy sets based on the observed indicator in each management zone; and (6) combine the fuzzy sets defined on the observed indicator and the fuzzy relations between the indicator and the degree of ecosystem consistency to reach conclusions about the most likely degree of consistency for alternative management actions in each management zone. The fuzzy adaptive management approach proposed here is advantageous when the benefits of avoiding the decision errors inherent with crisp and stochastic decision rules outweigh the added cost of implementing the approach. PMID:19233541

Prato, Tony

2009-06-01

44

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

45

Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about measuring the effectiveness of conserving biological diversity within protected areas. Managers of protected areas are under increasing pressure to measure their effectiveness in conserving native biological diversity in ways that are scientifically sound, practical, and comparable among protected areas over time. The Nature Conservancy and its partners have developed a "Measures of Success" framework with four core components: (1) identifying a limited number of focal conservation targets, (2) identifying key ecological attributes for these targets, (3) identifying an acceptable range of variation for each attribute as measured by properly selected indicators, and (4) rating target status based on whether or not the target's key attributes are within their acceptable ranges of variation. A target cannot be considered "conserved" if any of its key ecological attributes exceeds its acceptable range of variation. The framework provides a rigorous basis not only for measuring success but for setting conservation objectives, assessing threats to biodiversity, identifying monitoring and research needs, and communicating management information to nonspecialists.

JEFFREY D. PARRISH, DAVID P. BRAUN, and ROBERT S. UNNASCH (;)

2003-09-01

46

Comparison of Two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Species Sensitivity Distribution Methods for Calculating Ecological Risk Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major methods used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to calculate ecological risk criteria using “species sensitivity distributions” (SSD) are compared using identical datasets. One method is the current USEPA Office of Water method for deriving acute numeric water quality criteria (EPA-FAV method). The 95% protection level generated by this method is the Final Acute Value (FAV).

Daniel J. Fisher; Dennis T. Burton

2003-01-01

47

Assessment of Ecological and Seismological Situations In The Geothermal Area of Tbilisi By Hydrodynamic Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to the investigation of the hydrodynamic regime of deep aquifers of the Tbilisi hydrothermal area, in order to delineate the spatial distribution of ther- mal water basins and to understand recorded anomalies quantitatively. Thermal min- eral waters or "sulphur springs" of Tbilisi have been of particular importance for its population during the 1,5 thousand years history of Tbilisi. Water of these springs is hot (40-50 C) and somewhat sulphurous: contain sulphuretted hydrogen and it is used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. The water resort is based on them. Hot natural springs are connected to the exposed sediments of middle Eocene in the river Mtkvari gorge. The water-bearing complex of volcanic type of middle Eocene is abundant at the Tbilisi thermal fields. Through drilling in the North - West part of the city (Lisi dis- trict), several boreholes were opened, where the sulphurous thermal water of 60-70 oC has been encountered. This water is used for room heating. Drilling will be continued for providing the city with hot water. It is planned to warm 30-40 % of the whole Tbil- isi using the geothermal water circulation system. From west to east, these deposits are buried under younger rocks. 20-30 km far from the deposit, oil has been found in an anticline structure. Intensive exploitation of this oil deposit caused the perturbation of the hydraulic regime with consequences in its central part where the thermal springs partly faded out in the eighties. Until present, the hydrodynamical interdependence be- tween these 3 districts has been studied by various authors, but its true character is still unclear. The spatial extent of the thermal waters has also to be investigated. Without detailed research, the sustainable and ecologically correct use of the thermal reservoir is impossible. In the period from July 1999 to July 2001 the monitoring network of water level in boreholes (WLB) and microtemperatures was operating on three wells: Botanical Garden (B.G.), Lisi (L.) and Varketili (V.). It is evident that the regime of natural thermal water is influenced by many factors: exogenous (precipitation, atmo- spheric pressure, tides) and endogenous (earthquakes, creep, tectonic strain impacts). In the reporting period, several seismic and meteorological events happened which allow to judge of connections between thermal fields. The strain-sensitivity of wells using slug-test data and the response of water level to the exogenous impacts confirm 1 the closeness of responses of Lisi and Balneological boreholes and partial deviation of response of Oil production area. In the period of observation, several local earthquakes occurred in the region (Tbilisi-12.2000; 2.2001 etc.). The hydrodynamical precursors of these earthquakes have been recorded in all three wells. The response of aquifers to the strain impact which was caused by the earthquakes, confirms the hydrodynamical connection of Balneological and Oil production area. It means that a reckless exploita- tion of the Oil deposit can strongly decrease the fluid ressure in the Balneological well and can even cause the depletion of the Balneological resort and the Lisi thermal water deposit. The obtained results demonstrate big potential of the applied network of hy- drodynamical monitoring. It allows not only the recognition of short-term precursory phenomena of earthquakes but also operates as a monitor of environmental situation of the Tbilisi region. 2

Chelidze, T.; Buntebarth, G.; Melikadze, G.; Kumsiashvili, G.; Bendukidze, G.

48

Risk assessment of episodic exposures to chemicals should consider both the physiological and the ecological sensitivities of species.  

PubMed

In flowing water pollution regularly occurs in short pulses (hours to days). Populations of species affected by pulses have the potential to recover in the absence of further disturbance but recovery rates will vary between species due to resilience (e.g. generation time and dispersal ability) and avoidance traits. Current assessments of the risks of chemicals to community structure--predominantly based on species sensitivity distributions (SSDs)--only consider physiological sensitivity and do not give any consideration as to the rate at which populations will recover. We constructed SSDs of ecologically sensitive and tolerant stream invertebrate assemblages (based on 3 traits previously shown to be important in determining how species relative abundances respond to pesticide toxicity) from south-east Australia and in regions of Finland, Germany and France. There were differences in SSDs of a generic measure of physiological sensitivity to organic chemicals between ecologically sensitive and tolerant species, though these differences were not consistent between the regions studied. We conclude that it is important for community level risk assessments of pulses of chemicals that the ecological sensitivity of the regional species assemblage is considered and discuss several options as to how this could be achieved. PMID:23137987

Kefford, Ben J; Liess, Matthias; Warne, Michael St J; Metzeling, Leon; Schäfer, Ralf B

2012-12-15

49

The timing of noise-sensitive activities in residential areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

Fields, J. M.

1985-07-01

50

The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

Fields, J. M.

1985-01-01

51

Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.  

PubMed

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors. PMID:22180922

Hirons, Mark

2011-01-01

52

Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

Jonsson, J. E.; Afton, A. D.; Alisauskas, R. T.; Bluhm, C. K.; El, Halawani, M. E.

2006-01-01

53

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

54

Planning of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration in the Coal Mining Subsidence Areas of Wangwa Coal Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the most fragile ecological environment in Wangwa coal mine in south mountain areas in Ningxia. People's life and production had been seriously influenced by the coal mining subsidence area and the destroyed environment during coal mining. With the development of society, land reclamation must be imperative under the situation. Land reclamation is a complex and systematic project which

Hao Binbin; Qi Junde

2009-01-01

55

Habitat selection by female northern pintails wintering in the Grassland Ecological Area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine relative importance of habitats available in the Grassland Ecological Area (GEA) to wintering female northern pintails, Anas acuta, we studied habitat use relative to availability (i.e., habitat selection) in the GEA during September through March, 1991-94 for 196 Hatch-Year (HY) and 221 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female pintails that were radio tagged during August-early October in the GEA (n = 239), other San Joaquin Valley areas (n = 132), or other Central Valley areas (n = 46). Habitat availability and use varied among seasons and years, but pintails always selected shallow and, except on hunting days, open habitats. Swamp timothy, Heleochloa schoenoides, marsh was the most available, used, and selected habitat. Watergrass, Echinochloa crusgalli, marsh in the GEA was used less than available at night in contrast to previous studies in other SJV areas. Preferred late-winter habitats were apparently lacking in the GEA, at least relative to in the Sacramento Valley and Delta where most pintails moved to in December each year. Impacts on pintails of the increasing practice of managing marshes for increased emergent vegetation to attract other species should be monitored. Shallow, open habitats that produce seeds and invertebrates available to pintails in late winter would help maintain pintail abundance in the GEA.

Fleskes, J. P.; Gilmer, D. S.; Jarvis, R. L.

2004-01-01

56

Assessment of spatial coupling between construction space and ecological protection areas in Jiangsu Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an important part of harmonizing the spatial relationship between development and ecological protection and development leading and space control to adjust the spatial arrangement of industry and town according to the distribution of ecological protection space. Taking Jiangsu Province as a case, matrix-analysis and spatial analysis method was applied to exploring the spatial coupling characteristic of ecological function

CHEN Cheng; CHEN Wen; Lü Weiguo

2009-01-01

57

Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

2014-05-01

58

Trends of prevalent cancer incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=-6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=-0.5%). PMID:22296374

Igissinov, Nurbek; Igissinov, Saginbek; Moore, Malcolm A; Shaidarov, Mazhit; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy; Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinova, Gulnur; Nuralina, Indira; Kozhakhmetov, Saken

2011-01-01

59

Ecological Characteristics of a Gonystylus bancanus-rich Area in Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF) is a unique wetland ecosystem with distinct vegetation types. Due to the waterlogged environment, the stand characteristics in this ecosystem are different from those of other inland forests. This paper highlights stand characteristics of a PSF based on our investigation of a 1 ha ecological plot established in a Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR) at Compartment 100, Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. This site is considered a Gonystylus bancanus-rich area. From the inventory, we recorded a total of 49 tree species from 38 genera and 25 families among all trees of ? 10 cm in diameter at breast height. Calophyllum ferrugineum var. ferrugineum was the most abundant species, followed by G. bancanus. The forest appeared healthy, as all tree characteristics (crown shape, log grade and climber infestation) generally fell within Classes 1 and 2 (good and moderate categories), with the exception of crown illumination which majority of the trees were rated as class 3 (received less sunlight). The latter finding indicates that most of the trees living under the canopy received minimal illumination. In terms of total tree biomass, we estimated that about 414.6 tonnes exist in this 1 ha area; this tree biomass is higher than in some PSF areas of Sumatra, Indonesia.

Hamzah, Khali Aziz; Ismail, Parlan; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Hassan, Che Hashim; Akeng, Grippin; Said, Nizam Mohd

2009-01-01

60

Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants.

2014-01-01

61

The Dispersal Ecology of Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness Following Its Introduction to a New Area  

PubMed Central

Tsetse-transmitted human and animal trypanosomiasis are constraints to both human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa, and although these diseases have been known for over a century, there is little recent evidence demonstrating how the parasites circulate in natural hosts and ecosystems. The spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) within Uganda over the past 15 years has been linked to the movement of infected, untreated livestock (the predominant reservoir) from endemic areas. However, despite an understanding of the environmental dependencies of sleeping sickness, little research has focused on the environmental factors controlling transmission establishment or the spatially heterogeneous dispersal of disease following a new introduction. In the current study, an annually stratified case-control study of Rhodesian sleeping sickness cases from Serere District, Uganda was used to allow the temporal assessment of correlations between the spatial distribution of sleeping sickness and landscape factors. Significant relationships were detected between Rhodesian sleeping sickness and selected factors, including elevation and the proportion of land which was “seasonally flooding grassland” or “woodlands and dense savannah.” Temporal trends in these relationships were detected, illustrating the dispersal of Rhodesian sleeping sickness into more ‘suitable’ areas over time, with diminishing dependence on the point of introduction in concurrence with an increasing dependence on environmental and landscape factors. These results provide a novel insight into the ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness dispersal and may contribute towards the implementation of evidence-based control measures to prevent its further spread.

Wardrop, Nicola A.; Fevre, Eric M.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Welburn, Susan C.

2013-01-01

62

Small area analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are used as a measure of access to primary health care. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with variation in ACSC admissions at a small area level in Victoria, Australia. The study was ecologic, using Victorian Primary Care Partnerships (PCPs) as the unit of analysis. Data sources were the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset, census data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and the Victorian Population Health Survey. Age- and sex-adjusted total ACSC admission rates were calculated, and weighted least squares multiple linear regression was used to examine the associations of total ACSC admission rates by various predictor variables. Key variables were categorized into 1 of 4 framework components for analyzing access and use of health care services: predisposing, enabling, need, or structural. Enabling characteristics explained 61.70% of the variation in ACSC admission rates across PCPs. Socioeconomic characteristics (income, education) and percentage with poor self-rated health were important factors in explaining variations in ACSC admissions at a small area-level [R(2)=0.77]. Community-level variables differentially affect access to primary health care, with significant variation by socioeconomic status. This analytical approach will assist researchers to identify community-level predicators of access across populations at locations, including factors that may be affected by policy change. PMID:23405877

Ansari, Zahid; Rowe, Stacey; Ansari, Humaira; Sindall, Colin

2013-06-01

63

The development of land reclamation and ecological restoration information system in mine area -a case study of pingshuo opencast mine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the research of large-scale opencast coal mine land reclamation and ecological restoration, the processed data has many types, and the amount of information is huge, while the data attribute and topology relationship are complicated, and the information with large temporal and spatial changes is involved with lots of structural and nonstructural problems. Taking PingShuo opencast mine area as a

Huading Shi; Su Li; Zhongke Bai

2005-01-01

64

Ecological and cultural barriers to treatment of childhood diarrhea in riverine areas of Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria diarrhea still poses the greatest health problem to the survival of the under-fives in spite of the fact that the majority of mothers are reportedly to have been reached by health education on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) regardless of their ecological and socioeconomic situations. This study assesses the effect of different ecological and sociocultural conditions on use of

B. Folasade Iyun; E. Adewale Oke

2000-01-01

65

An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India, designed to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories.…

Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

2000-01-01

66

A national natural laboratory. A look at the Savannah River Site, an ecological study area that shelters wild animals and dead nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

The wetlands, fields, and upland forests that make up the Savannah River Site constituted one of the most important ecological study sites in the USA. Her in the largest protected natural area in the eastern US, scientists have studied the areas's natural habitats, abundant wildlife, and complex ecological relationships for over 40 years. This article summarizes the history of ecological studies on the Savannah River Site and looks at ongoing studies at the site.

Cohn, J.P.

1994-12-01

67

Outdoor air pollution, subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke - a small-area level ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes and severity is limited. We examined associations between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations modeled at a fine spatial resolution and etiological and clinical ischemic stroke subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke (1995–2007) occurring in a defined geographical area in South London (948 census output areas; population of 267839). Modeled PM10 and NO2 concentrations were available at a very fine spatial scale (20 meter by 20 meter grid point resolution) and were aggregated to output area level using postcode population weighted averages. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxford clinical classification, the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) etiological classification, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and a pragmatic clinical severity classification based on Glasgow coma score, ability to swallow, urinary continence and death <2 days of stroke onset. Results Mean (SD) concentrations were 25.1 (1.2) ug/m3 (range 23.3-36.4) for PM10 and 41.4 (3.0) ug/m3 (range 35.4-68.0) for NO2. There were 2492 incident cases of ischemic stroke. We found no evidence of association between these pollutants and the incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes classified using the Oxford and TOAST classifications. We found no significant association with stroke severity using NIHSS severity categories. However, we found that outdoor concentrations of both PM10 and NO2 appeared to be associated with increased incidence of mild but not severe ischemic stroke, classified using the pragmatic clinical severity classification. For mild ischemic stroke, the rate ratio in the highest PM10 category by tertile was 1.20 (1.05-1.38) relative to the lowest category. The rate ratio in the highest NO2 category was 1.22 (1.06-1.40) relative to the lowest category. Conclusions We found no evidence of association between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations and ischemic stroke subtypes but there was a suggestion that living in areas with elevated outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations might be associated with increased incidence of mild, but not severe, ischemic stroke.

2014-01-01

68

Climate changes in the Lake Titicaca area: Evidence from ostracod ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of lake and wetland paleoecology has undergone recently significant changes. Quantitative statistical methods (transfer functions) have been developed to infer past limnological conditions. The large number of altiplanean lakes in the Central Andes, distributed over a hydrologically and climatically diverse area between 14 and 22° south, provide an ideal natural laboratory for this kind of approach. Changes in the water volume and chemistry of these aquatic environments, which result from their hydrological response to seasonal and long-term trends in the regional evaporation-precipitation balance are archived in the sediment records as characteristic biological signatures. The taxonomy and biogeography of several different groups oforganisms have been studied in some detail, but relevant ecological studies have been done only on ostracods. This study attempts to reconstruct past environments of Lake Titicaca and adjacent lacustrine systems by using quantitative information about tbe response of ostracod communities to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability, especially lake-level and water chemistry. The high-amplitude paleoenvironmental variations indicated by the transfer function developed have important implications for regional climate dynamics. In particular, the inferred high-amplitude lake-level fluctuations are attributed primarily to drastic changes in ITCZ displacements during the last 10,000 years.

Mourguiart, Philippe; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia

69

Determination of ecological significance based on geostatistical assessment: a case study from the Slovak Natura 2000 protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sitno Natura 2000 Site covers an area of 935,56 hectares. The Sitno region is significant due to the number of rare and endangered species of plants, and as a result is considered a location of great importance to the maintenance of floral gene pools. The study area suffers human impacts in the form of tourism. The main purpose of this study is to the measure landscape elements, determine the ecological significance of habitats within the Sitno area, and from this data, organize the study area into conservation zones. The results of this landscape quantification are numerical values that can be used to interpret the quality of ongoing ecological processes within individual landscape types. Interpretation of this quantified data can be used to determine the ecological significance of landscapes in other study areas. This research examines the habitats of Natura 2000 Sites by a set of landscape metrics for habitat area, size, density, and shape, such as Number of patches (NP), Patch density (PD), Mean patch size (MPS), Patch size standard deviation (PSSD) and Mean shape index (MSI). The classification of land cover patches is based on the Annex Code system.

Klau?o, Michal; Gregorová, Bohuslava; Stankov, Uglješa; Markovi?, Vladimir; Lemenkova, Polina

2013-03-01

70

Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy. PMID:24813871

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

2014-09-01

71

Study on ecological impact and countermeasures on ecological recovery project of Flower Lake core area of Zoige alpine wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core area of Flower Lake in Zoige alpine wetland withers, the natural grasslands around the lake degenerate, and the number of pests and mice continues to grow. The moist marsh is under the progress of developing into marshy grassland, and the storage runoff and water source conservation functions of the wetland have been drastically weakened. In order to protect

Wang Yan; Xing Bing

2011-01-01

72

Gas-geochemical condition and ecological functions of urban soils in areas with gas generating grounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization and expansion of city borders lead to development of new areas, often following with relief changes, covering of gully-ravine systems and river beds with technogenic grounds containing construction and municipal waste. Decomposition of organic matter in these grounds is a source of methane and carbon dioxide. Intensive generation and accumulation of CO2 and CH4 into grounds may cause a fire and explosion risk for constructed objects. Gases emission to the atmosphere changes the global balance of GHGs and negatively influences on human health. The aim of this investigation is to study gas-geochemical condition and ecological functions of urban soils in areas with gas generating grounds. Studied areas are the gully-ravine systems or river beds, covered with technogenic grounds during land development. Stratigraphic columns of these grounds are 5-17 meters of man-made loamy material with inclusion of construction waste. Gas generating layer with increased content of organic matter, reductive conditions and high methanogenic activity (up to 1.0 ng*g-1*h-1) is situated at the certain depth. Maximum CH4 and CO2 concentrations in this layer reach dangerous values (2-10% and 11%, respectively) in the current standards. In case of disturbance of ground layer (e.g. well-drilling) methane is rapidly transferred by convective flux to atmosphere. The rate of CH4 emission reaches 100 mg*m-2*h-1 resulting in its atmospheric concentration growth by an order of magnitude compared with background. In normal occurrence of grounds methane gradually diffuses into the upper layers by pore space, consuming on different processes (e.g. formation of organic matter, nitrogen compounds or specific particles of magnetite), and emits to atmosphere. CH4 emission rate varies from 1 to 40 mg*m-2*h-1 increasing with depth of grounds. Carbon dioxide emission is about 100 mg*m-2*h-1. During soil formation on gas generating grounds bacterial oxidation of methane, one of the most important ecological functions of such soils, is initiated. Due to high rate of this process (25-30 ng*g-1*h-1) accumulation of methane in the profile does not observed, its content in soil averages 2-5 ppm. Methane emission from soils is low (0.01-0.03 mg*m-2*h-1) or there is a weak consumption of atmospheric CH4, whereby its concentration in the air corresponds to the average content of this gas. Active methane oxidation and decomposition of organic matter under aerobic conditions result to intensive formation of carbon dioxide and, thus, increase its emission (600 mg*m-2*h-1), concentration in soils (0.2-0.9%) and in atmosphere (up to 0.5%). Fixed concentration of CO2 in the air is dangerous for human health. Thus, presence of gas generating grounds with high content of organic matter leads to methane formation, causing its intensive emission to atmosphere. At upper layers of soils and grounds bacterial oxidation of methane occurs and results in complete CH4 utilization. During this process significant amounts of carbon dioxide are released and accumulated in the atmosphere up to concentration dangerous for people. Carbon dioxide emission increases current level of this gas in the urban atmosphere.

Mozharova, Nadezhda; Lebed-Sharlevich, Iana; Kulachkova, Svetlana

2014-05-01

73

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

74

Ecological Monitoring of Beach Erosion Control Projects, Broward County, Florida, and Adjacent Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ecological monitoring of algae, invertebrates, and fishes was conducted in the southeast Florida coast in connection with offshore dredging and beach nourishment projects. The Pompano Beach to Lauderdale-by-the-Sea segment of the Broward County Beach Eros...

D. J. Harrema J. van Montfrans M. J. Thompson W. P. Azzinaro W. R. Courtenay

1974-01-01

75

Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522  

SciTech Connect

'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 ?Sv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 ?Sv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 ?Sv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The seasonal dependence of radon activity concentration is observed in the air of workshops (radon levels are lower in winter in comparison with spring-summer period). - in drinking water, intervention levels by gross alpha activity and by some radionuclides, in particular by Rn-222, are in excess. Annual effective dose of internal exposure due to ingestion of such water will be 0.14-0.28 mSv. (authors)

Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)] [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

76

Characterization of mercury and other heavy metals in sediment of an ecological important backwater area of River Tisza (Hungary).  

PubMed

Sediment from a representative and ecologically important backwater wetland under the influence of River Tisza (Hungary) was chemically characterized for sediment pollutants. Phosphine production potential, methyl mercury, mercury, and other heavy metals were determined along with other sediment chemical and physical properties. The wetland site, which is relatively isolated, represents an important bird reserve and nature conservation area. Methyl mercury and total mercury content was also low reflecting little mercury pollution in the sediment. Results of heavy metal analysis showed that only copper was elevated with concentration slightly above the reported levels considered excessive in soils and sediments. Other sediment properties were in normal range except boron content, which was high. Results show sediment were relatively unpolluted but should be routinely monitored to insure that this ecologically important area remains environmentally safe for future generation. PMID:17558765

Devai, Istvan; Delaune, Ronald D; Dévai, György; Aradi, Csaba; Göri, Szilvia; Nagy, Alex Sándor; Tálas, Zsuzsa

2007-06-01

77

Agro-ecological field vulnerability evaluation and climate change impacts in Souma area (Iran), using MicroLEIS DSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion and contamination are two main desertification indices or land degradation agents in agricultural areas. Global\\u000a climate change consequence is a priority to predict global environmental change impacts on these degradation risks. This agro-ecological\\u000a approach can be especially useful when formulating soil specific agricultural practices based on the spatial variability of\\u000a soils and related resources to reverse environmental degradation.

Farzin Shahbazi; Ali Asghar Jafarzadeh; Mohammad Reza Shahbazi

2009-01-01

78

Differences in sensitivity to neural timing among cortical areas  

PubMed Central

The basic circuitry of auditory, visual, somatosensory and other cortical areas is highly stereotyped (Douglas & Martin, 2004). However, it remains unclear whether this anatomical stereotypy implies functional homogeneity, or whether instead different cortical areas are specialized to process the diverse sensory inputs they receive. Here we have used a two alternative forced choice task to assess modality-specific differences in the ability of rats to exploit precise neuronal timing. We delivered pairs of electrical pulses directly to different areas of cortex to determine the minimum timing differences subjects could detect. By stimulating the cortex directly, we isolated differences due to cortical circuitry rather than to sensory transduction and subcortical processing. Surprisingly, the minimum detectable timing differences varied over more than an order of magnitude, ranging from 1 ms in barrel cortex to 15 ms in visual cortex. Furthermore, these modality-specific differences depended upon sensory experience: although animals subjected to whisker clipping initially showed an impaired ability to exploit fine timing in barrel cortical stimulation, behavioral training partially rescued this deficit. Our results suggest that different cortical areas are adapted to the specific structure of the input signals they process, and that precise spike timing may play a more important role for some cortical areas than for others.

Yang, Yang; Zador, Anthony

2012-01-01

79

60 FR 27948 - Areas Unusually Sensitive to Environmental Damage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident, and Establish...identifying each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and gathering...other areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding...environmental damage from a hazardous liquid pipeline release and...

1995-05-26

80

Sensitive Plants of the Jarbidge Resource Area, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents 26 plant species that are either present or likely to be present in the Jarbridge Resource Area. The list is modified based on new information about the abundance of species as well as how widespread populations are determined to be....

J. Klott A. DeBolt

1996-01-01

81

The results of an ecological risk assessment screening at the Idaho National Engineering`s waste area group 2  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho and occupies approximately 890 square miles on the northwestern portion of the eastern Snake River Plain. INEL has been devoted to nuclear energy research and related activities since its establishment in 1949. In the process of fulfilling this mission, wastes were generated, including radioactive and hazardous materials. Most materials were effectively stored or disposed of, however, some release of contaminants to the environment has occurred. For this reason, the INEL was listed by the US environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List (NPL), in November, 1989. This report describes the results of an ecological risk assessment performed for the Waste Area Groups 2 (WAG 2) at the INEL. It also summarizes the performance of screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERA).

VanHorn, R.

1995-11-01

82

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

83

Wakefulness-inducing area in the brainstem excites warm-sensitive and inhibits cold-sensitive neurons in the medial preoptic area in anesthetized rats.  

PubMed

Sleep-wakefulness and body temperature are known to influence each other. The body temperature rises during wakefulness and falls during sleep. The midbrain reticular formation is one of the areas in the brainstem that induces wakefulness, while the preoptico-anterior hypothalamic area is the main thermoregulatory center in the brain. In order to understand the neural mechanism for simultaneous regulation of these functions we hypothesized that the wakefulness area in the brainstem is likely to have an opposite influence on warm- and cold-sensitive neurons in the preoptico-anterior hypothalamic area. Hence, first, the wakefulness-inducing area was identified in the brainstem by stimulating the site with high-frequency rectangular wave electrical pulses (100 Hz, 100 microA, 200 microsec for 5-8 sec) in freely behaving chronically prepared experimental rats. Then, single neuronal activity from the medial preoptico-anterior hypothalamic area was recorded and their thermosensitivity was established. Thereafter, the influence of such a confirmed wakefulness-inducing area in the brainstem on the responsiveness of the single neuronal activity of predetermined warm- and cold-sensitive neurons as well as on temperature-insensitive neurons was studied by overlapping stimulus (1 Hz, 500 microA, 200 microsec) bound responses. It was observed that the warm-sensitive neurons were excited and the cold-sensitive neurons were inhibited by stimulation of the wakefulness-inducing area in the brainstem. Most of the temperature-insensitive neurons remained unaffected. The results confirm our hypothesis and help in understanding the mechanism of simultaneous modulation of body temperature in association with changes in wakefulness at the single neuronal level. PMID:14579425

Mallick, Birendra N; Jha, Sushil K; Islam, Fakhrul

2004-01-01

84

The Use of Ecological Niche Modeling to Infer Potential Risk Areas of Snakebite in the Mexican State of Veracruz  

PubMed Central

Background Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings Ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC); this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper), explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low).

Yanez-Arenas, Carlos; Peterson, A. Townsend; Mokondoko, Pierre; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martinez-Meyer, Enrique

2014-01-01

85

A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and

María del Carmen Sabatini; Adriana Verdiell; Ricardo M. Rodríguez Iglesias; Marta Vidal

2007-01-01

86

Focal electrical intracerebral stimulation of a face-sensitive area causes transient prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

Face perception is subtended by a large set of areas in the human ventral occipito-temporal cortex. However, the role of these areas and their importance for face recognition remain largely unclear. Here we report a case of transient selective impairment in face recognition (prosopagnosia) induced by focal electrical intracerebral stimulation of the right inferior occipital gyrus. This area presents with typical face-sensitivity as evidenced by functional neuroimaging right occipital face area (OFA). A face-sensitive intracerebral N170 was also recorded in this area, supporting its contribution as a source of the well-known N170 component typically recorded on the scalp. Altogether, these observations indicate that face recognition can be selectively impaired by local disruption of a single face-sensitive area of the network subtending this function, the right OFA. PMID:22813996

Jonas, J; Descoins, M; Koessler, L; Colnat-Coulbois, S; Sauvée, M; Guye, M; Vignal, J-P; Vespignani, H; Rossion, B; Maillard, L

2012-10-11

87

[Concentration characteristics and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area].  

PubMed

Surface sediments were sampled from various surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, and four types of persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured. The purposes were to investigate the concentration characteristics of the four types of pollutants and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled from the Tianjin coastal area. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranged from 274.06 microg x kg(-1) to 2656.65 microg x kg(-1), with the average being 1 198.51 microg x kg(-1). Combustion of fossil fuel such as coal and gasoline was the major source of PAHs in the surface sediments, while input of petroleum products might occur in some locations. In the Dagu discharging river, the total concentration of 22 OCPs was 3 103.36 microg x kg(-1), the total concentration of 35 PCBs and the total concentration of 14 PBDEs were 87.31 microg x kg(-1) and 13.88 microg x kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs in other sampling locations were low. The total organic carbon in the surface sediments had good correlation with PAHs but not with OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs, and this might be due to the fact that PAHs mainly came from area pollution while the other compounds mainly came from point pollution. In the sediments, PAHs (particularly low molecular weight PAHs) had high ecological risk; in multiple locations, the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations, indicating that they were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. In the Dagu discharging river, the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane (gamma-BHC) exceeded their probable effect concentrations and were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms. The OCPs in other sampling locations had low ecological risk. Overall, PCBs and PBDEs had low ecological risk. PMID:23233969

Lu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Chao-Qi; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Jun-Jun

2012-10-01

88

Ecological modulation of plant defense via phytochrome control of jasmonate sensitivity  

PubMed Central

For plants, the tradeoff between resource investment in defense and increased growth to out-compete neighbors creates an allocation dilemma. How plants resolve this dilemma, at the mechanistic level, is unclear. We found that Arabidopsis plants produced an attenuated defense phenotype under conditions of crowding and when exposed to far-red (FR) radiation, a light signal that plants use to detect the proximity of neighbors via the photoreceptor phytochrome. This phenotype was detectable through standard bioassays that measured the growth of Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars. Two possible explanations for the effect of FR are: (i) a simple by-product of the diversion of resources to competition, and (ii) a specific effect of phytochrome on defense signaling. The first possibility was ruled out by the fact that the auxin-deficient sav3 mutant, which fails to induce growth responses to FR, still responded to FR with an attenuated defense phenotype. In support of the second hypothesis, we found that phytochrome inactivation by FR caused a strong reduction of plant sensitivity to jasmonates, which are key regulators of plant immunity. The effects of FR on jasmonate sensitivity were restricted to certain elements of the pathway. Supporting the idea that the FR effects on jasmonate signaling are functionally significant, we found that FR failed to increase tissue quality in jar1, a mutant impaired in jasmonate response. We conclude that the plant modulates its investment in defense as a function of the perceived risk of competition, and that this modulation is effected by phytochrome via selective desensitization to jasmonates.

Moreno, Javier E.; Tao, Yi; Chory, Joanne; Ballare, Carlos L.

2009-01-01

89

Development of large area pSi surface barrier detectors and the associated charge sensitive preamplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large area Si Surface Barrier Detectors (SBD), with 95 cm² sensitive area, and a charge sensitive preamplifier, for use up to 10⁵ pF input capacity were developed. Noise width of the preamplifier had a slope of 7eV\\/pF with respect to the input capacitance. The p-Si detectors were made of MCZ Si of 1.7-3.6 kohms in resistivity. Detector Characteristics, the detailed

Y. Takami; F. Shiraishi; H. Murakami; M. Sieminski; N. Isawa

1989-01-01

90

Sensitivity of an ecological model to soil moisture simulations from two different hydrological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although advanced land surface schemes have been developed in the past decade, many biosphere models still use the simple bucket model, partly due to its efficiency when it is coupled with an CGCM model. In this paper, we use a sophisticated land surface model, the Simulator for Hydrology and Energy Exchange at the Land Surface (SHEELS), including an explicit vegetation canopy and its physiological control on evapotranspiration and multiple, interactive subsurface soil layers. It is found that this model has potential for improving the carbon cycling description of a widely used biosphere model, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA), especially for multiple seasonal integrations. Verifying with observations from Oklahoma Atmospheric Surface-layer Instrumentation System (OASIS) stations, we show that a bucket model as implemented in the CASA produces good simulations of the seasonal cycle of soil moisture content, but only for the upper 15-cm soil depth, no matter how it is initialized. This is partly due to its inability to include vegetation characteristics other than a fixed wilting point. Although only approximate, the soil depth to which CASA simulates storage of below-ground carbon is assumed to be about 30 cm depth, significantly deeper than the 15 cm depth. The bucket model cannot utilize the soil profile measurements that have recently been made widely available. A major finding of this study is that carbon fluxes are sensitive to the soil moisture simulations, especially the soil water content of the upper 30 cm. The SHEELS exhibits potential for simulating soil moisture, and hence the total soil water amount, accurately at every level. For the Net Primary Production (NPP) parameter, the differences between two hydrological schemes occur primarily during the growing seasons, when the land surface processes are more important for climate. However, soil microbial respiration is found to be sensitive all year round to soil moisture simulations at our 7 selected Oklahoma Mesonet stations. These suggest that for future implementing of interactive representation of soil carbon in CGCMs, the accompanying hydrological scheme should not be over-simplified.

Ren, D.; Leslie, L. M.; Karoly, D. J.

2008-08-01

91

Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preventive interventions in resource-poor areas, particularly if the hotspot areas can be discerned during non-epidemic periods and predicted by ecological factors. Methods To address this issue, spatial distribution of malaria incidence and the relationship of ecological factors to malaria incidence were assessed in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya, from 2001–2004. Results Clustering of disease in a single geographic "hotspot" area occurred in epidemic and non-epidemic years, with a 2.6 to 3.2-fold increased risk of malaria inside the hotspot, as compared to outside the area (P < 0.001, all 4 years). Altitude and proximity to the forest were independently associated with increased malaria risk in all years, including epidemic and non-epidemic years. Conclusion In this highland area, areas of high malaria risk are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with specific ecological risk factors. Ongoing interventions in areas of ecological risk factors could be a cost-effective method of significantly reducing malaria incidence and blunting or preventing epidemics, even in the absence of malaria early warning systems. Further studies should be conducted to see if these findings hold true in varied highland settings.

Ernst, Kacey C; Adoka, Samson O; Kowuor, Dickens O; Wilson, Mark L; John, Chandy C

2006-01-01

92

Large area pixel detector WIDEPIX with full area sensitivity composed of 100 Timepix assemblies with edgeless sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superior properties of the single particle counting semiconductor pixel detectors in radiation imaging are well known. They are namely: very high dynamic range due to digital counting, absence of integration and read-out noise, high spatial resolution and energy sensitivity. The major disadvantage of current pixel devices preventing their broad exploitation has been their relatively small sensitive area of few cm2. This disadvantage is often solved using tiling method placing many detector units side by side forming a large matrix. The current tiling techniques require rather large gaps of few millimeters between tiles. These gaps stand as areas insensitive to radiation which is acceptable only in some applications such as diffraction imaging. However standard transmission radiography requires fully continuous area sensitivity. In this article we present the new large area device WIDEPIX composed of a matrix of 10 × 10 tiles of silicon pixel detectors Timepix (each of 256 × 256 pixels with pitch of 55 ?m) having fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 14.3 cm2 without any gaps between the tiles. The device contains a total of 6.5 mega pixels. This achievement was reached thanks to new technology of edgeless semiconductor sensors together with precise alignment technique and multilevel architecture of readout electronics. The mechanical construction of the device is fully modular and scalable. This concept allows replacing any single detector tile which significantly improves production yield. The first results in the field of X-ray radiography and material sensitive X-ray radiography are presented in this article.

Jakubek, J.; Jakubek, M.; Platkevic, M.; Soukup, P.; Turecek, D.; Sykora, V.; Vavrik, D.

2014-04-01

93

Trophic ecology of Mustelus schmitti (Springer, 1939) in a nursery area of northern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mustelus schmitti is an endangered endemic shark of the southwest Atlantic, and an important economical resource in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to describe the trophic ecology of M. schmitti in Anegada Bay, its feeding strategy and diet composition, along with the possible dietary shifts, due to season, sex, ontogeny and the different geographical features of the bay. Our results show that M. schmitti is a carnivorous opportunistic predator, feeding on a variety of benthic invertebrates. The diet presented seasonal and ontogenetic variations, while no differences in diet composition were observed between sexes or the different sampling sites. This species behave as a generalize feeder, with a wide trophic spectrum and a diverse diet.

Molina, Juan Manuel; Cazorla, Andrea López

2011-05-01

94

Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

1983-01-01

95

[Clinical hygienic substantiation for the individual biocorrection of ecologically dependent conditions in the critical population groups industrial areas of Ukraine].  

PubMed

In the article there is considered the problem of environmental and human body pollution with heavy metals, the effectiveness of individual biocorrection in critical population groups--pregnant females and children residing in technologically contaminated areas. It was established that, in spite of the correspondence of the content of abiotic heavy metals to their MACs in the environment, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the internal environment of the organism is 1,6-15,4 times larger than physiological norms and accompanied by substantial deficiency of essential trace elements. The similar situation in children was proved to cause the fall in mental capacity and learning ability, in pregnant females--to various complications. The obtained results were the scientific substantiation for the feasibility of performing of biocorrection for trace elements imbalance and ecologically dependent conditions in the population of the industrial region, proved its high clinical and hygienic efficiency, which is the basis for the wide introduction of pectin containing preparations with the aim to enforce the health, prevent ecologically dependent conditions and increasing the adaptive capacity of the organism. PMID:24749285

Beletskaya, E N; Onul, N M; Glavatskaya, V I; Antonova, E V; Golovkova, T A

2014-01-01

96

Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

2011-11-01

97

RESTORE CIRCULATION AND PROVIDE ECOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT IN THE FT. DESOTO PARK AQUATIC HABITAT MANAGEMENT AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will result in the design and environmental enhancement as it re-established circuitous flow in the bak bays of Mullet Key within the Ft. DeSoto Park Aquatic Habitat Management Area. Pinellas County is designing the project will use GMP funds for a portion of the co...

98

[Remote sensing based monitoring of vegetation dynamics and ecological restoration in Beijing mountainous area].  

PubMed

By using the Landsat images in 1979, 1988, 1999, 2005, and 2009, and the linear unmixed model at pixel scale, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation coverage in Beijing mountainous area. After detecting the areas of vegetation degradation or restoration, the impacts of elevation, slope, and soil type on vegetation restoration were studied. From 1979 to 1988, the vegetation coverage in the study area had no obvious change, but in the following 12 years, the vegetation coverage was seriously destroyed due to the fast development of social economy. Fortunately, many protective measures were taken since 2000, which improved the vegetation coverage to 72% in 2009, with an increment of 13% compared to the vegetation coverage in 1999. A significant correlation was observed between the variations of vegetation coverage and territorial features. The areas with poor soil or large slope were more easily suffered from degradation than other places, and the flat regions with low elevation were more affected by human activities. PMID:21361013

Hu, Yong; Liu, Liang-yun; Jia, Jian-hua

2010-11-01

99

Hantavirus ecology in rodent populations in three protected areas of Argentina.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified hantavirus genotypes and their reservoirs and evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of the virus in rodent population in three protected areas of Argentina over 3 years (2007-2010). A total of 837 rodents were captured with an effort of 22 117 trap-nights. We detected the genotype Lechiguanas in Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens and Pergamino in Akodon azarae. There was no correlation between seroprevalence and trap success of the host. The proportion of seropositive males was significantly higher than the proportion of seropositive females. The total length of seropositives was higher than that of seronegatives in each host species. Seropositive individuals were observed in warm months and not in cold months, which suggests an infection cycle. This investigation confirms that protected areas of central east Argentina are places with a variety of sylvan rodents species associated with different hantavirus genotypes where reservoirs are numerically dominant. Although there was more than one known reservoir of hantavirus, only one species had antibodies in each area. This can be explained because the transmission of the virus does need not only the presence of a rodent species but also a threshold density. Longevity of even a small proportion of the host population in cold months may provide a trans-seasonal mechanism for virus persistence. The seroprevalence detected was higher than the one found before in rodent populations of Argentina, and this explains the appearance of human cases in two of these three areas. PMID:21733047

Vadell, M V; Bellomo, C; San Martín, A; Padula, P; Gómez Villafañe, I

2011-10-01

100

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia - Ecology of Illubabor Province and Epidemiology in the Baro Region Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

African human trypanosomiasis was first seen in Ethiopia in March 1967. Between March 1967 and March 1968, 4 cases were recorded; in the following 12 months the total had risen to 95. The disease occurs mainly in an area of southwestern Ethiopia bounded t...

J. R. Baker E. McConnell D. C. Kent J. Hady

1970-01-01

101

Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525  

SciTech Connect

Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess. Possible ways to improve the situation are considered. (authors)

Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation)] [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

102

Development of large area P-Si surface barrier detectors and the associated charge sensitive preamplifier  

SciTech Connect

Large area Si Surface Barrier Detectors (SBD), with 95 cm/sup 2/ sensitive area, and a charge sensitive preamplifier, for use up to 10/sup 5/ pF input capacity were developed. Noise width of the preamplifier had a slope of 7eV/pF with respect to the input capacitance. The p-Si detectors were made of MCZ Si of 1.7-3.6 kohms in resistivity. Detector Characteristics, the detailed fabrication technique including the surface treatment and passivation are described.

Takami, Y.; Shiraishi, F.; Murakami, H.; Sieminski, M.; Isawa, N.

1989-02-01

103

Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy).  

PubMed

Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR) were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18). PMID:21709388

Fazzo, Lucia; De Santis, Marco; Mitis, Francesco; Benedetti, Marta; Martuzzi, Marco; Comba, Pietro; Fusco, Mario

2011-01-01

104

Tuning the tide: creating ecological conditions for tidal marsh development in a flood control area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schelde estuary, characterised as a turbid, polluted and eutrophic system, has nowadays reached a turning point in the\\u000a restoration of its water quality. During the past century, human activities have reduced the intertidal areas, essential in\\u000a the estuarine ecosystem for nutrient cycling and the self-cleaning capacity. Today, in combination with a master plan to protect\\u000a the population from storm

T. Maris; T. J. S. Cox; S. Temmerman; P. De Vleeschauwer; S. Van Damme; T. De Mulder; E. Van den Bergh; P. Meire

2007-01-01

105

A xenon gas proportional scintillation counter with a UV-sensitive large-area avalanche photodiode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of a xenon gas proportional scintillation counter comprising a large-area avalanche photodiode with enhanced ultraviolet sensitivity were evaluated. By integrating the photodiode within the xenon gas envelope of the scintillator, the intervening quartz window was eliminated. Energy resolutions of 7.8% and 4.4% were measured for 5.9- and 22.1-keV X-rays, respectively. The results demonstrate that large-area avalanche photodiodes

J. A. M. Lopes; J. M. F. dos Santos; R. E. Morgado; C. A. N. Conde

2001-01-01

106

Networking Administration in Areas of National Sensitivity: The Commission and European Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Education as a policy area in the European Union (EU) has a weak legal basis for Community action and institution building.\\u000a It has traditionally been regarded as nationally sensitive; an area that belongs to the core of the nation state and therefore\\u000a resilient to ‘Europe’. Yet, European higher education reveals a complex governance system where multiple levels are in action

Åse Gornitzka

2007-01-01

107

Ecological risk assessment of impacted estuarine areas: integrating histological and biochemical endpoints in wild Senegalese sole.  

PubMed

The analysis of multiple biomarker responses is nowadays recognized as a valuable tool to circumvent potential confounding factors affecting biomonitoring studies and allows a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying exposure to natural mixtures of toxicants. For the purpose of an environmental risk assessment (ERA) in an impacted estuary in SW Europe (the Sado, Portugal), juvenile Solea senegalensis from commercial fishing areas were surveyed for histopathological liver alterations and biochemical biomarkers. Although the findings revealed moderate differences in the patterns of histopathological traits between urban/industrial- and agricultural-influenced areas within the same estuary, no significant distinction was found between the cumulative alterations in animals from the two sites. The overall level of histopathological injury was low and severe traits like neoplasms or pre-neoplastic foci were absent. While metallothionein induction and lipid peroxidation could relate to histopathological condition indices, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes appeared to be impaired in animals collected off the estuary's heavy-industry belt (the most contaminated site), which may partially explain some degree of hepatic integrity loss. Overall, the results are consistent with low-moderate contamination of the estuary and indicate that oxidative stress is the most important factor accounting for differences between sites. The study highlights the need of integrating multiple biomarkers when multiple environmental stressors are involved and the advantages of surveying toxicity effects in field-collected, foraging, organisms. PMID:23810368

Gonçalves, Cátia; Martins, Marta; Costa, Maria H; Caeiro, Sandra; Costa, Pedro M

2013-09-01

108

Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.  

PubMed

Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer. PMID:16232200

Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

2005-10-01

109

Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China  

PubMed Central

Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16?PAHs ranging from 274.06??g/kg to 2656.65??g/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24?OCPs, 35?PCBs, and 14?PBDEs were 3103.36??g/kg, 87.31??g/kg, and 13.88??g/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.

Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

2013-01-01

110

Factors affecting the underwater noise of commercial vessels operating in environmentally sensitive areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater noise radiated from commercial vessels is becoming a concern for cruise vessels and work boats operating in environmentally sensitive areas. This paper assesses the primary noise sources and transmission paths controlling the vessel's signature. The relative contribution of machinery induced noise (diesel, gas turbine) and propulsor (propeller, water jet, azipod) induced noise will be highlighted. It is necessary to

R. W. Fischer; N. A. Brown

2005-01-01

111

Investigating area-sensitivity in shrubland birds: Responses to patch size in a forested landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population declines of shrubland birds in the eastern United States have been attributed to loss of early-successional habitat. Given that shrubland habitats are often ephemeral and patchily distributed, understanding the sensitivity of shrubland birds to patch characteristics is important for conservation. We tested the extent to which patch area was related to shrubland bird density, annual survival, and productivity by

Sarah E. Lehnen; Amanda D. Rodewald

2009-01-01

112

A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES) have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect). Tberefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs) from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any) of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. hi this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1) major faults in the vicinity; (2) highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3) local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring sites. European Geosciences Union ?? 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Balasis, G.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Eftaxias, K.

2005-01-01

113

Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits. Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California. Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots. Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history. Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects. ?? 2011 Botanical Society of Scotland and Taylor & Francis.

Anacker, B.; Rajakaruna, N.; Ackerly, D.; Harrison, S.; Keeley, J.; Vasey, M.

2011-01-01

114

Haemolymph Mg(2+) regulation in decapod crustaceans: physiological correlates and ecological consequences in polar areas.  

PubMed

Reptant decapod crustaceans are almost absent from the Southern Ocean south of the Antarctic Convergence. We tested the hypothesis that this may be due to the reduced ability of this group to regulate Mg(2+) levels in the haemolymph ([Mg(2+)](HL)). Mg(2+) acts as an anaesthetic in marine invertebrates and its level is higher in Reptantia (crabs such as Cancer spp., Chionoecetes spp., Maja spp., 30-50 mmol l(-)(1)) than in Natantia (prawns such as Pandalus spp., Palaemon spp., Crangon spp., 5-12 mmol l(-)(1)). We varied [Mg(2+)](HL) in three species of reptant decapod crustaceans, Carcinus maenas, Hyas araneus and Eurypodius latreillei, and investigated heart rate, the rate of oxygen consumption and levels of spontaneous and forced activity at different temperatures. The rate of oxygen consumption and heart rate increased significantly with reduction in [Mg(2+)](HL) over the entire temperature range investigated in E. latreillei. In H. araneus, an increase in metabolic and heart rates compared with control values was found only at temperatures below 2 degrees C. Forced and spontaneous activity levels increased significantly in the group of [Mg(2+)](HL)-reduced animals below 0 degrees C, at which control animals were mostly inactive. At a reduced [Mg(2+)](HL) of 5-12 mmol l(-)(1), which is the [Mg(2+)](HL) of caridean shrimps in the Southern Ocean, Q(10) and activation energy were reduced for all these variables and extended the temperature range over which physiological functions were maintained. We suggest that the high [Mg(2+)](HL) in Reptantia causes relaxation of the animals and reduces their scope for activity, especially at temperatures below 0 degrees C. The hypothesis that the synergistic effects of high [Mg(2+)](HL) and low temperature probably prevented the Reptantia from recolonizing the permanently cold water of polar areas is discussed. PMID:10729286

Frederich, M; Sartoris, F J; Arntz, W E; Pörtner, H

2000-04-01

115

Assessing benthic ecological status in coastal area near Changjiang River estuary using AMBI and M-AMBI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary has been subject to a variety of anthropogenic pressures in recent decades. To assess the ecological health of the coastal benthic ecosystem adjacent to the estuary, three surveys were conducted in 2005, 2009, and 2010. The AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) and multivariate-AMBI (M-AMBI) were used to analyse the benthic ecological status of this coast. The AMBI indicate that the ecological status of the coast adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary was only slightly degraded in all 3 years. In contrast, the M-AMBI indicated that the ecological status was seriously degraded, a result that is most likely due to pollution and eutrophication induced by human activities. The assessment of the coast's ecological status by the AMBI was not in agreement with that of the M-AMBI at some stations because of lower biodiversity values at those sites. The analysis of the two indices integrated with abiotic parameters showed that the M-AMBI could be used as a suitable bio-indicator index to assess the benthic ecological status of the coast adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary. The reference conditions proposed for the coast of the Changjiang River estuary should be further evaluated in future studies. Designation of local species could also provide an important reference for Chinese waters. To improve the reliability of AMBI and M-AMBI, further research into the ecology of local species is required to understand their arrangement in ecological groups.

Liu, Lusan; Li, Baoquan; Lin, Kuixuan; Cai, Wenqian; Wang, Quanchao

2014-03-01

116

Sensitivity analysis for leaf area index (LAI) estimation from CHRIS/PROBA data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity analyses were conducted for the retrieval of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) from multiangular imageries in this study. Five spectral vegetation indices (VIs) were derived from Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On Board Autonomy (CHRIS/PROBA) images, and were related to LAI, acquired from in situ measurement in Jiangxi Province, China, for five vegetation communities. The sensitivity of LAI retrieval to the variation of VIs from different observation angles was evaluated using the ratio of the slope of the best-fit linear VI-LAI model to its root mean squared error. Results show that both the sensitivity and reliability of VI-LAI models are influenced by the heterogeneity of vegetation communities, and that performance of vegetation indices in LAI estimation varies along observation angles. The VI-LAI models are more reliable for tall trees than for low growing shrub-grasses and also for forests with broad leaf trees than for coniferous forest. The greater the tree height and leaf size, the higher the sensitivity. Forests with broad-leaf trees have higher sensitivities, especially at oblique angles, while relatively simple-structured coniferous forests, shrubs, and grasses show similar sensitivities at all angles. The multi-angular soil and/or atmospheric parameter adjustments will hopefully improve the performance of VIs in LAI estimation, which will require further investigation.

Cao, Jianjun; Gu, Zhujun; Xu, Jianhua; Duan, Yushan; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Yongjuan; Li, Dongliang

2014-05-01

117

Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports completed in 2004 and 2005 addressed each of the specific objectives and this final report focuses on the biological information gathered in support of local conservation efforts. Participation in the development of the Bi-State Local Area Conservation Plan was accomplished on multiple scales. Beginning in the fall of 2002, USGS personnel began participating in meetings of local stakeholders involved in the development of a sage-grouse conservation plan for the Bi-State planning area. This included attendance at numerous local PMU group meetings and field trips as well as participating on the technical advisory committee (TAC) for the Bi-State group. Whenever appropriate, ongoing results and findings regarding sage-grouse ecology in the local area were incorporated into these working group meetings. In addition, the USGS partnered with CDFG to help reorganize one of the local PMU groups (South Mono) and edited that portion of the Bi-State plan. The USGS also worked closely with CDFG to draft a description of the state of knowledge for sage-grouse genetic information for inclusion in the Bi-State Conservation Plan. The first edition of the Bi-State Conservation Plan for Greater Sage-Grouse was completed in June 2004 (Bi-State Sage-grouse Conservation Team 2004). This report is organized primarily by PMU to facilitate the incorporation of these research findings into the individual PMU plans that compose the Bi-State plan. Information presented in this report was derived from over 7,000 radio-telemetry locations obtained on 145 individual sage-grouse during a three year period (2003-2005). In addition, we collected detailed vegetation measurements at over 590 habitat sampling plots within the study area including canopy cover, shrubs, forbs, and grasses diversity. Vegetation data collection focused on sage-grouse nests, and brood-use areas. Additionally we collected data at random sites to examine sage-grouse habitat relationships within the study area. The majori

Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric

2009-01-01

118

Geomorphological and ecological researches inferring swamp areas inside endorheic cacthment basin: The Asso graben-polje case study (south Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peoples living inside flat karstic areas frequently deal with both socio-economic and environmental problems related to the superficial waters management. Karst morphologies, such as dolines and water sinks mostly, characterize the plane territory of Salento (southern Italy). Since their first settlements, Salento landscapes had been modified to drain surface waters, discharge floods and reclaim marshlands. This contribution deals with the Asso graben-polje which is about 200 kmq wide and lies in a regional lowered tectonic structure. It is highly vulnerable owing to both flooding and groundwater pollution and the hazard due to the occurrence of sinkholes is impending. The Asso streams is network of natural and artificial channels which was linked to six water sinks about 75 years ago, i. e. during the last extensive hydrographic arrangement to solve flooding and epidemiological problems. At present, the terminal sinks of the Asso fluvial-karst system absolved the functions of: storm water drainage wells, aquifer remediation-related wells and underground injection regulated wastewater disposal systems. So, the water management of the system is an hard task, being the mitigation of the amplitude of flooding events, achieved by means of the increasing of water sinks discharge, in contrast with the safeguard aquifers by pollutant displacements and the need to protect the public health. In spite of the efforts made till now by Public Bodies, the knowledge related to the speleogenesis and the hydraulic properties of the sinks is disregarded by the current water resource management. The carried out geomorphological researches allow us to distinguish natural, partially modified and human bored water sinks. Some of the natural water sinks can be described us collapse dolines, but a number of them present different origin and development, as karst wells and karst shaft. To each water sink type, specific drainage properties can be assigned. Even if the depressions prone to be flooded are thought by geologists as hazard zones, they also represent ecologically significant habitats. Moreover, natural vegetation is a good indicator of the local environmental characteristics of the hydrographical system. So, this study also dealt with the definition of the plant communities and the characterization of the habitats related to such communities. Through the sampling and the analysis of the hydrophitic and riparian vegetation, a series of plant communities is been characterized. Such communities responds to the length of the period of flooding, to the typology of substratum and to the form of the river bed section. In order to make tools useful to the catchment basin management, existing and collected geological and ecological data are in phase of implementation in a Geographical Information System database.

Delle Rose, M.; Beccarisi, L.; Zuccarello, V.

2009-04-01

119

A large-area, position-sensitive neutron detector with neutron\\/?-ray discrimination capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further study neutron-rich halo nuclei, we have constructed a neutron detector array. The array consists of two separate banks of detectors, each of area 2 × 2m2 and containing 250l of liquid scintillator. Each bank is position-sensitive to better than 10 cm. For neutron time-of-flight measurements, the time resolution of the detector has been demonstrated to be about 1

P. D Zecher; A Galonsky; J. J Kruse; S. J Gaff; J Ottarson; J Wang; F Deák; Á Horváth; Á Kiss; Z Seres; K Ieki; Y Iwata; H Schelin

1997-01-01

120

A fast large-area position-sensitive time-of-flight neutron detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel position-sensitive time-of-flight neutron detection and histograming system has been developed for use at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Spatial resolution of roughly 1 cm×1 cm and time-of-flight resolution of ~1 ?s are combined in a detection system which can ultimately be expanded to cover several square meters of active detector area. This system is based on the use

R. K. Crawford; J. R. Haumann

1990-01-01

121

Olea Europea 3-year pollen record in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece and its sensitizing significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The observations of airborne pollen ofOlea europea and the incidence of clinical manifestations in patients allergic to this pollen type have not been registered so far in\\u000a the city of Thessaloniki.\\u000a \\u000a The purpose of this study was: 1. to assess theO. europea pollen circulation in the area of our city, and 2. to detect the percentage of sensitivity toO. europea

Dimitrios Gioulekas; Georgios Chatzigeorgiou; Simos Lykogiannis; Despina Papakosta; Christos Mpalafoutis; Frits Th. M. Spieksma

1991-01-01

122

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2010-07-01

124

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2011-07-01

125

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2012-07-01

126

Ecological Health Assessment and Remediation of the Stream Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage of the Gwangyang Mine Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological health in a temperate stream impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) was evaluated by using a multimetric approach\\u000a of the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) based on natural fish assemblage. Recently, this approach has been widely used\\u000a in many developed countries as a tool for ecological risk assessments of water environments. We used 10 metric systems, instead\\u000a of 12

Ju-Yong Kim; Byung-Tae Lee; Kyung-Hee Shin; Kun-Young Lee; Kyoung-Woong Kim; Kwang-Guk An; Young-Seok Park; Jeong-Yeon Kim; Young-Ho Kwon

2007-01-01

127

Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009), using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107) and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136). The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significantly higher SMRs were identified for lung cancer (SMR = 145, 95% CI 100-203, p-value = 0.047) and cancer of the kidney and other genitourinary organs among women (SMR = 368, 95% CI 119-858, p-value = 0.025). Elevated SMRs for several other cancers were also noted (lip, oral cavity and pharynx 344, stomach 121, female breast 134, prostate 128, and leukaemias 168), but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

2011-01-01

128

A legal and ecological perspective of 'site integrity' to inform policy development and management of Special Areas of Conservation in Europe.  

PubMed

The European Union Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) provides for the designation and management of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and requires that impacting activities are subject to 'an appropriate assessment' of their implications for the 'integrity' of the site. We define the term 'site integrity' from a legal and an ecological perspective. We demonstrate that 'site integrity' is the maintenance of ecological processes and functions that support the wider delivery of ecosystem services. 'Site integrity' can be influenced by SAC management. Management that seeks to support 'site integrity' may include the use of buffer zones or connecting areas that extend beyond the SAC site's designated features. We conclude that 'site integrity' and 'favourable conservation status' are powerful legal terms that if fully transposed into the law and policy of Member States can enable the achievement of broader European and International goals for marine conservation. PMID:23628546

Rees, Siân E; Sheehan, Emma V; Jackson, Emma L; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Boyer, Matthew; Attrill, Martin J

2013-07-15

129

SENSITIVITY OF BLIND PULSAR SEARCHES WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

We quantitatively establish the sensitivity to the detection of young to middle-aged, isolated, gamma-ray pulsars through blind searches of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data using a Monte Carlo simulation. We detail a sensitivity study of the time-differencing blind search code used to discover gamma-ray pulsars in the first year of observations. We simulate 10,000 pulsars across a broad parameter space and distribute them across the sky. We replicate the analysis in the Fermi LAT First Source Catalog to localize the sources, and the blind search analysis to find the pulsars. We analyze the results and discuss the effect of positional error and spin frequency on gamma-ray pulsar detections. Finally, we construct a formula to determine the sensitivity of the blind search and present a sensitivity map assuming a standard set of pulsar parameters. The results of this study can be applied to population studies and are useful in characterizing unidentified LAT sources.

Dormody, M.; Johnson, R. P.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Razzano, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Grenier, I. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Johnson, T. J., E-mail: dormody@scipp.ucsc.edu [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States)

2011-12-01

130

Policy and reality of Environmentally Sensitive Areas in Whitman County, Washington, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) promotes the conservation of natural resources through procedural review of proposed actions which may impact natural systems. There are, however, many actions specifically exempt from the SEPA review process. Since many exempt actions could have significant adverse effects on natural resources at one location and not another, the SEPA statute contains a provision that enables local governments to designate Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Within the ESAs, these potentially adverse activities are subject to SEPA review. Local governments have complete control over the exact definition of the ESA criteria and the types of local projects exempt from SEPA. Whitman County, the most productive wheat-producing county in Washington, has recognized the need for conservation of its natural resources in its comprehensive plan but has not implemented the ESA provision. A representative watershed within Whitman County was used as a case study to identify areas which would qualify for ESA status. In these areas, specific soil, water, and biological characteristics or resources were identified as sensitive to certain common land uses. Significant differences were found between state and county policies regarding ESAs and actual conditions within the watershed. It may be more effective for the state to manage ESAs on a consistent and regional basis.

Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.

1988-05-01

131

A New Sensitivity Analysis and Solution Method for Scintillometer Measurements of Area-Averaged Turbulent Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length l_o and refractive index structure function C_n^2 allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as l_o. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.

Gruber, Matthew; Fochesatto, Gilberto J.

2013-07-01

132

A new sensitivity analysis and solution method for scintillometer measurements of area-average turbulent fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillometer measurements of the turbulence inner-scale length lo and refractive index structure function C2n allow for the retrieval of large-scale area-averaged turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. This retrieval involves the solution of the non-linear set of equations defined by the Monin-Obukhov similarity hypothesis. A new method that uses an analytic solution to the set of equations is presented, which leads to a stable and efficient numerical method of computation that has the potential of eliminating computational error. Mathematical expressions are derived that map out the sensitivity of the turbulent flux measurements to uncertainties in source measurements such as lo. These sensitivity functions differ from results in the previous literature; the reasons for the differences are explored.

Gruber, Matthew

133

Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas: bridging the gap between science and application.  

PubMed

Researchers have noted that current water quality protection strategies, like nutrient management plans, lack a sound hydrological underpinning for pollutant transport processes. This is especially true for areas like the northeastern U.S. where copious research has shown that variable source area hydrology largely governs runoff generation. The goal of this study was to develop a scientifically justified method to identify the locations that generate overland flow. Furthermore, this methodology must be computationally simple enough that it can be utilized or incorporated into nutrient management plans and other established water quality tools. We specifically tested the reliability of the 'distance from a stream,'D(s), and the 'topographic index,'lambda, to predict areas with a high propensity for generating overland flow, i.e. hydrologically sensitive areas (HSA). HSAs were defined by their probability of generating runoff, P(sat), based on 30 year simulations using a physically based hydrological model. Using GIS, each location's P(sat) was correlated with D(s) and lambda. We used three Delaware Co., NY watersheds in the New York City watershed system with areas varying in size from 1.6 to 37 km2 and with forested and agricultural land uses. The topographic index gave stronger, more regionally consistent correlations with P(sat) than did D(s). Equations correlating lambda and P(sat) for each month are presented and can be used to estimate hydrological sensitivity in the region surrounding our study watersheds, i.e. in Delaware Co. This work is currently being incorporated into an Internet Mapping System to facilitate user-friendly, on-line identification of HSAs. PMID:16169658

Agnew, Laura J; Lyon, Steve; Gérard-Marchant, Pierre; Collins, Virginia B; Lembo, Arthur J; Steenhuis, Tammo S; Walter, M Todd

2006-01-01

134

Ecological Society of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1915, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists that is dedicated to several primary goals related to the promotion of ecological science, raising the public's level of awareness of the importance of ecological science, and increasing the resources available for the conduct of ecological science. The website is an indispensable source of material about ecological science and the society's various activities, including the annual meeting, career opportunities, membership information, and publications. The publications section is particularly useful, as visitors can learn about society journals (such as _Ecology_), monographs, and the popular Issues in Ecology series. Visitors have complete access to the Issues in Ecology series (in English and Spanish). Journalists and the general public will want to look at the Public Affairs Office area which features news releases and the bi-weekly Policy News update, which summarizes major environmental and science policy news from the previous two weeks.

135

[Residual level and ecological risk assessment of OCPs and PCBs in sediments of mudflat shellfish culturing areas in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province of East China].  

PubMed

GC-ECD methods were adopted to determine the residual level of OCPs (including HCHs and DDTs) and PCBs in the surface sediments collected from mudflat shellfish culturing areas in Ningbo, with the sources of the OCPs and PCBs analyzed and the ecological risks of the residual OCPs and PCBs evaluated. The residual level of OCPs was 0.80-32.40 ng X g(-1), and that of PCBs was 3.20-33.33 ng X g(-1). The HCHs mainly came from long distance atmospheric transportation and historical residues, while the DDTs had new input at some sites, possibly coming from the application of dicofol. At most sites, there existed potential ecological risks of p, p'-DDT and DDTs, with strong indications in Qiangtou and Xidian where the residual level of p, p'-DDT was higher than the effect rang median (ERM), suggesting an ecological menace to the benthos. The residual PCBs at most sites were in low level ecological risk. PMID:22937662

Zhu, Yun-Hai; You, Zhong-Jie; Shentu, Ji-Kang; Zhong, Hui-Ying; Chai, Li-Yue

2012-06-01

136

Highly sensitive beam quality measurements on large-mode-area fiber amplifiers.  

PubMed

The beam quality of large-mode-area fiber amplifiers was investigated at the 10 W power level using a tunable ring cavity, that is also used in the laboratory system of GEO600 as a pre-mode-cleaner for mode filtering. More than 98% of the overall output power were contained within the polarized (200:1) TEM00 mode with an appropriate choice of coiling diameter. With the high sensitivity ring cavity analysis, the beam quality improvement caused by decreasing the coiling diameter was verified, while this could not be seen within conventional M2-measurements. The results are compared with the properties of single-mode fibers. PMID:19471464

Weßels, Peter; Fallnich, Carsten

2003-12-15

137

Testing the role of patch openness as a causal mechanism for apparent area sensitivity in a grassland specialist.  

PubMed

Area sensitivity, species being disproportionately present on larger habitat patches, has been identified in many taxa. We propose that some apparently area-sensitive species are actually responding to how open a habitat patch is, rather than to patch size. We tested this hypothesis for Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) by comparing density and occupancy to a novel openness index, patch area, and edge effects. Bobolink density and occupancy showed significant relationships with openness, but logistic models based on an openness occupancy threshold had greater explanatory power. Thresholds remained approximately consistent from June through August, and shifted to be more open in September. Variance partitioning supported the openness index as unique and relevant. We found no relationships between measures of body condition (body mass, body size, circulating corticosterone levels) and either openness or area. Our findings have implications for studies of area sensitivity, especially with regards to inconsistencies reported within species: specifically, (1) whether or not a study finds a species to be area sensitive may depend on whether small, open sites were sampled, and (2) area regressions were sensitive to observed densities at the largest sites, suggesting that variation in these fields could lead to inconsistent area sensitivity responses. Responses to openness may be a consequence of habitat selection mediated by predator effects. Finally, openness measures may have applications for predicting effects of habitat management or development, such as adding wind turbines, in open habitat. PMID:22159812

Keyel, Alexander C; Bauer, Carolyn M; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Reed, J Michael

2012-06-01

138

Macro-scale assessment of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes for Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution presents a GIS-based method for the identification of areas sensitive to changes in flood magnitudes on the basis of existing flood maps and topographic features of flood plains. The approach enables the identification of flood prone river sections for large areas, as no additional hydrodynamic simulations are necessary or available. In our case an area of ~ 84.000 km2, including about 26.000 km of rivers and streams, is analysed. Even though the results of climate models are uncertain regarding the prediction of future changes in frequency and magnitude of floods, the recent accumulation of extreme flood events in parts of Austria makes it inevitable to account for possible changes in runoff characteristics. Therefore, an enhanced impact assessment of these changes and the identification of flood sensitive areas is necessary. The existing HORA data set (Natural Hazard Overview & Risk Assessment Austria) indicates flood plains for recurrence intervals of 30, 100 and 200 years for the entire area of Austria under current climate conditions. A variable climate change allowance is applied to the corresponding discharges of the 200 years return period data set (HQ200), with the aim of generating modified runoff values of equal recurrence intervals for all flood values (HQcc). This procedure guarantees a consistent data set, based on the underlying Gumbel flood statistics of the original data set. The HORA-data sets includes points with the information on discharge and water depth for the existing recurrence intervals. Based on the simplifying assumption of (1) a rectangular cross section, (2) the water depth for the HQ200 discharge value and (3) the modified HQcc value, a new water depth (hcc) and the change in water depth (?h) can be calculated for these locations. Changes in water depth are aggregated for municipalities by calculating a weighted mean depth change, using discharge as the weighting value. Based on the derived water depth changes, the existing flood areas are enlarged on the basis of the digital terrain model with a resolution of 10x10 m. For every existing boundary point Pi(xi,yi,zi) of the HORA-HQ200 flood plain a change in water depth ?h is added to the elevation value zi. For this point Pi all Points Pk,i in the surrounding area r are identified, where the elevation value zk is lower than zi + ?h. The surrounding area r, where valid points Pk,i can be situated, is defined by the drainage area of the existing boundary point Pi. Pi therefore represents an outlet point of a local subbasin. It is assumed, that points within the drainage area are inundated with rising water levels beginning from the outlet point. Local flows are thereby neglected. The derived flood plains look plausible and will be compared with 2-D hydrodynamic simulations for three case study areas in an on-going project.

Herrnegger, Mathew; Apperl, Benjamin; Senoner, Tobias; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

2014-05-01

139

Climate change impacts on vegetation of the San Francisco Area: evaluating sensitivity of change across an ensemble of future climates (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to profoundly impact terrestrial vegetation. We present a model of the projected impacts of climate change on the distribution of vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area using a novel application of multinomial logistic regression. Model projections are evaluated over a wide range of possible future climates, drawn from CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. Evaluation of results across the entire ensemble of future climates provides the sensitivity of vegetation to changing climate, without having to choose specific future climate scenarios. Sensitivity is highly variable across the Bay Area. The single best predictor appears to be the location, in climate space, of each vegetation patch relative to the warm or dry edge of the corresponding climate envelope. It is critical to consider the equilibrium assumption underlying this, and related, modeling of vegetation impacts. The model projections are best interpreted as the long-term expected response to a particular degree of climate change, but they do not provide insight into how fast this equilibrium will be achieved or the transient states that may occur in response to rapid climate change. We combine model results with a literature survey of ecological mechanisms of vegetation change to better understand the challenges raised by disequilibrium dynamics.

Ackerly, D.; Cornwell, W.; Weiss, S. B.; Branciforte, B.; Sandel, B.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

2013-12-01

140

Motion-Sensitive Responses in Visual Area V4 in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Neurons in cortical ventral-stream area V4 are thought to contribute to important aspects of visual processing by integrating information from primary visual cortex (V1). However, how V4 neurons respond to visual stimulation after V1 injury remains unclear: While electrophysiological investigation of V4 neurons during reversible V1 inactivation suggests that virtually all responses are eliminated (Girard et al., 1991), fMRI in humans and monkeys with permanent lesions shows reliable V1-independent activity (Baseler et al., 1999; Goebel et al., 2001; Schmid et al., 2010). To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we longitudinally assessed neuronal functions of macaque area V4 using chronically implanted electrode arrays before and after creating a permanent aspiration lesion in V1. During the month after lesioning, we observed weak yet significant spiking activity in response to stimuli presented to the lesion-affected part of the visual field. These V1-independent responses showed sensitivity for motion and likely reflect the effect of V1-bypassing geniculate input into extrastriate areas.

Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Peters, Andrew J.; Saunders, Richard C.; Maier, Alexander; Leopold, David A.

2013-01-01

141

The study on remote sensing inversion of ecological environmental indices and their dynamic analysis in the six karst peak cluster areas, Guangxi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst Peak Cluster areas are main type of karst landform in Guangxi, which are as controllers of ecological environment to plays a important role in Guangxi. It has important practical significance to dynamic monitor and appraisal Guangxi's ecological environment. Paper choose EOS/MODIS remote sensing data for five period. Based on the necessity argument for giving domain and quantitative remote sensing, Doing a inversion to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI and Vegetation coverage FC remote-sensing of Du'an, Debao, Liujiang, Nandan, Jingxi and Fengshan, where the six main Karst Peak-Cluster giving domain areas of Guangxi, And paper studied the longitudinal variance analysis and the horizontal inversion variance analysis for the inversion result .it shows that, any calculations which involves applying statistical characteristics -- the average value-variance-covariance and maximum / minimum value of image processing algorithm, should adopt the giving domain image processing algorithm model. Analysis of six karst peak cluster area FC longitudinal changes ,we find that The tendency of vegetation coverage of Six major karst peak cluster is" down then up", but in general they were rising,; analysis of horizontal changes in Guangxi six major karst peak cluster vegetation coverage, Find that before 2008,the karst Peak-Cluster areas of Guangxi FC had West high and East low" spatial variation. after 2008, it had" North high South low" spatial variation.

Jia, Zhiqiang; Wu, Hong; Hao, Min; Xing, Lixin

2014-05-01

142

Ecological niches and areas of overlap of the squat lobster ‘munida’ ( Pleuroncodes monodon) and anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) off Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world’s largest mono-specific fishery, the Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) fishery, has been the subject of many studies since the 1960s. Details of its relationship with other species have mainly focused on alternations with sardine, Sardinops sagax, and little effort has so far been paid to interactions with other species sharing the same ecosystem. This is the case for Pleuroncodes monodon, the crustacean squat lobster or ’munida’, which has become highly abundant along the Peruvian coast since the mid-1990s. Munida is now an important prey for seabirds, mammals and coastal predatory fish. Knowledge of patterns of distribution and ecological niche of munida is scarce however off Peru. Here we describe and compare spatial patterns of distribution of anchoveta and munida and their ecological niches based on data from 26 acoustic surveys performed along the Peruvian coast between 1998 and 2006. The results indicate that munida and anchoveta share ecological niches but that munida is restricted to the coldest part of the productive cold coastal waters whereas anchoveta do not present any temperature preference over a large range (14-23 °C). The recent increase in munida abundance off Peru is concomitant with colder conditions; with their onset munida extended its range from central Chile northwards. Off Peru the very shallow oxycline keeps munida from its usual bottom habitat and has forced it to adopt pelagic behaviour.

Gutiérrez, Mariano; Ramirez, Argiro; Bertrand, Sophie; Móron, Octavio; Bertrand, Arnaud

2008-10-01

143

Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: Future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes. Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to recreation-related trampling on trails and recreation sites using indicators such as percent vegetation cover and exposed mineral soil. This applied approach has and will continue to yield important information for land managers. However, for the field to advance, more attention needs to be given to other ecosystem attributes and to the larger aspects of environmental conservation occurring at landscape scales. This article is an effort at initiating a dialog on needed advances in the field. We begin by reviewing broadly generalizable knowledge of recreation ecology, to separate what is known from research gaps. Then, based on the authors' perspective of research in the USA and North America, several research directions are suggested as essential for continued progress in this field including theoretical development, broadening scale, integration with other disciplines, and examination of synergistic effects.

Monz, Christopher A.; Cole, David N.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Marion, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

144

Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience.  

PubMed

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes. Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to recreation-related trampling on trails and recreation sites using indicators such as percent vegetation cover and exposed mineral soil. This applied approach has and will continue to yield important information for land managers. However, for the field to advance, more attention needs to be given to other ecosystem attributes and to the larger aspects of environmental conservation occurring at landscape scales. This article is an effort at initiating a dialog on needed advances in the field. We begin by reviewing broadly generalizable knowledge of recreation ecology, to separate what is known from research gaps. Then, based on the authors' perspective of research in the USA and North America, several research directions are suggested as essential for continued progress in this field including theoretical development, broadening scale, integration with other disciplines, and examination of synergistic effects. PMID:20091043

Monz, Christopher A; Cole, David N; Leung, Yu-Fai; Marion, Jeffrey L

2010-03-01

145

Criterion for the Design of the Building Envelope Related to Ecological Sensitivity in Tourism Buildings in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Tourism Encouragement Law issued in 1982, the tourism sector in Turkey continues to grow rapidly. Today, in Mediterranean Region, throughout the building and operation processes of the facilities with a capacity of nearly 130 thousand, law regulations of the usage of the climate-related and topographical sensitivities and energies cannot be established. Now, starting with the heating, cooling, ventilation

Ersin Acar; Deniz Erinsel Önder

146

A collection and treatment system for organic waste and wastewater in a sensitive rural area.  

PubMed

In the municipality of Sund, located in a sensitive rural area in Aland, a demonstration project is now carried out with the overall objective to move the most concentrated fractions of wastewater from the coastal area to a treatment plant situated close to arable land. Blackwater and greywater septic sludge from about twenty households and two tourist camps are treated together with energy rich organic material from a nearby potato-chip factory. The collection concept is based on the use of extremely efficient water-saving toilets, with separate systems for the blackwater and greywater in the households. The collected materials are co-treated in a batchwise aerobic thermophilic treatment process (wet composting process), where the materials reach at least 55 degrees C during a minimum of 10 hours. The dry matter content of the collected material was about 2%. After stabilisation and sanitation (by the temperature rise caused by microbial activity during the treatment process), the compost slurry is utilized as a liquid organic fertilizer on arable land. PMID:14753521

Malmén, L; Palm, O; Norin, E

2003-01-01

147

Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950.  

SciTech Connect

White, D.L. 2004. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950. Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 324 pp. Abstract: The history of land use for an area is the history of the way in which humans have manipulated or altered the environment. Most land use activities can be viewed as disturbance to ecosystems. Within a given climatic regime, the interaction of the disturbance regime with vegetation, soil, and landform factors largely determines the distribution and composition of plant and associated animal communities. For these reasons, a greater understanding of the ecological impacts of both human and non-human related disturbance is needed to improve our ability to make natural resource management decisions. This document outlines the land use history of the Savannah River Site and surrounding areas from about 1780 thru 1950, when the site was converted to a government facility for the purposes of national defense.

D.L. White

2004-01-01

148

The small area predictors of ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations: a comparison of changes over time.  

PubMed

The hospital admission for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) is a validated indicator of impeded access to good primary and preventive care services. The authors examine the predictors of ACSC admissions in small geographic areas in two cross-sections spanning an 11-year time interval (1995-2005). Using hospital discharge data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York for the years 1995 and 2005, the study includes a multivariate cross-sectional design, using compositional factors describing the hospitalized populations and the contextual factors, all aggregated at the primary care service area level. The study uses ordinary least squares regressions with and without state fixed effects, adjusting for heteroscedasticity. Data is pooled over 2 years to assess the statistically significant changes in associations over time. ACSC admission rates were inversely related to the availability of local primary care physicians, and managed care was associated with declines in ACSC admissions for the elderly. Minorities, aged elderly, and percent under federal poverty level were found to be associated with higher ACSC rates. The comparative analysis for 2 years highlights significant declines in the association with ACSC rates of several factors including percent minorities and rurality. The two policy-driven factors, primary care physician capacity and Medicare-managed care penetration, were not found significantly more effective over time. Using small area analysis, the study indicates that improvements in socioeconomic conditions and geographic access may have helped improve the quality of primary care received by the elderly over the last decade, particularly among some minority groups. PMID:24405202

Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R; Thumula, Vennela

2014-01-01

149

Ecological Schoolyards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

Danks, Sharon Gamson

2000-01-01

150

Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - habitat distribution.  

PubMed

The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992). A total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas. PMID:10656699

Guimarães, A E; Gentile, C; Lopes, C M; Mello, R P

2000-01-01

151

Geomorphic constraints on landscape sensitivity to climate in tectonically active areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomorphology of fluvial landscapes is known to record information about uplift rate, spatial patterns of faulting, and tectonic history. Data is far less available when addressing the sensitivity of common geomorphological metrics, such as channel steepness, to climatic boundary conditions. We test the relationship between channel steepness and precipitation rate by measuring a large number of channels in different mountainous areas. These regions exhibit a tenfold variation in precipitation rate between them (~ 100-1000 mm y- 1) but have similar uplift rates, allowing the tectonic variable to be controlled. By accounting for the orographic coupling of rainfall with uplifted topography, we find that channel steepness is significantly suppressed by higher precipitation rates in a measurable way that conforms to simple stream power erosion laws and empirical constraints on their parameters. We demonstrate this using modern and estimated glacial precipitation rates; and climate emerges as an important, quantifiable control on channel geometry. These findings help to explain why highly variable measurements of channel steepness are reported from different locations and provide important empirical constraints on how climate shapes tectonically active landscapes.

D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alexander C.

2014-01-01

152

Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For semi-arid regions, methods of assessing aquifer recharge usually consider the potential evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration rates can be below potential rates for long periods of time, even in irrigated systems. Accurate estimations of aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas under irrigated agriculture are essential for sustainable water-resources management. A method to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated farmland has been tested. The water-balance-modelling approach was based on VisualBALAN v. 2.0, a computer code that simulates water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer. The study was carried out in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain) in the period 1999-2008 for three different groups of crops: annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke) and fruit trees (citrus). Computed mean-annual-recharge values (from irrigation+precipitation) during the study period were 397 mm for annual row crops, 201 mm for perennial vegetables and 194 mm for fruit trees: 31.4, 20.7 and 20.5% of the total applied water, respectively. The effects of rainfall events on the final recharge were clearly observed, due to the continuously high water content in soil which facilitated the infiltration process. A sensitivity analysis to assess the reliability and uncertainty of recharge estimations was carried out.

Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Molinero, Jorge; Tamoh, Karim

2010-12-01

153

Characterization of 3He area sensitive proportional counters at IPNS for SANS applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small Angle Diffractometer (SAD) at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) utilizes a 20 X 20 cm(superscript 2) Borkowski-Kopp type (superscript 3)He position sensitive detector (PSD) which has reliably performed small-angle neutron scattering experiments for more than a decade. The pulsed-source based SAD employs a small, but fixed, sample-to-detector distance and a pulsed polychromatic neutron beam. The neutron energies are resolved through time-of- flight (TOF) measurements so that a much wider range of momentum transfer is probed in a single measurement compared to the range of spectrometers using monochromatic incident beams. However, the pulsed source requires a short sample-to-detector distance so that the detector covers a large solid angle, but with lower angular resolution, and this situation puts stringent demands on the spatial resolution of the detector. Previously, nonlinearities in the position encoding of detected neutrons required that the outer channels of the detector, representing 40% of the detector area, be discarded. This paper presents a technique to characterize both the position encoding and the position resolution of the entire detector so that the whole detector can be used for SANS measurements.

Thiyagarajan, Pappannan; Bradley, K. F.; Crawford, R. Kent; Epperson, J. E.; Wozniak, D.; Carpenter, John M.

1993-02-01

154

Toxicity screening of soils from different mine areas--a contribution to track the sensitivity and variability of Arthrobacter globiformis assay.  

PubMed

This study used the Arthrobacter globiformis solid-contact test for assessing the quality of soils collected in areas subjected to past and present mine activities in Europe (uranium mine, Portugal) and North Africa (phosphogypsum pile, Tunisia; iron mine, Morocco). As to discriminate the influence of soils natural variability from the effect of contaminants, toxicity thresholds were derived for this test, based on the dataset of each study area. Furthermore, the test sensitivity and variability was also evaluated. As a result, soils that inhibited A. globiformis dehydrogenase activity above 45% or 50% relatively to the control, were considered to be toxic. Despite the soil metal content determined, the properties of soils seemed to influence dehydrogenase activity. Overall, the contact test provided a coherent outcome comparing to other more time-consuming and effort-demanding ecotoxicological assays. Our results strengthened the feasibility and ecological relevance of this assay, which variability was quite reduced hence suggesting its potential integration within the test battery of tier 1 of soil risk assessment schemes. PMID:24797906

Marques, Catarina R; Caetano, Ana L; Haller, Andreas; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth; Römbke, Jörg

2014-06-15

155

Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland conservation is first and foremost driven by the FSA signup choices. Environmental criteria used in FSA offer selection play a secondary role in farmland-to-fallow-land conversion. Farmer decision making is mainly influenced by the willingness to reduce the potential annual rental payments. As the case study demonstrates, our approach leads to ABM simplification without the loss of outcome variability. It also shows how to represent the magnitude of ABM complexity and isolate the effects of the interconnected explanatory variables on the simulated emergent phenomena. More importantly, the results of our research indicate that some of the parameters exert influence on model outcomes only if analyzed in combination with other parameters. Without evaluating the interaction effects among inputs, we risk losing important functional relationships among ABM components and, consequently, we potentially reduce its explanatory power.

Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

2012-12-01

156

The emergence of ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

By proclaiming that the protection of ecological health is as important as the protection of human health, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called attention to the relatively unexplored area of ecological risk assessment (ERA). The new field of ERA, while still in its infancy, is rapidly expanding and finding frequent application at many national hazardous waste sites. As with any new methodology, the rapid development of ERA has generated many unresolved questions: Should ecological risk be based on risks to individuals, populations, or ecosystems? How much is society willing to pay to save a small number of individual animals? What is a de minimis level of risk for an ecosystem? More importantly, the recent interest in ERAs has focused attention on the extreme sensitivity of ecological systems to environmental insults. In fact, the widely held belief among health risk assessors that protecting for human health will protect for ecological health is challenged by a recent EPA ecological risk assessment that illustrates that this may not be the case.

Travis, C.C.; Morris, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-06-01

157

Research on spatial differentiation of landscape and ecological construction in arid land oasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tarim River basin is an ecologically sensitive area and a key area for biodiversity protection and global-change research. Based on the research on oasis-desert ecosystem, with the frontier theory of landscape ecology, spatial differences of landscape of Yuli oasis are analyzed through the technological train of 3S and statistics. The paper puts forwards some suggestions for landscape ecological construction. Studies on landscape pattern within the research area are important for the sustainable development and conservation of the entire basin.

Wang, Hongwei; Gong, Lu; Xie, Xia; Shi, Qingdong; Liu, Zhihui

2007-10-01

158

Political ecology and ecological resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosphere is increasingly dominated by human action. Consequently, ecology must incorporate human behavior. Political ecology, as long as it includes ecology, is a powerful framework for integrating natural and social dynamics. In this paper I present a resilience-oriented approach to political ecology that integrates system dynamics, scale, and cross-scale interactions in both human and natural systems. This approach suggests

Garry Peterson

2000-01-01

159

Acid deposition sensitivity map of the Southern Appalachian Assessment area; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Project Summary: The following digital product represents the Acid Deposition Sensitivity of the Southern Appalachian Assessment Area. Areas having various susceptibilities to acid deposition from air pollution are designated on a three tier ranking in the region of the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The assessment is being conducted by Federal agencies that are members of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (SAMAB) Cooperative. Sensitivities to acid deposition, ranked high, medium, and low are assigned on the basis of bedrock compositions and their associated soils, and their capacities to neutralize acid precipitation.

Pepper, John D.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Kress, Thomas H.; Collins, Thomas K.; Kappesser, Gary B.; Huber, Cindy M.; Webb, James R.

1995-01-01

160

Conceptual and Practical Issues in Defining Protected Area Success: The Political, Social, and Ecological in an Organized World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placed within the people-park debates, the authors explore the complexities in defining protected area success. It is argued the selective focus on biodiversity as the only criterion for success often found in the broader literature has limited current discussions. The authors suggest the framing of protected area success should be seen as more multifaceted. Multiple perspectives and actors exist representing

Steven R. Brechin; Grant Murray; Kathleen Mogelgaard

2010-01-01

161

PC-based trending and analysis of floor vibration in sensitive fabrication areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a floor monitoring system utilizing a PC that continuously monitors very low levels of vibration and warns the user of possible " vibration contamination" that might result. The floor monitoring system designed by DataSignal Systems Inc. in Friendswood Texas is a complete package including special purpose microvelocity sensors signal conditioning and band specific velocity detection electronics analog-todigital sampling vibration spectrum analysis parameter trending alarming and archiving measurements. An IBM or compatible computer runs the systems software and displays the measured results. The computer can be installed in a convenient location for ease of use and maintenance. In order to maximize its effectiveness for alarms and ease of data display interpretation a VGA color monitor is a must. Since the system monitors facility vibration continuously the computer must be dedicated and not time shared. 2 . MEASURE MICRO-VIBRATION In many of todays high technology manufacturing facilities vibration can have a costly impact on the process and quality of an operation. This system can be set to alarm at vibration levels determined to be critical allowing an operator to take appropriate steps including date and time coding the process or even stopping the process. The system can also be used to establish limits for manufacturing operations in an adjoining facility that causes structure borne vibration to be transmitted to the vibration sensitive manufacturing area. Up to eight micro velocity sensor can be monitored simultaneously with results being displayed in a bar chart format on the computer screen. For detailed analysis purposes to help identify the source of vibration a narrowband FFT processor is used to display a vibration spectrum from a selected sensors output signal. The vibration spectrum analysis capability can be manually activated or be automatically acquired upon an alarm condition. 0819407577/92J$4. OO SPIE Vol. 1619 Vibration Control in Microelectronics Optics and Metrology (1991)1337

Palm, Jon E.; Middleton, Ben

1992-02-01

162

The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Methods Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and ‘not good health’. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being ‘Mature Oaks’ and the least being ‘Urban Challenge’. Results Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of ‘not good health’ (?=0.312, p<0.001) and LLTI (?=0.278, p<0.001), after controlling for the deprivation of the area itself (‘not good health’—ß=0.655, p<0.001; LLTI—ß=0.548, p<0.001). The effect of the deprivation differential relative to the effect of deprivation was strongest in least deprived segments (e.g., for ‘not good health’, P2 segments ‘Mature Oaks’—?=0.638; ‘Rooted Households’—?=0.555). Conclusions Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that negative social comparisons between areas cause ill-health. This ‘psychosocial effect’ is greater still in least deprived segments of the population, supporting the notion that psychosocial effects become more important when material (absolute) deprivation is less relevant.

2013-01-01

163

Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.  

PubMed

The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed. PMID:24699917

Li, Xingrong; Zhang, Zhishan; Tan, Huijuan; Gao, Yanhong; Liu, Lichao; Wang, Xingping

2014-05-01

164

Ecological modeling of the spatial distribution of wild waterbirds to identify the main areas where avian influenza viruses are circulating in the Inner Niger Delta, Mali.  

PubMed

Predicting areas of disease emergence when no epidemiological data is available is essential for the implementation of efficient surveillance programs. The Inner Niger Delta (IND) in Mali is a major African wetland where >1 million Palearctic and African waterbirds congregate. Waterbirds are the main reservoir of Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV). Our objective was to model their spatial distribution in order to predict where these viruses would be more likely to circulate. We developed a generalized linear model (GLM) and a boosted regression trees (BRT) model based on total aerial bird counts taken in winter over 6 years. We used remotely sensed environmental variables with a high temporal resolution (10 days) to predict the spatial distribution of four waterbird groups. The predicted waterbird abundances were weighted with an epidemiological indicator based on the prevalence of low pathogenic AIV reported in the literature. The BRT model had the best predictive power and allowed prediction of the high variability of waterbird distribution. Years with low flood levels showed areas with a higher risk of circulation and had better spatial distribution predictions. Each year, the model identified a few areas with a higher risk of AIV circulation. This model can be applied every 10 days to evaluate the risk of AIV emergence in wild waterbirds. By taking into account the IND's ecological variability, it allows better targeting of areas considered for surveillance. This could enhance the control of emerging diseases at a local and regional scale, especially when resources available for surveillance programs are scarce. PMID:20865438

Cappelle, Julien; Girard, Olivier; Fofana, Bouba; Gaidet, Nicolas; Gilbert, Marius

2010-09-01

165

Population ecology of the mallard: I. A Review of Previous Studies and the Distribution and Migration from Breeding Areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, the first of a series of reports on a comprehensive analysis of population data on the? millIard at? the continental level, provides background information including a review of the history of waterfowl management and a resume of previous studies of the mallard. The breeding range of the mallard was subdivided into 16 major and 44 minor reference areas. Each area is discussed in terms of habitat type, quantity of data available, importance to the continental mallard population, and previous waterfowl studies conducted within it.? Two of the 16 major areas have insufficient .bandings prior to the hunting season. These areas represent breeding sites for 18 to 30 percent of the continental mallard population and constitute a serious deficiency in the data base. Locations and femporal distributions of band recoveries from mallards banded in each breeding area are presented on maps and in tables. Possible biases in using band recovery distributions for harvest distributions are outllned; the major problem is variable band reporting rates. Limited evidence suggests that band reporting rates during the 1960's were substantially higher in Canada than in the United States. Detailed tabulations of the locations of recoveries from bandings in each minor reference area are presented in an appendix. Topics of future reports in the series inciude the analysis of harvest and wing survey statistics, breeding population data, relative importance of breeding ground reference areas to the various harvest areas, band recovery rates, the infiuence of harvest and harvest regulations on survival, and factors affecting production inclnding density-dependent relationships.

Anderson, D.R.;Henny, C.J.

1972-01-01

166

Ecology of streams draining forested and non-forested catchments in an area of central Scotland subject to acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 12 streams draining forested and non-forested catchments was made in an area of central Scotland where slow-weathering bedrock was predominantly quartzite, schists and slates. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carriere) was the most common tree species. Precipitation in the area had an annual mean pH in the range 4.3–4.5. Streams within the planted zone were always more acid

R. Harriman; B. R. S. Morrison

1982-01-01

167

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

Dennis Hansen, David Anderson, Derek Hall, Paul Greger, W. Kent Ostler

2008-03-01

168

Sensitivity study on double-sensor conductivity probe for the measurement of interfacial area concentration in bubbly flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity study on a double-sensor conductivity probe for the measurement of local interfacial area concentration, has been carried out by considering the effects of bubble lateral motions and probe spacing. The measurable value was rigorously related to the local bubble interface velocity in the surface normal direction, and the probability density function of each individual variable was identified with

Q. Wu; M. Ishii

1999-01-01

169

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

170

Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities and specific methods for seeding and planting at each area. evegetation work is scheduled to commence during the first quarter of FY 2011 to minimize the amount of time that sites are unvegetated and more susceptible to invasion by non-native weedy annual species.

Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

2011-01-01

171

64 FR 73464 - Pipeline Safety: Areas Unusually Sensitive to Environmental Damage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding...identifying each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and...Commerce, hazardous liquid pipeline industry, and...areas where a hazardous liquid release could create...areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from...

1999-12-30

172

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

An international symposium on ecological indicators was developed to explore both the potential of ecological indicators and the issues surrounding their development and implementation. his symposium presented state-of-the-science information on the identification, application re...

173

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. METHODS: In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer

Otto Visser; Joop H van Wijnen; Flora E van Leeuwen

2005-01-01

174

PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity  

SciTech Connect

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT{sub 3} antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h after pergolide. The present study suggests that selective enhancement of the PI3K activity in the NAc shell may be one of key alterations underlying the long-term cocaine sensitization. To the extent cocaine sensitization is an important factor in human cocaine abuse, pharmacological interventions targeted toward the NAc shell PI3K alteration may be useful in cocaine abuse treatment.

Zhang Xiuwu [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: xwzhang@duke.edu; Mi Jing [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Wetsel, William C. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Davidson, Colin [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Xiong Xieying [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Chen Qiang [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Ellinwood, Everett H. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Lee, Tong H. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

2006-02-24

175

An ultra sensitive fast neutron area monitor using gadolinium covered aluminium oxide dosimeter (TLD500) chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gadolinium possesses a very high thermal neutron capture (n,?) cross section whereas, carbon doped aluminium oxide thermoluminescence dosimeters (Al2O3:C), commercially available as TLD-500 are extremely sensitive to gamma rays. Hence, by combining those two unique phenomena we have developed a highly sensitive passive neutron detector. The lowest detectable neutron dose rate was evaluated to be 6.5 ?Sv for 226Ra\\/Be neutrons.

B. Mukherjee; J. Lambert; R. Hentschel; E. Negodin; J. Farr

176

Ecological Study on Hospitalizations for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Diseases in the Industrial Area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France  

PubMed Central

The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 2004–2007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO2 exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4?:?83] and 54% [14?:?110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2?:?57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO2 levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area.

Pascal, Laurence; Stempfelet, Morgane; Declercq, Christophe

2013-01-01

177

Ecological Footprint  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore their own Ecological Footprint in the context of how many Earths it would take if everyone used the same amount of resources they did. They compare this to the Ecological Footprint of individuals in other parts of the world and to the Ecological footprint of a family member when they were the student's age.

Education, Connecticut E.

178

Ecological relationships of fauna and flora on a pre-law coal surface-mined area in Perry County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-law coal surface-mined lands in Pyramid State Park, Perry County, Illinois, were examined 1976-1980 to determine changes in fauna and flora from that on the area in 1954-1960. Vegetative development on naturally revegetated spoils reflected diverse habitat conditions with interspersion of cover types; some of oldest spoils displayed inhibited succession while others exhibited early flood plain forest development. Ground and

1986-01-01

179

Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades, with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences. Hengshan County, located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China, was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development. The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990–2003, whereas forest land and grassland increased. The conversion

Yu-Fu CHEN; Yan-Sui LIU; Jing WANG; Jian-Ping YAN; Xu-Dong GUO

2009-01-01

180

Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas: Bridging the gap between science and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have noted that current water quality protection strategies, like nutrient management plans, lack a sound hydrological underpinning for pollutant transport processes. This is especially true for areas like the northeastern U.S. where copious research has shown that variable source area hydrology largely governs runoff generation. The goal of this study was to develop a scientifically justified method to identify

Laura J. Agnew; Steve Lyon; Pierre Gérard-Marchant; Virginia B. Collins; Arthur J. Lembo; Tammo S. Steenhuis; M. Todd Walter

2006-01-01

181

Strategies for navigating large areas: A GIS spatial ecology analysis of the bearded saki monkey, Chiropotes sagulatus, in Suriname.  

PubMed

Animals with long day paths and large home ranges expend a considerable amount of energy on travel. Studies have shown that in the interest of reducing energy expenditure, animals selectively navigate the landscape using a variety of strategies. However, these studies have generally focused on terrestrial animals. Here we present data on an exceedingly mobile arboreal animal, bearded saki monkeys, in a topographically variable landscape in Suriname. Using ArcMap and Google Earth, we explore two potential navigation strategies: the nonrandom use of travel areas and the use of ridges in slope navigation. Over a year of data collection, bearded sakis were found to use relatively long travel paths daily, use some areas more intensely than others for travel, and when travel paths were converted to strings of points, 40.3% and 63.9% of the points were located on (50?m from the main ridgeline) or near (100?m from the main ridgeline) ridge tops, respectively. Thus in a habitat of high relief we found support for intensive use of ridge tops or slopes close to ridge tops by bearded sakis. Selective habitat use may be related to surveying tree crowns for fruit by large, fast moving groups of bearded sakis or monitoring the presence of potential predators. Am. J. Primatol. 76:586-595, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24375420

Gregory, Tremaine; Mullett, Amanda; Norconk, Marilyn A

2014-06-01

182

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-09-01

183

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS: Suppression of extension of the photo-sensitive area for a planar-type front-illuminated InGaAs detector by the LBIC technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To suppress the extension of the photo-sensitive area of a planar-type InGaAs detector, the structure of the detector was modified, and the small-diffusion-area diffusion method, circle-type covering contact and guard-ring were introduced. The laser-beam-induced-current (LBIC) technique was used to study the photo responsive characteristics of the photo-sensitive area of different detector structures. It was indicated that, by modifying the size of the diffusion area, the width of the circle-type covering contact, the distance between the guard-ring and the photo-sensitive area and the working status of the guard-ring, extension of the photo-sensitive area could be effectively suppressed, and the detector photo-sensitive area could be exactly defined.

Yongfu, Li; Hengjing, Tang; Tao, Li; Yaoming, Zhu; Peilu, Jiang; Hui, Qiao; Xue, Li; Haimei, Gong

2010-01-01

184

Modelling the increase of contrast sensitivity with grating area and exposure time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extended the contrast detection model of human vision to temporal integration by taking into account the effect of exposure duration on contrast sensitivity for stationary gratings. The extended model thus comprised: (i) low-pass filtering due to the optical modulation transfer function of the eye; (ii) high-pass filtering (lateral inhibition) due to the neural modulation transfer function of the visual

Olavi Luntinen; Jyrki Rovamo; Risto Näsänen

1995-01-01

185

A GIS RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL TO ASSESS OIL SPILL RESPONSE OPTIONS IN AREA WITH SENSITIVE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A Geographic Information System (GIS) was created to determine the best oil spill response to protect sensitive species. In previous analysis, a Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) was conducted for Isle Royale National Park. The NEBA resulted in a "Risk-Ranking Matrix" o...

186

Cerebral lateralization of face-sensitive areas in left-handers: only the FFA does not get it right.  

PubMed

Face perception is highly lateralized to the right hemisphere (RH) in humans, as supported originally by observations of face recognition impairment (prosopagnosia) following brain damage. Divided visual field presentations, neuroimaging and event-related potential studies have supported this view. While the latter studies are typically performed in right-handers, the few reported cases of prosopagnosia with unilateral left damage were left-handers, suggesting that handedness may shift or qualify the lateralization of face perception. We tested this hypothesis by recording the whole set of face-sensitive areas in 11 left-handers, using a face-localizer paradigm in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (faces, cars, and their phase-scrambled versions). All face-sensitive areas identified (superior temporal sulcus, inferior occipital cortex, anterior infero-temporal cortex, amygdala) were strongly right-lateralized in left-handers, this right lateralization bias being as large as in a population of right-handers (40) tested with the same paradigm (Rossion et al., 2012). The notable exception was the so-called 'Fusiform face area' (FFA), an area that was slightly left lateralized in the population of left-handers. Since the left FFA is localized closely to an area sensitive to word form in the human brain ('Visual Word Form Area' - VWFA), the enhanced left lateralization of the FFA in left-handers may be due to a decreased competition with the representation of words. The implications for the neural basis of face perception, aetiology of brain lateralization in general, and prosopagnosia are also discussed. PMID:23906596

Bukowski, Henryk; Dricot, Laurence; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Rossion, Bruno

2013-10-01

187

Macrobenthic community for assessment of estuarine health in tropical areas (Northeast, Brazil): review of macrofauna classification in ecological groups and application of AZTI Marine Biotic Index.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the ecological quality of tropical estuaries on the northeastern coast of Brazil using the AMBI. Macrofauna classification based on ecological groups was reviewed using the Indicator Value (IndVal) coefficient. The results indicate that the ecosystems exhibit some level of disturbance. Most sites are situated between slightly-moderately disturbed boundaries due to the higher proportion of Nematoda (assigned here as Ecological Group I) and of Oligochaeta and Tubificidae (both classified as Ecological Group V). The AMBI proved efficient in evaluating environmental status, although the applicability of this index requires adjustments regarding some species in ecological groups. The present study also highlights the merits of the IndVal method for examining the assignments of species/taxa to an ecological group and demonstrates the validity of this coefficient is an assessment tool. Moreover, the complementary use of different methods is recommended for the assessment of ecosystem quality. PMID:22748505

Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

2012-09-01

188

(International meetings on ecology)  

SciTech Connect

the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

1990-09-25

189

Signal and noise performance of large-area PIN photodiodes and charge-sensitive preamplifiers for gamma radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 5 cm long CsI (Tl) crystal scintillators, large-area PIN-type photodiodes of 1 cm×1 cm, and a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier, two gamma-ray detectors were manufactured. One detector used PIN-type photodiodes fabricated in the process of Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) and the other one was based on Hamamatsu PIN-type photodiodes of S-3590-01. Gamma spectroscopies were performed and analyzed for

Kwang Hyun Kim; Young Soo Kim; Jung Soo Kim

2008-01-01

190

Metabolic ecology.  

PubMed

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

191

[Ecology of Culex pipiens fatigans larvae in an area of high endemicity of Bancroftian filariasis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Culex pipiens fatigans in the main vector of bancroftian filariasis in the Mayotte island (Comores) where it imposes an important health problem. The breeding-sites of C. p. fatigans are either man-made (latrines, cesspools, various containers), or natural (polluted water of estuaries of some rivers). The man-made breeding-sites are not similarly distributed in the different localities of the island. Their distribution varies according to the customs of the inhabitants, size and site of the community. They are mainly represented by latrines, where Anjouan ethnic group is predominent; by cesspools in localities inhabited by Sakalava (a Malagasian ethnic group) and by other latrines and cesspools in mahoraises (inhabitants of Mayotte) and cosmopolitan localities. In rural areas, the percentage of habitations with cesspools usually increases with the size of the villages. The various breeding-sites are primarily productive when they are built on a ground with poor permeability. The importance of the present information is further discussed with relation to the population dynamics of C.p. fatigans and to the measures which may be useful for a control program of this mosquito. PMID:1096384

Subra, R; Hebrard, G

1975-03-01

192

Gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles vestitipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in two different ecological areas of southern Mexico.  

PubMed

The duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab was estimated in 2 malarious areas of Chiapas, Mexico: the Lacandon Forest and the Pacific Ocean Coastal Plain. Blood-engorged females held in an outdoor cage required 2.75 d for egg maturation, and 3.75 d for the duration of the gonotrophic cycle. Duration of the gonotrophic cycle also was estimated by parous-nulliparous dynamics for 20 consecutive days and autocorrelation time-series analysis, and by mark-recapture techniques. These methods depicted differences between the Lacandon Forest (3-d cycle) and the Coastal Plain (2-3 d cycles). Daily survival rates were estimated vertically and were generally higher in the Lacandon Forest (0.68) than in the Coastal Plain (0.45-0.58). The probability of mosquitoes surviving the sporogonic cycle was 10-100 times greater in the Lacandon Forest. The pregravid rate was 8.2%, and 29.3% of females with primary follicles beyond Christophers' stage III had traces of red blood in the gut. The 1st statistic indicated that 8.2% of females required > 1 blood meal for initial egg development, the 2nd statistic indicated that 29.3% of females take > 1 blood meal during a gonotrophic cycle. In summary, the enhanced vectorial role of this species is explained partially by high longevity and multiple blood-feeding habits. PMID:9835683

Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Rodríguez, M H; Washino, R K

1998-11-01

193

Demography and ecology of mangrove diamondback terrapins in a wilderness area of Everglades National Park, Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are distributed in brackish water habitats along the U.S. east coast from Massachusetts to Texas, but many populations may be in decline. Whereas ample morphological, behavioral, and reproductive information has been collected for terrapins living in temperate salt marsh habitats, comparatively little is known about mangrove terrapins. To understand population structure of mangrove M. terrapin living in a wilderness area, we conducted a capture-recapture study in the remote, protected Big Sable Creek complex of Everglades National Park, Florida. The goals of the study were to collect baseline demographic data and to compare population structure and growth rates of mangrove terrapins with what is known for more well studied salt marsh terrapins in locations that experience human-imposed threats. We marked 300 terrapins; the sex ratio was 1 female:1.2 males. Considerable sexual size dimorphism was apparent, with reproductively mature females three times larger (by mass) than mature males. Eighty percent of females and 94% of males were classified as mature, based on straight plastron length (SPL). For a subset of terrapins not yet at maximum size (n = 39), we measured growth as a change in straight carapace length over time of 0.3-26.4 mm/yr for females (n = 26) and 0.9-14.5 mm/yr for males (n = 13). Our study presents the first demographic data on mangrove M. terrapin in the coastal Everglades. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Hart, K. M.; McIvor, C. C.

2008-01-01

194

Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate efficiency ?1%, and long lifetime allow solar cells application in building elements like windows, façades and semi-transparent roofs. The use

Matteo Biancardo; Keld West; Frederik C. Krebs

2006-01-01

195

Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

1988-04-01

196

65 FR 80530 - Pipeline Safety: Areas Unusually Sensitive to Environmental Damage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline release. We refer to these areas...criteria for identifying each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and gathering line located...environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident. We refer to...

2000-12-21

197

Transparent, optical, pressure-sensitive artificial skin for large-area stretchable electronics.  

PubMed

Optical pressure sensors are highly responsive and are unaffected by surrounding parameters such as electronic noise, humidity, temperature, etc. A new type of optical pressure sensor is described that demonstrates the stretchability and transparency of a polydimethylsiloxane waveguide, while also serving as a substrate. The pressure sensors are both robust and easy to fabricate over a large area. PMID:22641411

Ramuz, Marc; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

2012-06-26

198

Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test l...

S. Kim X. Sun M. Ishii S. G. Beus

2000-01-01

199

Ecology in Times of Scarcity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an energy-scarce future, ecosystem services will become more important in supporting the human economy. The primary role of ecology will be the sustainable management of ecosystems. Energy scarcity will affect ecology in a number of ways. Ecology will become more expensive, which will be justified by its help in solving societal problems, especially in maintaining ecosystem services. Applied research on highly productive ecosystems, including agroecosystems, will dominate ecology. Ecology may become less collegial and more competitive. Biodiversity preservation will be closely tied to preservation of productive ecosystems and provision of high ecosystem services. Restoration and management of rich natural ecosystems will be as important as protection of existing wild areas. Energy-intensive micromanagement of ecosystems will become less feasible. Ecotechnology and, more specifically, ecological engineering and self-design are appropriate bases for sustainable ecosystem management. We use the Mississippi River basin as a case study for ecology in times of scarcity.

John Day (Louisiana State University;Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences)

2009-04-01

200

The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area  

PubMed Central

The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes. Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April. Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites.

Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

1966-01-01

201

Ecological movements and environmental politics in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

“I live in a country which is said to have a strong ecological opposition, one which includes the Green Party, a great variety of citizen's initiatives, and a network of alternative institutions and communications media, and where public opinion is especially sensitive to ecological problems. This is not entirely false. The so?called ecological movement, in fact, has been quite successful

Thomas Jahn

1993-01-01

202

Sensitivity of two dispersion models (AERMOD and ISCST3) to input parameters for a rural ground-level area source.  

PubMed

As of December 2006, the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regulatory Model with Plume Rise Model Enhancements (AERMOD-PRIME; hereafter AERMOD) replaced the Industrial Source Complex Short Term Version 3 (ISCST3) as the EPA-preferred regulatory model. The change from ISCST3 to AERMOD will affect Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) increment consumption as well as permit compliance in states where regulatory agencies limit property line concentrations using modeling analysis. Because of differences in model formulation and the treatment of terrain features, one cannot predict a priori whether ISCST3 or AERMOD will predict higher or lower pollutant concentrations downwind of a source. The objectives of this paper were to determine the sensitivity of AERMOD to various inputs and compare the highest downwind concentrations from a ground-level area source (GLAS) predicted by AERMOD to those predicted by ISCST3. Concentrations predicted using ISCST3 were sensitive to changes in wind speed, temperature, solar radiation (as it affects stability class), and mixing heights below 160 m. Surface roughness also affected downwind concentrations predicted by ISCST3. AERMOD was sensitive to changes in albedo, surface roughness, wind speed, temperature, and cloud cover. Bowen ratio did not affect the results from AERMOD. These results demonstrate AERMOD's sensitivity to small changes in wind speed and surface roughness. When AERMOD is used to determine property line concentrations, small changes in these variables may affect the distance within which concentration limits are exceeded by several hundred meters. PMID:18939775

Faulkner, William B; Shaw, Bryan W; Grosch, Tom

2008-10-01

203

[Ecological functional regionalization of Changsha City based on RS and GIS].  

PubMed

A delineation method based on the idea of regarding urban-suburban-supporting area as a system was presented in this paper, with an ecological-social-economic database created. A total of five ecological suitability regions, four ecological sensitivity regions, four ecological service regions, and five economic development regions were plotted out, and the Changsha City ecosystem was divided into five ecological functional regions, according to the heterogeneity among ecological functional units and the similarity of interior units. The areas of the five functional regions accounted for 29.47%, 32.5%, 25.95%, 9.63% and 2.45% of the total area, respectively. This research method had some advantages over traditional methods. It was flexible and efficient, because it could accept any combination of parameters organized on a polygonal base map. The variables could be added, deleted, or updated to produce new thematic map products in a short period of time. Mapping procedures were quantitative and automated. With the incorporation of remote sensing data and global position system rapid positioning, the ecological and environmental changes could be detected by monitoring the changes of regional boundary patterns. Therefore, the ecological functional regionalization of Changsha City provided a fine way of integrating remote sensing data, global position system, and geographic information system. PMID:17044505

Cao, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Shuofu; Zhou, Jianfei; Zhu, Hua; Shi, Lin

2006-07-01

204

Ecological Consultancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

2004-01-01

205

What's Ecology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief statement of what ecology means in the 1970's, how we have upset our biosphere, and what are alternatives are, form the introduction in this booklet about ecology for upper elementary and senior high school students. The text and illustrations develop an overview of planet Earth as an interactive unit to establish a basis for understanding…

Humphrey, Clifford C.; Evans, Robert G.

206

Sensitivity of radiative forcing and surface temperature to sulfate injection area in stratospheric geoengineering.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoengineering by injecting sulfur to the stratosphere has been shown to have a potential to counteract global warming. In the future, such a method may be considered as an option in slowing down global warming, if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast and effectively enough. In the stratosphere sulfate particles reflect solar radiation back to space and thus cool the climate. Cooling effect would last 1-2 years because of the stability of the stratosphere combined with lack of effective removal processes. Usually sulfur is assumed to be injected as SO2 which oxidizes and forms sulfate particles after injections. However, if the amount of injected sulfur is increased, its effect can be saturated and the increase in the stratospheric sulfate burden and global radiative forcing becomes smaller. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes, which have a shorter lifetime in the atmosphere and do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and where sulfur is spread more or less equally to both hemispheres. Because of this, sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection would be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. In this study we use global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA to investigate radiative forcing from the different injection areas and to study if a more effective injection strategy would be varying the injection area seasonally. The model describes aerosol size distribution by 10 size sections and calculates the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation, coagulation and hydration. Thus the formation from gaseous SO2 to sulfate particles, particle growth and also how sulfate is distributed in the atmosphere after different injection strategies are described in the model. We will also use coupled climate-ocean model MPI-ESM to study climate effects from these scenarios by using aerosol effective radius and aod fields from simulations by ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. We carried out simulations, where 5 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Preliminary results show that global radiative forcing is slightly larger if the injection area is changed depending on the season of the year compared to a case where sulfur is injected to the area between 10 N and 10 S. Oxidation time from SO2 to sulfate particles and the time that new particles needs to grow particles large enough has major role to how effective temporally depended injection scenarios are.

Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

2014-05-01

207

Warfare Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

208

Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion  

PubMed Central

It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration.

Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

2013-01-01

209

Sensitivity of selection procedures for priority conservation areas to survey extent, survey intensity and taxonomic knowledge  

PubMed Central

Many procedures exist for identifying sets of sites that collectively represent regional biodiversity. Whereas the mechanics and suitability of these procedures have received considerable attention, little effort has been directed towards assessing and quantifying the effects of varying data inputs on their outcomes. In the present paper, we use sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impacts of varying degrees of (i) survey intensity, (ii) survey extent and (iii) taxonomic diversity on iterative reserve selection procedures. A comprehensive distribution database of the mammalian fauna from the Transvaal region of South Africa is systematically perturbed before implementation of a site selection algorithm. The resulting networks of sites are then compared to quantitatively assess the impact of database variations on algorithm performance. Systematic data deletions result in increased network variability (identity of selected sites), decreased numbers of frequently selected sites, decreased spatial congruence among successive runs and a rapid increase in the number of additional sites required to represent all species present in the region. These effects become particularly evident once data sets are reduced to below 20% of the original data. Consequently, a mixed survey strategy that balances survey effort with survey extent and maximizes taxonomic knowledge is more likely to ensure appropriate planning outcomes.

Freitag, S.; Jaarsveld, A. S. Van

1998-01-01

210

Signal and noise performance of large-area PIN photodiodes and charge-sensitive preamplifiers for gamma radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 5cm long CsI (Tl) crystal scintillators, large-area PIN-type photodiodes of 1cm×1cm, and a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier, two gamma-ray detectors were manufactured. One detector used PIN-type photodiodes fabricated in the process of Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) and the other one was based on Hamamatsu PIN-type photodiodes of S-3590-01. Gamma spectroscopies were performed and analyzed for both Co-60 and

Kwang Hyun Kim; Young Soo Kim; Jung Soo Kim

2008-01-01

211

The Lazy Visual Word Form Area: Computational Insights into Location-Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

In a recent study, Rauschecker et al. convincingly demonstrate that visual words evoke neural activation signals in the Visual Word Form Area that can be classified based on where they were presented in the visual fields. This result goes against the prevailing consensus, and begs an explanation. We show that one of the simplest possible models for word recognition, a multilayer feedforward network, will exhibit precisely the same behavior when trained to recognize words at different locations. The model suggests that the VWFA initially starts with information about location, which is not being suppressed during reading acquisition more than is needed to meet the requirements of location-invariant word recognition. Some new interpretations of Rauschecker et al.'s results are proposed, and three specific predictions are derived to be tested in further studies.

Hannagan, Thomas; Grainger, Jonathan

2013-01-01

212

Large area hole transporter deposition in efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell mini-modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the viability of large area processing for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. We fabricate mini-modules comprising two photoactive regions connected in series, of 8 cm2 total active area, using the technique of doctor blade coating to deposit the hole-transporter material. For the optimized protocol we lose only 25% of the power conversion efficiency when compared to standard test devices which are only 0.12 cm2. We estimate pore-filling fractions using reflectance spectroscopy, showing that device performance is linked to changes in the volume of the mesoporous TiO2 photoanode infiltrated with hole-transporter as deposition temperature is varied.

Hey, Andrew S.; Snaith, Henry J.

2013-11-01

213

Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in the NTS operational areas 18, 19, 20, and 30) under the water table as a particle, those particles from the saturated zone detonations were tracked forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine the particles from which detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area. Out of the 71 detonations in the saturated zone, the flowpaths from 23 of the 71 detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, the flowpaths from 55 of the 71 detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area. Three different effective-porosity data sets compiled in support of regional models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport developed for the NTS and the proposed YM repository are used. The results illustrate that mean minimum travel time from underground nuclear testing areas on the NTS to the proposed YM repository area can vary from just over 700 to nearly 700,000 years, depending on the locations of the underground detonations, the pumping scenarios considered, and the effective-porosity value distributions used. Groundwater pumping scenarios are found to significantly impact minimum particle travel time from the NTS to the YM area by altering flowpath geometry. Pumping also attracts many more additional groundwater flowpaths from the NTS to the YM area. The sensitivity analysis further illustrates that for both the pre-pumping and 1998 pumping scenarios, the uncertainties in effective-porosity values for five of the 27 HGUs considered account for well over 90 percent of the effective-porosity-related travel time uncertainties for the flowpaths having the shortest mean travel times to YM.

J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

2009-09-10

214

NOTE: Initial evaluation of acoustic reflectors for the preservation of sensitive abdominal skin areas during MRgFUS treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids using ExAblate®2000 (InSightec, Haifa, Israel), individual tissue ablations are performed extracorporeally through the patient's abdomen using an annular array FUS transducer embedded within the MR table. Ultrasound intensities in the near field are below therapeutic levels and, under normal conditions, heating of the patient skin is minimal. However, increased absorption of ultrasound energy within sensitive skin areas or areas with differing acoustic properties, such as scars, may lead to skin burns and therefore these areas must be kept outside the near field of the FUS beam. Depending on their location and size the sensitive areas may either obstruct parts of the fibroid from being treated or prevent the entire MRgFUS treatment altogether. The purpose of this work is to evaluate acoustic reflector materials that can be applied to protect skin and the underlying sensitive areas. Reflection coefficients of cork (0.88) and foam (0.91) based materials were evaluated with a hydrophone. An ExAblate 2000 MRgFUS system was used to simulate clinical treatment with discs of reflector materials placed in a near field underneath a gel phantom. MR thermometry was used to monitor temperature elevations as well as the integrity of the focal spot. The phantom measurements showed acoustic shadow zones behind the reflectors with zone depths changing between 7 and 27 mm, for reflector disc diameters increasing from 10 to 30 mm (40 mm diameter discs completely blocked the FUS beam at the depth evaluated). The effects on thermal lesions due to the presence of the reflectors in the FUS beam were found to diminish with decreasing disc diameter and increasing sonication depth. For a 20 mm diameter disc and beyond 50 mm sonication depth, thermal lesions were minimally affected by the presence of the disc. No heating was observed on the skin side of the foam reflectors, as confirmed by measurements performed with adhesive temperature labels. We present these data and discuss possible applications to clinical MRgFUS treatments.

Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Chen, Shigao; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Hesley, Gina K.; Woodrum, David A.; Brown, Douglas L.; Felmlee, Joel P.

2009-04-01

215

Mapping Hydrologically Sensitive Areas on the Boreal Plain: A Multi-Temporal Analysis of ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) is vital to a wide range of land management decisions. HSAs are defined as both permanently or transiently wet (saturated or inundated) areas. These hydrologic features play a fundamental role in the water cycle and are important in regulating the movement of nutrients and biota within the landscape. However, characterizing the spatial and temporal dynamics of these hydrologic features at scales relevant to resource managers has proven to be a difficult task. Conventional in-situ hydrological measurements adequate to capture the spatial and temporal complexities of a regional landscape would be prohibitively expensive and, therefore, alternative methods are needed. This study presents a remote sensing approach that uses archived ERS-1 and ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to monitor HSAs in the Willow River watershed (1000 km2) on the western Boreal Plain of Canada. The ERS images were used to generate a probability of HSA occurrence map for a 10-year period (1991-2000). This map revealed the complexity of HSAs on the western Boreal Plain, indicating that some areas remained consitently dry or wet, while some areas were dynamic, wetting and drying and vice versa. The HSA probability map provides information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of HSAs that is currently unavailable for this region.

Clark, R. B.; Creed, I. F.

2006-12-01

216

Densely aligned rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays with high surface area for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

One-dimensional (1-D) TiO(2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with large inner surface area are desired in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). So far, good performance of DSSCs based on 1-D rutile TiO(2) NRAs remains a challenge mainly owing to their low dye-loading ability resulting from the insufficient specific surface area of 1-D TiO(2) nanostructures. In this paper, densely aligned TiO(2) NRAs with tunable thickness were grown directly on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by hydrothermal method, followed by a facile chemical etching route to further increase the specific surface area of the TiO(2) NRAs. The etching treatment leads to the split of TiO(2) nanorods into secondary nanorods with a reduced diameter, which markedly enlarges the inner surface area of the TiO(2) NRAs. The formation of 1-D rutile TiO(2) nanotube arrays (NTAs) is observed as well in the etched TiO(2) films. Finally, a DSSC efficiency of 5.94% was achieved by utilizing an etched TiO(2) NRA as the photoanode, which is so far the best DSSC efficiency that has been reported for the 1-D rutile TiO(2) NRA films. PMID:22899164

Lv, Miaoqiang; Zheng, Dajiang; Ye, Meidan; Sun, Lan; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Wenxi; Lin, Changjian

2012-09-28

217

Sensitivity of fever for diagnosis of clinical malaria in a Kenyan area of unstable, low malaria transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in highland areas of Kenya affects children and adults. Local clinicians include symptoms other than fever when screening for malaria because they believe that fever alone does not capture all cases of malaria. Methods Individuals who presented to dispensaries in a highland Kenya site of low, unstable malaria transmission from 2007–2011 with 1 or more of 11 symptoms were tested by microscopy for malaria. Clinical malaria was defined as asexual Plasmodium falciparum infection on peripheral blood smear in an individual with any screening symptom. Asymptomatic P. falciparum infection was assessed in a cohort at ten time points to determine the extent to which symptomatic episodes with parasitaemia might be attributable to baseline (asymptomatic) parasitaemia in the community. Results 3,420 individuals were screened for malaria, 634?sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and15.4% in children <5 years, and 55.8% and 54.4% in children ?5 years, respectively. Adding the symptom of headache increased sensitivity to 94. 4% in children <5 years and 96.8% in individuals ?5 years, but decreased specificity to 9.9% and 11.6%, respectively, and increased the number of individuals who would be tested by 6% and 92%, respectively. No combination of symptoms improved upon the presence fever or headache for detection of clinical malaria. In the cohort of asymptomatic individuals, P. falciparum parasitaemia was infrequent (0.1%). Conclusion In areas of low, unstable malaria transmission, fever is a sensitive indicator of clinical malaria in children <5 years, but not in older children and adults. Adding headache to fever as screening symptom increases sensitivity of detection in individuals ?5 years old at the cost of decreased specificity. Screening for symptoms in addition to fever may be required to accurately capture all cases of clinical malaria in individuals ?5 years old in areas of low malaria transmission.

2014-01-01

218

Large area and high sensitivity a-Si:H/a-SiC:H based detectors for visible and ultraviolet light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we discuss the fabrication and performance of a-Si:H/a-SiC:H based ultraviolet sensitive devices. They were deposited over a large area (10 cm×10 cm) in p-i-n configuration using a new, multichamber, ultrahigh vacuum plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition facility. The intrinsic layer thickness was 10-100 nm. The devices were characterized in the spectral range 365-660 nm and showed good sensitivity in the UV (365 nm). A good rejection of visible light was also measured. Responsivity as high as 0.30 A/W was measured at 365 nm for samples where the p layer and i layer were 5 and 10 nm thick, respectively. The linearity of the photogenerated current as a function of photon flux was measured. It was found that over an area of 25 cm2 the uniformity was within 15%. Using a laser (200 mW at 351 and 363 nm) the aging characteristics were measured and showed a 25% decrease in responsivity after the absorption of 105 J cm-2 under operating conditions.

Mandracci, P.; Giorgis, F.; Pirri, C. F.; Rastello, M. L.

1999-05-01

219

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

220

Campus Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

Federation, National W.

221

Ecological Field Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field studies are an excellent way for students to learn ecological concepts and practice doing science. This article presents an approach for the secondary science classroom that permits students to ask and answer their own questions, a prerequisite for truly experiencing the process of science. Students explore a local natural area and, in…

Dobson, Christopher

2008-01-01

222

High-surface-area architectures for improved charge transfer kinetics at the dark electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) redox shuttles other than triiodide/iodide have exhibited significantly higher charge transfer resistances at the dark electrode. This often results in poor fill factor, a severe detriment to device performance. Rather than moving to dark electrodes of untested materials that may have higher catalytic activity for specific shuttles, the surface area of platinum dark electrodes could be increased, improving the catalytic activity by simply presenting more catalyst to the shuttle solution. A new copper-based redox shuttle that experiences extremely high charge-transfer resistance at conventional Pt dark electrodes yields cells having fill-factors of less than 0.3. By replacing the standard Pt dark electrode with an inverse opal Pt electrode fabricated via atomic layer deposition, the dark electrode surface area is boosted by ca. 50-fold. The resulting increase in interfacial electron transfer rate (decrease in charge-transfer resistance) nearly doubles the fill factor and therefore the overall energy conversion efficiency, illustrating the utility of this high-area electrode for DSCs. PMID:24828106

Hoffeditz, William L; Katz, Michael J; Deria, Pravas; Martinson, Alex B F; Pellin, Michael J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

2014-06-11

223

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

224

Spatial uncertainty and ecological models  

SciTech Connect

Applied ecological models that are used to understand and manage natural systems often rely on spatial data as input. Spatial uncertainty in these data can propagate into model predictions. Uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, error analysis, error budget analysis, spatial decision analysis, and hypothesis testing using neutral models are all techniques designed to explore the relationship between variation in model inputs and variation in model predictions. Although similar methods can be used to answer them, these approaches address different questions. These approaches differ in (a) whether the focus is forward or backward (forward to evaluate the magnitude of variation in model predictions propagated or backward to rank input parameters by their influence); (b) whether the question involves model robustness to large variations in spatial pattern or to small deviations from a reference map; and (c) whether processes that generate input uncertainty (for example, cartographic error) are of interest. In this commentary, we propose a taxonomy of approaches, all of which clarify the relationship between spatial uncertainty and the predictions of ecological models. We describe existing techniques and indicate a few areas where research is needed.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL

2004-07-01

225

Sensitivity Analysis of Heavy Pavement Design for a Container Terminal Area, Case Study: Port of Gaza, Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the sensitivity analysis of various design parameters for heavy-duty pavement for container terminal areas using Airport Pavement Structural Design System (APSDS) to yield an optimal design solution. APSDS is based on layered elastic theory, which was introduced into airfield design practice with the release of the computer program LEDFAA (Layered Elastic Design, Federal Aviation Administration). In this study, the pavement structure was found very sensitive to design parameters, where 15-60 mm more in base thickness was increased the design life twice. A reduction of base thickness was 27% by changing the handling system from rubber tyred gantry crane system to straddle carrier system and a reduction of 42-76% of base thickness by changing the interface condition at the bottom of base layer from smooth to rough. Other effects of design parameters such as lateral wandering distribution, container weight frequency, variation of elastic modulus for concrete block pavers and sub-grade are discussed. Also various construction materials were used and several combinations of base and sub-base materials were analysed to be able to select the most economical pavement structures.

Abualtayef, Mazen; de Heer, Ronald; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Matsubara, Yuhei; Khaled Seif, Ahmed

226

Combining a Fuzzy Matter-Element Model with a Geographic Information System in Eco-Environmental Sensitivity and Distribution of Land Use Planning  

PubMed Central

Sustainable ecological and environmental development is the basis of regional development. The sensitivity classification of the ecological environment is the premise of its spatial distribution for land use planning. In this paper, a fuzzy matter-element model and factor-overlay method were employed to analyze the ecological sensitivity in Yicheng City. Four ecological indicators, including soil condition,, water condition,, atmospheric conditions and biodiversity were used to classify the ecological sensitivity. The results were categorized into five ranks: insensitive, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive and extremely sensitive zones. The spatial distribution map of environmental sensitivity for land use planning was obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques. The results illustrated that the extremely sensitive and highly sensitive areas accounted for 14.40% and 30.12% of the total area, respectively, while the moderately sensitive and slightly sensitive areas are 25.99% and 29.49%, respectively. The results provide the theoretical foundation for land use planning by categorizing all kinds of land types in Yicheng City.

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xinming; Zhu, Wenjuan

2011-01-01

227

HIV/AIDS and Tourism in the Caribbean: An Ecological Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research.

Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

2010-01-01

228

Achieving Whole-Landscape Management across Multiple Land Management Units: A case study from the Lake District Environmentally Sensitive Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many landscape and ecological features, such as riparian corridors, may span a number of different landholdings, and management practices are often inconsistent across those boundaries. Obtaining the co-operation of landowners thus emerges as one of the major obstacles to the attainment of Agri-Environmental Policy objectives, which are, to a greater or lesser degree, conditional on appropriate management practices being carried

Robert Macfarlane

2000-01-01

229

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

230

Trash Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

Lind, Georgia J.

2004-01-01

231

Ecology, Microbial  

SciTech Connect

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-03-19

232

Ecology, Microbial  

SciTech Connect

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-05-15

233

Evaluation of sensitizers found in wastewater from paper recycling areas, and their activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in vitro.  

PubMed

The in vitro potential of sensitizers and related compounds (SRCs) originating from impurities in waste paper in activating the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ? was assessed using yeast reporter gene as well as cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assays. In the yeast assay, eight compounds exhibited agonist activity, and their activity relative to ?-naphthoflavone (BNF) ranged from 1.4×10(-4) to 8.3×10(-2), with the highest activity observed for benzyl 2-naphthyl ether (BNE). In the EROD assay, six compounds caused a more significant induction of CYP1A-dependent activity than did the vehicle control at 50?M (p<0.01), and their induction levels were 5.1- to 11-fold more potent; 1,2-bis(3-methylphenoxy)ethane (BME) was the most effective inducer. The water from the waste paper recycling area was fractioned using solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with a C18 disk and florisil cartridge. In gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, SRCs were detected in the first fraction, at a total concentration of 5.5?g/L. This fraction also activated AhR, and its activity, expressed as a BNF equivalent value, was 0.42 nM in the yeast assay. The contribution ratio of active compounds accounted for up to 34% and 4.4% observed activity of the fraction and total samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that paper industry-related compounds, namely aromatic sensitizers, activate AhR by using a yeast assay and HepG2 cells. PMID:24950494

Terasaki, Masanori; Yasuda, Michiko; Shimoi, Kayoko; Jozuka, Kazuhiko; Makino, Masakazu; Shiraishi, Fujio; Nakajima, Daisuke

2014-09-15

234

DECREASED SENSITIVITY OF NMDA RECEPTORS ON DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS FROM THE POSTERIOR VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA FOLLOWING CHRONIC NONDEPENDENT ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION  

PubMed Central

Background The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system mediates the reinforcing effects of salient stimuli, including drugs of abuse. Nondependent chronic alcohol consumption modifies this system, resulting in an increased number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Enhanced responses of postsynaptic glutamate receptors may contribute to the increase in active dopamine neurons. Thus, excitations of putative dopamine neurons to locally-applied NMDA (glutamate receptor subtype agonist) were evaluated. Methods P rats were assigned to alcohol naïve (water only) or alcohol drinking (continuous access to 15% alcohol and water for 8 consecutive weeks) groups. Responses of 23 putative dopamine neurons from naïve rats and 19 putative dopamine neurons from drinking rats were assessed in vivo using microiontophoretically-applied NMDA. Current-response curves for firing frequency and burst activity were constructed using nonlinear mixed effects models. Between-group comparisons were made for EC50 (effective current producing a half maximal excitatory response), Emax (maximal excitatory effect) and the CDB (the current at which depolarization block - marked decrease in neuronal activity - occurred). Results Drinking P rats steadily consumed alcohol over the eight-week protocol and did not exhibit signs of dependence or withdrawal. Putative dopamine neurons from drinking rats exhibited resistance to depolarization block (higher CDB values) and required larger doses of NMDA to elicit moderate excitatory responses (higher EC50 values), consistent with decreased receptor affinity. Maximal excitatory responses (Emax) did not differ between the groups, consistent with no change in receptor number. Blood alcohol was at undetectable levels at the time of experimentation. Conclusions NMDA receptor sensitivity is decreased on posterior VTA putative dopamine neurons in P rats on a nondependent schedule of alcohol consumption. Mechanisms underlying increased spontaneous dopamine neuron activity may be independent of changes in NMDA receptor function. Decreased NMDA receptor sensitivity may precede the development of dependence.

Fitzgerald, Griffin J.; Liu, Hai; Morzorati, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

235

Signal and noise performance of large-area PIN photodiodes and charge-sensitive preamplifiers for gamma radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 5 cm long CsI (Tl) crystal scintillators, large-area PIN-type photodiodes of 1 cm×1 cm, and a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier, two gamma-ray detectors were manufactured. One detector used PIN-type photodiodes fabricated in the process of Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) and the other one was based on Hamamatsu PIN-type photodiodes of S-3590-01. Gamma spectroscopies were performed and analyzed for both Co-60 and Cs-137 gamma sources. The first detector showed energy resolutions (FWHM) of 6.4% and 5.5% for 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, which were similar to energy resolutions of the second detector for Co-60, but the second detector showed 6.6% better resolution than the first detector's 11.8% for Cs-137. For 10 h exposure of Co-60 (14.5 ?Ci), noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and spectroscopy for both detectors have been investigated in detail. The NEQ of 25% increased after the exposure and degradations of the FWHMs of 26% and 11% have been found for 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, respectively.

Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Jung Soo

2008-06-01

236

Transfer and assembly of large area TiO2 nanotube arrays onto conductive glass for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly ordered titanium oxide nanotube arrays are synthesized by a two-step anodic oxidation of pure titanium foil at constant voltage. It is found that the length of nanotube arrays firstly increased rapidly with the anodization time, and then the growth rate gradually slowed down with further increasing the anodization time. The mechanism of anodization time-dependent tube length growth is discussed. Large area free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays are detached from the underlying Ti foil and transferred onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates to serve as the photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoelectric performance of the DSSCs assembled by TNT/FTO films is strongly related to the tube length of titania and the surface treatment. For the photoanodes without any surface modification, the highest overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) that can be achieved is 4.12% in the DSSC assembled with 33-?m-thick TNT arrays, while the overall PCE of DSSC based on the 33-?m-thick TNT arrays increases to 9.02% in response to the treatment with TiCl4.

Zhang, Jun; Li, Siqian; Ding, Hao; Li, Quantong; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

237

New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector  

SciTech Connect

A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Angstroem laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, {sup 1}H{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, and {sup 11}B{sup +}. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallen, A. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, Integrated Circuits and Devices, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden); Astroem, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Department of Physics, Ion Physics, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2012-09-15

238

The Role of Ecology in the Federal Government. Report of the Committee on Ecological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was designed as an initial attempt to address the role of the federal government in ecological research and application of this research. The Ad Hoc Committee on Ecological Research, appointed for this study, provided advice and guidance in the following five areas: (1) identification of national needs for ecological knowledge and…

Federal Council for Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

239

Oak Savanna Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will study the oak savannah ecosystems in Oregon to determine the environmental conditions that support this specific ecosystem. This lesson will be an inquiry based lesson that will create the foundation of a larger class project in which students explore the ecological changes to an area over time, and, using this data, develop an ecosystem determination and restoration plan for a site east of Cottage Grove. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Aumack, Stefan

2011-09-15

240

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

241

Extending Community Ecology to Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A goal of landscape ecology is to infer proces ses or constraints that generate spatial pattern in communities and ecosystems. The rich tradition of plant community,ecology is now being extended to address spatial pattern in vegetation over large spatial extents. The challenge in this is that vegetation pattern on landscapes is fine-grained,which presents sampling problems for large study areas.

Dean Urban; Sarah Goslee; Ken Pierce; Todd Lookingbill

242

Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

1991-01-01

243

Probing the molecular-level control of aluminosilicate dissolution: A sensitive solid-state NMR proxy for reactive surface area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two suites of volcanic aluminosilicate glasses, the accessible and reactive sites for covalent attachment of the fluorine-containing (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)dimethylchlorosilane (TFS) probe molecule were measured by quantitative 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The first set of samples consists of six rhyolitic and dacitic glasses originating from volcanic activity in Iceland and one rhyolitic glass from the Bishop Tuff, CA. Due to differences in the reactive species present on the surfaces of these glasses, variations in the rate of acid-mediated dissolution (pH 4) for samples in this suite cannot be explained by variations in geometric or BET-measured surface area. In contrast, the rates scale directly with the surface density of TFS-reactive sites as measured by solid-state NMR. These data are consistent with the inference that the TFS-reactive M-OH species on the glass surface, which are known to be non-hydrogen-bonded Q 3 groups, represent loci accessible to and affected by proton-mediated dissolution. The second suite of samples, originating from a chronosequence in Kozushima, Japan, is comprised of four rhyolites that have been weathered for 1.1, 1.8, 26, and 52 ka. The number of TFS-reactive sites per gram increases with duration of weathering in the laboratory for the "Icelandic" samples and with duration of field weathering for both "Icelandic" and Japanese samples. One hypothesis is consistent with these and published modeling, laboratory, and field observations: over short timescales, dissolution is controlled by fast-dissolving sites, but over long timescales, dissolution is controlled by slower-dissolving sites, the surface density of which is proportional to the number of TFS-reactive Q 3 sites. These latter sites are not part of a hydrogen-bonded network on the surface of the glasses, and measurement of their surface site density allows predictions of trends in reactive surface area. The TFS treatment method, which is easily monitored by quantitative 19F solid-state NMR, therefore provides a chemically specific and quantifiable proxy to understand the nature of how sites on dissolving silicates control dissolution. Furthermore, 27Al NMR techniques are shown here to be useful in identifying clays on the glass surfaces, and these methods are therefore effective for quantifying concentrations of weathering impurities. Our interpretations offer a testable hypothesis for the mechanism of proton-promoted dissolution for low-iron aluminosilicate minerals and glasses and suggest that future investigations of reactive surfaces with high-sensitivity NMR techniques are warranted.

Washton, Nancy M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Mueller, Karl T.

2008-12-01

244

Application of a fast and efficient algorithm to detect areas with prerequisites for landslide in sensitive clays, Göta Älv, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Sweden, landslide stability maps are based on the recognition of topographical and soil conditions. The topographical criterion is based on the ratio between height of the slope and its length. The calculation of this cross-sectional angle is straight forward in one dimension, but slightly more complicated in two dimensions and very computationally expensive in a GIS environment. We present an application of a fast and efficient computer algorithm based on slope and soil criteria in Göta Älv, southwest Sweden. The algorithm, compared to other software implementations of the cross-sectional angle criterion, guarantees a fast execution, the possibility to insert several threshold values of the cross-sectional angle and the use of information on bedrock elevation. As input maps we used a 1:50000 Quaternary soil map, a DEM at 2x2 m pixel resolution, and a bedrock elevation map. We used two sets of cross-sectional angle thresholds, the first one derived from stability calculation and the second one assessed through the relationship between QCSI (i.e., estimated value of the sensitivity) and the cross-sectional angle calculated from the landslide scar database. A comparison between the results of the algorithm using or not using the bedrock information was also performed. The produced maps were validated by using the landslide scar database and a hazard map. The results show that the use of bedrock information decreases the calculated areas with prerequisites for landslides, whereas not decreasing the performance of the algorithm. The maps produced by using the two different sets of cross-angle thresholds are very similar and show similar results in the validation. This means that it would be possible to extent this methodology in areas without geotechnical information by using less expensive data such as the QCSI. Moreover, the use of several cross-sectional angle thresholds is not possible in other software implementations available at the moment. This means that the presented algorithm is the best candidate to assess landslide prerequisites in Sweden.

Melchiorre, Caterina; Tryggvason, Ari

2014-05-01

245

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

246

Migration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-15

247

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

248

Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development

Mark Colyvan; Stefan Linquist; William Grey; Paul E. Griffiths; Jay Odenbaugh; Hugh P. Possingham

2009-01-01

249

The ecological footprint from a systems perspective of sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a method for estimating the biologically productive area necessary to support current consumption patterns, given prevailing technical and economic processes. By comparing human impact with the planet's limited bioproductive area. this method tests a basic ecological condition for sustainability. The ecological footprint has gained popularity for its pedagogical strength as it expresses the results of

John Holmberg; Ulrika Lundqvist; Karl-Henrik Robèrt; Mathis Wackernagel

1999-01-01

250

Fabrication of nanoporous Au films with ultra-high surface area for sensitive electrochemical detection of glucose in the presence of Cl-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous Au films with ultra-high surface area (roughness factor greater than 1000) were prepared via one-step anodization of Au in citric acid solution. The as-prepared surface of nanoporous Au films was covered with carbonaceous materials, which could be removed by electrochemical methods to produce electrochemically active surfaces. The cleaned nanoporous Au films exhibited high electrochemical activities for glucose oxidation; however, the expansion of the surface area did not necessarily contribute to the sensitivity enhancement in the absence of Cl-. The ultra-high surface area of the nanoporous Au significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the electrochemical detection of glucose in the presence of 100 mM of Cl-, enabling sensitivity as high as 120 ?A mM-1 cm-2. Nafion-coated nanoporous Au exhibited a linear amperometric response to glucose with high sensitivity without interference from ascorbic acid. The preparation of nanoporous Au with ultra-high surface area will offer new opportunity for electroanalytical applications based on nanoporous Au structures.

Jeong, Hwakyeung; Kim, Jongwon

2014-04-01

251

Distribution of Genes for Virulence and Ecological Fitness among Diverse Vibrio cholerae Population in a Cholera Endemic Area: Tracking the Evolution of Pathogenic Strains  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae that cause acute enteric infections in humans are derived from environmental nonpathogenic strains. To track the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae and identify potential precursors of new pathogenic strains, we analyzed 324 environmental or clinical V. cholerae isolates for the presence of diverse genes involved in virulence or ecological fitness. Of 251 environmental non-O1, non-O139 strains tested, 10 (3.9%) carried the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) pathogenicity island encoding TCPs, and the CTX prophage encoding cholera toxin, whereas another 10 isolates carried the TCP island alone, and were susceptible to transduction with CTX phage. Most V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains carried these two major virulence determinants, as well as the Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP-1 and VSP-2), whereas 23 (9.1%) non-O1, non-O139 strains carried several VSP island genes, but none carried a complete VSP island. Conversely, 30 (11.9%) non-O1, non-O139 strains carried type III secretion system (TTSS) genes, but none of 63 V. cholerae O1 or O139 strains tested were positive for TTSS. Thus, the distribution of major virulence genes in the non-O1, non-O139 serogroups of V. cholerae is largely different from that of the O1 or O139 serogroups. However, the prevalence of putative accessory virulence genes (mshA, hlyA, and RTX) was similar in all strains, with the mshA being most prevalent (98.8%) followed by RTX genes (96.2%) and hlyA (94.6%), supporting more recent assumptions that these genes imparts increased environmental fitness. Since all pathogenic strains retain these genes, the epidemiological success of the strains presumably depends on their environmental persistence in addition to the ability to produce major virulence factors. Potential precursors of new pathogenic strains would thus require to assemble a combination of genes for both ecological fitness and virulence to attain epidemiological predominance.

Rahman, M. Hasibur; Biswas, Kuntal; Hossain, M. Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Mekalanos, John J.

2008-01-01

252

Leukemia Ecology: Ecological Prophylaxis of Leukemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Etiopathogenesis of leukemia; Ecological leukemogenic factors; Epidemiology of leukemias; Geochemical environment in relationship to health and disease; Leukemia risk factor bank; Perspectives of leukemia prophylaxis by ecological and dietary me...

J. Aleksandrowica A. B. Skotnicki

1982-01-01

253

Mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) community structure as an indicator of the ecological status of a stream in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Ephemeroptera is an important group of insects used in the bioassessment and monitoring of freshwater bodies worldwide because of their relative abundance in a wide variety of substrates and their increasing chances of detecting pollution impacts. In this study, their faunistic composition and spatiotemporal variations in density and diversity in River Orogodo (Southern Nigeria) was investigated at five ecologically distinct stations over a 12-month period. The mayfly nymph community responses to environmental variables were evaluated by means of biological measures and multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis [RDA]). Thirteen morphologically distinct taxa belonging to six families were identified. The dominant taxa were Afrobaetodes pusillus (23.1%), Baetis sp. (13.7%), and Caenis cibaria (11.4%). The density of Ephemeroptera differed significantly (p < 0.05) both in space and time. Diversity was influenced by substrate heterogeneity which in turn was influenced by catchment processes such as flooding and anthropogenic activities especially abattoir effluent. Based on the RDA ordination and relative abundance data, Baetis sp. dominated at impacted stations while a more equitable distribution of species were observed in less disturbed sites. Water velocity, canopy cover, nature of bottom sediments, and the amount of dissolved oxygen also accounted for the variations in Ephemeroptera densities at the different stations. Shannon diversity, taxa richness, and evenness were lowest in station 3 (the abattoir discharge site). PMID:19543701

Arimoro, Francis O; Muller, Wilhelmine J

2010-07-01

254

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 °C and 17 °C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-12-01

255

Observed and simulated sensitivities of summertime urban surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat in downtown areas of two Japanese Major Cities, Tokyo and Osaka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the sensitivities of surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat (AH) were investigated in downtowns of the two Japanese major cities, Tokyo and Osaka. First, meteorological measurements were made with the simultaneous monitoring of electricity demand in a contrastive couple of a downtown commercial area (C-area) and a residential area (R-area) within each city in summer 2007. From the measurements, the areal-mean surface air temperatures were obtained as {overline{T}}C and {overline{T}}R for each of the C-area and R-area, respectively. Using the actual electricity demand and the estimated motor fuels consumption, their areal total was evaluated as the energy-consumption-basis AH. The estimated C-areas' AH indicated greater values up to 220 W/m2 on weekdays and remarkable decrease about by half on weekends, whereas that in the R-areas showed less values of 10-20 W/m2 stably. Then, {overline{T}}C-{overline{T}}R on calm and fine days were found to be systematically decreased from weekdays to weekends in both cities roughly indicating a proportional relationship with the reductions in the C-areas' AH on weekends. The result suggested a common afternoon sensitivity for both C-areas of around 1.0°C/100 W/m2, which indicated an intensity of the AH impact on surface air temperature there. Next, to simulate the observed AH impact, the authors' CM-BEM (a multilayer urban canopy model coupled with a building energy model) was newly implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WMF) model. This new system, WRF-CM-BEM, was applied to Tokyo and almost reasonably validated from the aspects of the reproducibility of urban surface air temperature and electricity demand in the observation areas. The simulations also suggested that WRF-CM-BEM underestimated the observed air temperature sensitivity to AH in the Tokyo C-area roughly by half but still in the same order of magnitude.

Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Ai; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Ihara, Tomohiko; Shigeta, Yoshinori

2013-08-01

256

Human-induced marine ecological degradation: micropaleontological perspectives  

PubMed Central

We analyzed published downcore microfossil records from 150 studies and reinterpreted them from an ecological degradation perspective to address the following critical but still imperfectly answered questions: (1) How is the timing of human-induced degradation of marine ecosystems different among regions? (2) What are the dominant causes of human-induced marine ecological degradation? (3) How can we better document natural variability and thereby avoid the problem of shifting baselines of comparison as degradation progresses over time? The results indicated that: (1) ecological degradation in marine systems began significantly earlier in Europe and North America (?1800s) compared with Asia (post-1900) due to earlier industrialization in European and North American countries, (2) ecological degradation accelerated globally in the late 20th century due to post-World War II economic growth, (3) recovery from the degraded state in late 20th century following various restoration efforts and environmental regulations occurred only in limited localities. Although complex in detail, typical signs of ecological degradation were diversity decline, dramatic changes in total abundance, decrease in benthic and/or sensitive species, and increase in planktic, resistant, toxic, and/or introduced species. The predominant cause of degradation detected in these microfossil records was nutrient enrichment and the resulting symptoms of eutrophication, including hypoxia. Other causes also played considerable roles in some areas, including severe metal pollution around mining sites, water acidification by acidic wastewater, and salinity changes from construction of causeways, dikes, and channels, deforestation, and land clearance. Microfossils enable reconstruction of the ecological history of the past 102–103 years or even more, and, in conjunction with statistical modeling approaches using independent proxy records of climate and human-induced environmental changes, future research will enable workers to better address Shifting Baseline Syndrome and separate anthropogenic impacts from background natural variability.

Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Breitburg, Denise; Tsujimoto, Akira; Katsuki, Kota

2012-01-01

257

Field Ecology Notebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field Ecology is designed to teach students general scientific methods, procedures, and thinking skills, as well as specific methods and procedures used to study plants and animals in their natural setting. The objectives for this project are as follows: Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific methods to solving problems. Demonstrate proper methods of observing and recording scientific data. Demonstrate the ability to measure in metric units and graph data correctly. Assess the interrelationships of living and non-living factors in a specific habitat. The student will select a one-meter square area near his home that is in a natural setting and make regular observations throughout the school term.

Donna Cates (Retired REV)

1994-07-30

258

Ecology at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how rooftop gardens help the environment and the lives of people, especially in urban areas. They gain an understanding of how plants reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, provide agriculture space, reduce energy consumption and increase the aesthetic quality of cities. This draws upon the science of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation, materials, color) and ecology (plants, shade, carbon dioxide, photosynthesis), and the engineering requirements for rooftop gardens. In the associated activity, students apply their scientific knowledge to model and measure the effects of green roofs.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

259

Changes in Sensitization Rate to Weed Allergens in Children with Increased Weeds Pollen Counts in Seoul Metropolitan Area  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases in children has increased for several decades. We evaluated the correlation between pollen count of weeds and their sensitization rate in Seoul, 1997-2009. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from 3 stations around Seoul. Skin prick tests to pollen were performed on children with allergic diseases. Ragweed pollen gradually increased between 1999 and 2005, decreased after 2005 and plateaued until 2009 (peak counts, 67 in 2003, 145 in 2005 and 83 grains/m3/day in 2007). Japanese hop pollen increased between 2002 and 2009 (peak counts, 212 in 2006 and 492 grains/m3/day in 2009). Sensitization rates to weed pollen, especially ragweed and Japanese hop in children with allergic diseases, increased annually (ragweed, 2.2% in 2000 and 2.8% in 2002; Japanese hop, 1.4% in 2000 and 1.9% in 2002). The age for sensitization to pollen gradually became younger since 2000 (4 to 6 yr of age, 3.5% in 1997 and 6.2% in 2009; 7 to 9 yr of age, 4.2% in 1997 and 6.4% in 2009). In conclusion, sensitization rates for weed pollens increase in Korean children given increasing pollen counts of ragweed and Japanese hop.

Kim, Joo-Hwa; Lee, Ha-Baik; Kim, Seong-Won; Kang, Im-Joo; Kook, Myung-Hee; Kim, Bong-Seong; Park, Kang-Seo; Baek, Hey-Sung; Kim, Kyu-Rang; Choi, Young-Jean

2012-01-01

260

Landscape pattern and its effect on ecosystem functions in Seoul Metropolitan area: urban ecology on distribution of the naturalized plant species.  

PubMed

During land transformation process in the human history, naturalized plants were introduced to several land use patterns by the different ways of plant itself. Including some naturalized plants that had been contribute to land restoration, many naturalized plants have been invaded to original habitat or landscape for native plants. Once the plants were colonized, they extend their area and population size. Urban developed areas often give an important role of source habitat for naturalized plants and expanding their population size. In recent, this situation is appearing as one of environmental problem about the urban landscape management controlling the naturalized plants that invaded in the developed area and conserving the native vegetation. This paper is focusing on relationships between distribution of habitat of naturalized plants and landscape patch in urban areas in Seoul. Gangdong-Gu, one of the administrative areas in Seoul was selected for this study. We examined the recent land use change using LANDSAT TM data and spreading of the representative naturalized plants (Robinia pseudocacia and Eupatorium rugosum) by Seoul Biotope Mapping Project and field survey in 1999. As a result, these two species were often occurred in the same habitat and distributed in forest edge disturbed by man. Their distribution patterns were related to landscape indices (patch size and shape) in the forest edge. PMID:12765262

Hong, Sun-Kee; Song, In-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Eung-Kyong

2003-03-01

261

Ecology Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project each student will research a biome that is found in North and Central America. They will create a detailed portfolio on this biome. Then they will research a zoo and how zoo\\'s act as a habitat for each of their animals. Once completed they will make a section of the zoo for their biome. Ecology Project Project Outline Biome Summary Earth Floor: Biome List of each Biome Individual Biome Resource NASA view of the BIOMES The World s Biomes World Biome You will need to make a climograph which includes average temperature and average precipitation. How to read a climograph For Section 2 Zoo Animal Planet Columbus Zoo & Aquarium Minnesota Zoo: Animals San Diego Zoo Kid Territory Smithsonian National Zoological Park: Animal Photo Galleries Woodland Park Zoo: Multimedia Zoos : A Historical Perspective : Smithsonian Institution Libraries On Display This will be a month long project. The overall project will include three sections. Section 1: Each student will conduct an extensive multimedia research project of the six biomes in North ...

Darragh, Miss.

2008-10-25

262

Effect of an Si 3 N 4 \\/PSG\\/SiO 2 multilayer dielectric coating on the spectral sensitivity of elements in CMOS area imagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral dependences of the transmittance of the IC-protecting multilayer dielectric coating are theoretically and experimentally\\u000a studied to facilitate the development and design of CMOS color area imagers. The results obtained demonstrate the modulation\\u000a of the spectral sensitivity of photodiodes with conventional multilayer dielectric coatings, a characteristic that substantially\\u000a impedes color separation of a photosignal. Numerical simulation of the spectral transparency

I. V. Vanyushin; V. A. Gergel’; N. M. Gorshkova; K. M. Zatolokin; A. N. Knyazev

2006-01-01

263

Quantitative ecology and dry-heat resistance of psychrophiles. M.S. Thesis; [in soil samples from Viking spacecraft manufacturing areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microorganisms capable of growth at 7 C were enumerated and isolated from soil samples from the manufacture area (Denver, Colorado) and assembly area (Cape Kennedy, Florida) of the Viking spacecraft. Temperature requirements were determined for these isolates, and those growing at 3 C, but not at 32 C were designated as obligate psychrophiles in this investigation. These were identified to major generic groups, and the population density of obligate psychrophiles from the various groups was determined. Dry heat D-values were found for those spores that demonstrated growth or survival under a simulated Martian environment.

Winans, L., Jr.

1974-01-01

264

In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum collected from pyrimethamine--sulfadoxine sensitive and resistant areas in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Seventy Plasmodium falciparum isolates, collected from two geographically separate areas of Thailand, were tested for their in vitro responses to pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, and a combination of these two drugs. The effects of pyrimethamine and pyrimethamine—sulfadoxine combinations against P. falciparum isolates were found to be significantly greater in a northern area where the combined drug was an effective therapeutic agent than in a south-eastern area, near the Thai-Kampuchean border, where the combined drug was no longer effective. However, the actions of sulfadoxine against parasites obtained from the two areas were not significantly different. There was no significant difference between the mean values of plasma 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in falciparum malaria patients and in healthy controls. The test for PABA determinations used in this study gave positive readings with both PABA and sulfadoxine.

Sabchareon, A.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; Attanath, P.; Kanjanapipatkul, K.; Doberstyn, E. B.; Suebsaeng, L.

1985-01-01

265

Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of;\\u000aEnergy as the nations first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel;\\u000aradioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from;\\u000aunderground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface;\\u000aof the proposed land withdrawal area for the

J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R. W. H. Carroll; D. Shafer

2009-01-01

266

Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species ( Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995–2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a

Janja France; Patricija Mozeti?

2006-01-01

267

Education for Today's Ecological Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

Singer, S. Fred

1970-01-01

268

The effect of management and ecological factors on the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana.  

PubMed

The relationship between clinical anaplasmosis and other disease morbidity, nutritional supplementation, vaccinations, external and internal parasite control, tetracycline supplementation, reproductive management and use of veterinary services was assessed in 320 beef cow-calf herds in the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana. Data were collected both by mailed questionnaires and by interviews with owners who reported the presence or absence of clinical anaplasmosis. A relationship was found between other disease conditions and anaplasmosis, suggesting disease as a stressor in Anaplasmosis marginale carrier cattle. The herd location of A. marginale seropositive animals and clinical cases of anaplasmosis were related to areas of bottomland hardwood vegetation in which tabanid flies were abundant. This relationship with vegetation was tested by mapping the location of 209 beef and dairy herds which had been serologically tested for anaplasmosis and 256 cases of clinical anaplasmosis in 113 beef and dairy herds. PMID:2588476

Morley, R S; Hugh-Jones, M E

1989-01-01

269

[Remote sensing analysis of forest resources characteristics in main ecological restoration counties in the Three-gorge area based on the 2nd-class inventory data].  

PubMed

Based on high-resolution SPOT-5 images, combined with topographic (1:10000) calculating terrain-bit index, the distribution characteristics of woodlands in different terrain niches, and the buffer radii of different roads, water bodies and settlements were identified by using ArcGIS space overlay and buffer analysis function. Results showed that woodland resources were abundant, and arbor woodland and shrub land were the main species, which mainly distributed in two mountain areas (Fangdou Mountain, Qiyao Mountain) affected by topographic restriction and woodland natural basis. The woodland terrain niche distribution index showed an overall upward trend with increasing terrain niche gradient, especially for the arbor woodland and shrub land, while the other woodland types presented an opposite trend. The percentage of woodland area occupying the corresponding buffer radius around the roads, waterbodies and settlements had a strong similarity with the woodland terrain niche distribution index. Only around the settlements, bamboo forest, sparse woodland and immature woodland occupied higher percentages of the woodland area of the corresponding buffer radius than that of arbor woodland and shrub land. Woodland distribution was mainly controlled by large landform patterns of mountain features, while the distribution of woodlands in the different terrain niches and the different buffer radii of roads, waterbodies and settlements were driven mainly by duress of human activities under the auspices of the large landform patterns. PMID:24765848

Wu, Zhao-Ping; Shao, Jing-An; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Su, Wei-Ci; Liao, Ming-Rong

2014-01-01

270

Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism and fragmentary modes of existence, to a more relational (ecological) view of the world in which balance and harmony are achieved by ever-changing complexity and differentiation. Central to this view is the recognition that human communities will become increasingly more just and sustainable if their citizens understand, are committed to, and share, a set of values and ecological principles. Shared purposes and principles, however, cannot be handed down from above but must be developed from the bottom-up through community engagement and ecological citizenship.

Lopes, V. L.

2013-12-01

271

Simultaneous Area Minimization and Decaps Insertion for Power Delivery Network Using Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis with IEKS Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soaring clocking frequency and integration density demand robust and stable power delivery to support tens of millions of transistor switching. In this paper, we consider the problem of mini- mizing the area of wires and decoupling capacitors (decaps) for a power delivery network, subject to the limit on integral of voltage drops. First, we derive the gradients of constraint

Yu-Min Lee; Jeng-Liang Tsai; Charlie Chung-Ping Chen

272

Eglin Air Force Base Ecological Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) tested indicators of sandhill ecological condition, confirming the usefulness of some groundcover (graminoid, Solidago odora, woody vine, and legume density, and herbaceous cover) while discarding others (Hyperic...

C. Kindell A. Johnson

2000-01-01

273

Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities  

SciTech Connect

Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01

274

ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite.

de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, Joao Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

2014-01-01

275

Ecological aspects of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Aspects of phlebotomine behavior were investigated in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The insects were captured weekly during December 2003 to November 2005, with Centers for Disease Control light traps at seven different sites including forests and residential areas. In total, 11,024 specimens (7,805 males and 3,219 females) were collected, from which 9,963 (90.38%) were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis agent. The remaining 9.62% comprised 21 species. L. longipalpis was the most frequent species in all sampled sites, and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index. In residential areas this species clearly predominated in the peridomicile (90.96%), in contrast to the intradomicile (9.04%); in animal shelters, it was more numerous in hen houses and prevailed at ground level, inside, and at forest edge around the residences; this aspect is worrying because this insect may remain sheltered in forested environments during the use of insecticides in homes. In the forest environment, other probable or proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents were also captured such as Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati), Lutzomyia antunesi (=Nyssomyia antunesi, sensu Galati), and Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (=Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, sensu Galati). PMID:22308770

Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

2012-01-01

276

Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons Mediate the Shock Sensitization of Acoustic Startle: A Potential Site of Action for Benzodiazepine Anxiolytics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine (DA)-containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are thought to play an important role in fear motivation. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the connection between DA D2, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A, and benzodiazepine receptors in the VTA and footshock-associated emotionality. Microinfusion of the DA D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol,

Anna Gifkins; Quentin Greba; Larry Kokkinidis

2002-01-01

277

Natural Variations in Maternal Care Are Associated with Estrogen Receptor   Expression and Estrogen Sensitivity in the Medial Preoptic Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactating rats exhibit stable individual differences in pup licking\\/grooming (LG) over the first week postpartum. Such naturally occurring variations in maternal behavior are as- sociated with differences in estrogen-inducible oxytocin re- ceptors in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothal- amus. We compared levels of ER and ER mRNA in the MPOA of lactating High or Low LG mothers

FRANCES A. CHAMPAGNE; IAN C. G. WEAVER; JOSIE DIORIO; SHAKTI SHARMA; MICHAEL J. MEANEY

2003-01-01

278

Handy Compton camera using 3D position-sensitive scintillators coupled with large-area monolithic MPPC arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release of radioactive isotopes (mainly 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I) from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant remains a serious problem in Japan. To help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation, we are developing a novel Compton camera weighting only 1 kg and measuring just ˜10cm2 in size. Despite its compactness, the camera realizes a wide 180° field of vision with a sensitivity about 50 times superior to other cameras being tested in Fukushima. We expect that a hotspot producing a 5?Sv/h dose at a distance of 3 m can be imaged every 10 s, with angular resolution better than 10° (FWHM). The 3D position-sensitive scintillators and thin monolithic MPPC arrays are the key technologies developed here. By measuring the pulse-height ratio of MPPC-arrays coupled at both ends of a Ce:GAGG scintillator block, the depth of interaction (DOI) is obtained for incident gamma rays as well as the usual 2D positions, with accuracy better than 2 mm. By using two identical 10 mm cubic Ce:GAGG scintillators as a scatterer and an absorber, we confirmed that the 3D configuration works well as a high-resolution gamma camera, and also works as spectrometer achieving typical energy resolution of 9.8% (FWHM) for 662 keV gamma rays. We present the current status of the prototype camera (weighting 1.5 kg and measuring 8.5×14×16 cm3 in size) being fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Although the camera still operates in non-DOI mode, angular resolution as high as 14° (FWHM) was achieved with an integration time of 30 s for the assumed hotspot described above.

Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Nakamori, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.

2013-12-01

279

[Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology in natural and artificial breeding places in rural areas of the northern Paraná State, Brazil. I.--Collections from a riverbed].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to identify the Culicidae species apt to colonize the waters of a creek with reduced gallery forest in the southern region of Brazil. Captures were performed using a water insect-collecting net. The following species were captured. Aedes crinifer, Aedomya squamipennis, Anopheles fluminensis, An. intermedius, An. albitarsis, An. argyritarsis, An. evansae, An. strodei, An. oswaldoi, An. Triannulatus, Chagasia fajardi, Culex bidens, Cx. group coronator, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. Mollis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coppenamensis, Cx. vaxus, Cx. group inhibitor, Cx. intrincatus, Cx. (Melanoconion) sp, Psorophora saeva (?) and Uranotaenia pulcherrima. As for the species which showed the highest frequency rate, the following aspects were studied: population fluctuation, environmental factor correlated with geographic distribution along the area. It was concluded that superficial waters with reduced gallery forest may serve as a refuge for some Culicidae. This fact may contribute to the domiciliation process of the species. PMID:8539529

Lopes, J; Lozovei, A L

1995-06-01

280

An ecological model for quantitative risk assessment for schistosomiasis: the case of a patchy environment in the coastal tropical area of northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We developed a stochastic model for quantitative risk assessment for the Schistosoma mansoni (SM) parasite, which causes an endemic disease of public concern. The model provides answers in a useful format for public health decisions, uses data and expert opinion, and can be applied to any landscape where the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the main intermediate host (South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa). It incorporates several realistic and case-specific features: stage-structured parasite populations, periodic praziquantel (PZQ) drug treatment for humans, density dependence, extreme events (prolonged rainfall), site-specific sanitation quality, environmental stochasticity, monthly rainfall variation, uncertainty in parameters, and spatial dynamics. We parameterize the model through a real-world application in the district of Porto de Galinhas (PG), one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil, where previous studies identified four parasite populations within the metapopulation. The results provide a good approximation of the dynamics of the system and are in agreement with our field observations, i.e., the lack of basic infrastructure (sanitation level and health programs) makes PG a suitable habitat for the persistence and growth of a parasite metapopulation. We quantify the risk of SM metapopulation explosion and quasi-extinction and the time to metapopulation explosion and quasi-extinction. We evaluate the sensitivity of the results under varying scenarios of future periodic PZQ treatment (based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health's plan) and sanitation quality. We conclude that the plan might be useful to slow SM metapopulation growth but not to control it. Additional investments in better sanitation are necessary. PMID:24200189

Duarte, Heitor de Oliveira; Droguett, Enrique Lopez; Moura, Márcio das Chagas; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Barbosa, Constança; Barbosa, Verônica; Araújo, Moacyr

2014-05-01

281

High ethanol sensitivity of palladium/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures dominated by enlarged surface area and nano-Schottky junctions.  

PubMed

TiO(2) nanobelts were prepared by the hydrothermal growth method. The surface of the nanobelts was coarsened by selective acid corrosion and functionalized with Pd catalyst particles. Three nanobelt samples (TiO(2) nanobelts, surface-coarsened TiO(2) nanobelts and Pd nanoparticle/TiO(2) nanobelt surface heterostructures) were configured as gas sensors and their sensing ability was measured. Both the surface-coarsened nanobelts and the Pd nanoparticle-decorated TiO(2) nanobelts exhibited dramatically improved sensitivity to ethanol vapor. Pd nanoparticle-decorated TiO(2) nanobelts with surface heterostructures exhibited the best sensitivity, selectivity, working temperature, response/recovery time, and reproducibility. The excellent ethanol sensing performance is attributed to the large surface area and enhancement by Schottky barrier-type junctions between the Pd nanoparticles and TiO(2) nanobelts. PMID:23010318

Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Weijia; Hu, Peiguang; Guan, Yu; Chen, Limei; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jiyang; Cao, Guozhong; Jiang, Huaidong

2012-12-15

282

In Vitro Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum from China-Myanmar Border Area to Major ACT Drugs and Polymorphisms in Potential Target Genes  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance has always been one of the most important impediments to global malaria control. Artemisinin resistance has recently been confirmed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and efforts for surveillance and containment are intensified. To determine potential mechanisms of artemisinin resistance and monitor the emergence and spread of resistance in other regions of the GMS, we investigated the in vitro sensitivity of 51 culture-adapted parasite isolates from the China-Myanmar border area to four drugs. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of dihydroartemisinin, mefloquine and lumefantrine were clustered in a relatively narrow, 3- to 6-fold range, whereas the IC50 range of artesunate was 12-fold. We assessed the polymorphisms of candidate resistance genes pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfATP6, pfmdr6 and pfMT (a putative metabolite/drug transporter). The K76T mutation in pfcrt reached fixation in the study parasite population, whereas point mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 had low levels of prevalence. In addition, pfmdr1 gene amplification was not detected. None of the mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 was associated significantly with in vitro sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives. The ABC transporter gene pfmdr6 harbored two point mutations, two indels, and number variations in three simple repeats. Only the length variation in a microsatellite repeat appeared associated with altered sensitivity to dihydroartemisinin. The PfMT gene had two point mutations and one codon deletion; the I30N and N496– both reached high levels of prevalence. However, none of the SNPs or haplotypes in PfMT were correlated significantly with resistance to the four tested drugs. Compared with other parasite populations from the GMS, our studies revealed drastically different genotype and drug sensitivity profiles in parasites from the China-Myanmar border area, where artemisinins have been deployed extensively for over 30 years.

Wu, Lanou; Li, Jia; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Rongping; Fan, Qi; Wang, Haiyan; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

2012-01-01

283

In vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum from China-Myanmar border area to major ACT drugs and polymorphisms in potential target genes.  

PubMed

Drug resistance has always been one of the most important impediments to global malaria control. Artemisinin resistance has recently been confirmed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and efforts for surveillance and containment are intensified. To determine potential mechanisms of artemisinin resistance and monitor the emergence and spread of resistance in other regions of the GMS, we investigated the in vitro sensitivity of 51 culture-adapted parasite isolates from the China-Myanmar border area to four drugs. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC??s) of dihydroartemisinin, mefloquine and lumefantrine were clustered in a relatively narrow, 3- to 6-fold range, whereas the IC?? range of artesunate was 12-fold. We assessed the polymorphisms of candidate resistance genes pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfATP6, pfmdr6 and pfMT (a putative metabolite/drug transporter). The K76T mutation in pfcrt reached fixation in the study parasite population, whereas point mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 had low levels of prevalence. In addition, pfmdr1 gene amplification was not detected. None of the mutations in pfmdr1 and pfATP6 was associated significantly with in vitro sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives. The ABC transporter gene pfmdr6 harbored two point mutations, two indels, and number variations in three simple repeats. Only the length variation in a microsatellite repeat appeared associated with altered sensitivity to dihydroartemisinin. The PfMT gene had two point mutations and one codon deletion; the I30N and N496- both reached high levels of prevalence. However, none of the SNPs or haplotypes in PfMT were correlated significantly with resistance to the four tested drugs. Compared with other parasite populations from the GMS, our studies revealed drastically different genotype and drug sensitivity profiles in parasites from the China-Myanmar border area, where artemisinins have been deployed extensively for over 30 years. PMID:22701513

Wang, Zenglei; Parker, Daniel; Meng, Hao; Wu, Lanou; Li, Jia; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Rongping; Fan, Qi; Wang, Haiyan; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

2012-01-01

284

Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples by Canberra with HP-Ge detector. To evaluate 137Cs and 90Sr mobility a sequential extraction of radionuclides has been performed in the selected soil in radiochemical laboratory. Obtained data has been compared with the results of air-gamma survey of the area carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA (grid size: 100 m x100 m) and the data of RPA "TYPHOON" on contamination density of settlements. A comparison of these data with that of the experimental plots at different scales proved the selected monitoring scheme to be suitable for extrapolation of the obtained experimental data on radionuclide contamination the settlement and regional scale.

Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

2013-04-01

285

Wetlands ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS imagery analyzed provides approximately 2/3 coverage of the test site. Analysis was made using visual methods, density slicing, and multispectral analysis. Preliminary conclusions reached are that most, if not all, of the investigation objectives can be met. Saline and near-saline wetlands can be delineated from ERTS-1 images as the wetland-upland boundaries and land-water interface are clearly defined. Major plant species or communities such as Spartina alterniflora (high and low vigor forms), Spartina patens/Distichlis spicata, and Juncus roemarianus can be discriminated and spoil disposal areas identified.

Anderson, R. R. (principal investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

286

Leptin-sensitive neurons in mouse preoptic area express alpha 1A- and alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor isoforms.  

PubMed

Leptin binding to its functional receptor stimulates the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway, finally resulting in nuclear translocation of the phosphorylated STAT3 (P-STAT3). Systemic treatment with leptin (3mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) induced the appearance of P-STAT3-immunoreactive cells in adult mouse preoptic area (POA). Here we show that the vast majority of leptin-responsive cells were located in medial POA (mPOA), followed by the median preoptic nucleus. Rare, scattered and weakly stained cells were found in ventromedial preoptic nucleus and lateral preoptic area. Co-localization studies disclosed that mPOA leptin-responsive cells were neurons, and that a large proportion expressed the alpha(1A)- and/or alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor (AR) isoforms. Although understanding the functional relevance of leptin-responsive POA neurons requires further investigation, the finding that they bear alpha-ARs suggests that they may be targeted by the ascending noradrenergic system, which densely innervates the mPOA, and thus be involved in thermoregulation, arousal and/or the sleep-wake cycle. PMID:20080149

Frontini, Andrea; Giordano, Antonio

2010-03-01

287

Progressive, potassium-sensitive epileptiform activity in hippocampal area CA3 of pilocarpine-treated rats with recurrent seizures.  

PubMed

Rat hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells synchronously discharge in rhythmic bursts of action potentials after acute disinhibition or convulsant treatment in vitro. These burst discharges resemble epileptiform activity, and are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms underlying limbic seizures. However, few studies have examined CA3 burst discharges in an animal model of epilepsy, because a period of prolonged, severe seizures (status epilepticus) is often used to induce the epileptic state, which can lead to extensive neuronal loss in CA3. Therefore, the severity of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was decreased with anticonvulsant treatment to reduce damage. Rhythmic burst discharges were recorded in the majority of slices from these animals, between two weeks and nine months after status epilepticus. The incidence and amplitude of bursts progressively increased with time after status, even after spontaneous behavioral seizures had begun. The results suggest that modifying the pilocarpine models of temporal lobe epilepsy to reduce neuronal loss leads to robust network synchronization in area CA3. The finding that these bursts increase long after spontaneous behavioral seizures begin supports previous arguments that temporal lobe epilepsy exhibits progressive pathophysiology. PMID:21880468

McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2011-11-01

288

Progressive, potassium-sensitive epileptiform activity in hippocampal area CA3 of pilocarpine-treated rats with recurrent seizures  

PubMed Central

Rat hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells synchronously discharge in rhythmic bursts of action potentials after acute disinhibition or convulsant treatment in vitro. These burst discharges resemble epileptiform activity, and are of interest because they may shed light on mechanisms underlying limbic seizures. However, few studies have examined CA3 burst discharges in an animal model of epilepsy, because a period of prolonged, severe seizures (status epilepticus) is often used to induce the epileptic state, which can lead to extensive neuronal loss in CA3. Therefore, the severity of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus was decreased with anticonvulsant treatment to reduce damage. Rhythmic burst discharges were recorded in the majority of slices from these animals, between two weeks and nine months after status epilepticus. The incidence and amplitude of bursts progressively increased with time after status, even after spontaneous behavioral seizures had begun. The results suggest that modifying the pilocarpine models of temporal lobe epilepsy to reduce neuronal loss leads to robust network synchronization in area CA3. The finding that these bursts increase long after spontaneous behavioral seizures begin supports previous arguments that temporal lobe epilepsy exhibits progressive pathophysiology.

McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

2011-01-01

289

Relationship between Size Summation Properties, Contrast Sensitivity and Response Latency in the Dorsomedial and Middle Temporal Areas of the Primate Extrastriate Cortex  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the physiological properties of single neurons in visual cortex has demonstrated that both the extent of their receptive fields and the latency of their responses depend on stimulus contrast. Here, we explore the question of whether there are also systematic relationships between these response properties across different cells in a neuronal population. Single unit recordings were obtained from the middle temporal (MT) and dorsomedial (DM) extrastriate areas of anaesthetized marmoset monkeys. For each cell, spatial integration properties (length and width summation, as well as the presence of end- and side-inhibition within 15° of the receptive field centre) were determined using gratings of optimal direction of motion and spatial and temporal frequencies, at 60% contrast. Following this, contrast sensitivity was assessed using gratings of near-optimal length and width. In both areas, we found a relationship between spatial integration and contrast sensitivity properties: cells that summated over smaller areas of the visual field, and cells that displayed response inhibition at larger stimulus sizes, tended to show higher contrast sensitivity. In a sample of MT neurons, we found that cells showing longer latency responses also tended to summate over larger expanses of visual space in comparison with neurons that had shorter latencies. In addition, longer-latency neurons also tended to show less obvious surround inhibition. Interestingly, all of these effects were stronger and more consistent with respect to the selectivity for stimulus width and strength of side-inhibition than for length selectivity and end-inhibition. The results are partially consistent with a hierarchical model whereby more extensive receptive fields require convergence of information from larger pools of “feedforward” afferent neurons to reach near-optimal responses. They also suggest that a common gain normalization mechanism within MT and DM is involved, the spatial extent of which is more evident along the cell’s preferred axis of motion.

Lui, Leo L.; Bourne, James A.; Rosa, Marcello G. P.

2013-01-01

290

Parameterization of rockfall source areas and magnitudes with ecological recorders: When disturbances in trees serve the calibration and validation of simulation runs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On forested talus slopes which have been build up by rockfall, a strong interaction exists between the trees and the falling rocks. While the presence and density of vegetation have a profound influence on rockfall activity, the occurrence of the latter will also exert control on the presence, vitality, species composition, and age distribution of forest stands. This paper exploits the interactions between biotic (tree growth) and abiotic (rockfall) processes in a mountain forest to gather and obtain reliable input data on rockfall for the 3D process based simulation model RockyFor3D. We demonstrate that differences between the simulated and observed numbers of tree impacts can be minimized through (i) a careful definition of active source areas and (ii) a weighted distribution of block sizes as observed in the field. As a result of this field-based, optimized configuration, highly significant values can be obtained with RockyFor3D for the number of impacts per tree, so that results of the model runs can be converted with a high degree of certainty into real frequencies. The combination of the field-based dendrogeomorphic with the modeling approaches is seen as a significant advance for hazard mapping as it allows a reliable and highly-resolved spatial characterization of rockfall frequencies and a realistic representation of (past) rockfall dynamics at the slope scale.

Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Stoffel, Markus

2013-11-01

291

Effects of Different Regeneration Scenarios and Fertilizer Treatments on Soil Microbial Ecology in Reclaimed Opencast Mining Areas on the Loess Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

The soil microbial community in reclaimed mining areas is fundamental to vegetative establishment. However, how this community responds to different regeneration scenarios and fertilizer treatments is poorly understood. This research evaluated plant and soil microbial communities from different regeneration scenarios and different fertilizer treatments. Regeneration scenarios significantly influenced soil bacterial, archaeal, and fungal rDNA abundance. The ratios of fungi to bacteria or archaea were increased with fertilizer application. The diversity of both plants and microbes was lowest in Lotus corniculatus grasslands. Regeneration scenario, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction influenced soil microbial richness, diversity and evenness indices. Labile carbon pool 2 was a significant factor affected plant and microbe communities in July, suggesting that plants and microbes may be competing for nutrients. The higher ratios of positive to negative association were found in soil bacteria and total microbe than in archaea and fungi. Stronger clustering of microbial communities from the same regeneration scenario indicated that the vegetative composition of regeneration site may have a greater influence on soil microbial communities than fertilizer treatment.

Li, Junjian; Zheng, Yuanming; Yan, Junxia; Li, Hongjian; Wang, Xiang; He, Jizheng; Ding, Guangwei

2013-01-01

292

Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.  

PubMed

The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious. PMID:22783614

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

2012-01-01

293

Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic "tree" and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells. PMID:22842825

Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

2012-09-01

294

Large-area, well-ordered, uniform-sized bowtie nanoantenna arrays for surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate with ultra-sensitive detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication of large-area, well-ordered, uniform-sized noble metal bowtie nanoantenna arrays used as an ultra-sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate by a refined combination of colloid lithography and subsequent oxygen plasma processing. The tip-to-tip distance between neighboring nanotriangles is made as small as 10 nm by accurately controlling the etching time. Owing to the nanoscale property, the as-fabricated Ag bowtie nanoantenna arrays exhibit a local SERS enhancement larger than 107. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical calculations.

Dai, Zhigao; Xiao, Xiangheng; Liao, Lei; Zheng, Junfeng; Mei, Fei; Wu, Wei; Ying, Jianjian; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

2013-07-01

295

Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic ``tree'' and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells.

Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

2012-08-01

296

Ecology of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transitional area between the Amazon and the Cerrado in the State of Maranhão, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Amazon rainforest and the Brazilian Cerrado both possess high phlebotomine diversity. The fragmentation of these habitats has resulted in the appearance of human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In one altered area of mixed primary vegetation (forest and Cerrado) and its adjacent settlement in the northeast state of Maranhão, Brazil, evidence exists for the active transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Accordingly, an entomological investigation was performed in both the forest and the settlement to compare the phlebotomine vector faunain each environment. The study was conducted from September 2009 to August 2010 in the municipality of Itapecuru Mirim in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The phlebotomine species were captured using 24 light Center for Disease Control and Prevention traps that were placed in the forest and the settlement (peridomicile and intradomicile). The similarity between the phlebotomine compositions in the forest and those in the settlement was determined using a Principal Coordinate Analysis based on a dissimilarity matrix that was calculated using the Bray-Curtis index (relative abundance) and the Jaccard index (presence and absence of species). In total, 29 Lutzomyia species and one Brumptomyia species were collected. The phlebotomines were diverse and abundant in both the forest fragment (27 species, 4,606 specimens) and the settlement (22 species, 753 specimens). The most abundant species were L. infraspinosa (25%), L. davisi (21%), L. antunesi (21%), L. longipalpis (9%), L. saulensis (6%), L. flaviscutellata (5%), and L. wellcomei (4%). Some species were found strictly in the forest, other species were exclusive to the anthropic environment, and some species colonized both of the studied environments. The phlebotomines adaptation to these modified environments explains the autochthonous outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23427652

Campos, A M; Matavelli, R; Santos, C L C dos; Moraes, L S; Rebêlo, J M M

2013-01-01

297

Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

2008-02-01

298

Highly Sensitive Visible-Blind Extreme Ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Photodiodes with Large Detection Area  

SciTech Connect

Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes of 5 mm x 5 mm area have been fabricated and characterized. The photodiodes show less than 0.1 pA dark current at -4 V and an ideality factor of 1.06. A quantum efficiency (QE) between 3 and 400 nm has been calibrated and compared with Si photodiodes optimized for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) detection. In the EUV region, the QE of SiC detectors increases from 0.14 electrons/photon at 120 nmto30 electrons/photon at 3 nm. The mean energy of electron-hole pair generation of 4H-SiC estimated from the spectral QE is found to be 7.9 eV.

Hu,J.; Xin, X.; Zhao, J.; Yan, F.; Guan, B.; Seely, J.; Kjornrattanawanich, B.

2006-01-01

299

Analysis of ecological context for identifying vegetation and animal conservation planning foci: An example from the arid South-western USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In developing conservation strategies, it is important to maximize effects of conservation within a specified land tract and to maximize conservation effects on surrounding area (ecological context). The authors proposed two criteria to select biotic entities for conservation foci: (1) the relative occurrence of fauna or flora in a tract is greater than that of an ecological context region; and (2) occurrence of the fauna or flora is relatively limited in the ecological context region. Using extensive spatial data on vegetation and wildlife habitat distribution, the authors identified strategic vegetation and fauna conservation foci for the 400 000 ha Fort Bliss military reservation in New Mexico and Texas relative to a 164 km radius ecological context region intersecting seven ecological zones and the predicted habitat distribution of 616 animal species. The authors set two specific criteria: (1) predicted area of a species' occurrence is 5% (Fort Bliss is 4.2% of the region). These criteria selected one vegetation class and 40 animal species. Further, these vegetation and animal foci were primarily located in two areas of Fort Bliss. Sensitivity analyses with other analytical radii corroborated the context radius used. Conservation of the two areas and associated taxa will maximize the contribution of Fort Bliss's conservation efforts in its ecological proximity. This relatively simple but information-rich process represents economical and defensible preliminary contextual analysis for detailed conservation planning.

Hamazaki, T.; Thompson, B. C.; Locke, B. A.; Boykin, K. G.

2003-01-01

300

Plant Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit is designed to be completed in six or more sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the many varied reasons that plant life flourishes in one plot but not another. Students speculate on why plants are more abundant in some areas of the site than others. They list factors that might account for the differences, such as temperature, humidity, light, soil, rainfall, wind, and human or animal activity, and figure out how they can collect more data on these factors. They discuss why it might be important to take a count of all the individual plants in each plot and develop a plan for conducting the field study. A reading selection describes how scientists count plants and gives students tips for conducting their own survey. Students then count plants and record their data. Several optional activities are provided.

301

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

302

ETEKOS experimental ecological system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of changes in the ecology resulting, for example, in increases in water temperature because of discharges from large thermal power plants is considered. An experiment creating a model of such an ecological system is described.

Alekseyev, V. V.; Geogiyev, A. A.; Gorbatov, Y. I.; Lyamin, M. Y.; Maksimov, V. N.; Sapozhnikov, V. V.; Shinkar, G. G.; Shirokova, Y. L.

1980-01-01

303

Forest Fire Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

Zucca, Carol; And Others

1995-01-01

304

Taoism and Deep Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

1988-01-01

305

Ecology Hall of Fame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site honors the heroes of the environmental movement, the individuals who have had the greatest positive impact. The Ecology Hall of Fame includes people under three categories, General, Living Legends, and Martyrs. Essays, reprints, biographies, and bibliographies are included for the honorees. The Ecology Hall of Fame is a project of EcoTopia/USA (United Services Agency), a California non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting ecological thinking and ecological behavior, especially in Santa Cruz County.

306

Identification of limiting case between DBA and SBDBA (CL break area sensitivity): A new model for the boron injection system  

SciTech Connect

Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and (e.g., oblique Control Rods, Positive Void coefficient) required a developed and validated complex three dimensional (3D) neutron kinetics (NK) coupled thermal hydraulic (TH) model. Reactor shut-down is obtained by oblique CRs and, during accidental conditions, by an emergency shut-down system (JDJ) injecting a highly concentrated boron solution (boron clouds) in the moderator tank, the boron clouds reconstruction is obtained using a CFD (CFX) code calculation. A complete LBLOCA calculation implies the application of the RELAP5-3D{sup C} system code. Within the framework of the third Agreement 'NA-SA - Univ. of Pisa' a new RELAP5-3D control system for the boron injection system was developed and implemented in the validated coupled RELAP5-3D/NESTLE model of the Atucha 2 NPP. The aim of this activity is to find out the limiting case (maximum break area size) for the Peak Cladding Temperature for LOCAs under fixed boundary conditions. (authors)

Gonzalez Gonzalez, R.; Petruzzi, A.; D'Auria, F. [San Piero A Grado Nuclear Research Group GRNSPG, Univ. of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291-56122, San Piero a Grado - Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, O. [Nucleo-electrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-07-01

307

A New Urban Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecology is the study of natural systems at the community level. So how do ecologists account for the role of people, who follow rules different from most other organisms and communities? Now that human activity has grown into a global ecological force, some ecologists are finding that traditional ecological theory does not provide good ways of understanding systems dominated by

James P. Collins; Ann Kinzig; Nancy B. Grimm; William F. Fagan; Diane Hope; Jianguo Wu; Elizabeth Borer

2000-01-01

308

Ecology and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on diverse taxa suggest that natural selection caused by shifts in ecology or invasions of novel habitats plays an important role in adaptive divergence and speciation. Exciting new studies integrating approaches from both the field and the laboratory suggest that ecological shifts can result in extremely rapid rates of evolutionary divergence. Although experimental approaches that link rapid ecological

Matthew R. Orr; Thomas B. Smith

1998-01-01

309

Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

2011-01-01

310

Invertebrate Ecological Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological immunology is a rapidly expanding field that examines the causes and consequences of variation in immune function in the context of evolution and of ecology. Millions of invertebrate species rely solely on innate immunity, compared with only 45,000 vertebrate species that rely additionally on an acquired immune system. Despite this difference in diversity, most studies of ecological immunology focus

J. Rolff; M. T. Siva-Jothy

2003-01-01

311

Cocaine sensitization inhibits the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih and reduces cell size in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area  

PubMed Central

The progressive augmentation of motor activity that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed behavioral sensitization. This phenomenon is thought to be a critical component in compulsive drug taking and relapse. Still, the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensitization remain elusive. Cocaine abuse, nonetheless, is known to evoke neuroplastic adaptations in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission originating from the midbrain's ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we report that concomitant with the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) amplitude is depressed by ?40% in VTA DA cells. Such effect did not result from a negative shift in Ih voltage dependence. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis indicates that this inhibition was caused by an ?45% reduction in the number of h-channels with no change in their unitary properties. The cocaine-induced Ih depression was accompanied by a reduction in cell capacitance of similar magnitude (?33%), leaving h-current density unaltered. Two implications follow from these data. First, Ih inhibition may contribute to cocaine addiction by increasing bursting probability in DA cells and this effect could be intensified by the decrease in cell capacitance. Second, the cocaine-induced diminution of DA cell capacitance may also lead to reward tolerance promoting drug-seeking behaviors.

Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; Vazquez, Rafael; Velasquez-Martinez, Maria C.

2012-01-01

312

Hands in motion: an upper-limb-selective area in the occipitotemporal cortex shows sensitivity to viewed hand kinematics.  

PubMed

Regions in the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) show clear selectivity to static images of human body parts, and upper limbs in particular, with respect to other object categories. Such selectivity was previously attributed to shape aspects, which presumably vary across categories. Alternatively, it has been proposed that functional selectivity for upper limbs is driven by processing of their distinctive motion features. In the present study we show that selectivity to static upper-limb images and motion processing go hand in hand. Using resting-state and task-based functional MRI, we demonstrate that OTC voxels showing greater preference to static images of arms and hands also show stronger functional connectivity with motion coding regions within the human middle temporal complex (hMT+), but not with shape-selective midtier areas, such as hV4 or LO-1, suggesting a tight link between upper-limb selectivity and motion processing. To test this directly, we created a set of natural arm-movement videos where kinematic patterns were parametrically manipulated, while keeping shape information constant. Using multivariate pattern analysis, we show that the degree of (dis)similarity in arm-velocity profiles across the video set predicts, to a significant extent, the degree of (dis)similarity in multivoxel activation patterns in both upper-limb-selective OTC regions and the hMT+. Together, these results suggest that the functional specificity of upper-limb-selective regions may be partially determined by their involvement in the processing of upper-limb dynamics. We propose that the selectivity to static upper-limb images in the OTC may be a result of experience-dependent association between shape elements, which characterize upper limbs, and upper-limb-specific motion patterns. PMID:24695707

Orlov, Tanya; Porat, Yuval; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

2014-04-01

313

Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an increase in the rangeland vegetation that is dominated by scrubland, meanwhile the woodlands are reduced. Circa 50 % of the land that was classified as "Critical" to land degradation after 1985 had been previously classified as "Non-affected". However, not all changes occurred in the Cànyoles watershed are characterized by a negative change; i.e., 82 % of the land has turned from "Critical" values to "Non- sensitive" to land degradation between mid-20th century and recent times. We found this negative trend to be having been caused by the removal of those crops that are most sensitive to land degradation, such as rain-fed crops, and that are mainly located in the west of the studied watershed. Similar findings were found by Zema et al., (2012) when applying the AnnAGNPS model to the agriculture land in Belgiums, Prokop and Poreba (2012) to the India, Miao e t al., (2012) in China and Haile and Fetene (2012) in Ethiopia: man made changes in the landscape that trigger land degradation processes.. Acknowledgements This research was undertaken in the frame of the 7FP project LEDDRA - Land Ecosystem Degradation and Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses - ENV, 2009.2.1.3.2. We thank professor Costas Kosmas for his guidance. References Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. y Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Giménez Morera, A., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D. y Cerdà, A. 2010. The impact of cotton geotextiles on soil and water losses in Mediterranean rainfed agricultural land. Land Degradation and Development , 210- 217. D

Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

2014-05-01

314

Seed isotopic analysis as a tool to understand ecological processes influencing plant development and physiology: the case study of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. in a desertification gradient in Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant responses to climate change highly depend on the temporal variability in precipitation events and on plant specific strategies, such as drought tolerance and resilience. Within the different plant organs, seeds have become an important research tool in the past years to study plant development and nutrients allocation. Key features of seeds such as the tendency to accumulate and store nutrient compounds open many possibilities to explore isotope analysis (13C, 15N and 18O), with many outcomes in fields from ecology to food traceability. The application of light stable isotopes to plant materials have been used to study both physiological (i.e. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance), nutrients uptake and metabolism (origin of nitrogen and symbiotic associations) as well as many ecological processes, which will produce a distinctive isotope fingerprint on the plant tissues. Thus, the isotopic composition of certain bio and geo-elements of seeds, yielding relevant information on plant ecophysiology, are able to relate the plant functioning with local climatic conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation). The application of isotope analysis in this way can be used as a proxy to understand complex environmental degradation processes such as land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In this study acorns of Quercus ilex plants were sampled during 2012-2013 in a region of southern Portugal, according to (i) soil land-use; (ii) aridity and desertification indexes. The approach developed combined plant seed analysis (seed morphology and compounds quantification) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (?13C, ?15N and ?18O) as a "tool" to study changes in plant ecophysiology over time and space. Seeds allow studies at specific temporal scale (development period) which varies according to its biology and depends on the climatic conditions where the plant is grown (i.e, seed's biomass integrate climate variations information of several months). The results indicate a clear relationship between seed morphology and both temperature and precipitation as well a significant correlation between ?15N and precipitation, which indicate an influence of major climatic variables on seed carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake. These results may also contribute to future mitigation programmes in degraded areas where there are systematic problems with plant regeneration and ultimately to learn about the application of stable isotopes approaches in dryland ecosystems.

Oliveira, Tatiana; Silva, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carla; Antunes Antunes, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro; Ramos, Alzira; João Pereira, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Máguas, Cristina

2014-05-01

315

Warning and controlling of ecological security in Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the analytic hierarchy process was used to make evaluation on ecological security in Xinjiang, China , we have calculated the degree of environmental subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem and total system of ecological security system in Xinjiang from 1988 to 2010. We have analyzed warning and controlling ecological security of Xinjiang in short-medium range(2004-2010). By using sensitivity factors that influence ecological security system of Xinjiang, which includes environmental subsystem, social subsystem, economic subsystem and total system. The main conclusions as follows: From 2004 to 2010,the ecological security situations of environmental subsystem are rising and economic subsystems are obviously ascendant in Xinjiang; According to the contributions of these three subsystem, the list is successively: Environmental subsystem >Social subsystem >Economic subsystem; proved that the ecological environment structure of Xinjiang is very fragile and unstable from holistic standard of ecological security and quantity.

Lü, Guanghui; Yang, Jianjun; Ma, Yuan; Shi, Qingdong; Meng, Jixiang

2007-10-01

316

Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.  

PubMed

This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow regimes was recognized. Moreover, nearshore extensive shrimp culture ponds, irrigation canals, and surrounding mangrove habitats belonging to local households seemed to act as effective natural water treatment system that can yet provide food resources in turns. These remediation-production integrated functions should be deserved depth considerations for water quality development of the Tha Chin areas. PMID:19092208

Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

2008-01-01

317

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

318

An Approach to Engaging in Culturally Sensitive Research on Puerto Rican Youth. Working Papers Series No. 275.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes two culturally-sensitive longitudinal studies of normal development of Puerto Rican adolescents and children growing up in the United States. A number of areas pertinent to Puerto Ricans and other minorities that have previously been neglected are studied. Both projects are grounded in a cultural-ecological approach in which…

Alarcon, Odette; And Others

319

Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads are maximized in cells located at or near the production wells. Additionally, the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in pumpage was about three times more for the area where confining-unit leakance is the highest than for other leakance zone areas of the well field. For many head control sites, optimal heads corresponding to optimal pumpage deviated from the desired target recovery heads. Overall, pumping solutions were constrained by the limiting recovery values, initial head conditions, and by upper boundary conditions of the ground-water flow model.

Yobbi, Dann K.

2002-01-01

320

The Impact of Standing Water and Irrigation on AMSR-E Sensitivity to Soil Moisture over the NAFE'06 Experiment Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMSR-E sensitivity to soil moisture and its accuracy have been studied over a wide variety of surface conditions and weather regimes using both in situ measured data and aircraft derived soil moisture estimates. Several extensive soil moisture field campaigns involving ground and air-borne components have been undertaken in support of validation and development of soil moisture retrieval algorithms, addressing calibration issues, performing accuracy assessment studies etc. The lack of well established soil moisture networks worldwide to a certain extent limit the validation sites to areas located primarily throughout the continental US. In the present research we expand AMSR-E validation over an area with extensive irrigation and standing water (rice fields), located in the Murrumbidgee Catchment, SE Australia, using the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'06) data set and an alternative AMSR-E derived SM product (product developed by the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) utilizing C-band measured brightness temperature. Using a surface reflectance threshold methodology it was determined that rice fields coverage was greater than 1% over one-third and greater than 4% over one-ninth of the domain. It has been previously shown that as little as 2.5% of standing water at 1 km pixel size can result in worse accuracy than the desired for soil moisture retrieval value of 0.04 v/v. Therefore it was expected that the presence of irrigation and standing water will affect the retrieval algorithm performance and result in lower accuracy over these fields as compared to the rest of the domain. The spatial correlations between AMSR-E and an aircraft product, derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer flown during the campaign (average R = 0.94 and RMSE = 0.04 v/v), indicated significant AMSR-E sensitivity to changes in soil moisture caused by both precipitation and irrigation. Expectedly the irrigation area was depicted as being the wettest part of the domain. Consistent wetting and drying trends, evident in both products (AMSR-E and PLMR), indicated adequate response to temporal soil moisture variability and excellent agreement for the duration of the campaign and under the NAFE'06 site specific conditions. Most importantly, the AMSR-E SM - PLMR analysis over areas with standing water and irrigation revealed retrieval accuracy better than 0.04 v/v (4% rice field coverage at 25 km pixel size: R = 0.87 and RMSE = 0.02 v/v).

Lakshmi, V.; Mladenova, I.; Jackson, T.; Walker, J.; Merlin, O.; de Jeu, R. A.

2008-12-01

321

Cocaine disinhibits dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via use-dependent blockade of GABA neuron voltage-sensitive sodium channels  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cocaine on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Utilizing single-unit recordings in vivo, microelectrophoretic administration of DA enhanced the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons via D2/D3 DA receptor activation. Lower doses of intravenous cocaine (0.25–0.5 mg/kg), or the DA transporter (DAT) blocker methamphetamine, enhanced VTA GABA neuron firing rate via D2/D3 receptor activation. Higher doses of cocaine (1.0–2.0 mg/kg) inhibited their firing rate, which was not sensitive to the D2/D3 antagonist eticlopride. The voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) blocker lidocaine inhibited the firing rate of VTA GABA neurons at all doses tested (0.25–2.0 mg/kg). Cocaine or lidocaine reduced VTA GABA neuron spike discharges induced by stimulation of the internal capsule (ICPSDs) at dose levels 0.25–2 mg/kg (IC50 1.2 mg/kg). There was no effect of DA or methamphetamine on ICPSDs, or of DA antagonists on cocaine inhibition of ICPSDs. In VTA GABA neurons in vitro, cocaine reduced (IC50 13 ?m) current-evoked spikes and TTX-sensitive sodium currents in a use-dependent manner. In VTA DA neurons, cocaine reduced IPSCs (IC50 13 ?m), increased IPSC paired-pulse facilitation and decreased spontaneous IPSC frequency, without affecting miniature IPSC frequency or amplitude. These findings suggest that cocaine acts on GABA neurons to reduce activity-dependent GABA release on DA neurons in the VTA, and that cocaine's use-dependent blockade of VTA GABA neuron VSSCs may synergize with its DAT inhibiting properties to enhance mesolimbic DA transmission implicated in cocaine reinforcement.

Steffensen, Scott C.; Taylor, Seth R.; Horton, Malia L.; Barber, Elise N.; Lyle, Laura T.; Stobbs, Sarah H.; Allison, David W.

2010-01-01

322

Art, Ecology, and Art Education: Practices and Linkages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles a number of projects and activities enacted during the 1996 Summer Colloquium, "Art and Ecology: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Curriculum." Participants created ecologically sensitive structures for pond life at a nearby wetland and attended a dramatic presentation about early mound dwellers performed on the site. (MJP)

Neperud, Ronald W.

1997-01-01

323

Applications of an amorphous silicon-based area detector for high resolution, high sensitivity and fast time-resolved pair distribution function measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The application of a large-area (41 x 41 cm, 2048 x 2048 or 1024 x 1024 pixel) high-sensitivity (detective quantum efficiency > 65%) fast-readout (up to 7.5 or 30 Hz) flat-panel detector based on an amorphous silicon array system to the collection of high-energy X-ray scattering data for quantitative pair distribution function (PDF) analysis is evaluated and discussed. Data were collected over a range of exposure times (0.13 s-7 min) for benchmark PDF samples: crystalline nickel metal and amorphous silica (SiO2). The high real-space resolution of the resultant PDFs (with Q{sub max} up to {approx} 40 Angstroms{sup -1})and the high quality of fits to data [RNi(0.13s) = 10.5%, RNi(1.3s) = 6.3%] obtained in short measurement times indicate that this detector is well suited to studies of materials disorder. Further applications of the detector to locate weakly scattering H2 molecules within the porous Prussian blue system, Mn{sup II}{sub 3}[CoIII(CN)6]2 x xH2, and to follow the in situ reduction of PtIVO2 to Pt0 at 30 Hz, confirm the high sensitivity of the detector and demonstrate a new potential for fast time-resolved studies.

Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Lee, P. L.; X-Ray Science Division

2007-01-01

324

Modeling patch occupancy: Relative performance of ecologically scaled landscape indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fragmented landscapes, the likelihood that a species occupies a particular habitat patch is thought to be a function of\\u000a both patch area and patch isolation. Ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLIs) combine a species’ ecological profile,\\u000a i.e., area requirements and dispersal ability, with indices of patch area and connectivity. Since their introduction, ESLIs\\u000a for area have been modified to incorporate

Carol E. Rizkalla; Jeffrey E. Moore; Robert K. Swihart

2009-01-01

325

Fire Ecology Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website provides information gathered by the Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) about the importance of wildfires to ecosystem processes in the Pacific Southwest. Details are provided about fire history and ecology in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Nevada forests, California shrub lands, and Mojave and Sonoran deserts. Topics include the ecological impacts of fire suppression, livestock grazing, invasive species, timber harvests, and changes in climate.

326

[Demography and human ecology].  

PubMed

At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology that integrates the dynamics of biocultural interactions. PMID:12179860

Nazareth, J M

1993-01-01

327

High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-? release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area  

PubMed Central

Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT)-based IFN-? release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-? release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-? response. Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32), group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46) and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22). In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST <5 mm were 50% (16/32) and 41.3% (19/46), respectively. Individuals in group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB with CD4+ T cells <500/?l, T-SPOT.TB showed a higher sensitivity than TST (64.5% vs. 22.6% and 62.2% vs. 29.7%, respectively, both P < 0.0001). In addition, the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB assay in group HIV+ATB increased to >85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ?200/?l, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells <200/?l, the sensitivity was decreased to only 33.3%. Furthermore, the results could be generated by T-SPOT.TB assay within 24 hours, which was more rapid than TST with 48–72 hours. Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-? release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

Jiang, Weimin; Shao, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Shu; Meng, Chengyan; Xu, Yunya; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yun; Wang, Ying; Weng, Xinhua; Zhang, Wenhong

2009-01-01

328

SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

2006-03-01

329

Sunflower genetic, genomic and ecological resources.  

PubMed

Long a major focus of genetic research and breeding, sunflowers (Helianthus) are emerging as an increasingly important experimental system for ecological and evolutionary studies. Here, we review the various attributes of wild and domesticated sunflowers that make them valuable for ecological experimentation and describe the numerous publicly available resources that have enabled rapid advances in ecological and evolutionary genetics. Resources include seed collections available from germplasm centres at the USDA and INRA, genomic and EST sequences, mapping populations, genetic markers, genetic and physical maps and other forward- and reverse-genetic tools. We also discuss some of the key evolutionary, genetic and ecological questions being addressed in sunflowers, as well as gaps in our knowledge and promising areas for future research. PMID:23039950

Kane, Nolan C; Burke, John M; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Vear, Felicity; Baute, Gregory; Knapp, Steven J; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H

2013-01-01

330

The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.

JOHN E. HOBBIE, STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, NANCY B. GRIMM, JAMES R. GOSZ, and TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT (;)

2003-01-01

331

Ecological Inventory Exemplars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document contains 20 ecological inventories (developed at the University of Minnesota and the University of Alberta) to help severely disabled students learn functional living skills. The ecological approach is designed to uncover the functions critical for success in specific environments which the student frequently encounters. Matching the…

Sobsey, Dick, Ed.

332

TENSAS ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological assessment in the Tensas River Basin, Louisiana, has been completed by the U.S. EPA in partnership with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality and other stakeholder groups. This assessment, conducted using landscape ecology and water quality methods, can...

333

Audubon Ecology Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

334

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) Work Group, composed of scientists and risk assessors from EPA, Environment Canada, DOE, Army, Navy, Air Force, states, industry, academia, and consulting companies, has been working on the development of scientifically sound, ecologi...

335

The Ecological Design Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecological Design Institute is an organization that seeks ways to design and construct buildings that meet human needs within the balance of nature. Users can explore design projects, education projects, and the five principles of ecological design on the website. The American Youth Hostel Design Studio at UC Berkeley is just one example of the several interesting demonstration educational projects.

2008-03-03

336

Translational ecology for hydrogeology.  

PubMed

Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. PMID:23837514

Schlesinger, William H

2013-01-01

337

Terrestrial Ecology Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

338

School Yard Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents nine activities for using the school yard to integrate science and environmental studies into curriculum, including observation and collection, as well as construction of nature trails and bird feeders. Activities suggested grew out of Institute of Ecological Studies in SYEFEST (School Yard Ecology for Elementary School Teachers) program.…

Grimes, Katherine

1995-01-01

339

Marine Microbial Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich website from the Australian Antarctic Division's Biology program describes its research in marine microbial ecology. It includes an introduction of microbial ecology and microbial processes, followed by information about the research project. Field sampling, microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis, flourometry, HPLC, culturing, feeding experiments, and the research staff are each discussed using vivid imagery. Links are provided to related websites.

Division, Australian A.

340

CAREERS IN ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Many non-scientists treat "ecology" and "environmentalism" as roughly interchangeable words, thus the word "ecologist" commonly has come to signify a particular part of the political spectrum. As used in the scientific community and in this presentation, however, ecology is loos...

341

Ecological considerations in scrub typhus*  

PubMed Central

Scrub typhus infection is now known to occur in geographical and ecological areas where its presence was hitherto unsuspected—north and west of the Indus River and in south-eastern Siberia; in semi-desert, montane desert, and alpine terrain high in the Himalayas, as well as in primary jungle. Additional data are presented to support the hypothesis that “ecological islands”, containing basically similar faunas of rodents and ectoparasites, exist on scattered mountains in the Pakistan Himalayas, despite the intervening “barriers” of desert, broad rivers and massive peaks. Since scrub typhus has been demonstrated in some of these isolated areas, it is felt that the infection may exist, unrecognized, in neighbouring countries as well. A number of larval trombiculid mites, largely species of the subgenus Leptotrombidium, are believed to be vectors, in addition to the well-known L. (L.) deliense and L. (L.) akamushi. The host-range of natural infection in ground-dwelling small mammals, especially rodents, is very broad in endemic areas. An important factor of time, and not only of space, may be involved in an endemic locus, the disease undergoing a sequential evolution involving different chiggers and rodents over a period of years. It is pointed out that new irrigation schemes, road construction, and agricultural projects may introduce scrub typhus into an area or greatly increase its endemicity if the infection is already present.

Traub, Robert; Wisseman, Charles L.

1968-01-01

342

Spatial ecology across scales.  

PubMed

The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management. PMID:21068027

Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

2011-04-23

343

Development and applications of a new neutron single-crystal diffractometer based on a two-dimensional large-area curved position-sensitive detector  

PubMed Central

A new single-crystal neutron diffractometer based on a large-area curved two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (C-2DPSD) has been developed. The diffractometer commissioning is almost complete, together with development of the measurement methodology and the raw data processing software package, the Reciprocal Analyzer, and the instrument is now ready to be launched for users. Position decoding of the C-2DPSD is via a delay-line readout method with an effective angular range of 110 × 54° in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with a nominal radius of curvature of 530?mm. The diffractometer is equipped with a Ge(311) mosaic monochromator and two supermirror vacuum guide paths, one before and one after the monochromator position. The commissioning incorporates corrections and calibration of the instrument using an NaCl crystal, various applications such as crystallographic and magnetic structure measurements, a crystallinity check on large crystals, and a study on the composition or dopant content of a mixed crystal of (TmxYb1?x)Mn2O5. The installation of the diffractometer and the measurement method, the calibration procedure and results, the raw data treatment and visualization, and several applications using the large C-2DPSD-based diffractometer are reported.

Lee, Chang-Hee; Noda, Yukio; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kim, Shin Ae; Moon, Myungkook; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Dohi, Yuki

2013-01-01

344

Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application. PMID:22543517

Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

2012-06-01

345

Development and applications of a new neutron single-crystal diffractometer based on a two-dimensional large-area curved position-sensitive detector.  

PubMed

A new single-crystal neutron diffractometer based on a large-area curved two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (C-2DPSD) has been developed. The diffractometer commissioning is almost complete, together with development of the measurement methodology and the raw data processing software package, the Reciprocal Analyzer, and the instrument is now ready to be launched for users. Position decoding of the C-2DPSD is via a delay-line readout method with an effective angular range of 110 × 54° in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, with a nominal radius of curvature of 530?mm. The diffractometer is equipped with a Ge(311) mosaic monochromator and two supermirror vacuum guide paths, one before and one after the monochromator position. The commissioning incorporates corrections and calibration of the instrument using an NaCl crystal, various applications such as crystallographic and magnetic structure measurements, a crystallinity check on large crystals, and a study on the composition or dopant content of a mixed crystal of (Tm x Yb1-x )Mn2O5. The installation of the diffractometer and the measurement method, the calibration procedure and results, the raw data treatment and visualization, and several applications using the large C-2DPSD-based diffractometer are reported. PMID:23682194

Lee, Chang-Hee; Noda, Yukio; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kim, Shin Ae; Moon, Myungkook; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Dohi, Yuki

2013-06-01

346

Analysis of the cavitating flow induced by an ultrasonic horn - Numerical 3D simulation for the analysis of vapour structures and the assessment of erosion-sensitive areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the outcome of a numerical study of ultrasonic cavitation using a CFD flow algorithm based on a compressible density-based finite volume method with a low-Machnumber consistent flux function and an explicit time integration [15; 18] in combination with an erosion-detecting flow analysis procedure. The model is validated against erosion data of an ultrasonic horn for different gap widths between the horn tip and a counter sample which has been intensively investigated in previous material studies at the Ruhr University Bochum [23] as well as on first optical in-house flow measurement data which is presented in a companion paper [13]. Flow features such as subharmonic cavitation oscillation frequencies as well as constricted vapour cloud structures can also be observed by the vapour regions predicted in our simulation as well as by the detected collapse event field (collapse detector) [12]. With a statistical analysis of transient wall loads we can determine the erosion sensitive areas qualitatively. Our simulation method can reproduce the influence of the gap width on vapour structure and on location of cavitation erosion.

Mottyll, Stephan; Müller, Saskia; Niederhofer, Philipp; Hussong, Jeanette; Huth, Stephan; Skoda, Romuald

2014-03-01

347

Ecology and community health in the north.  

PubMed

Health of a nation is a sensitive barometer of the environmental situation, especially in the North, where vulnerable nature cannot resist intensive industrial development. The geographical location and severe climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) significantly sharpen any negative impact of industrial activity on the state of the environment. The impact of ecological factors on the health of population has been studied in the case of a diamond province (Vilyuy region), where a complex of chemical pollutants from diamond mining, products of wood decay in places of flooding of the water reservoir for the Vilyuisk power station, highly mineralised underground waters and consequences of underground explosions have caused a substantial negative effect on the environment and people. Studies on the health of the population in the Vilyuy region has shown that sickness and morbidity rates of viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, pathologies during pregnancy and other diseases are higher in comparison to rates in the Republic as a whole, a feature which has been attributed to environmental degradation in the area. PMID:11507966

Petrova, P G; Yakovleva, N P; Zakharova, F A

2001-04-01

348

Polyaromatic hydrocarbon exposure: an ecological impact ambiguity.  

PubMed

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons and are currently one of the foremost sources of generating energy in today's contemporary society. However, evidence highlighted in this review show that PAH pollution, as a result of oil spills, hazardous PAH-contaminated working environments and technologies which do not efficiently utilise fuels, as well as natural sources of emissions (e.g. forest fires) may have significant health implications for all taxa. The extent of damage to organisms from PAH exposure is dependent on numerous factors including degree and type of PAH exposure, nature of the environment contaminated (i.e. terrestrial or aquatic), the ability of an organism to relocate to pristine environments, type and sensitivity of organism to specific hydrocarbon fractions and ability of the organism to metabolise different PAH fractions. The review highlights the fact that studies on the potential damage of PAHs should be carried out using mixtures of hydrocarbons as opposed to individual hydrocarbon fractions due to the scarcity of individual fractions being a sole contaminant. Furthermore, potential damage of PAH-contaminated sites should be assessed using an entire ecological impact outlook of the affected area. PMID:23529398

Ball, Andrew; Truskewycz, Adam

2013-07-01

349

Detecting ecological change on coral reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing offers the potential to observe the response of coral reef ecosystems to environmental perturbations on a geographical scale not previously accessible. However, coral reef environments are optically, spatially, and temporally complex habitats which all present significant challenges for extracting meaningful information. Virtually every member of the reef community possesses some degree of photosynthetic capability. The community thus generates a matrix of fine scale features with bio-optical signatures that blend as the scale of observation increases. Furthermore, to have any validity, the remotely sensed signal must be "calibrated" to the bio-optics of the reef, a difficult and resource intensive process due to a convergence of photosynthetic light harvesting by green, red, and brown algal pigment systems. To make matters more complex, reefs are overlain by a seawater skin with its own set of hydrological optical challenges. Rather than concentrating on classification, my research has attempted to track change by following the variation in geo-referenced pixel brightness over time with a technique termed temporal texture. Environmental periodicities impart a phenology to the variation in brightness and departures from the norm are easily detected as statistical outliers. This opens the door to using current orbiting technology to efficiently examine large areas of sea for change. If hot spots are detected, higher resolution sensors and field studies can be focused as resources permit. While this technique does not identify the type of change, it is sensitive, simple to compute, easy to automate and grounded in ecological niche theory

Dustan, P.

2011-12-01

350

Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length—a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes—but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts.

Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

2012-01-01

351

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE) is a peer-reviewed web-based collection of ecological educational materials. It is "a resource for busy ecology faculty who are looking for new ways to reach their students, or who perhaps want to learn more about teaching and learning." Each of the volumes here contains Experiments, Issues, and Teaching. In the Experiments area, visitors can find resources for laboratory settings, while the Issues section features classroom exercises and web-based materials. On the site's homepage, visitors will find the All Volumes link, which will allow them to look over all the resources dating back to 2004. The field experiments area includes resources such as "Using Steam Leaf Packs to Explore Community Assembly" and "Biodiversity Responses Across a Gradient of Human Influence."

2012-08-10

352

An evolutionary ecology of individual differences  

PubMed Central

Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences.

Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2014-01-01

353

Society for Vector Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed in 1968, the Society for Vector Ecology (SOVE) is dedicated to studying "all aspects of the biology, ecology, and control of arthropod vectors and the interrelationships between the vectors and the disease agents they transmit." Comprised of researchers and operational and extension personnel around the globe, SOVE tracks and studies the biological organisms that transmit diseases. The SOVE Website contains information related to the Society (e.g., mission, history), its publications (journal, newsletter -- both .pdf format), and professional opportunities (conferences, employment). Several dozen links to additional vector ecology resources are provided.

2008-09-12

354

Ecological Factors in Migration in Nonmetropolitan Counties, 1950-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the dominant ecosystem types in nonmetropolitan counties and the role of ecological factors in determination of levels of total and age-specific migration patterns within nonmetropolitan areas and ecosystem types for 1950-60 and 1960-70, 30 ecological variables representing POET concepts of population, organization, environment, and…

Murdock, Steve H.

355

IMPRINT OF THE PAST: ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR  

EPA Science Inventory

To have an understanding of ecological conditions in a highly impacted area, it is important to look at how past events affected current conditions. Historical studies provide an understanding of how current ecological conditions arose, provide information to identify past pollut...

356

Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia  

PubMed Central

A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

2013-01-01

357

[Ecological footprint and available ecological capacity in Chongqing region].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical data of Chongqing, the ecological footprint of Chongqing was calculated in this paper. The results showed that the per capita ecological footprint was 1.653566 hm2, per capita ecological capacity was 0.280393 hm2, and ecological surplus of deficit was 1.373173 hm2. The per capita ecological footprint was 0.5335 hm2 (47.64%) higher but the per capita ecological capacity was 0.5196 hm2 (64.95%) lower, and the ecological surplus of deficit was about 3.43 times of the average national level. These results showed that the ecological footprint of Chongqing was beyond the available ecological capacity, and its social and economic development was not sustainable. The strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region, such as reducing ecosystem population, increasing public finance income, and controlling environmental pollution, were also put forward. PMID:16252886

Sun, Fan; Mong, Linbing

2005-07-01

358

ECOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

EMAP has traditionally relied on indicators of ecological condition to report on the extent to which coastal waters are impaired. Correlations between biological indicators and physical or chemical indicators may generate hypotheses about potential causes of impairment but are n...

359

Ideology and Ecological Irrationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that theories of automatic regulation in nature, society, and government encourage political complacency and ecological catastrophe when elevated to ideology. Believes that scientists should actively seek to indoctrinate and educate the public and government. (AL)

Goodman, Daniel

1970-01-01

360

Anthills in School Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests experiments with field ants which can demonstrate the effect an organism has on its surroundings. The ecological aspects explored are plant distribution on the ant hills and the differences between ant hills and the undisturbed soil surrounding. (BR)

Pawson, J. Marke

1975-01-01

361

Center for Applied Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Kentucky, the Center for Applied Ecology at Northern Kentucky University provides professional environmental services to University and local community, as well as courses. Read about the staff and their responsibilities.

Ecology, Center F.

362

SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

363

ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING FOR WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

To effectively manage watersheds, the assessment of watershed ecological response to physicochemical stressors such as nutrients, sediments, pathogens, and toxics over broad spatial and temporal scales is needed. Assessments at this level of complexity requires the development of...

364

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

As ecological risk assessment evolves, it is moving beyond focus on single species toward addressing multiple species and their interactions, and from assessing effects of simple chemical toxicity to the cumulative impacts of multiple interacting chemical, physical, and biologica...

365

Ecology: Spying on nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biggest project in the history of ecology is nearing its dawn. Can its organizers pull off the seemingly impossible and unite a disparate field behind its vision to observe the ecosystems of the United States? Michael Hopkin reports.

Michael Hopkin

2006-01-01

366

Invasion Ecology (Student Edition)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a guide to learning skills for investigating the behaviors on non-native and native species. Studying invaders such as zebra mussels, chestnut blight, purple loosestrife, and Phragmites, you will explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. This Student Edition has three sections: (1) Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species (2) Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies (3) A series of helpful worksheets to guide you through your own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show you how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

367

IP3 Receptor Sensitization during In Vivo Amphetamine Experience Enhances NMDA Receptor Plasticity in Dopamine Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is critically involved in reward-based conditioning and the development of drug addiction. Ca2+ signals triggered by postsynaptic action potentials (APs) drive the induction of synaptic plasticity in the CNS. However, it is not clear how AP-evoked Ca2+ signals and the resulting synaptic plasticity are altered during in vivo exposure to drugs of abuse. We have recently described long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission onto DA neurons that is induced in a manner dependent on bursts of APs. LTP induction requires amplification of burst-evoked Ca2+ signals by preceding activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) generating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). In this study, using brain slices prepared from male rats, we show that repeated in vivo exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p., 3–7 days) upregulates mGluR-dependent facilitation of burst-evoked Ca2+ signals in DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A (PKA)-induced sensitization of IP3 receptors mediates this upregulation of mGluR action. As a consequence, NMDAR-mediated transmission becomes more susceptible to LTP induction after repeated amphetamine exposure. We have also found that the magnitude of amphetamine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in behaving rats correlates with the magnitude of mGluR-dependent Ca2+ signal facilitation measured in VTA slices prepared from these rats. Furthermore, the development of amphetamine CPP is significantly attenuated by intra-VTA infusion of the PKA inhibitor H89. We propose that enhancement of mGluR-dependent NMDAR plasticity in the VTA may promote the learning of environmental stimuli repeatedly associated with amphetamine experience.

Ahn, Kee-Chan; Bernier, Brian E.; Harnett, Mark T.; Morikawa, Hitoshi

2010-01-01

368

Media Ecology and Symbolic Interactionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Mead's role in media ecological studies and will explore his relationship to media ecology from an interpersonal communication perspective. Included in this discussion are Mead's concepts of self, symbolic interactionism, and the relationship between symbolic interactionism and media ecology. Examples from Internet research are used to illustrate how media ecology can be applied to interpersonal mediated communication

Susan B. Barnes

369

Ecological Resilience, Biodiversity, and Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe existing models of the relationship between species diversity and ecological function, and propose a conceptual model that relates species richness, ecological resilience, and scale. We suggest that species interact with scale-dependent sets of ecological structures and processes that determine functional opportunities. We propose that ecologi- cal resilience is generated by diverse, but overlap- ping, function within a scale

Garry Peterson; Craig R. Allen; C. S. Holling

1998-01-01

370

The ecology of forest insect invasions and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by nonindigenous forest insects can have spectacular effects on the biodiversity, ecology, and economy of affected areas. This introduction explores several critical issues that are generally relevant to invasions by forest in- sects to provide an extended background for this special issue of the Cundiun Jourrtal ($* fi)re,st Research and highligllts the key findings of the papers included in

Eckehard G. BrockerhofV; Andrew M. Liebhold; Hewe Jactel

2006-01-01

371

Ecology and transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied ecological factors affecting transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis, the common large roundworm of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) to intermediate hosts. Infective eggs of B. procyonis are present at raccoon latrines, and these sites may be important in the transmission of this parasite to small vertebrates in forested areas. I found that raccoon latrines exhibited characteristics generally associated with

Laura Kristen Page

1998-01-01

372

Model selection in ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, researchers in several areas of ecology and evolution have begun to change the way in which they analyze data and make biological inferences. Rather than the traditional null hypothesis testing approach, they have adopted an approach called model selection, in which several competing hypotheses are simultaneously confronted with data. Model selection can be used to identify a single best

Jerald B. Johnson; Kristian S. Omland

2004-01-01

373

Review of the ecology of malaria vectors in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region  

PubMed Central

On the basis of published records and unpublished reports to WHO, the author reviews the information available on the ecology of 15 anopheline malaria vectors occurring in areas of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region where attack measures are being applied. The information, which is still incomplete, relates chiefly to the period since 1956, the year when the malaria eradication programme in the Region was launched. An attempt is made to evaluate the control measures undertaken so far, and to provide data on the sensitivity to insecticides, behaviour, and mortality of vector populations.

Zahar, A. R.

1974-01-01

374

Review of the ecology of malaria vectors in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

On the basis of published records and unpublished reports to WHO, the author reviews the information available on the ecology of 15 anopheline malaria vectors occurring in areas of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region where attack measures are being applied. The information, which is still incomplete, relates chiefly to the period since 1956, the year when the malaria eradication programme in the Region was launched. An attempt is made to evaluate the control measures undertaken so far, and to provide data on the sensitivity to insecticides, behaviour, and mortality of vector populations. PMID:4549034

Zahar, A R

1974-01-01

375

Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

2012-01-01

376

Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) that is managed in conjunction with the University`s Institute of Ecology. The laboratory`s overall mission is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under an M&O contract with the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. Significant accomplishments were made during the year ending July 31, 1994 in the areas of research, education and service. Reviewed in this document are research projects in the following areas: Environmental Operations Support (impacted wetlands, streams, trace organics, radioecology, database synthesis, wild life studies, zooplankton, safety and quality assurance); wood stork foraging and breeding ecology; defence waste processing facility; environmental risk assessment (endangered species, fish, ash basin studies); ecosystem alteration by chemical pollutants; wetlands systems; biodiversity on the SRS; Environmental toxicology; environmental outreach and education; Par Pond drawdown studies in wildlife and fish and metals; theoretical ecology; DOE-SR National Environmental Research Park; wildlife studies. Summaries of educational programs and publications are also give.

Not Available

1994-07-31

377

Evaluation of the ecological state of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk using the DNase test system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the state of the Russian coastal marine ecosystems of the Sea of Japan (the Tumen River mouth) and the Sea of Okhotsk (the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island and the Sakhalin Gulf) and Kraternya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands) was carried out during the 29th expedition of the R/V Akademik Oparin. A highly sensitive express analysis using the DNase of the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin was utilized in order to evaluate the quality of the natural marine water of the areas experiencing different degrees of anthropogenic impact. The marine water quality was evaluated according to the degree of the DNase inhibition in the samples. The presence of ecological stress was shown at the aforementioned sites excluding Kraternya Bight. The method allows the fast (1 hour) analysis of the pollution of marine areas and, coupled with data on the hydrological, hydrochemical, and microbiological studies of water samples, provides the possibility to make an ecological forecast.

Menzorova, N. I.; Rasskazov, V. A.

2009-12-01

378

A Study on the Approaches of Ecological Reform of Tourism Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of industrial ecology is to minimize impacts on environment from economic activities. With rapid growth, tourism industry has already destroyed the ecological environment seriously and upset the economic order in some areas. The application of industrial ecology in tourism can optimize the use of resources, energy and capital throughout the system. This article starts from the basic

Yafang Li; Wanbin Zhu; Fu Chen; Lixin Guo

2010-01-01

379

A spatial approach for integrating and analyzing indicators of ecological and human condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Sustainable development” is used in this study as an integrating theme and defined as a positive relationship between ecological integrity and human welfare over time within ecologically-relevant areas. Ecological rather than political areal units are used for aggregating data because human welfare ultimately relies on the natural resources and life support systems provided by healthy ecosystems. Although, no scientific consensus

Michael E Troyer

2002-01-01

380

Ecological Research Division, Marine Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.

Not Available

1980-05-01

381

Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.  

PubMed

After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes. PMID:23908231

Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

2013-08-01

382

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

383

ROLE OF PATHOBIOLOGY IN EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The editorial explores the role of the pathobiologist and problems encountered in estuarine/marine ecological investigations. Four areas are proposed for cooperative endeavor with scientists in other fields: (1) toxicological pathology in aquatic species; (2) pathophysiology of e...

384

Application of Mechanistic Toxicology Data to Ecological Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The ongoing evolution of knowledge and tools in the areas of molecular biology, bioinformatics, and systems biology holds significant promise for reducing uncertainties associated with ecological risk assessment. As our understanding of the mechanistic basis of responses of organ...

385

Functional Molecular Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes are central issues in ecology and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity research focuses on “species” richness and abundance but not on their interactions. Although a network approach is powerful in describing ecological interactions among species, defining the network structure in a microbial community is a great challenge. Also, although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity are well established, its influences on belowground microbial communities, especially microbial interactions, are poorly understood. Here, a random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks was developed with the high-throughput functional gene array hybridization data of soil microbial communities in a long-term grassland FACE (free air, CO2 enrichment) experiment. Our results indicate that RMT is powerful in identifying functional molecular ecological networks in microbial communities. Both functional molecular ecological networks under eCO2 and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed the general characteristics of complex systems such as scale free, small world, modular, and hierarchical. However, the topological structures of the functional molecular ecological networks are distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, at the levels of the entire communities, individual functional gene categories/groups, and functional genes/sequences, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the network interactions among different microbial functional genes/populations. Such a shift in network structure is also significantly correlated with soil geochemical variables. In short, elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes is fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change.

Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

2010-01-01

386

Possible effects of changes in the meteorological state over semi-arid areas on the general well-being of weather-sensitive patients  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of the changes in atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, on general well-being of hypertensive persons was analyzed. Methods Under test was the group of 20 hypertensive weather-sensitive patients; their blood pressure, pulse rate and appearance of 4 symptoms of discomfort sensations: arthritic pain, unjustified anxiety, severe headache and inexplicable tiredness- were registered. Symptoms are classified in ICD-9 code (780–790) and scored on a 4-point scale. Results were defined as positive (no departure from the range of normal values) or problematic; the daily number of the latter results was collected under the name “pathological reactions” NPR if at least two of these 7 checked symptoms (of one patient) were outside the normal range. Comparison of the current weather conditions with their means, questioning of patients and repeated examinations are used to gain information. The data was analyzed employing the SAS statistical software. Pearson and Spearman correlations were used, applied on the best and worst days, when a minimum and a maximum of pathological changes NPR in the patients’ well-being were observed. The statistical significance was p??4?m·s-1. The Spearman test gives higher correlation than Pearson test (??~?0.14, p?

2012-01-01

387

Ecology, Complexity, and Metaphor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is about Ecology, Complexity and Metaphor.Complexity has recently risen to prominence in ecology as part of a broader interest that suggests its status is something more than just a scientific theory or property of reality. It may be helpful to consider complexity, and related terms such as "self-organization," as recent metaphors deployed to advance knowledge on fundamental questions in ecology, including the relationship between parts and wholes, and between order and disorder. Though not commonly viewed as such, metaphors are an indispensable component of science, and should not be appraised as true or false, but rather in terms of how they help or hinder knowledge. By understanding metaphor as a necessary ally and not a threat to ecological knowledge, we may enrich our contextual understanding of complexity while continuing to invoke it in useful ways. The special section introduced by this article features essays by two prominent experts in ecology, complexity, and metaphor: science studies scholar Evelyn Fox Keller and theoretical ecologist Simon Levin

JAMES D. PROCTOR and BRENDON M. H. LARSON (;)

2005-12-01

388

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: � Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species � Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies � A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

389

A great leap forward in microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence-based molecular techniques emerged in the late 1980s, which completely changed our general view of microbial life. Coincidentally, the Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology (JSME) was founded, and its official journal "Microbes and Environments (M&E)" was launched, in 1985. Thus, the past 25 years have been an exciting and fruitful period for M&E readers and microbiologists as demonstrated by the numerous excellent papers published in M&E. In this minireview, recent progress made in microbial ecology and related fields is summarized, with a special emphasis on 8 landmark areas; the cultivation of uncultured microbes, in situ methods for the assessment of microorganisms and their activities, biofilms, plant microbiology, chemolithotrophic bacteria in early volcanic environments, symbionts of animals and their ecology, wastewater treatment microbiology, and the biodegradation of hazardous organic compounds. PMID:21576878

Okabe, Satoshi; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Toyofuku, Masanori; Yawata, Yutaka; Tashiro, Yosuke; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hiraishi, Akira; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2010-01-01

390

Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and,

L. R. Pounds; P. D. Parr; M. G. Ryon

1993-01-01

391

China is confronted with ten ecological problems.  

PubMed

The Ecology Research Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences sent all ministries under the State Council the report called the Ecological Deficit: A Greatest Crisis for Living which listed 10 ecological problems which face China. Improper development and exploitation of the land has resulted in soil erosion in 65% of the mountains and 9.7% of areas which already had poor environments. Further natural disasters are becoming more frequent in more and more areas. Excessive felling of trees diminishes the already small forest areas in China. Similarly overpasturing of domestic animals and decreased cultivation and exploitation of grasslands are reducing their already limited growth by 20 million mu each year. In fact, to date, 1.3 billion mu's of grasslands have been destroyed which equals 1/3 of all grasslands in China. Decertification is spreading in northern China to the point where 15.5% of all of China consists of deserts (1.49 million sq. km.). Discharge of waste residues, water wastage, and over use of water have brought about a serious problem for China. Other environmental pollution problems include air pollution which causes acid rain and inadequate solid waste disposal. Indeed 40% of factories are the chief sources of pollution. Pollution only offsets any gains in economic development. Overpopulation and uneven resource distribution have resulted in some areas nearly exceeding their carrying capacities. Moreover people are destroying ecological environments which results in great economic consequences that threatens lives and property. Therefore China must initiate effective measures to stem the tide of environmental destruction, improve productivity, maintain ecological equilibrium, and strictly control the population. PMID:12343694

1992-04-01

392

Sensitivity of nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled whole blood samples and its usefulness to blood donor screening in endemic areas.  

PubMed

Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a severe disease with high fatality rate. Most Brazilian blood banks in the Amazon region perform malaria screening using microscopic examination (thick smears). Since low parasite concentrations are expected in asymptomatic blood donors a high sensitivity test should be used for donor screening. This study determined the sensitivity of a nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled samples. We performed a one-stage criterion validation study with 21 positive samples pooled with samples from ten negative volunteer until three different concentrations were reached (0.33; 0.25; 0.20 parasites/?L - p/?L). Nested PCR was performed as described by Snounou et al. (1993). Sensitivities (and confidence intervals) were determined by stratum of final parasite concentration on the pooled samples. All samples with parasitemia values of 0.33 and 0.25 p/?L had 100% sensitivity (95%CI=86.3-100). One negative result was obtained from a sample with 0.20 p/?L sensitivity=95.2% (95%CI=76.2-99.9). Compared to parasitemia detectable under ideal conditions of thick smear, this nested-PCR in pooled sample was able to detect 40 times more parasites per microliter. Nested-PCR in pooled samples should be considered as a high sensitive alternative to thick smear for donor screening in blood banks at endemic regions. Local authorities need to assess cost:benefit advantages of this method compared to alternatives. PMID:24508148

de Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jesus F; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Pang, Lorrin W; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

2014-04-01

393

Understanding Invasion Ecology: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can a single species of insect pose a threat to millions of acres of forests, orchards, and street trees? What can we do about the Asian longhorned beetle and other plants and animals that invade our farms, cities, and forests? The study of ecology helps us to find answers to these questions. Through applying ecological principles and conducting research, scientists are learning to manage invasive species. Students can learn alongside the scientists and, in some cases, help them. This chapter defines the term invasive species using a variety of examples--such as the Asian longhorned beetle and Chestnut Blight--and discusses their ecological implications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents and Preface.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

394

Ecological niche of Legionella pneumophila  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the ecological niches, relationships and controls of Legionella derived from environmental sources. Only as clinical cases and studies relate directly to the ecological understanding of the bacterium will they be discussed. This review seeks to separate the ecological parameters associated with Legionella that are often incorporated into the medical literature as well as to highlight specific ecological studies. A series of ecological studies demonstrates the niches of Legionella, the ecological parameters that allow the bacterium to survive, grow and to be disseminated. Relationships among given habitats are explored along with biological relationships within a given habitat.

Fliermans, C.B.

1983-01-01

395

Clinical Ecology--A Critical Appraisal  

PubMed Central

In 1981 the California Medical Association (CMA) adopted the position that clinical ecology does not constitute a valid medical discipline and that scientific and clinical evidence to support the diagnosis of “environmental illness” and “cerebral allergy” or the concept of massive environmental allergy is lacking. As a result of requests from clinical ecologists for an opportunity to present to CMA evidence justifying their diagnostic and treatment methods, the chair of the CMA Scientific Board, Allen W. Mathies, Jr, MD, appointed a task force in 1984 to review clinical ecology. The task force conducted an extensive literature review and held a hearing. Clinical ecology is based on two main hypotheses: first, that the total load of low-dose environmental stressors is important in the induction of illness; and, second, that changes in the frequency of and intervals between exposures to specific substances can mask the clinical manifestations of or alter the degree of sensitivity to those substances. Treatment methods used by clinical ecologists include avoidance, symptom-neutralizing doses of diluted extract of the offending agents, rotation diets and an ecologically sound workplace and home. The task force recognizes that certain environmental chemicals and allergens produce well-defined syndromes in humans and that some patients suffer from illnesses that are not readily diagnosed and for which only supportive therapy exists. The conclusions of the task force are • There is no convincing evidence that supports the hypotheses on which clinical ecology is based. • Clinical ecologists have not identified specific, recognizable diseases caused by exposure to low level-environmental stressors. • Methods to diagnose and treat such undefined conditions have not been shown to be effective. • The practice of clinical ecology can be considered experimental only when its practitioners adhere to scientifically sound research protocols and inform their patients about the experimental nature of their practice.

1986-01-01

396

Ecology of artificial reefs in the subtropics.  

PubMed

The application of artificial reefs (ARs) has a long history, and there is a wealth of information related to the design and performance of ARs in coastal and ocean waters worldwide. However, relatively fewer studies in the literature are focused on the response of benthic communities within the reef areas than those on fish attraction and fish production and on the settlement and colonization of epibiota on the AR structures, especially in the subtropics where seasonal differences and environmental conditions can be large. Recent advances in the understanding of the ecology of ARs in the subtropics are highlighted, with a focus on fish attraction versus fish production, development of epibiota on AR systems and responses of in situ benthic communities in the reef areas. Data are also presented on studies of trophic relationships in subtropical AR systems, and further research areas using analyses of biological traits, stable isotope signatures and fatty acid profiles in investigating the ecology of ARs are proposed. PMID:24981732

Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, Siu Gin; Tsang, Tsui Yun; Wai, Ho Yin

2014-01-01

397

Ecological Niche Modeling of Bacillus anthracis on Three Continents: Evidence for Genetic-Ecological Divergence?  

PubMed Central

We modeled the ecological niche of a globally successful Bacillus anthracis sublineage in the United States, Italy and Kazakhstan to better understand the geographic distribution of anthrax and potential associations between regional populations and ecology. Country-specific ecological-niche models were developed and reciprocally transferred to the other countries to determine if pathogen presence could be accurately predicted on novel landscapes. Native models accurately predicted endemic areas within each country, but transferred models failed to predict known occurrences in the outside countries. While the effects of variable selection and limitations of the genetic data should be considered, results suggest differing ecological associations for the B. anthracis populations within each country and may reflect niche specialization within the sublineage. Our findings provide guidance for developing accurate ecological niche models for this pathogen; models should be developed regionally, on the native landscape, and with consideration to population genetics. Further genomic analysis will improve our understanding of the genetic-ecological dynamics of B. anthracis across these countries and may lead to more refined predictive models for surveillance and proactive vaccination programs. Further studies should evaluate the impact of variable selection of native and transferred models.

Mullins, Jocelyn C.; Garofolo, Giuliano; Van Ert, Matthew; Fasanella, Antonio; Lukhnova, Larisa; Hugh-Jones, Martin E.; Blackburn, Jason K.

2013-01-01

398

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology: Ecology of Disturbance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students examine published data that address the ecological consequences of enviromental disturbance (fire, hurricanes, landslides, etc.). Disturbance is a useful topic in the teaching of ecology and about disputes in science. The figure sets contain data on the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, the Hubbard Brook study, the ecology of fire, and the regeneration of New England conifer forests.

399

Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different burn and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) areas, as well as areas with different burn/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of burned areas, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of burned area, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected areas; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of burned areas, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-burned areas comprising 45-55% burned area and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to burned areas in the NIR channel, whereas those areas are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely burned pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated areas where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of burned areas more than the spectral signal of vegetated areas in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the burned areas because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and burned areas are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.

Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos

2013-05-01

400

An Ecosystem Paradigm for Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of a workshop on the nature of ecosystem ecology as a science. The growing political importance of ecology reflects increasing public interest in environmental values and life support systems. Ecologists are expected to assume int...

P. L. Johnson

1977-01-01