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1

Human-Related Factors Regulate the Spatial Ecology of Domestic Cats in Sensitive Areas for Conservation  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298

Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

2011-01-01

2

100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

1993-09-01

3

Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology  

E-print Network

Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology Implications for Water Quality Risk hydrology was developed and applied to the New York City (NYC) water supply watersheds. According and are therefore hydrologically sensitive with respect to their potential to transport contaminants to perennial

Walter, M.Todd

4

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of ecological demonstration area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological demonstration area (EDA) is an authorized nomination, which should be assessed from several aspects, including\\u000a ecological, social, environmental, economic ones and so on. It is difficult to advance an exact developing level index of\\u000a EDA due to its indieator system’s complexity and disequilibrium. In this paper, a framework of indicators was set to evaluate,\\u000a monitor and examine the comprehensive

Ya-juan Yu; Huai-cheng Guo; Young Liu; Shu-tong Wang; Jin-feng Wang

2005-01-01

5

Ecological niche modelling and prioritizing areas for species reintroductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species reintroduction programmes, in prior- itizing areas for reintroductions, have traditionally used tools that include measures of habitat suitability and evaluations of area requirements for viable populations. Here we add two tools to this approach: evaluation of ecological requirements of species and evaluation of future suitability for species facing changing climates. We demonstrate this approach with two species for which

Enrique Martínez-Meyer; A. Townsend Peterson; Jorge I. Servín; Lloyd F. Kiff

2006-01-01

6

Ecological problems of oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, the Republic of Azerbaijan is undergoing a historical period of social, economical and political changes. These reforms are bringing about problems that require immediate solutions. The pivotal point of the reforms taking place in Azerbaijan is the closure of agreements with foreign companies who are contracted for oil exploitation in the Caspian Sea region. The ecological sensitivity of this

I. M Efendiyeva

2000-01-01

7

Sensitivity analysis of coexistence in ecological communities: theory and application.  

PubMed

Sensitivity analysis, the study of how ecological variables of interest respond to changes in external conditions, is a theoretically well-developed and widely applied approach in population ecology. Though the application of sensitivity analysis to predicting the response of species-rich communities to disturbances also has a long history, derivation of a mathematical framework for understanding the factors leading to robust coexistence has only been a recent undertaking. Here we suggest that this development opens up a new perspective, providing advances ranging from the applied to the theoretical. First, it yields a framework to be applied in specific cases for assessing the extinction risk of community modules in the face of environmental change. Second, it can be used to determine trait combinations allowing for coexistence that is robust to environmental variation, and limits to diversity in the presence of environmental variation, for specific community types. Third, it offers general insights into the nature of communities that are robust to environmental variation. We apply recent community-level extensions of mathematical sensitivity analysis to example models for illustration. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the method, and some of the empirical questions the theoretical framework could help answer. PMID:25252135

Barabás, György; Pásztor, Liz; Meszéna, Géza; Ostling, Annette

2014-12-01

8

Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area  

SciTech Connect

The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

1994-12-31

9

Ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in Quercus ilex  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Several widespread tree species of temperate forests, such as species of the genus Quercus, produce recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds. However, the ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in temperate regions is largely unknown. Do seeds of such species suffer from drying during the period when they remain on the soil, between shedding in autumn and the return of conditions required for germination in spring? Methods To test this hypothesis, the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest was used as a model system. The relationships between the climate in winter, the characteristics of microhabitats, acorn morphological traits, and the water status and viability of seeds after winter were then investigated in 42 woodlands sampled over the entire French distribution of the species. Key Results The percentages of germination and normal seedling development were tightly linked to the water content of seeds after the winter period, revealing that in situ desiccation is a major cause of mortality. The homogeneity of seed response to drying suggests that neither intraspecific genetic variation nor environmental conditions had a significant impact on the level of desiccation sensitivity of seeds. In contrast, the water and viability status of seeds at the time of collection were dramatically influenced by cumulative rainfall and maximum temperatures during winter. A significant effect of shade and of the type of soil cover was also evidenced. Conclusions The findings establish that seed desiccation sensitivity is a key functional trait which may influence the success of recruitment in temperate recalcitrant seed species. Considering that most models of climate change predict changes in rainfall and temperature in the Mediterranean basin, the present work could help foresee changes in the distribution of Q. ilex and other oak species, and hence plant community alterations. PMID:23388882

Joët, Thierry; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Dussert, Stéphane

2013-01-01

10

SPECIAL ECOLOGICAL AREAS: AN APPROACH TO ALIEN PLANT CONTROL IN HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Special Ecological Areas approach to alien plant management was adopted at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in 1985. The approach involves control of widespread, disruptive alien plant species in Special Ecological Areas, which are intensive management and research units in the Park. Special Ecological Areas management developed from these perceptions: 1) unmanaged alien species were affecting many of the most

J. Timothy Tunison; Charles P. Stone

11

Sensitivity analysis as an aid in modelling and control of (poorly-defined) ecological systems. [closed ecological systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review of the use of sensitivity analyses in modelling nonlinear, ill-defined systems, such as ecological interactions is presented. Discussions of previous work, and a proposed scheme for generalized sensitivity analysis applicable to ill-defined systems are included. This scheme considers classes of mathematical models, problem-defining behavior, analysis procedures (especially the use of Monte-Carlo methods), sensitivity ranking of parameters, and extension to control system design.

Hornberger, G. M.; Rastetter, E. B.

1982-01-01

12

Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil  

E-print Network

Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding...

Giles, John R; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ameida, Alzira

2011-01-04

13

PMR2088D September 2012 Smoke Sensitive Areas 2  

E-print Network

PMR2088D September 2012 Smoke Sensitive Areas 2 Influence of Fuels and Ignition Patterns 2 Weather or downslope (and thus moving relatively slower), tend to more completely consume fuels due to increased

Koford, Rolf R.

14

Detecting Area Sensitivity: A Comment on Previous Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.—Several studies have reported,that some,grassland birds are area sensitive; they exhibit a nonrandom avoidance of small fields. The methods used to test for area sensitivity, however, differed among studies. Some investigators sampled fields with sampling effort pro- portional to field size, whereas others used equal sampling effort in all fields. We created a simulation model,with the same,number,of fields and field

DAVID JOSEPH HORN; ROBERT J. FLETCHER; ROLF R. KOFORD

2000-01-01

15

Area-sensitive forest birds move extensively among forest patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation is thought to create a barrier to individual movements particularly for area-sensitive species which, by definition, prefer to breed in large tracts of forest. For two breeding seasons, we radio-tracked an area-sensitive species, the scarlet tanager Piranga olivacea, in a fragmented landscape in northeastern PA. We found that scarlet tanagers made extensive and frequent movements among fragments. Paired

Gail S Fraser; Bridget J. M Stutchbury

2004-01-01

16

Ecological Modelling 153 (2002) 131142 Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration and its effects on  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 153 (2002) 131­142 Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration and its effects of the nonlinearity in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, several commonly used ecosystem models produce substantially different estimates of soil respiration with the same or similar model input. In this paper we

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

17

Anthropocene changes in desert area: Sensitivity to climate model predictions  

E-print Network

Anthropocene changes in desert area: Sensitivity to climate model predictions Natalie M. Mahowald1] Changes in desert area due to humans have important implications from a local, regional to global level. Here I focus on the latter in order to better understand estimated changes in desert dust aerosols

Mahowald, Natalie

18

Urban Ecological Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies of terrestrial urban systems have been approached along several kinds of contrasts: ecology in as opposed\\u000a to ecology of cities; biogeochemical compared to organismal perspectives, land use planning versus biological, and disciplinary\\u000a versus interdisciplinary. In order to point out how urban ecological studies are poised for significant integration, we review\\u000a key aspects of these disparate literatures. We emphasize

S. T. A. Pickett; M. L. Cadenasso; J. M. Grove; C. H. Nilon; R. V. Pouyat; W. C. Zipperer; R. Costanza

19

Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the continental United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future.

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

2013-01-01

20

[Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].  

PubMed

According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes. PMID:24830253

Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

2014-02-01

21

SPS microwave health and ecological effects: Program area overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential microwave health and ecological effects due to the operations of the Satellite Power System are discussed. An outline of the research needed to insure public acceptance of the program is presented.

Cahill, D. F.

1980-01-01

22

Native aquatic plants and ecological condition of southwestern wetlands and riparian areas  

E-print Network

Native aquatic plants and ecological condition of southwestern wetlands and riparian areas Alvin L. Abstract.-The determination of the ecological condition of wetland and riparian habitats has been the focus of these systems. Research on montane wetland and riparian systems has shown the relative importance of native

23

Patterns of sensitivity to cadmium and pentachlorophenol among nematode species from different taxonomic and ecological groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of acute toxicity data among nematode species belonging to different taxonomic and ecological groups was investigated. Twelve different nematode species were extracted from the soil and directly exposed to cadmium and pentachlorophenol. LC50-values were estimated after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure in aqueous solutions. The species exhibited large differences in sensitivity. LC50-values (72 h) for

J. E. Kammenga; C. A. M. Van Gestel; J. Bakker

1994-01-01

24

Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the Continental United States.  

PubMed

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future. PMID:23372754

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K; Gergely, Kevin J; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J Michael

2013-01-01

25

Representation of Ecological Systems within the Protected Areas Network of the Continental United States  

PubMed Central

If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future. PMID:23372754

Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

2013-01-01

26

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy

C. C. Trettin; V. R. Tolbert; A. T. Jones; C. R. Smith; A. J. Kalmijn

1994-01-01

27

What Ecological Factors Shape Species-Area Curves in Neutral Models?  

E-print Network

What Ecological Factors Shape Species-Area Curves in Neutral Models? Massimo Cencini1 , Simone structure of biodiversity. While general features of species-area curves are quite universal across) and the level of habitat saturation (allowing for empty sites). We conclude that species-area curves become

Cencini, Massimo

28

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

29

Assessment of ecological security in Changbai Mountain Area, China based on MODIS data and PSR model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of ecological security is to identify the stability of the ecosystem, and to distinguish the capacity of sustainable health and integrity under different kinds of risks. Using MODIS time series images from 2000 to 2008 as the main data source, the derived parameters including NDVI, the ratio of NPP and GPP, forest coverage, landscape diversity and ecological flexibility etc. are integrated to depict the properties of the ecological system. The pressure and response indicators such as population density, industrial production intensity, arable land per capita, fertilizer consumption, highway density, agricultural mechanization level and GDP per capita are also collected and managed by ArcGIS. The `pressure-state-response' (PSR) conceptual model and a hierarchical weighted model are applied to construct an evaluation framework and determine the state of ecological security in Changbai Mountain area. The results show that the ecological security index (ESI) values in 2000 and 2008 were 5.75 and 5.59 respectively, indicating the ecological security state in Changbai Mountain area degraded. In 2000, the area of in good state of ecological security was 21901km2, occupying 28.96% of the study region. 48201 km2 of the land were with moderate level. The grades of ESI in Dunhua, Longjing and Antu decreased from moderate to poor. Though the ESI value of Meihekou increased by 0.12 during 2000-2008, it was still in a very poor state of ecological security induced by intensive human activities. The ecological security situation of Changbai Mountain region was not optimistic on the whole.

Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping; Qi, Xin

2014-11-01

30

Preliminary evaluation of ecological risk for the city area from the Pearl River Estuary.  

PubMed

It is essential to evaluate the ecological risk for the estuary cities area for the environmental restoration of the estuary. The ecological risk of six city areas from the Pearl River Estuary were evaluated by using the relative risk model. The relative risk assessment method was developed by considering the river network density in the sub-region. The results indicated that Dongguan had the largest ecological risk pressure with total risk scores as high as 10,846.3, and Hong Kong had the lowest ecological risk pressure with total risk scores up to 4,104.6. The greatest source was domestic sewage with total risk scores as high as 1,798.6, followed by urbanization and industry. Oxygen-consuming organic pollutants, organic toxic pollutants and nutrients were the major stressors of the water environment. In terms of habitats, the water environment was enduring the greatest pressure. For the endpoints, water deterioration faced the largest risk pressure. PMID:25429453

Chen, Qiuying; Ho, KinChung; Liu, Jingling

2014-11-01

31

Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

2012-11-01

32

Disentangling Sampling and Ecological Explanations Underlying Species-Area Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a probabilistic approach to address the influence of sampling ar- tifacts on the form of species-area relationships (SARs). We developed a model in which the increase in observed species richness is a function of sampling effort exclusively. We assumed that effort depends on area sampled, and we generated species-area curves under that model. These curves can be realistic

Emmanuelle Cam; James D. Nichols; James E. Hines; John R. Sauer; Russell Alpizar-Jara; Curtis H. Flather

2002-01-01

33

Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island.

Yeo, O. T. S.; Saito, K.; Said, I.

2014-02-01

34

Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is very complex. This paper focus on the development of a methodology to target the ESZ based on currently available tools (Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrologic Model). According to the features of the TGRR, a spatially explicit and process-based method was introduced to help plan the placement of the ESZ in the TGRR for water quality benefits. The methods presented here were based on the integration of grid-based terrain analysis and nonpoint source pollution estimates. Firstly, the contribution of nonpoint source pollution from upslope farmland and urban to the TGRR was determined by grid-based terrain analysis. The upslope contributing area beyond the ESZ was defined as a "source". The SWAT model was used to analyze the characteristics of the pollution load. Secondly, the ESZ was defined as a "sink" and the reducing pollution loads in each grid cell of the ESZ was calculated by the REMM model. Finally, the key areas in the TGRA where the ESZ have the greatest potential to improve water quality were identified and the formula of the width of the ESZ was determined. However, the method in this article considers only the function of pollutants reduction in the ESZ, the next stage of the study will involve detailed modeling for the function of ecological corridor in the ESZ.

Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

2011-12-01

35

Green areas around homes reduce atopic sensitization in children  

PubMed Central

Background Western lifestyle is associated with high prevalence of allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders. To explain this association, we tested the ‘biodiversity hypothesis’, which posits that reduced contact of children with environmental biodiversity, including environmental microbiota in natural habitats, has adverse consequences on the assembly of human commensal microbiota and its contribution to immune tolerance. Methods We analysed four study cohorts from Finland and Estonia (n = 1044) comprising children and adolescents aged 0.5–20 years. The prevalence of atopic sensitization was assessed by measuring serum IgE specific to inhalant allergens. We calculated the proportion of five land-use types – forest, agricultural land, built areas, wetlands and water bodies – in the landscape around the homes using the CORINE2006 classification. Results The cover of forest and agricultural land within 2–5 km from the home was inversely and significantly associated with atopic sensitization. This relationship was observed for children 6 years of age and older. Land-use pattern explained 20% of the variation in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria on the skin of healthy individuals, supporting the hypothesis of a strong environmental effect on the commensal microbiota. Conclusions The amount of green environment (forest and agricultural land) around homes was inversely associated with the risk of atopic sensitization in children. The results indicate that early-life exposure to green environments is especially important. The environmental effect may be mediated via the effect of environmental microbiota on the commensal microbiota influencing immunotolerance. PMID:25388016

Ruokolainen, L; von Hertzen, L; Fyhrquist, N; Laatikainen, T; Lehtomäki, J; Auvinen, P; Karvonen, A M; Hyvärinen, A; Tillmann, V; Niemelä, O; Knip, M; Haahtela, T; Pekkanen, J; Hanski, I

2015-01-01

36

The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

Fields, J. M.

1985-01-01

37

Analysis of the ecological environment change by geoinformatics technology at special erosion area in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the poor condition of soil and micro-climate condition, the mudstone area in the southwestern Taiwan has been difficult for plants to grow. The area is always in such a bare condition that it is nicknamed "Moon World." Serious erosion and natural disasters in the mudstone area are the significant problems for soil and water conservation, and the area of bald mudstones is expanding. Statistical data show that bare area has increased 3 times during the past 10 years. The mudstone area in the southwestern Taiwan was hard to plant and then it always in bare condition which got a nickname of The Moon World. The distribution of each land-use type in mudstone area, and spatial information in years were integrated into GIS by ArcView. In the respect of ecosystem, ecological index in different periods were calculated based upon landscape ecological theory. To explain its meanings and the danger behind the bare mudstone area, the results indicated that mosaic gathering was caused by mudstone and thorn bamboo. The results illustrated that the ecological factor of landscape such as patch shape factor, and Shannon evenness factor that have significant canonical correlation with water qualities and erosion of the study area. In study area, there are many styles of fracture, variation, and mosaic distribution landscape.

Chang, Chun-Pin; Tsai, Shang-Te; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Liang, Ta-Ching

2008-10-01

38

[Nonpoint pollution control for rural areas of China with ecological engineering technologies].  

PubMed

Nonpoint pollution from rural areas is the results of the ecosystem degradation, and ecological engineering technologies are good ways for the restoration of watershed and enhancing material cycling. There are two types of treatment strategies: to control the polluted runoff and to reduce the pollutants from the sources. Six control technologies are introduced and they are multipond systems, grassed filter trips, wetland systems, eco-agriculture, slope ecological engineering, ecological treatment of wastewater and solid waste. These technologies need to be combined systematically in order to form a watershed ecological engineering. In the control program, it is important to use countermeasure suitable to the local conditions. In addition, the input of sufficient investment, management and education is necessary. PMID:11993134

Yin, Chengqing; Mao, Zhanpo

2002-02-01

39

Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam. PMID:24587031

Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

40

Ecological niche modelling and prioritizing areas for species reintroductions  

E-print Network

: California condor Gymnogyps californianus and Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi. For the condor, we identify three areas clustered in the Sierra San Pedro Ma´rtir, Baja California; for the wolf, we identify a string of suitable sites along the Sierra Madre...

Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Serví n, Jorge I.; Kiff, Lloyd F.

2006-10-01

41

Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

Esser, Robert

42

Large area x-ray sensitive video camera: overall feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large area x-ray sensitive vidicon is an alternative to the x-ray image intensifier and television camera combination. The proposed x-ray vidicon utilizes an amorphous selenium photoconductive layer which has a higher intrinsic resolution in comparison to the input phosphor of an XRII. This higher resolution could benefit diagnostic cardiac angiography as well as interventional cardiac procedures which now frequency utilize XRII/TV zoom modes to achieve higher resolution. Signal, noise, resolution and lag of an x-ray vidicon have been analyzed theoretically and indicate a medically practical device is possible. The use of a large potential to bias the a-Se photoconductor presents a problem with respect to instability of the a-Se surface potential and excessive dark current. The incorporation of a suppressor mesh into the vidicon has been shown to provide stable vidicon operation while experiments involving a-Se blocking contacts have lead to the development of an a-Se layer with low dark current.

Luhta, Randy P.; Rowlands, John A.

1997-05-01

43

Linking irreplaceable landforms in a self-organizing landscape to sensitivity of population vital rates for an ecological specialist.  

PubMed

Irreplaceable, self-organizing landforms and the endemic and ecologically specialized biodiversity they support are threatened globally by anthropogenic disturbances. Although the outcome of disrupting landforms is somewhat understood, little information exists that documents population consequences of landform disturbance on endemic biodiversity. Conservation strategies for species dependent upon landforms have been difficult to devise because they require understanding complex feedbacks that create and maintain landforms and the consequences of landform configuration on demography of species. We characterized and quantified links between landform configuration and demography of an ecological specialist, the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus), which occurs only in blowouts (i.e., wind-blown sandy depressions) of Shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) sand-dune landforms. We used matrix models to estimate vital rates from a multisite mark-recapture study of 6 populations occupying landforms with different spatial configurations. Sensitivity and elasticity analyses demonstrated demographic rates among populations varied in sensitivity to different landform configurations. Specifically, significant relationships between blowout shape complexity and vital rate elasticities suggested direct links between S. arenicolus demography and amount of edge in Shinnery oak sand-dune landforms. These landforms are irreplaceable, based on permanent transition of disturbed areas to alternative grassland ecosystem states. Additionally, complex feedbacks between wind, sand, and Shinnery oak maintain this landform, indicating restoration through land management practices is unlikely. Our findings that S. arenicolus population dynamics depended on landform configuration suggest that failure to consider processes of landform organization and their effects on species' population dynamics may lead to incorrect inferences about threats to endemic species and ineffective habitat management for threatened or endangered species. As such, successful conservation of these systems and the biodiversity they support must be informed by research linking process-oriented studies of self-organized landforms with studies of movement, behavior, and demography of species that dwell in them. PMID:25472888

Ryberg, Wade A; Hill, Michael T; Painter, Charles W; Fitzgerald, Lee A

2014-12-01

44

Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

2013-07-01

45

Precision control of an invasive ant on an ecologically sensitive tropical island: a principle with wide applicability.  

PubMed

Effective management of invasive ants is an important priority for many conservation programs but can be difficult to achieve, especially within ecologically sensitive habitats. This study assesses the efficacy and nontarget risk of a precision ant baiting method aiming to reduce a population of the invasive big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala on a tropical island of great conservation value. Area-wide application of a formicidal bait, delivered in bait stations, resulted in the rapid decline of 8 ha of P. megacephala. Effective suppression remained throughout the succeeding 11-month monitoring period. We detected no negative effects of baiting on nontarget arthropods. Indeed, species richness of nontarget ants and abundance of other soil-surface arthropods increased significantly after P. megacephala suppression. This bait station method minimized bait exposure to nontarget organisms and was cost effective and adaptable to target species density. However, it was only effective over short distances and required thorough bait placement. This method would therefore be most appropriate for localized P. megacephala infestations where the prevention of nontarget impacts is essential. The methodology used here would be applicable to other sensitive tropical environments. PMID:22908700

Gaigher, R; Samways, M J; Jolliffe, K G; Jolliffe, S

2012-07-01

46

Temporal overlap of nesting duck and aquatic invertebrate abundances in the Grasslands Ecological Area, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic invertebrates are essential components of duckling diets, but little is known about temporal changes of invertebrate\\u000a populations in different types of brood habitats. In spring and summer 1996 and 1997, we conducted searches for duck nests\\u000a in upland fields in the Grasslands Ecological Area in California's Central Valley to determine timing of nest initiation and\\u000a hatching. We also sampled

Ferenc A. de Szalay; L. Chantelle Carroll; John A. Beam; Vincent H. Resh

2003-01-01

47

Riparian areas are hotspots of ecological function in many landscapes (Naiman and Decamps 1997; Ewel et al.  

E-print Network

Riparian areas are hotspots of ecological function in many landscapes (Naiman and Decamps 1997; Lowrance 1998). Research on riparian ecology has been diverse, and includes analysis of the habitat influences are also pronounced in riparian zones, ranging from extreme manipulation for transportation

Berkowitz, Alan R.

48

COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

49

Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values, satellite-derived leaf area index and landscape cover. Ion exchange resin throughfall collectors and atmospheric simulation models have provided complementary data critical to better understanding of ecosystem responses to Nr in western North America. Such deposition data and maps have been used to set N deposition critical loads (CL) and to map areas of exceedance for a variety of ecosystem and biological effects. Empirical CL and exceedance areas have been established for many Western ecosystems including forest, desert, shrub, grassland, subalpine and aquatic habitats, thus providing an important management tool for protection of key ecosystems and the services they provide. An important finding is that biodiversity and community responses of sensitive elements of several Western aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems respond to relatively low levels of atmospheric N deposition (e.g., 3-6 kg N/ha/yr).

Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

2013-12-01

50

Epidemiological evaluation of breast cancer in ecological areas of Kazakhstan--association with pollution emissions.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of breast cancer in the ecological areas of Kazakhstan and assess the potential . A retrospective study of 11 years (1999 to 2009) was conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. The incidence of breast cancer was the lowest in the Aral-Syr Darya area (18.6±0.80/100,000), and highest in the Irtysh area (48.9±1.90/100,000), with an increasing trends over time in almost all areas. A direct strong correlation between the degree of contamination with high pollution emissions in the atmosphere from stationary sources and the incidence of breast cancer (r=0.77±0.15; p=0.026). The results indicate an increasing importance of breast cancer in Kazakhstan and an etiological role for environmental pollution. PMID:22901219

Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinov, Nurbek; Moore, Malcolm; Igissinov, Saginbek; Sarsenova, Samal; Khassenova, Zauresh

2012-01-01

51

What Ecological Factors Shape Species-Area Curves in Neutral Models?  

PubMed Central

Understanding factors that shape biodiversity and species coexistence across scales is of utmost importance in ecology, both theoretically and for conservation policies. Species-area relationships (SARs), measuring how the number of observed species increases upon enlarging the sampled area, constitute a convenient tool for quantifying the spatial structure of biodiversity. While general features of species-area curves are quite universal across ecosystems, some quantitative aspects can change significantly. Several attempts have been made to link these variations to ecological forces. Within the framework of spatially explicit neutral models, here we scrutinize the effect of varying the local population size (i.e. the number of individuals per site) and the level of habitat saturation (allowing for empty sites). We conclude that species-area curves become shallower when the local population size increases, while habitat saturation, unless strongly violated, plays a marginal role. Our findings provide a plausible explanation of why SARs for microorganisms are flatter than those for larger organisms. PMID:22675526

Cencini, Massimo; Pigolotti, Simone; Muñoz, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

52

[Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].  

PubMed

Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters. PMID:22126052

Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue

2011-09-01

53

Are ecological compensation areas attractive hunting sites for common kestrels ( Falco tinnunculus ) and long-eared owls ( Asio otus )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and long-eared owls (Asio otus) in intensively farmed areas in Switzerland decreased markedly as a result of declining vole (Microtus spp.) populations. In order to counteract the loss of biodiversity in intensively farmed areas, the Swiss agri-environment scheme stipulates several types of ecological compensation areas, which together should take up 7% of the farmland. Among them

Janine Aschwanden; Simon Birrer; Lukas Jenni

2005-01-01

54

Assessment of Ecological and Seismological Situations In The Geothermal Area of Tbilisi By Hydrodynamic Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to the investigation of the hydrodynamic regime of deep aquifers of the Tbilisi hydrothermal area, in order to delineate the spatial distribution of ther- mal water basins and to understand recorded anomalies quantitatively. Thermal min- eral waters or "sulphur springs" of Tbilisi have been of particular importance for its population during the 1,5 thousand years history of Tbilisi. Water of these springs is hot (40-50 C) and somewhat sulphurous: contain sulphuretted hydrogen and it is used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. The water resort is based on them. Hot natural springs are connected to the exposed sediments of middle Eocene in the river Mtkvari gorge. The water-bearing complex of volcanic type of middle Eocene is abundant at the Tbilisi thermal fields. Through drilling in the North - West part of the city (Lisi dis- trict), several boreholes were opened, where the sulphurous thermal water of 60-70 oC has been encountered. This water is used for room heating. Drilling will be continued for providing the city with hot water. It is planned to warm 30-40 % of the whole Tbil- isi using the geothermal water circulation system. From west to east, these deposits are buried under younger rocks. 20-30 km far from the deposit, oil has been found in an anticline structure. Intensive exploitation of this oil deposit caused the perturbation of the hydraulic regime with consequences in its central part where the thermal springs partly faded out in the eighties. Until present, the hydrodynamical interdependence be- tween these 3 districts has been studied by various authors, but its true character is still unclear. The spatial extent of the thermal waters has also to be investigated. Without detailed research, the sustainable and ecologically correct use of the thermal reservoir is impossible. In the period from July 1999 to July 2001 the monitoring network of water level in boreholes (WLB) and microtemperatures was operating on three wells: Botanical Garden (B.G.), Lisi (L.) and Varketili (V.). It is evident that the regime of natural thermal water is influenced by many factors: exogenous (precipitation, atmo- spheric pressure, tides) and endogenous (earthquakes, creep, tectonic strain impacts). In the reporting period, several seismic and meteorological events happened which allow to judge of connections between thermal fields. The strain-sensitivity of wells using slug-test data and the response of water level to the exogenous impacts confirm 1 the closeness of responses of Lisi and Balneological boreholes and partial deviation of response of Oil production area. In the period of observation, several local earthquakes occurred in the region (Tbilisi-12.2000; 2.2001 etc.). The hydrodynamical precursors of these earthquakes have been recorded in all three wells. The response of aquifers to the strain impact which was caused by the earthquakes, confirms the hydrodynamical connection of Balneological and Oil production area. It means that a reckless exploita- tion of the Oil deposit can strongly decrease the fluid ressure in the Balneological well and can even cause the depletion of the Balneological resort and the Lisi thermal water deposit. The obtained results demonstrate big potential of the applied network of hy- drodynamical monitoring. It allows not only the recognition of short-term precursory phenomena of earthquakes but also operates as a monitor of environmental situation of the Tbilisi region. 2

Chelidze, T.; Buntebarth, G.; Melikadze, G.; Kumsiashvili, G.; Bendukidze, G.

55

Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element  

E-print Network

insulators (urethane foam) which are sandwiched between three pieces of stretchable conductive sheets robot skin including no long wires. Index Terms - Tactile sensor, Robot skin, Haptic interface, Contact, pressure, friction, temperature, and so on. They should cover several-square-meter large areas

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

56

Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

57

Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management  

PubMed Central

Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

2014-01-01

58

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

59

Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others] [and others

1996-05-01

60

Planning of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration in the Coal Mining Subsidence Areas of Wangwa Coal Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the most fragile ecological environment in Wangwa coal mine in south mountain areas in Ningxia. People's life and production had been seriously influenced by the coal mining subsidence area and the destroyed environment during coal mining. With the development of society, land reclamation must be imperative under the situation. Land reclamation is a complex and systematic project which

Hao Binbin; Qi Junde

2009-01-01

61

Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ethiopian wolf (Canissimensis) is a very rare, endangered, endemic species surviving in isolated mountain pockets in the Ethiopian highlands, with nearly 50% of the global population living outside protected areas. In this paper we compare the ecology and behaviour of an Ethiopian wolf population living in Guassa, a communally managed area in the Central Highlands, with that of the

Zelealem Tefera Ashenafi; Tim Coulson; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; Nigel Leader-Williams

2005-01-01

62

Planting the SEED: Towards a Spatial Economic Ecological Database for a shared understanding of the Dutch Wadden area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we address the characteristics of a publicly accessible Spatial Economic Ecological Database (SEED) and its ability to support a shared understanding among planners and experts of the economy and ecology of the Dutch Wadden area. Theoretical building blocks for a Wadden SEED are discussed. Our SEED contains a comprehensive set of stakeholder validated spatially explicit data on key economic and ecological indicators. These data extend over various spatial scales. Spatial issues relevant to the specification of a Wadden-SEED and its data needs are explored in this paper and illustrated using empirical data for the Dutch Wadden area. The purpose of the SEED is to integrate basic economic and ecologic information in order to support the resolution of specific (policy) questions and to facilitate connections between project level and strategic level in the spatial planning process. Although modest in its ambitions, we will argue that a Wadden SEED can serve as a valuable element in the much debated science-policy interface. A Wadden SEED is valuable since it is a consensus-based common knowledge base on the economy and ecology of an area rife with ecological-economic conflict, including conflict in which scientific information is often challenged and disputed.

Daams, Michiel N.; Sijtsma, Frans J.

2013-09-01

63

Ecological restoration and soil improvement performance of the seabuckthorn flexible dam in the Pisha Sandstone area of Northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion of the Pisha Sandstone area of Loess Plateau is extremely severe in China. The Pisha Sandstone is very hard when it is dry, while it is very frail when wet. The seabuckthorn flexible dam (SFD), a type of ecological engineering, was proposed to control soil erosion and meliorate soil within the Pisha Sandstone area. To assess its effectiveness and the ecological restoration and soil improvement performance, a field experiment was conducted in this area. We found the strong sediment retention capacity of the SFD is the basis of using it to restore the ecosystem. We compared some certain ecological factors and soil quality between a gully with the SFD and a gully without the SFD, including soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients (including Ammonia Nitrogen, available phosphorus and Potassium), vegetation coverage and biodiversity. The results showed that the SFD exhibits excellent performance for ecological restoration and soil improvement of this area. The results are as follows: (i) by the sediment retention action, the deposition commonly occurred in the SFD gully, and the deposition patterns are obviously different from upper to lower gully, (ii) more surprisingly, unlike trees or other shrubs, the seabuckthorn has good horizontal extending capacity by its root system, (iii) soil moisture, SOM, soil nutrients, vegetation coverage and biodiversity in the vegetated gully with the SFD are all markedly increased. The results showed the SFD is both effective and novel biological measure for ecological restoration and soil improvement within the Pisha Sandstone area.

Yang, F. S.; Cao, M. M.; Li, H. E.; Wang, X. H.; Bi, C. F.

2014-09-01

64

Dose metrics in the acquisition of skin sensitization: thresholds and importance of dose per unit area.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis is a common occupational and environmental health problem and many hundreds of chemicals have been implicated as skin sensitizers. Sensitization is acquired following topical exposure to a contact allergen and induction of a cutaneous immune response of an appropriate magnitude. For effective assessment and management of human health risks there is a need to appreciate the dose metrics that drive the induction of skin sensitization. The available evidence suggests that under most normal conditions of exposure it is the dose per unit area of chemical that has over-riding impact on the effectiveness of sensitization. The exception to this rule is when the area of the application site drops below a certain critical level. Here we review in detail the evidence which supports dose per unit area as being the critical exposure metric in the induction of skin sensitization, and the mechanistic bases for this relationship. PMID:18423821

Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Basketter, David A; Ryan, Cindy A; Gerberick, G Frank; McNamee, Pauline M; Lalko, Jon; Api, Anne Marie

2008-10-01

65

Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

Liu, Linyue, E-mail: liulinyue@gmail.com; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping, E-mail: oyxp@yahoo.com; Zhang, Jianfu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China) [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-01-15

66

Habitat selection by female northern pintails wintering in the Grassland Ecological Area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine relative importance of habitats available in the Grassland Ecological Area (GEA) to wintering female northern pintails, Anas acuta, we studied habitat use relative to availability (i.e., habitat selection) in the GEA during September through March, 1991-94 for 196 Hatch-Year (HY) and 221 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female pintails that were radio tagged during August-early October in the GEA (n = 239), other San Joaquin Valley areas (n = 132), or other Central Valley areas (n = 46). Habitat availability and use varied among seasons and years, but pintails always selected shallow and, except on hunting days, open habitats. Swamp timothy, Heleochloa schoenoides, marsh was the most available, used, and selected habitat. Watergrass, Echinochloa crusgalli, marsh in the GEA was used less than available at night in contrast to previous studies in other SJV areas. Preferred late-winter habitats were apparently lacking in the GEA, at least relative to in the Sacramento Valley and Delta where most pintails moved to in December each year. Impacts on pintails of the increasing practice of managing marshes for increased emergent vegetation to attract other species should be monitored. Shallow, open habitats that produce seeds and invertebrates available to pintails in late winter would help maintain pintail abundance in the GEA.

Fleskes, J.P.; Gilmer, D.S.; Jarvis, R.L.

2004-01-01

67

Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecological parameters (assessing changes in microorganism's community structure and functions, bioindication); and 3) toxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates, genotoxicity). The output will be consisted of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk Index, quantifying the level of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index, assessing the potential threats to biological equilibria, and 3) Genotoxicity Index, screening genotoxic effects. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) will be used to integrate a set of environmental Triad data to be obtained during the project, which will be carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soil contamination of the highly anthropized areas of Kadzhi-Say, which have been impacted by deposition of heavy metals. The basis of the development under this research is studies with a particular focus concerning the biocenosis mapping of Kyrgyz soils (Mamytova et al., 2003, 2010), investigations on interaction of humic substances with soil contaminants (Jorobekova, Kydralieva, Khudaibergenova, 2004; Khudaibergenova, 2005, 2007), and in addition, technical approach for ecotoxicological assessment of soils (Terekhova, 2007, 2011). Soil ecotoxicological estimation has been studied with a battery of tests using test-organisms of many trophic levels. Currently, bioindication of soils with various humus states is under study (Senesi, Yakimenko 2007; Yakimenko, et al., 2008).

Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

2014-05-01

68

Trends of prevalent cancer incidences in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine the incidence of major forms of cancer in the Aral-Syr Darya ecological area of Kazakhstan. The present retrospective study of 11 years (1999-2009) was therefore conducted using descriptive and analytical methods. Incidence rates (crude and standardized) of 11 leading cancer sites were calculated and trends determined. The result of analysis demonstrated the most common neoplams in the study region to be esophageal cancer, carcinoma of lung, stomach cancer, and breast cancer. Trends in incidence of cancers under study were different, the most marked reduction in cancer of esophagus is established (T=-6.1%) and revealed the high increase in breast cancer (T=+6.7%). In the dynamics the trend of malignant disease in general tended to decrease (T=-0.5%). PMID:22296374

Igissinov, Nurbek; Igissinov, Saginbek; Moore, Malcolm A; Shaidarov, Mazhit; Tereshkevich, Dmitriy; Bilyalova, Zarina; Igissinova, Gulnur; Nuralina, Indira; Kozhakhmetov, Saken

2011-01-01

69

Manipulating flow separation: sensitivity of stagnation points, separatrix angles and recirculation area to steady actuation.  

PubMed

A variational technique is used to derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of several geometric indicators of flow separation to steady actuation. Considering the boundary layer flow above a wall-mounted bump, the six following representative quantities are considered: the locations of the separation point and reattachment point connected by the separatrix, the separation angles at these stagnation points, the backflow area and the recirculation area. For each geometric quantity, linear sensitivity analysis allows us to identify regions which are the most sensitive to volume forcing and wall blowing/suction. Validations against full nonlinear Navier-Stokes calculations show excellent agreement for small-amplitude control for all considered indicators. With very resemblant sensitivity maps, the reattachment point, the backflow and recirculation areas are seen to be easily manipulated. By contrast, the upstream separation point and the separatrix angles are seen to remain extremely robust with respect to external steady actuation. PMID:25294968

Boujo, E; Gallaire, F

2014-10-01

70

Benefits of Environmentally Sensitive Area Policy in England: A Contingent Valuation Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmentally Sensitive Area scheme represents a response to contemporary concerns about the need to support traditional farming practices in areas where these have contributed to distinctive landscapes, wildlife habitats, and the preservation of archaeological and historical features. ESAs incur substantial costs, both financial and social. This study uses contingent valuation methods to estimate the benefits of ESAs, for both

K. G. Willis; G. D. Garrod; C. M. Saunders

1995-01-01

71

Sensitivity to Acidification of Lakes in the Flat Tops Wilderness Area, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes of the Flat Tops Wilderness Area in northwestern Colorado are sensitive to acidification if precipitation in the area becomes as acidic as that of the northeastern United States. Alkalinity values as small as 70 µeq l-1 occur in the higher-altitude lakes. Most lakes at altitudes of 3380 m or greater are predicted to have alkalinity values of 200 µeq l-1 or less. About 370 lakes having a total surface area of about 157 ha are calculated to be sensitive to acidification.

Turk, John T.; Adams, Dee Briane

1983-04-01

72

Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants. PMID:24618273

2014-01-01

73

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research  

E-print Network

April 2012 PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity on ecological restoration of lowelevation forests in Colorado; the production ecology of tropical forest ecology of forest production and ecological restoration; teaching undergraduate and graduate

Binkley, Dan

74

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

75

[Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].  

PubMed

By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built. PMID:19803175

Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

2009-05-01

76

[Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific habitats that serve as essential fish habitats can improve tropical fish conservation and management strategies, thus increasing local diversity, and thereby, the biological importance of the area. PMID:19419095

Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

2008-12-01

77

Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell's area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm2 respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell's electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell's area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

Khatani, Mehboob; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin; Samsudin, Adel

2014-10-01

78

Outdoor air pollution, subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke – a small-area level ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes and severity is limited. We examined associations between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations modeled at a fine spatial resolution and etiological and clinical ischemic stroke subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke (1995–2007) occurring in a defined geographical area in South London (948 census output areas; population of 267839). Modeled PM10 and NO2 concentrations were available at a very fine spatial scale (20 meter by 20 meter grid point resolution) and were aggregated to output area level using postcode population weighted averages. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxford clinical classification, the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) etiological classification, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and a pragmatic clinical severity classification based on Glasgow coma score, ability to swallow, urinary continence and death <2 days of stroke onset. Results Mean (SD) concentrations were 25.1 (1.2) ug/m3 (range 23.3-36.4) for PM10 and 41.4 (3.0) ug/m3 (range 35.4-68.0) for NO2. There were 2492 incident cases of ischemic stroke. We found no evidence of association between these pollutants and the incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes classified using the Oxford and TOAST classifications. We found no significant association with stroke severity using NIHSS severity categories. However, we found that outdoor concentrations of both PM10 and NO2 appeared to be associated with increased incidence of mild but not severe ischemic stroke, classified using the pragmatic clinical severity classification. For mild ischemic stroke, the rate ratio in the highest PM10 category by tertile was 1.20 (1.05-1.38) relative to the lowest category. The rate ratio in the highest NO2 category was 1.22 (1.06-1.40) relative to the lowest category. Conclusions We found no evidence of association between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations and ischemic stroke subtypes but there was a suggestion that living in areas with elevated outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations might be associated with increased incidence of mild, but not severe, ischemic stroke. PMID:24939673

2014-01-01

79

Climate changes in the Lake Titicaca area: Evidence from ostracod ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of lake and wetland paleoecology has undergone recently significant changes. Quantitative statistical methods (transfer functions) have been developed to infer past limnological conditions. The large number of altiplanean lakes in the Central Andes, distributed over a hydrologically and climatically diverse area between 14 and 22° south, provide an ideal natural laboratory for this kind of approach. Changes in the water volume and chemistry of these aquatic environments, which result from their hydrological response to seasonal and long-term trends in the regional evaporation-precipitation balance are archived in the sediment records as characteristic biological signatures. The taxonomy and biogeography of several different groups oforganisms have been studied in some detail, but relevant ecological studies have been done only on ostracods. This study attempts to reconstruct past environments of Lake Titicaca and adjacent lacustrine systems by using quantitative information about tbe response of ostracod communities to habitat heterogeneity and environmental variability, especially lake-level and water chemistry. The high-amplitude paleoenvironmental variations indicated by the transfer function developed have important implications for regional climate dynamics. In particular, the inferred high-amplitude lake-level fluctuations are attributed primarily to drastic changes in ITCZ displacements during the last 10,000 years.

Mourguiart, Philippe; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia

80

Integrated ecological assessment of Danish Baltic Sea coastal areas by means of phytoplankton and macrophytobenthos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands an integrated assessment of ecological quality based on biological parameters. In this context combined macrophytobenthos and phytoplankton data sets along the Danish Baltic Sea coast were analysed for similarities and differences in their response to abiotic variables. Zostera marina's depth limits showed a significantly negative correlation with concentrations of total-nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll a as well as with Myrionecta rubra biomass and a strongly positive correlation with Secchi depth. The results documented that selected phytobenthos and phytoplankton indicators show correlated responses to water quality. All biotic and abiotic parameters clustered in two groups, indicating two trophic states but, at the same time, also two distinct salinity classes. One class was characterised by low nutrient levels and low salinity while the other class was characterised by high nutrient levels and high salinity, indicating that the mixing of relatively nutrient poor brackish Baltic water with more nutrient rich North Sea water overruled traditional estuarine gradients in the investigated area. The results therefore allow an analysis of the eutrophication state regarding the additional influence of decreased salinity on euryhaline marine species. The consequences of the results are discussed in relation to classification systems for brackish water ecosystems.

Sagert, Sigrid; Krause Jensen, Dorte; Henriksen, Peter; Rieling, Thorsten; Schubert, Hendrik

2005-04-01

81

Transboundary socio-ecological effects of a Marine Protected Area in the Southwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been regarded as an alternative to protect natural resources and to improve fisheries. However, MPAs may also have negative socio-economic consequences on fishing communities. We aimed to check the effectiveness of a socially conflicting MPA in Brazil by assessing target reef fish biomass in islands inside (n = 6) and outside (n = 6) the MPA, fisheries' productivity (biomass), catch per unit of effort (CPUE), and fishers' socio-economic status (mainly fishers' income) in three fishing communities subjected to different degrees of influence (close, average, and long distance) of the MPA. The CPUE was higher in the fishing community that was further away from the MPA, fish biomass was higher in the islands located inside the MPA in the southern region and in the islands located outside the MPA in the northern region, while fishers were making the most money closest to the MPA, where conflicts are the highest, probably from practicing very intensive fisheries. This integrated approach showed that the studied MPA has not delivered ecological benefits, such as higher CPUE or more fish, while higher income closer to the MPA could not be clearly attributed to its effects. PMID:24213995

Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M; Nora, Vinicius A; Begossi, Alpina

2013-12-01

82

An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India, designed to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories.…

Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

2000-01-01

83

Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.  

PubMed

Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy. PMID:24813871

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

2014-09-01

84

Sensitivity of Leaf Area Index to Temperature Simulation in the FSUNRSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, sensitivity of LAI (Leaf Area Index) to modeled temperatures is investigated replacing prescribed monthly LAI in CLM2 (Community Land Model 2.0) with an LAI dataset derived from observation by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The prescribed monthly LAI in CLM2 is based on NDVI data from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) during the period of 1981

Y. Goto; D. Shin; J. J. O'Brien

2006-01-01

85

A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES) have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect). Tberefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs) from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any) of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. hi this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1) major faults in the vicinity; (2) highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3) local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring sites. European Geosciences Union ?? 2005 Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

Balasis, G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Eftaxias, K.

2005-01-01

86

[Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health. PMID:25272114

Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; de Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

2014-10-01

87

Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

2011-01-01

88

Structure, Function and Context: the Impact of Morphometry and Ecology on Olfactory Sensitivity  

E-print Network

sensitivity to three biological variables were tested. The sensitivity of a marine mammal, the sea otter for the first time from two sea otters for seven odorant compounds from various natural sources. Otters were trained using operant conditioning to participate in direct behavioral testing. Sea otter olfactory

89

Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas  

PubMed Central

The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well. PMID:22865969

Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

2012-01-01

90

Last Updated 4/19/2013 Ecology and Evolution Emphasis Area Checklist  

E-print Network

Birds & Mammals ____BI 307 Forest Biology ____BI 459 Field Ornithology ____BI 308 Freshwater Biology Infect Disease ____BI 457 Biology of Fishes ____BI 490 Theoretical Ecology ____BI 459 Field Ornithology

91

Benthic Vegetation as an Ecological Quality Descriptor in an Eastern Mediterranean Coastal Area (Kalloni Bay, Aegean Sea, Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling of phytobenthos was carried out in Kalloni Bay (Lesvos island), in order to study the impact of confinement and eutrophication, using the phytosociological parameters as descriptors of the ecological quality. The study area was dominated by Fucophyceae (mostlyCystoseiraspecies, typical of the climax benthic community) in all stations, although the more eutrophic stations where characterized by the presence ofUlvaandEnteromorphaspecies. The

P. Panayotidis; J. Feretopoulou; B. Montesanto

1999-01-01

92

Sensitivity analysis for leaf area index (LAI) estimation from CHRIS/PROBA data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity analyses were conducted for the retrieval of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) from multiangular imageries in this study. Five spectral vegetation indices (VIs) were derived from Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On Board Autonomy (CHRIS/PROBA) images, and were related to LAI, acquired from in situ measurement in Jiangxi Province, China, for five vegetation communities. The sensitivity of LAI retrieval to the variation of VIs from different observation angles was evaluated using the ratio of the slope of the best-fit linear VI-LAI model to its root mean squared error. Results show that both the sensitivity and reliability of VI-LAI models are influenced by the heterogeneity of vegetation communities, and that performance of vegetation indices in LAI estimation varies along observation angles. The VI-LAI models are more reliable for tall trees than for low growing shrub-grasses and also for forests with broad leaf trees than for coniferous forest. The greater the tree height and leaf size, the higher the sensitivity. Forests with broad-leaf trees have higher sensitivities, especially at oblique angles, while relatively simple-structured coniferous forests, shrubs, and grasses show similar sensitivities at all angles. The multi-angular soil and/or atmospheric parameter adjustments will hopefully improve the performance of VIs in LAI estimation, which will require further investigation.

Cao, Jianjun; Gu, Zhujun; Xu, Jianhua; Duan, Yushan; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Yongjuan; Li, Dongliang

2014-09-01

93

Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values.  

PubMed

Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight-normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. PMID:24944000

Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

2014-10-01

94

Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values  

PubMed Central

Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2386–2398. PMID:24944000

Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

2014-01-01

95

Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk ( Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in three areas with different land use in Patagonia. Two areas were heavily grazed by sheep or horses and wild exotic herbivores and the third area was lightly grazed by cattle. In each area, we assessed skunk diet, prey abundance and carrion availability. Skunks were generalist feeders, with

Emiliano Donadio; Sebastian Di Martino; Mariana Aubone; Andres J. Novaro

2004-01-01

96

Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522  

SciTech Connect

'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 ?Sv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 ?Sv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 ?Sv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The seasonal dependence of radon activity concentration is observed in the air of workshops (radon levels are lower in winter in comparison with spring-summer period). - in drinking water, intervention levels by gross alpha activity and by some radionuclides, in particular by Rn-222, are in excess. Annual effective dose of internal exposure due to ingestion of such water will be 0.14-0.28 mSv. (authors)

Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)] [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

97

Performance tests of large area position-sensitive planar germanium detectors with conventional and amorphous contacts.  

SciTech Connect

Large area position-sensitive planar germanium wafers are increasingly being used for a variety of gamma-ray imaging and tracking tasks. Position sensitivity can be achieved through measuring charge collected on orthogonal strip electrodes, and by digital pulse shape analysis. However, the development of this detector technology has been slow, and criteria to measure improved performance have not been well established. We have studied 93 and 88 mm square segmented detectors of 20 mm thickness made with conventional boron and lithium electrodes, and two 100 mm circular segmented detectors of 14 mm thickness with amorphous germanium contacts. We have compared these detectors with a planar detector of 15 mm thickness. Conventional energy resolution tests of individual strips are insufficient to fully categorize the performance of the position sensitive detectors. We propose some basic tests which can rapidly quantify any segmented detector characteristics, and show potential inadequacies which become important when imaging or tracking is attempted.

Gros, S.; Hammond, N. J.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Fischer, S. M.; Freeman, S. J.; Physics; LBNL; Univ. of Massachusetts at Lowell; DePaul Univ.; Univ. of Manchester

2009-04-21

98

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2012-07-01

99

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2011-07-01

100

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2013-07-01

101

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2014-07-01

102

40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND...

2010-07-01

103

Serologic survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from two ecologically distinct areas of Utah.  

PubMed

The influence of habitat and associated prey assemblages on the prevalence of canine diseases in coyotes (Canis latrans) has received scant attention. From December 1997 through December 1999, we captured 67 coyotes in two ecologically distinct areas of Utah (USA): Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch and US Army Dugway Proving Ground. These areas differ in habitat and prey base. We collected blood samples and tested for evidence of various canine diseases. Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% in the Deseret population and 93% in the Dugway population. All juveniles in both populations had been exposed. We found no difference in the prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) between the two populations (7% versus 12%; P = 0.50). However, we did find an increase in antibodies with age in the Deseret population (P = 0.03). Evidence of exposure to canine adenovirus (CAV) was found in both populations (52% and 72%; P = 0.08). Prevalence of CAV antibodies was influenced by age on both areas (Deseret: P = 0.003; Dugway: P = 0.004). Antibodies to Francisella tularensis were low on both areas (2% and 4%). We found a significant difference (P = 0.001) in the prevalence of exposure to Yersinia pestis between the two populations: 73% in Deseret compared to 11% in Dugway. This difference is most likely due to the prey species available in the two ecologically distinct study areas. PMID:12910777

Arjo, Wendy M; Gese, Eric M; Bromley, Cassity; Kozlowski, Adam; Williams, Elizabeth S

2003-04-01

104

Integrated ecological assessment of Danish Baltic Sea coastal areas by means of phytoplankton and macrophytobenthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands an integrated assessment of ecological quality based on biological parameters. In this context combined macrophytobenthos and phytoplankton data sets along the Danish Baltic Sea coast were analysed for similarities and differences in their response to abiotic variables. Zostera marina's depth limits showed a significantly negative correlation with concentrations of total-nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll

Sigrid Sagert; Dorte Krause Jensen; Peter Henriksen; Thorsten Rieling; Hendrik Schubert

2005-01-01

105

METHODS DEVELOPMENT AT THE NEAR LAB ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH AREA (NLERA) LOCATED IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN.  

EPA Science Inventory

This task supports the Agency's efforts on developing a proper risk assessment tools to address Ecological and eventually Human exposures. The Agency needs to be able to identify, measure and estimate ecosystem exposure to multiple stressors. The research under this task suppor...

106

Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities: Finite-field, intensity, and area corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance. Strong perturbations produce a nonlinear correction term that depends on the strength of the inhomogeneity. Solution of the specific case of a finite-sized circular inhomogeneity coaxial with a circular specimen suggests a first-order correction for the general case. Our results are confirmed by computer simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.

Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole

2014-10-01

107

SENSITIVITY OF BLIND PULSAR SEARCHES WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

We quantitatively establish the sensitivity to the detection of young to middle-aged, isolated, gamma-ray pulsars through blind searches of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data using a Monte Carlo simulation. We detail a sensitivity study of the time-differencing blind search code used to discover gamma-ray pulsars in the first year of observations. We simulate 10,000 pulsars across a broad parameter space and distribute them across the sky. We replicate the analysis in the Fermi LAT First Source Catalog to localize the sources, and the blind search analysis to find the pulsars. We analyze the results and discuss the effect of positional error and spin frequency on gamma-ray pulsar detections. Finally, we construct a formula to determine the sensitivity of the blind search and present a sensitivity map assuming a standard set of pulsar parameters. The results of this study can be applied to population studies and are useful in characterizing unidentified LAT sources.

Dormody, M.; Johnson, R. P.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Razzano, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Grenier, I. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Johnson, T. J., E-mail: dormody@scipp.ucsc.edu [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States)

2011-12-01

108

Large area CMOS bio-pixel array for compact high sensitive multiplex biosensing.  

PubMed

A novel CMOS bio-pixel array which integrates assay substrate and assay readout is demonstrated for multiplex and multireplicate detection of a triplicate of cytokines with single digit pg ml(-1) sensitivities. Uniquely designed large area bio-pixels enable individual assays to be dedicated to and addressed by single pixels. A capability to simultaneously measure a large number of targets is provided by the 128 available pixels. Chemiluminescent assays are carried out directly on the pixel surface which also detects the emitted chemiluminescent photons, facilitating a highly compact sensor and reader format. The high sensitivity of the bio-pixel array is enabled by the high refractive index of silicon based pixels. This in turn generates a strong supercritical angle luminescence response significantly increasing the efficiency of the photon collection over conventional farfield modalities. PMID:25490928

Sandeau, Laure; Vuillaume, Cassandre; Contié, Sylvain; Grinenval, Eva; Belloni, Federico; Rigneault, Hervé; Owens, Roisin M; Fournet, Margaret Brennan

2014-12-10

109

Analysis on ecological security in the soft rock area of Middle Yellow River: a case study of Changchuan Watershed, Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological security of Chanchuan watershed in the soft rock area of Middle Yellow River was synthetically evaluated and multi-objective programming of land use was forwarded by using RS and GIS techniques along with systems analysis methods. Moreover, according to the landscape ecology theory, digitalized optimum spatial patterns and rational proportion of land use were obtained through computer-aided adjustment with GIS software to get visible images of land use pattern that guarantees ecological security at Changchuan watershed. The results of comprehensive evaluation on ecological security of land use at Changchuan watershed indicate that measures of soil erosion control, ecological and environmental construction has certainly improved the situation of ecological security of this region during past decades, but the current situation of ecological security was not satisfactory. The results of multi-objective programming of land use pattern based on the ecological security evaluation indicate the optimum land use structure should be 3.7% of woodland, 38.6% of brushwood, 49.4% of grassland and 6.3% of crop land. Their spatial distributions were also patterned in light of requirement of ecological security. The average ESI in this region is leveled at relative secure, figuring at around 0.85.

Gao, Qingzhu; Xu, Hongmei; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yuan

2005-09-01

110

The Use of Ecological Niche Modeling to Infer Potential Risk Areas of Snakebite in the Mexican State of Veracruz  

PubMed Central

Background Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings Ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC); this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper), explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low). PMID:24963989

Yañez-Arenas, Carlos; Peterson, A. Townsend; Mokondoko, Pierre; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

2014-01-01

111

Quantification of the temperature sensitivity of three substrate-enzyme pairings of soil-ecological relevance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbes obtain resources from substrates exhibiting variation in structural complexity, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N), and energy requirements for decomposition. Theory of enzyme kinetics predicts that the activation energy required for substrate decomposition decreases with increasing temperature, and that the magnitude of the decrease increases with structural complexity of the substrate. However, the temperature sensitivity of important substrate-enzyme reactions at soil-relevant temperatures is largely unknown. Predicting soil organic matter (SOM) decay with rising temperature may be further complicated by changing microbial resource uptake due to 1) direct physiological responses to temperature shifts and 2) altered C and N availability imposed by changing patterns of enzymatic SOM decomposition. This could generate departures from expectations of the overall temperature response of SOM decay. Thus, quantification of both factors (changes in single reaction rates and in microbial community functioning) is important to understand the mechanisms governing soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes with rising temperature. Here, we quantify the temperature sensitivity of substrate-enzyme pairings relevant to global soil biogeochemistry: (1) ?-D-cellobioside (BC) and ?-Glucosidase (BGase); (2) N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminide (NAG) and ?-N-Acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and (3) 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa) and peroxidase (representative of breakdown products of cellulose, chitin and lignin and associated enzymes, respectively). We assessed reaction rates of BC/BGase and NAG/NAGase with fluorophotometric techniques. Both pairings exhibited Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. When neither enzyme nor substrate was limiting, maximum specific activity (Vmax) of BGase was 28 ?mol h-1 unit -1 at 27 °C, approximately three orders of magnitude higher than NAGase (2.5 nmol h-1 unit-1 at 25 °C). Spectrophomometric measurements of L-Dopa degradation rates did not yield Michaelis-Menten kinetics, as Vmax increased linearly with increasing L-Dopa concentration; the best proxy for Vmax at the highest concentration obtainable while ensuring full solubility was 0.17 ?mol h-1 unit-1 at 25 °C. We characterized the temperature sensitivity of each reaction via Arrhenius plots using temperatures of 20, 15, 10, and 5 °C. As expected, the specific activities of all three pairings increased with higher temperature. Temperature sensitivities of BC/BGase and NAG/NAGase were similar, but that of L-Dopa/peroxidase was approximately four times higher. These results imply 1) an overall increase in efficiency of enzymatically-mediated substrate conversion with increasing temperature and 2) accordance with enzyme theory as the decomposition rate of the structurally more complex compound (L-Dopa) experienced the greatest increase with rising temperature. The results suggest that microorganisms experiencing rising temperatures in a landscape of cellulose, chitin, and lignin, in the absence of direct physiological responses, would generate and then respond to an increased C:N of liberated resources, due to the relative facilitation of lignin decay with increasing temperature.

Lehmeier, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

2011-12-01

112

Sensing runoff sensitivity of snow covered area influenced by vertical discretisation of a hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow represents an important component of the hydrological cycle. Especially for mountain regions snow is an important function both of bargeboard and for affecting flood events in spring and the early summer. Hence the estimation of the snowcover is - next to water management - a considerable factor for rainfall-runoff modelling used for flood forecasting in alpine catchments. Therefore snow cover data supply a vital basis for calibrating conceptual hydrological models. This study investigates the runoff sensitivities on snow covered area of the semi-distributed water balance model HQsim. Therefore the snow relevant parameters of the HQsim model are varied in frame of a uniform distributed Monte Carlo simulation (MC). Since the model is based on hydrological response units (HRU), the impact of the variability of the HRUs regarding vertical zoning is tested. Two alpine catchments were used to test a zoning of 250 m and 500 m steps. Totally 5,000 parameter settings (within physically meaningfull boundaries) were generated for running HQsim on both vertical discretisations. The simulated snow covered area was compared with MODIS-data for melting periods during the the years 2003-2011. The results were evaluated by different skill measures based on a contingency table. To get the elitist parameter settings the pareto optimalities for each skill measurement were detected. Finally the runoff variability within the MC and their pareto optimalities were analysed on an (a) event basis and (b) on a long term basis using the period of 2000-2010. Finally this work shows i) the sensitivity of the runoff with regard to the quality of the modelled snow covered area and ii) the effect of vertical discretisation on the runoff variability based on snow covered area.

Bellinger, J.; Achleitner, S.; Schöber, J.; Schneider, K.; Schöberl, F.; Kirnbauer, R.

2012-04-01

113

Spatial modeling of ecological areas by fitting the limiting factors for As in the vicinity of mine, Serbia.  

PubMed

Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in soil are often found in the vicinity of certain mineral deposits that have been, or are currently, under exploitation, regardless of the target resource. Detailed study of such areas for safe agriculture requires considerable financial costs and long periods of time. Application of an appropriate spatial model that describes the behavior of arsenic in soil and plants can significantly ease the whole investigation process. This paper presents a model of ecological security of an area that, in the past, was an antimony mine and has a naturally high content of arsenic. For simulation and modeling the geographic information science (GIS) technology with the inserted predictors influencing the accessibility of As and its content in plants was used. The results obtained were the following: (1) a categorization of contaminated soils according to soil properties was developed; (2) the proposed methodology allows focusing on particular suspect area saving an energy and human resource input; and (3) new safe areas for growing crops in contaminated area were modeled. The application of the proposed model of As solubility to various crops grown around a former antimony mine near the village of Lisa, southwest Serbia showed that significant expansion of the areas suitable for growing potato, raspberry, and pasture was possible. PMID:24281676

Cakmak, Dragan; Perovic, Veljko; Saljnikov, Elmira; Jaramaz, Darko; Sikiric, Biljana

2014-03-01

114

Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. PMID:23369878

Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

2013-05-01

115

[Effects of riparian ecological restoration engineering with offshore wave-elimination weir on restoration area's water quality].  

PubMed

Riparian ecological restoration engineering with offshore wave-elimination weir is an engineering measure with piled wave-elimination weir some meters away from the shore. This measure can dissipate waves, promote sediment deposition, and create an artificial semi-closed bay to restore vegetation in a riparian area which has hard dam and destroyed vegetation. Three habitat gradient zones, i. e., emerged vegetation zone, submerged vegetation zone, and open water area, can be formed after this engineering. In June 2010-May 2011, a field investigation was conducted on the water quality in the three zones in an ecological restoration area of Gonghu Bay, Taihu Lake. The water body inside the weir generally had lower concentrations of nitrite and nitrate but higher concentrations of ammonium and total nitrogen than the water body outside the weir. The water phosphorus concentration inside the weir was lower than that outside the weir in autumn and winter, while an opposite trend was observed in spring and summer. The coefficients of variation of the water body' s nitrite and orthophosphate concentration inside the weir decreased, and the annual maximum values of the water nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate concentrations inside the weir were lower than those outside the weir. On the contrary, the coefficients of variation of the water body's ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations inside the weir increased, and the annual maximum values of the water ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations inside the weir were higher than those outside the weir. To some extent, the restoration engineering could exacerbate the deterioration of the water quality indices such as ammonium and total nitrogen in the restoration area by the end of growth season PMID:22937659

Tang, Hao; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Fei; Xu, Chi; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mao-Song

2012-06-01

116

Climate change impacts on vegetation of the San Francisco Area: evaluating sensitivity of change across an ensemble of future climates (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to profoundly impact terrestrial vegetation. We present a model of the projected impacts of climate change on the distribution of vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area using a novel application of multinomial logistic regression. Model projections are evaluated over a wide range of possible future climates, drawn from CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. Evaluation of results across the entire ensemble of future climates provides the sensitivity of vegetation to changing climate, without having to choose specific future climate scenarios. Sensitivity is highly variable across the Bay Area. The single best predictor appears to be the location, in climate space, of each vegetation patch relative to the warm or dry edge of the corresponding climate envelope. It is critical to consider the equilibrium assumption underlying this, and related, modeling of vegetation impacts. The model projections are best interpreted as the long-term expected response to a particular degree of climate change, but they do not provide insight into how fast this equilibrium will be achieved or the transient states that may occur in response to rapid climate change. We combine model results with a literature survey of ecological mechanisms of vegetation change to better understand the challenges raised by disequilibrium dynamics.

Ackerly, D.; Cornwell, W.; Weiss, S. B.; Branciforte, B.; Sandel, B.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

2013-12-01

117

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture-resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are related to AI virus prevalence and whether there are ecological consequences associated with AI virus infection in staging white-fronted geese. Mean seasonal (low pathogenic) AI virus prevalence ranged between 2.5 and 10.7 per cent, among the highest reported values for non-duck species, and occurred in distinct peaks with near-zero prevalence before and after. Throat samples had a 2.4 times higher detection frequency than cloacal samples. AI virus infection was significantly related to age and body mass in some but not other winters. AI virus infection was not related to resighting probability, nor to maximum distance travelled, which was at least 191 km during the short infectious lifespan of an AI virus. Our results suggest that transmission via the respiratory route could be an important transmission route of AI virus in this species. Near-zero prevalence upon arrival on their wintering grounds, in combination with the epidemic nature of AI virus infections in white-fronted geese, suggests that white-fronted geese are not likely to disperse Asian AI viruses from their Siberian breeding grounds to their European wintering areas. PMID:20200028

Kleijn, D; Munster, V J; Ebbinge, B S; Jonkers, D A; Müskens, G J D M; Van Randen, Y; Fouchier, R A M

2010-07-01

118

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas  

PubMed Central

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture–resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture in The Netherlands in four consecutive winters. We ask what factors are related to AI virus prevalence and whether there are ecological consequences associated with AI virus infection in staging white-fronted geese. Mean seasonal (low pathogenic) AI virus prevalence ranged between 2.5 and 10.7 per cent, among the highest reported values for non-duck species, and occurred in distinct peaks with near-zero prevalence before and after. Throat samples had a 2.4 times higher detection frequency than cloacal samples. AI virus infection was significantly related to age and body mass in some but not other winters. AI virus infection was not related to resighting probability, nor to maximum distance travelled, which was at least 191 km during the short infectious lifespan of an AI virus. Our results suggest that transmission via the respiratory route could be an important transmission route of AI virus in this species. Near-zero prevalence upon arrival on their wintering grounds, in combination with the epidemic nature of AI virus infections in white-fronted geese, suggests that white-fronted geese are not likely to disperse Asian AI viruses from their Siberian breeding grounds to their European wintering areas. PMID:20200028

Kleijn, D.; Munster, V. J.; Ebbinge, B. S.; Jonkers, D. A.; Müskens, G. J. D. M.; Van Randen, Y.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

2010-01-01

119

System of ecological monitoring and assessment (EMA) for nuclear power plant site areas  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the EMA program is to improve the utilization of the natural and labor resources of the city of Sosnovyi Bor due to the opportune discovery of negative changes in the state of the surrounding environment and human health and to predict and assess the possible consequences of implementing technological and economic decisions and their optimization from the point of view of ecology with regard to reactor siting and sizing. The EMA system provides monitoring means and a data bank on the environment and health of workers and the population, a packet of programs for processing and analyzing data, and a set of models to describe and predict the condition of the object/environment/man system. The system monitors contamination sources, monitors and assesses aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and accounts for meteorological and biosolar factors which impact on reactor siting.

Vorob'ev, E.I.; Oleinikov, N.F.; Reznichenko, V.Yu.

1988-05-01

120

Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results  

SciTech Connect

During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

2011-09-01

121

Local Scale Comparisons of Biodiversity as a Test for Global Protected Area Ecological Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Terrestrial protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of global biodiversity conservation. Their efficacy in terms of maintaining biodiversity is, however, much debated. Studies to date have been unable to provide a general answer as to PA conservation efficacy because of their typically restricted geographic and/or taxonomic focus, or qualitative approaches focusing on proxies for biodiversity, such as deforestation. Given the rarity of historical data to enable comparisons of biodiversity before/after PA establishment, many smaller scale studies over the past 30 years have directly compared biodiversity inside PAs to that of surrounding areas, which provides one measure of PA ecological performance. Here we use a meta-analysis of such studies (N?=?86) to test if PAs contain higher biodiversity values than surrounding areas, and so assess their contribution to determining PA efficacy. We find that PAs generally have higher abundances of individual species, higher assemblage abundances, and higher species richness values compared with alternative land uses. Local scale studies in combination thus show that PAs retain more biodiversity than alternative land use areas. Nonetheless, much variation is present in the effect sizes, which underscores the context-specificity of PA efficacy. PMID:25162620

Coetzee, Bernard W. T.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Chown, Steven L.

2014-01-01

122

Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer

C. R. Groves; B. L. Keller

1983-01-01

123

Ecological characteristics of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Species composition, diversity, biomass and densities of small mammal populations were examined in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on a solid radioactive waste disposal area and in native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in the marketing of 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats and the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. Although the adjacent native sagebrush habitat had the highest species diversity and the Russian thistle habitat on the disposal area had the lowest, the total rodent density was not significantly different among the three vegetation types. Crested wheatgrass within the disposal area contained the largest rodent biomass throughout the study, in part due to an increasing M. montanus population. The peak small mammal biomass of 5000 g/ha in creasted wheatgrass and sagebrush habitats was considerably higher than previously reported for similar habitats. Differences in diversity and biomass between the disposal area and surrounding native habitat are most likely related to differences in soil compaction and vegetation between these two areas.

Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

1983-01-01

124

Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5?g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when ?0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils. PMID:25197699

She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng

2014-01-01

125

Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of primary motor cortex activity produced by ventral tegmental area stimulation.  

PubMed

The primary motor cortex (M1) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the mesocortical dopamine pathway. However, few studies have focused on changes in M1 neuronal activity caused by VTA activation. To address this issue, we used voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of M1 activity induced by single-pulse stimulation of VTA in anesthetized rats. VSD imaging showed that brief electrical stimulation of unilateral VTA elicited a short-latency excitatory-inhibitory sequence of neuronal activity not only in the ipsilateral but also in the contralateral M1. The contralateral M1 response was not affected by pharmacological blockade of ipsilateral M1 activity, but it was completely abolished by corpus callosum transection. Although the VTA-evoked neuronal activity extended throughout the entire M1, we found the most prominent activity in the forelimb area of M1. The 6-OHDA-lesioned VTA failed to evoke M1 activity. Furthermore, both excitatory and inhibitory intact VTA-induced activity was entirely extinguished by blocking glutamate receptors in the target M1. When intracortical microstimulation of M1 was paired with VTA stimulation, the evoked forelimb muscle activity was facilitated or inhibited, depending on the interval between the two stimuli. These findings suggest that VTA neurons directly modulate the excitability of M1 neurons via fast glutamate signaling and, consequently, may control the last cortical stage of motor command processing. PMID:24966388

Kunori, Nobuo; Kajiwara, Riichi; Takashima, Ichiro

2014-06-25

126

The small area predictors of ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations: a comparison of changes over time.  

PubMed

The hospital admission for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) is a validated indicator of impeded access to good primary and preventive care services. The authors examine the predictors of ACSC admissions in small geographic areas in two cross-sections spanning an 11-year time interval (1995-2005). Using hospital discharge data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York for the years 1995 and 2005, the study includes a multivariate cross-sectional design, using compositional factors describing the hospitalized populations and the contextual factors, all aggregated at the primary care service area level. The study uses ordinary least squares regressions with and without state fixed effects, adjusting for heteroscedasticity. Data is pooled over 2 years to assess the statistically significant changes in associations over time. ACSC admission rates were inversely related to the availability of local primary care physicians, and managed care was associated with declines in ACSC admissions for the elderly. Minorities, aged elderly, and percent under federal poverty level were found to be associated with higher ACSC rates. The comparative analysis for 2 years highlights significant declines in the association with ACSC rates of several factors including percent minorities and rurality. The two policy-driven factors, primary care physician capacity and Medicare-managed care penetration, were not found significantly more effective over time. Using small area analysis, the study indicates that improvements in socioeconomic conditions and geographic access may have helped improve the quality of primary care received by the elderly over the last decade, particularly among some minority groups. PMID:24405202

Basu, Jayasree; Mobley, Lee R; Thumula, Vennela

2014-01-01

127

Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in Mediterranean areas.  

PubMed

A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed. PMID:25335497

Lordan, Jaume; Alegre, Simó; Gatius, Ferran; Sarasúa, M José; Alins, Georgina

2015-02-01

128

Levels of metals, arsenic and phosphorus in sediments from two sectors of a Brazilian Marine Protected Area (Tupinambás Ecological Station).  

PubMed

The Tupinambás Ecological Station (TES) is a Marine Protected Area consisting of two sectors: the Archipelago of Alcatrazes and the Cabras and Palmas islets. This investigation aimed to provide a first diagnosis of the concentrations of metals (Al,Cr,Cu,Fe,Hg,Ni,Pb,Zn), As and P in sediments from the TES. 24 sediment samples were collected in both sectors using a Van Veen grab sampler. Sediment textures and levels of Organic Matter (OM) and CaCO3 were determined, as well as the concentrations of the above-mentioned elements after partial acid digestion. Sediments were predominantly sandy. Higher levels of CaCO3 occurred in the Alcatrazes sector, whereas the OM contents were higher in the islets sector. Metals concentrations were low and associated with fines, while P and As presented a different behavior. The observed concentrations to all studies elements in sediments from the TES were considered as background values. PMID:25467864

Hoff, Natasha T; Figueira, Rubens C L; Abessa, Denis M S

2014-11-15

129

Heavy metal concentration in water and soil of different ecological areas of Tyva Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of the most common heavy metals in the drainage waters and mobile soil forms of areas 1 and 2 of the Tyva Republic was studied. The average Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Co and Hg content in the water samples was established to be within pennissible concentration limits. Pb and Cd level in the water samples of area 2 was 1.7 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the maximtml pennissible concentration (MPC). The analysis of the soil samples from the examined areas revealed that the HM content does not exceed the MPC. However, the Cu, Pb and Cd levels were exceed in the soil ofarea 2 as compared to area 1 (P<0.05 0.01).

Chysyma, R. B.; Bakhtina, Ye. Ye.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkova, G. N.; Kochneva, M. L.

2003-05-01

130

Benthic assessment of marine areas of particular ecological importance within the German Baltic Sea EEZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Habitats Directive is one of the main legal tools of the European Union to preserve biodiversity by maintaining and restoring natural habitats, and establishing a network of protected sites (NATURA 2000). One point of interest is the characterisation of marine habitats to localise the areas that fulfil the protection targets. Of the habitats listed in Annex I of the

Michael L. Zettler; Fritz Gosselck

131

Research, demonstration, and extension: the ARS area-wide ecologically based invasive plant management project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Area-wide project is a collaborative five year effort funded in 2008 by USDA-ARS that has brought together scientists with the USDA-ARS, universities, land managers, and policy makers throughout the Great Basin. A primary goal of the project is to develop and implement a comprehensive, regional...

132

RESTORE CIRCULATION AND PROVIDE ECOLOGICAL ENHANCEMENT IN THE FT. DESOTO PARK AQUATIC HABITAT MANAGEMENT AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will result in the design and environmental enhancement as it re-established circuitous flow in the bak bays of Mullet Key within the Ft. DeSoto Park Aquatic Habitat Management Area. Pinellas County is designing the project will use GMP funds for a portion of the co...

133

Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525  

SciTech Connect

Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess. Possible ways to improve the situation are considered. (authors)

Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation)] [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

134

Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For semi-arid regions, methods of assessing aquifer recharge usually consider the potential evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration rates can be below potential rates for long periods of time, even in irrigated systems. Accurate estimations of aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas under irrigated agriculture are essential for sustainable water-resources management. A method to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated farmland has been tested. The water-balance-modelling approach was based on VisualBALAN v. 2.0, a computer code that simulates water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer. The study was carried out in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain) in the period 1999-2008 for three different groups of crops: annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke) and fruit trees (citrus). Computed mean-annual-recharge values (from irrigation+precipitation) during the study period were 397 mm for annual row crops, 201 mm for perennial vegetables and 194 mm for fruit trees: 31.4, 20.7 and 20.5% of the total applied water, respectively. The effects of rainfall events on the final recharge were clearly observed, due to the continuously high water content in soil which facilitated the infiltration process. A sensitivity analysis to assess the reliability and uncertainty of recharge estimations was carried out.

Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Molinero, Jorge; Tamoh, Karim

2010-12-01

135

Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to suggest an improvement to Brazil's PRODES system for the real-time detection of deforestation.

Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

2012-12-01

136

Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological variation of waterbird habitats in Dongtan area of Chongming Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Landsat TM images, we explored the pattern of variation of suitable waterbird habitats from 1990 to 2008 in the Dongtan area of Chongming Island at the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. By applying our highly accurate indicator model ( R=0.999, P<0.01), we quantified the variations of fluctuation intensity for local waterbird habitats during 1990-2008, and for the main waterbird groups (Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae) from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate the impact of habitat quantity change on the waterbird habitat status and the population dynamics of the different waterbird groups. The results show that the aquaculture ponds (AP) and the Scirpus mariqueter zone (SMZ) underwent drastic habitat changes during certain periods (AP: 1997-2000, 2000-2003, 2005-2008; SMZ: 1997-2000), and the fluctuation intensity differed among habitat types in the order AP>SMZ>TSH (total suitable habitat)>BSA (bare mud flat and shallow water area). The abandonment of tracts of aquaculture ponds in Dongtan in mid-2006 brought about an intensive population fluctuation, caused by rapidly changing habitat with the population expanding to adjacent areas. At present, Anatidae and Ardeidae are threatened in the Dongtan area with declining populations because of their very "picky" habitat requirements (i.e., high reliance on AP). The Charadriidae experienced enormous population declines in the late 1990s, however, they have since recovered to normal levels as habitat change has stabilized. Our findings suggest that the current challenges for habitat management are the protection and stabilization of AP and SMZ habitats.

Fan, Xuezhong; Zhang, Liquan

2012-05-01

137

Ecological change as a factor in renewed malaria transmission in an eradicated area  

PubMed Central

In British Guiana, the successful eradication of Anopheles darlingi and malaria from the coastal areas has caused a very rapid increase in the population and has favoured a considerable social and economic improvement and expansion of both agriculture and industry. Housing and industrial developments and the constantly expanding rice cultivation have taken over most of the accessible pasture-lands, displacing the livestock which previously abounded around villages and settlements. Mechanization on the roads and in the fields increases daily, and the horse, the mule, the donkey and the ploughing oxen are gradually becoming obsolete. In some areas these changes have already caused such an upset in the balance between the human and the livestock population that A. aquasalis, a very abundant species all along the coast, but until recently entirely “fixed” by the livestock population, is now shifting its attention from livestock to man. On the Demerara river estuary, an area where malaria transmission was interrupted sixteen years ago and where eradication has been continually maintained, this mosquito has been responsible for a sharp, but localized, outbreak of P. vivax malaria. An entirely new epidemiological problem thus presents itself. Environmental changes, introduced and fostered by successful malaria eradication, may thus cause an anopheline species, potentially capable of malaria transmission, but originally inactive and harmless as a vector, to alter its feeding habits and thereby renew transmission. The immediate and long-term significance of some secondary and potential vectors may therefore require renewed evaluation in the planning of malaria eradication campaigns. PMID:14056265

Giglioli, George

1963-01-01

138

Acid deposition sensitivity map of the Southern Appalachian Assessment area; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Project Summary: The following digital product represents the Acid Deposition Sensitivity of the Southern Appalachian Assessment Area. Areas having various susceptibilities to acid deposition from air pollution are designated on a three tier ranking in the region of the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The assessment is being conducted by Federal agencies that are members of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (SAMAB) Cooperative. Sensitivities to acid deposition, ranked high, medium, and low are assigned on the basis of bedrock compositions and their associated soils, and their capacities to neutralize acid precipitation.

Pepper, John D.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Kress, Thomas H.; Collins, Thomas K.; Kappesser, Gary B.; Huber, Cindy M.; Webb, James R.

1995-01-01

139

Toxicity screening of soils from different mine areas--a contribution to track the sensitivity and variability of Arthrobacter globiformis assay.  

PubMed

This study used the Arthrobacter globiformis solid-contact test for assessing the quality of soils collected in areas subjected to past and present mine activities in Europe (uranium mine, Portugal) and North Africa (phosphogypsum pile, Tunisia; iron mine, Morocco). As to discriminate the influence of soils natural variability from the effect of contaminants, toxicity thresholds were derived for this test, based on the dataset of each study area. Furthermore, the test sensitivity and variability was also evaluated. As a result, soils that inhibited A. globiformis dehydrogenase activity above 45% or 50% relatively to the control, were considered to be toxic. Despite the soil metal content determined, the properties of soils seemed to influence dehydrogenase activity. Overall, the contact test provided a coherent outcome comparing to other more time-consuming and effort-demanding ecotoxicological assays. Our results strengthened the feasibility and ecological relevance of this assay, which variability was quite reduced hence suggesting its potential integration within the test battery of tier 1 of soil risk assessment schemes. PMID:24797906

Marques, Catarina R; Caetano, Ana L; Haller, Andreas; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth; Römbke, Jörg

2014-06-15

140

Ecological risk assessment of impacted estuarine areas: integrating histological and biochemical endpoints in wild Senegalese sole.  

PubMed

The analysis of multiple biomarker responses is nowadays recognized as a valuable tool to circumvent potential confounding factors affecting biomonitoring studies and allows a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying exposure to natural mixtures of toxicants. For the purpose of an environmental risk assessment (ERA) in an impacted estuary in SW Europe (the Sado, Portugal), juvenile Solea senegalensis from commercial fishing areas were surveyed for histopathological liver alterations and biochemical biomarkers. Although the findings revealed moderate differences in the patterns of histopathological traits between urban/industrial- and agricultural-influenced areas within the same estuary, no significant distinction was found between the cumulative alterations in animals from the two sites. The overall level of histopathological injury was low and severe traits like neoplasms or pre-neoplastic foci were absent. While metallothionein induction and lipid peroxidation could relate to histopathological condition indices, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes appeared to be impaired in animals collected off the estuary's heavy-industry belt (the most contaminated site), which may partially explain some degree of hepatic integrity loss. Overall, the results are consistent with low-moderate contamination of the estuary and indicate that oxidative stress is the most important factor accounting for differences between sites. The study highlights the need of integrating multiple biomarkers when multiple environmental stressors are involved and the advantages of surveying toxicity effects in field-collected, foraging, organisms. PMID:23810368

Gonçalves, Cátia; Martins, Marta; Costa, Maria H; Caeiro, Sandra; Costa, Pedro M

2013-09-01

141

The sensitivity of muscle force predictions to changes in physiologic cross-sectional area.  

PubMed

The mechanical effects of a muscle are related in part to the size of the muscle and to its location relative to the joint it crosses. For more than a century, researchers have expressed muscle size by its 'physiological cross-sectional area' (PCSA). Researchers mathematically calculating muscle and joint forces typically use some expression of a muscle's PCSA to constrain the solution to one which is reasonable (i.e. a solution in which small muscles may not have large forces, and large muscles have large forces when expected or when there is significant electromyographic activity). It is obvious that muscle mass (and therefore any expression of PCSA) varies significantly from person to person, even in individuals of similar weight and height. Since it is not practical to predict the PCSA of each muscle in a living subject's limb or trunk, it is important to generally understand the sensitivity of muscle force solutions to possible variations in PCSA. We used nonlinear optimization techniques to predict 47 muscle forces and hip contact forces in a living subject. The PCSA (volume/muscle fiber length) of each of 47 lower limb muscle elements from two cadaver specimens and the 47 PCSA's reported by pierrynowski were input into an optimization algorithm to create three solution sets. The three solutions were qualitatively similar but at times a predicted muscle force could vary as much as two to eight times. In contrast, the joint force solutions were within 11% of each other and, therefore, much less variable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3771581

Brand, R A; Pedersen, D R; Friederich, J A

1986-01-01

142

A contact-area model for rail-pads connections in 2-D simulations: sensitivity analysis of train induced vibrations  

E-print Network

A contact-area model for rail-pads connections in 2-D simulations: sensitivity analysis of train systems by means of a finite and discrete elements method. The rail defects and the case of out-of-round wheels are considered. The dynamic interaction between the wheel-sets and the rail is accomplished

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color-Sensitive Areas  

E-print Network

The Neural Bases of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Are Not Localized in Real Color- Sensitive Areas to as « synesthesia », or union of the senses, since the end of the XIXth century (Supplementary Text S1). Here, we focus on much studied grapheme-color synesthesia, which concerns 1-5 people in 100 (Suarez de Mendoza

144

Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports completed in 2004 and 2005 addressed each of the specific objectives and this final report focuses on the biological information gathered in support of local conservation efforts. Participation in the development of the Bi-State Local Area Conservation Plan was accomplished on multiple scales. Beginning in the fall of 2002, USGS personnel began participating in meetings of local stakeholders involved in the development of a sage-grouse conservation plan for the Bi-State planning area. This included attendance at numerous local PMU group meetings and field trips as well as participating on the technical advisory committee (TAC) for the Bi-State group. Whenever appropriate, ongoing results and findings regarding sage-grouse ecology in the local area were incorporated into these working group meetings. In addition, the USGS partnered with CDFG to help reorganize one of the local PMU groups (South Mono) and edited that portion of the Bi-State plan. The USGS also worked closely with CDFG to draft a description of the state of knowledge for sage-grouse genetic information for inclusion in the Bi-State Conservation Plan. The first edition of the Bi-State Conservation Plan for Greater Sage-Grouse was completed in June 2004 (Bi-State Sage-grouse Conservation Team 2004). This report is organized primarily by PMU to facilitate the incorporation of these research findings into the individual PMU plans that compose the Bi-State plan. Information presented in this report was derived from over 7,000 radio-telemetry locations obtained on 145 individual sage-grouse during a three year period (2003-2005). In addition, we collected detailed vegetation measurements at over 590 habitat sampling plots within the study area including canopy cover, shrubs, forbs, and grasses diversity. Vegetation data collection focused on sage-grouse nests, and brood-use areas. Additionally we collected data at random sites to examine sage-grouse habitat relationships within the study area. The majori

Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric

2009-01-01

145

Ecological strategies in california chaparral: Interacting effects of soils, climate, and fire on specific leaf area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: High values of specific leaf area (SLA) are generally associated with high maximal growth rates in resource-rich conditions, such as mesic climates and fertile soils. However, fire may complicate this relationship since its frequency varies with both climate and soil fertility, and fire frequency selects for regeneration strategies (resprouting versus seeding) that are not independent of resource-acquisition strategies. Shared ancestry is also expected to affect the distribution of resource-use and regeneration traits. Aims: We examined climate, soil, and fire as drivers of community-level variation in a key functional trait, SLA, in chaparral in California. Methods: We quantified the phylogenetic, functional, and environmental non-independence of key traits for 87 species in 115 plots. Results: Among species, SLA was higher in resprouters than seeders, although not after phylogeny correction. Among communities, mean SLA was lower in harsh interior climates, but in these climates it was higher on more fertile soils and on more recently burned sites; in mesic coastal climates, mean SLA was uniformly high despite variation in soil fertility and fire history. Conclusions: We conclude that because important correlations exist among both species traits and environmental filters, interpreting the functional and phylogenetic structure of communities may require an understanding of complex interactive effects. ?? 2011 Botanical Society of Scotland and Taylor & Francis.

Anacker, B.; Rajakaruna, N.; Ackerly, D.; Harrison, S.; Keeley, J.; Vasey, M.

2011-01-01

146

50 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special Preservation Areas, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves, Special...NATIONAL MONUMENT Pt. 404, App. A Appendix A to Part 404—Map of the Monument Outer Boundary and Ecological Reserves,...

2010-10-01

147

PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity  

SciTech Connect

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT{sub 3} antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h after pergolide. The present study suggests that selective enhancement of the PI3K activity in the NAc shell may be one of key alterations underlying the long-term cocaine sensitization. To the extent cocaine sensitization is an important factor in human cocaine abuse, pharmacological interventions targeted toward the NAc shell PI3K alteration may be useful in cocaine abuse treatment.

Zhang Xiuwu [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: xwzhang@duke.edu; Mi Jing [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Wetsel, William C. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Davidson, Colin [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Xiong Xieying [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Chen Qiang [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Ellinwood, Everett H. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Lee, Tong H. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

2006-02-24

148

Cycling of Sensitivity to Physical Dormancy-break in Seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) and Ecological Significance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although a claim has been made that dormancy cycling occurs in seeds of Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae) with physical dormancy, this would seem to be impossible since the water gap cannot be closed again after it opens (dormancy break). On the other hand, changes in sensitivity (sensitive ? non-sensitive) to dormancy-breaking factors have been reported in seeds of Fabaceae with physical dormancy. The primary aim of the present study was to determine if sensitivity cycling also occurs in physically dormant seeds of I. lacunosa. Methods Treatments simulating conditions in the natural habitat of I. lacunosa were used to break seed dormancy. Storage of seeds at temperatures simulating those in spring, summer, autumn and winter were tested for their effect on sensitivity change. Seeds made non-dormant were stored dry in different temperature regimes to test for dormancy cycling. In addition, seeds collected on different dates (i.e. matured under different climatic conditions) were used to test for maternal effects on sensitivity to dormancy-breaking factors. Key Results Sensitivity was induced by storing seeds under wet conditions and reversed by storing them under dry conditions at low (?5 °C) or high (?30 °C) temperatures, demonstrating that seeds of I. lacunosa can cycle between sensitive and insensitive states. Sensitive seeds required ?2 h at 35 °C on moist sand for release of dormancy. However, there is no evidence to support dormancy cycling per se. Conceptual models are proposed for sensitivity cycling and germination phenology of I. lacunosa in the field. Conclusions Seasonal germination behaviour of physically dormant I. lacunosa seeds can be explained by sensitivity cycling but not by dormancy cycling per se. Convolvulaceae is only the second of 16 families known to contain species with physical dormancy for which sensitivity cycling has been demonstrated. PMID:18032427

Jayasuriya, K. M. G. G.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

2008-01-01

149

Novel Data on the Ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura: Centrolenidae) and the Importance of Protected Areas for This Critically Endangered Glassfrog in the Neotropics  

PubMed Central

We studied a population of the endangered glassfrog, Cochranella mache, at Bilsa Biological Station, northwestern Ecuador, from 2008 and 2009. We present information on annual abundance patterns, behavioral ecology, habitat use and a species distribution model performed with MaxEnt. We evaluate the importance of the National System of Protected Areas (SNAP) in Colombia and Ecuador, under scenarios of climate change and habitat loss. We predicted a restricted environmental suitability area from 48,509 Km2 to 65,147 Km2 along western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia; ?8% of the potential distribution occurs within SNAP. We examined four aspects of C. mache ecology: (1) ecological data suggests a strong correlation between relative abundance and rainfall, with a high probability to observe frogs through rainy months (February–May); (2) habitat use and the species distribution model suggest that this canopy dweller is restricted to small streams and rivulets in primary and old secondary forest in evergreen lowland and piedmont forest of western Ecuador, with predictions of suitability areas in adjacent southern Colombia; (3) the SNAP of Colombia and Ecuador harbor a minimum portion of the predicted model of distribution (<10%); and (4) synergetic effects of habitat loss and climate change reduces in about 95% the suitability areas for this endangered frog along its distributional range in Protected Areas. The resulting model allows the recognition of areas to undertake conservation efforts and plan future field surveys, as well as forecasting regions with high probability of C. mache occurrence in western Ecuador and southern Colombia. Further research is required to assess population tendencies, habitat fragmentation and target survey zones to accelerate the discovery of unknown populations in unexplored areas with high probability of suitability. We recommend that Cochranella mache must be re-categorized as “Critically Endangered” species in national and global status, according with criteria and sub-criteria A4, B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv),E. PMID:24339973

Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Paucar, Christian

2013-01-01

150

Long-Term Human Impact and Vegetation Changes in a Boreal Forest Reserve: Implications for the Use of Protected Areas as Ecological References  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern boreal forest reserves that display no signs of modern forest exploitation are often regarded as pristine and are\\u000a frequently used as ecological reference areas for conservation and restoration. However, the long-term effects of human utilization\\u000a of such forests are rarely investigated. Therefore, using both paleoecological and archaeological methods, we analyzed temporal\\u000a and spatial gradients of long-term human impact in

Torbjörn Josefsson; Greger Hörnberg; Lars Östlund

2009-01-01

151

Modal sensitivity analysis for single mode operation in large mode area fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the current large mode area (LMA) fibers are few-moded designs using a large, low numerical aperture (N.A.) core, which promotes mode coupling between core modes and increases bending losses (coupling with claddingmodes), which is undesirable both in terms ofmode area and beamquality. Furthermore, short LMA fiber lengths and small cladding diameters are needed to minimize nonlinear effects and

Benoit Sévigny; Xiaoxing Zhang; Marc Garneau; Mathieu Faucher; Yannick Keith Lizé; Nigel Holehouse

2008-01-01

152

Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: sensitivity to remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that general trends in forest leaf area index along regional climatic gradients can be adequately characterized by using ratios of near-infrared and red reflectances. However it has proven difficult to represent properly the spatial distribution of Leaf Area Index (LAI) at sub-regional scales such as small catchments. The key problem at Thematic Mapper scale is the

R. Nemani; L. Pierce; S. Running; L. Band

1993-01-01

153

Dynamics and ecological consequences of avian influenza virus infection in greater white-fronted geese in their winter staging areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry have raised interest in the interplay between avian influenza (AI) viruses and their wild hosts. Studies linking virus ecology to host ecology are still scarce, particularly for non-duck species. Here, we link capture–resighting data of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons albifrons with the AI virus infection data collected during capture

D. Kleijn; V. J. Munster; B. S. Ebbinge; D. A. Jonkers; G. J. D. M. Müskens; Y. Van Randen; R. A. M. Fouchier

2010-01-01

154

Sustaining Visitor Use in Protected Areas: Future Opportunities in Recreation Ecology Research Based on the USA Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management,\\u000a is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have\\u000a improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes.\\u000a Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to

Christopher A. MonzDavid; David N. Cole; Yu-Fai Leung; Jeffrey L. Marion

2010-01-01

155

Urban Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

156

The sensitivity of modeled ozone to the temporal distribution of point, area, and mobile source emissions  

E-print Network

simulations are conducted with an air quality model in order to analyze the sensitivity of modeled ozone pollution problems in the US. Hourly emissions fields used in air quality models (AQMs) generally show less Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) v4.5 and the carbon bond IV (CBIV) chemical mechanism with a 12 km

Dickerson, Russell R.

157

A GIS RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL TO ASSESS OIL SPILL RESPONSE OPTIONS IN AREA WITH SENSITIVE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A Geographic Information System (GIS) was created to determine the best oil spill response to protect sensitive species. In previous analysis, a Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) was conducted for Isle Royale National Park. The NEBA resulted in a "Risk-Ranking Matrix" o...

158

Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

1988-04-01

159

A Sensitive Skin Based on Touch-Area-Evaluating Tactile Elements Takayuki Hoshi Hiroyuki Shinoda  

E-print Network

insulators (urethane foam) sandwiched be- tween three pieces of stretchable conductive sheets (conductive fab including no long wires. CR Categories: I.2.9 [Artificial Intelligence]: Robotics--Sensors Keywords: Tactile, pressure, friction, temperature, and so on. · They should cover several-cm2 large areas such as whole sur

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

160

The study on remote sensing inversion of ecological environmental indices and their dynamic analysis in the six karst peak cluster areas, Guangxi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst Peak Cluster areas are main type of karst landform in Guangxi, which are as controllers of ecological environment to plays a important role in Guangxi. It has important practical significance to dynamic monitor and appraisal Guangxi's ecological environment. Paper choose EOS/MODIS remote sensing data for five period. Based on the necessity argument for giving domain and quantitative remote sensing, Doing a inversion to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI and Vegetation coverage FC remote-sensing of Du'an, Debao, Liujiang, Nandan, Jingxi and Fengshan, where the six main Karst Peak-Cluster giving domain areas of Guangxi, And paper studied the longitudinal variance analysis and the horizontal inversion variance analysis for the inversion result .it shows that, any calculations which involves applying statistical characteristics -- the average value-variance-covariance and maximum / minimum value of image processing algorithm, should adopt the giving domain image processing algorithm model. Analysis of six karst peak cluster area FC longitudinal changes ,we find that The tendency of vegetation coverage of Six major karst peak cluster is" down then up", but in general they were rising,; analysis of horizontal changes in Guangxi six major karst peak cluster vegetation coverage, Find that before 2008,the karst Peak-Cluster areas of Guangxi FC had West high and East low" spatial variation. after 2008, it had" North high South low" spatial variation.

Jia, Zhiqiang; Wu, Hong; Hao, Min; Xing, Lixin

2014-05-01

161

Robust performance for an energy sensitive wireless body area network – an anti-windup approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a robust anti-windup (AW) based control scheme to optimise throughput rate for an 802.15.4 wireless body area network (WBAN) that is subject to naturally occurring input saturation constraints. The technique uses an intuitively appealing two step design procedure. Firstly, a robust H? loop-shaping linear controller is designed providing nominal (un-saturated) robust performance. Then Weston–Postlethwaite AW compensation techniques

M. Walsh; M. Hayes; J. Nelson

2009-01-01

162

Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL

2014-08-01

163

Sensitivity of radiative forcing and surface temperature to sulfate injection area in stratospheric geoengineering.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoengineering by injecting sulfur to the stratosphere has been shown to have a potential to counteract global warming. In the future, such a method may be considered as an option in slowing down global warming, if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast and effectively enough. In the stratosphere sulfate particles reflect solar radiation back to space and thus cool the climate. Cooling effect would last 1-2 years because of the stability of the stratosphere combined with lack of effective removal processes. Usually sulfur is assumed to be injected as SO2 which oxidizes and forms sulfate particles after injections. However, if the amount of injected sulfur is increased, its effect can be saturated and the increase in the stratospheric sulfate burden and global radiative forcing becomes smaller. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes, which have a shorter lifetime in the atmosphere and do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and where sulfur is spread more or less equally to both hemispheres. Because of this, sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection would be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. In this study we use global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA to investigate radiative forcing from the different injection areas and to study if a more effective injection strategy would be varying the injection area seasonally. The model describes aerosol size distribution by 10 size sections and calculates the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation, coagulation and hydration. Thus the formation from gaseous SO2 to sulfate particles, particle growth and also how sulfate is distributed in the atmosphere after different injection strategies are described in the model. We will also use coupled climate-ocean model MPI-ESM to study climate effects from these scenarios by using aerosol effective radius and aod fields from simulations by ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. We carried out simulations, where 5 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Preliminary results show that global radiative forcing is slightly larger if the injection area is changed depending on the season of the year compared to a case where sulfur is injected to the area between 10 N and 10 S. Oxidation time from SO2 to sulfate particles and the time that new particles needs to grow particles large enough has major role to how effective temporally depended injection scenarios are.

Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

2014-05-01

164

Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion  

PubMed Central

It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration. PMID:22314043

Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

2013-01-01

165

Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in the NTS operational areas 18, 19, 20, and 30) under the water table as a particle, those particles from the saturated zone detonations were tracked forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine the particles from which detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area. Out of the 71 detonations in the saturated zone, the flowpaths from 23 of the 71 detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, the flowpaths from 55 of the 71 detonations will intercept the proposed YM withdrawal area. Three different effective-porosity data sets compiled in support of regional models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport developed for the NTS and the proposed YM repository are used. The results illustrate that mean minimum travel time from underground nuclear testing areas on the NTS to the proposed YM repository area can vary from just over 700 to nearly 700,000 years, depending on the locations of the underground detonations, the pumping scenarios considered, and the effective-porosity value distributions used. Groundwater pumping scenarios are found to significantly impact minimum particle travel time from the NTS to the YM area by altering flowpath geometry. Pumping also attracts many more additional groundwater flowpaths from the NTS to the YM area. The sensitivity analysis further illustrates that for both the pre-pumping and 1998 pumping scenarios, the uncertainties in effective-porosity values for five of the 27 HGUs considered account for well over 90 percent of the effective-porosity-related travel time uncertainties for the flowpaths having the shortest mean travel times to YM.

J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

2009-09-10

166

Densely aligned rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays with high surface area for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

One-dimensional (1-D) TiO(2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with large inner surface area are desired in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). So far, good performance of DSSCs based on 1-D rutile TiO(2) NRAs remains a challenge mainly owing to their low dye-loading ability resulting from the insufficient specific surface area of 1-D TiO(2) nanostructures. In this paper, densely aligned TiO(2) NRAs with tunable thickness were grown directly on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by hydrothermal method, followed by a facile chemical etching route to further increase the specific surface area of the TiO(2) NRAs. The etching treatment leads to the split of TiO(2) nanorods into secondary nanorods with a reduced diameter, which markedly enlarges the inner surface area of the TiO(2) NRAs. The formation of 1-D rutile TiO(2) nanotube arrays (NTAs) is observed as well in the etched TiO(2) films. Finally, a DSSC efficiency of 5.94% was achieved by utilizing an etched TiO(2) NRA as the photoanode, which is so far the best DSSC efficiency that has been reported for the 1-D rutile TiO(2) NRA films. PMID:22899164

Lv, Miaoqiang; Zheng, Dajiang; Ye, Meidan; Sun, Lan; Xiao, Jing; Guo, Wenxi; Lin, Changjian

2012-09-28

167

The Park Made of Oil: Towards a Historical Political Ecology of the Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the park-deprived inner-city landscapes of Los Angeles, an unprecedented change is underway. Long considered to be the epitome of anti-nature, Los Angeles is witnessing a boom in park development and ecological restoration. Derelict, blighted and contaminated inner-city brownfield sites are being converted to greenspaces, nature parks and wildlife refuges. Indeed, Los Angeles has been the recent recipient of hitherto

Jason Byrne; Megan Kendrick; David Sroaf

2007-01-01

168

Trophic ecology of the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in its introduced areas: a stable isotope approach in southwestern France.  

PubMed

During the last decades, non-native predatory fish species have been largely introduced in European lakes and rivers, calling for detailed information on the trophic ecology of co-existing native and non-native predators. The present study describes the trophic ecology of the introduced pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in two southwestern French rivers, using stable isotope analysis. Pikeperch could be categorized as a top-predator, and had a significantly higher trophic position (TP, mean+/-SE=4.2+/-0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP=3.7+/-0.1) and the introduced European catfish (Silurus glanis, TP=3.8+/-0.1). Most studies of resource use in freshwaters consider predatory fish as ecologically equivalent; however, this study showed that the pikeperch occupied a higher trophic niche compared to other predatory species in the Lot and Tarn rivers (Garonne River basin). This apparent specialization may thus have consequences upon interspecific relationships within the predatory guild and upon the functional organization of biological communities. PMID:19632657

Kopp, Dorothée; Cucherousset, Julien; Syväranta, Jari; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

2009-08-01

169

An assessment of the attitudes of the inhabitants of Northern Karpathos, Greece: towards a framework for ecotourism development in environmentally sensitive areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study that sets out to explore the extent to which the local residents of the region of Northern Karpathos\\u000a and Saria in the southeast corner of the Aegean have positive attitudes and perceptions towards ecotourism ventures for sustainable\\u000a development. The area is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 and was chosen for studying

George Pipinos; Persa Fokiali

2009-01-01

170

USE OF ECOLOGICAL REGIONS IN AQUATIC ASSESSMENTS OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological regions are areas of similar climate, landform, soil, potential natural vegetation, hydrology, or other ecologically relevant variables. The makeup of aquatic biological assemblages (e.g., fish, macroinvertebrates, algae, riparian birds, etc.) varies dramatically over ...

171

Ecology of the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Pass Cavallo area of Matagorda Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

interacted with the same 1ndividuals over t1me as well as with a var1ety of unidentified dolphins . Mean pod and herd sizes varied from two to four animals, and from 11 to 15 animals, respectively. 51gn1f1cant d1fferences (p & 0. 05) were found between... and traffic, elucidate the need for continued research con- cerning the population biology and ecology of this species. The objectives of this study were to investigate the following sP t of th 1 gy of T~i s t t 1 th P Ca 11 of Matagorda Bay, Texas: (1...

Gruber, Jody Ann

1981-01-01

172

Functionalization of nanomaterials by non-thermal large area atmospheric pressure plasmas: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of non-thermal radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the non-thermal APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti3+ ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of non-thermal APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing.A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of non-thermal radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the non-thermal APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti3+ ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of non-thermal APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01889j

Jung, Heesoo; Park, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Eun Sang; Han, Gill-Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho

2013-08-01

173

Sensitivity Analysis of Heavy Pavement Design for a Container Terminal Area, Case Study: Port of Gaza, Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the sensitivity analysis of various design parameters for heavy-duty pavement for container terminal areas using Airport Pavement Structural Design System (APSDS) to yield an optimal design solution. APSDS is based on layered elastic theory, which was introduced into airfield design practice with the release of the computer program LEDFAA (Layered Elastic Design, Federal Aviation Administration). In this study, the pavement structure was found very sensitive to design parameters, where 15-60 mm more in base thickness was increased the design life twice. A reduction of base thickness was 27% by changing the handling system from rubber tyred gantry crane system to straddle carrier system and a reduction of 42-76% of base thickness by changing the interface condition at the bottom of base layer from smooth to rough. Other effects of design parameters such as lateral wandering distribution, container weight frequency, variation of elastic modulus for concrete block pavers and sub-grade are discussed. Also various construction materials were used and several combinations of base and sub-base materials were analysed to be able to select the most economical pavement structures.

Abualtayef, Mazen; de Heer, Ronald; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Matsubara, Yuhei; Khaled Seif, Ahmed

174

Functionalization of nanomaterials by non-thermal large area atmospheric pressure plasmas: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of non-thermal radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the non-thermal APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti(3+) ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of non-thermal APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing. PMID:23831925

Jung, Heesoo; Park, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Eun Sang; Han, Gill-Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho

2013-09-01

175

Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.  

PubMed

The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed. PMID:24699917

Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

2014-05-01

176

Combining a Fuzzy Matter-Element Model with a Geographic Information System in Eco-Environmental Sensitivity and Distribution of Land Use Planning  

PubMed Central

Sustainable ecological and environmental development is the basis of regional development. The sensitivity classification of the ecological environment is the premise of its spatial distribution for land use planning. In this paper, a fuzzy matter-element model and factor-overlay method were employed to analyze the ecological sensitivity in Yicheng City. Four ecological indicators, including soil condition,, water condition,, atmospheric conditions and biodiversity were used to classify the ecological sensitivity. The results were categorized into five ranks: insensitive, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive and extremely sensitive zones. The spatial distribution map of environmental sensitivity for land use planning was obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques. The results illustrated that the extremely sensitive and highly sensitive areas accounted for 14.40% and 30.12% of the total area, respectively, while the moderately sensitive and slightly sensitive areas are 25.99% and 29.49%, respectively. The results provide the theoretical foundation for land use planning by categorizing all kinds of land types in Yicheng City. PMID:21695036

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xinming; Zhu, Wenjuan

2011-01-01

177

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

178

Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

2011-01-01

179

The ecology of primate retroviruses - an assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d?Ivoire.  

PubMed

The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d'Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus-host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research. PMID:25010280

Gogarten, Jan F; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H; Leendertz, Fabian H

2014-07-01

180

Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities and specific methods for seeding and planting at each area. evegetation work is scheduled to commence during the first quarter of FY 2011 to minimize the amount of time that sites are unvegetated and more susceptible to invasion by non-native weedy annual species.

Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

2011-01-01

181

Ecology of streams draining forested and non-forested catchments in an area of central Scotland subject to acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 12 streams draining forested and non-forested catchments was made in an area of central Scotland where slow-weathering bedrock was predominantly quartzite, schists and slates. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carriere) was the most common tree species. Precipitation in the area had an annual mean pH in the range 4.3–4.5. Streams within the planted zone were always more acid

R. Harriman; B. R. S. Morrison

1982-01-01

182

The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.  

PubMed

Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid deposition is predominantly in dry or occult forms. PMID:23085669

Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

2012-11-15

183

Job Announcement Ph.D. Student Position in Microbial Ecology  

E-print Network

Job Announcement Ph.D. Student Position in Microbial Ecology Division of Microbial Ecology (www.microbial-ecology microbial ecology research. Applicants should hold an MSc degree in Microbiology, Microbial Ecology of the following areas/techniques will be of advantage: microbial ecology of the nitrogen cycle, (meta

Horn, Matthias

184

Ecological Study on Hospitalizations for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Diseases in the Industrial Area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France  

PubMed Central

The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 2004–2007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO2 exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4?:?83] and 54% [14?:?110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2?:?57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO2 levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area. PMID:23864868

Pascal, Laurence; Stempfelet, Morgane; Declercq, Christophe

2013-01-01

185

New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector.  

PubMed

A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the A?ngstro?m laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, (1)H(+), (4)He(+), and (11)B(+). Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted. PMID:23020419

Linnarsson, M K; Hallén, A; Åström, J; Primetzhofer, D; Legendre, S; Possnert, G

2012-09-01

186

New beam line for time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering with large area position sensitive detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new beam line for medium energy ion mass scattering (MEIS) has been designed and set up at the Ångström laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. This MEIS system is based on a time-of-flight (ToF) concept and the electronics for beam chopping relies on a 4 MHz function generator. Repetition rates can be varied between 1 MHz and 63 kHz and pulse widths below 1 ns are typically obtained by including beam bunching. A 6-axis goniometer is used at the target station. Scattering angle and energy of backscattered ions are extracted from a time-resolved and position-sensitive detector. Examples of the performance are given for three kinds of probing ions, 1H+, 4He+, and 11B+. Depth resolution is in the nanometer range and 1 and 2 nm thick Pt layers can easily be resolved. Mass resolution between nearby isotopes can be obtained as illustrated by Ga isotopes in GaAs. Taking advantage of the large size detector, a direct imaging (blocking pattern) of crystal channels are shown for hexagonal, 4H-SiC. The ToF-MEIS system described in this paper is intended for use in semiconductor and thin film areas. For example, depth profiling in the sub nanometer range for device development of contacts and dielectric interfaces. In addition to applied projects, fundamental studies of stopping cross sections in this medium energy range will also be conducted.

Linnarsson, M. K.; Hallén, A.; Åström, J.; Primetzhofer, D.; Legendre, S.; Possnert, G.

2012-09-01

187

Application of a fast and efficient algorithm to assess landslide prone areas in sensitive clays - toward landslide susceptibility assessment, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with susceptibility assessment in sensitive clays at national scale. The proposed methodology is based on a procedure which uses soil data and Digital Elevation Models to detect areas prone to landslides and has been applied in Sweden for several years. Specifically, we tested an algorithm which is able to detect soil and slope criteria guaranteeing a faster execution compared to other implementations and an efficient filtering procedure. The adopted computational solution allows using local information on depth to bedrock and several cross-sectional angle thresholds, and therefore opens up new possibilities to improve landslide susceptibility assessment. We tested the algorithm in the Göta River valley and evaluated the effect of filtering, depth to bedrock and cross-sectional angle thresholds on model performance. The thresholds were derived by analysing the relationship between landslide scarps and the Quick Clay Susceptibility Index (QCSI). The results gave us important insights on how to implement the filtering procedure, the use of depth to bedrock and the derived cross-sectional angle thresholds in landslide susceptibility assessment.

Melchiorre, C.; Tryggvason, A.

2014-12-01

188

Observed and simulated sensitivities of summertime urban surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat in downtown areas of two Japanese Major Cities, Tokyo and Osaka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the sensitivities of surface air temperatures to anthropogenic heat (AH) were investigated in downtowns of the two Japanese major cities, Tokyo and Osaka. First, meteorological measurements were made with the simultaneous monitoring of electricity demand in a contrastive couple of a downtown commercial area (C-area) and a residential area (R-area) within each city in summer 2007. From the measurements, the areal-mean surface air temperatures were obtained as and for each of the C-area and R-area, respectively. Using the actual electricity demand and the estimated motor fuels consumption, their areal total was evaluated as the energy-consumption-basis AH. The estimated C-areas' AH indicated greater values up to 220 W/m2 on weekdays and remarkable decrease about by half on weekends, whereas that in the R-areas showed less values of 10-20 W/m2 stably. Then, on calm and fine days were found to be systematically decreased from weekdays to weekends in both cities roughly indicating a proportional relationship with the reductions in the C-areas' AH on weekends. The result suggested a common afternoon sensitivity for both C-areas of around 1.0°C/100 W/m2, which indicated an intensity of the AH impact on surface air temperature there. Next, to simulate the observed AH impact, the authors' CM-BEM (a multilayer urban canopy model coupled with a building energy model) was newly implemented in the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WMF) model. This new system, WRF-CM-BEM, was applied to Tokyo and almost reasonably validated from the aspects of the reproducibility of urban surface air temperature and electricity demand in the observation areas. The simulations also suggested that WRF-CM-BEM underestimated the observed air temperature sensitivity to AH in the Tokyo C-area roughly by half but still in the same order of magnitude.

Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Ai; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Ihara, Tomohiko; Shigeta, Yoshinori

2014-07-01

189

Studies on the ecology of Bulinus globosus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Ifakara area, Tanzania.  

PubMed

During a period of 2 years, the ecology of Bulinus globosus was studied in 8 habitats in two streams near Ifakara, SE-Tanzania. The relative Bulinus densities were followed monthly. Two different methods for estimating snail densities (man/time vs. palmleaf traps) gave comparable results. Bulinus densities were constantly low throughout the year in the stream, but they showed distinct seasonal fluctuations in adjacent pools, with a density-peak at the end of the small rainy season. B. globosus, identified by starch gel electrophoresis, was found to be the only intermediate host for urinary schistosomiasis in the investigated streams. A correlation of the Bulinus densities with several abiotic and biotic factors revealed that pH, temperature and conductivity had little effect on the Bulinus population, as they oscillated within the tolerated limits. No correlation of the distribution of B. globosus and other snail species was found. Rainfall patterns have a distinct influence on snail densities. They determine the duration of desiccation and affect the snails by fluctuations of the water level and by the fast increase of water velocity after heavy rains. B. globosus shows a clear predilection for the sedge Cyperus exaltatus as support for oviposition. It is also preferred as food and/or food-support. During the dry season, oviposition of B. globosus is concentrated in clearly defined sites ("breeding pockets"), which, due to the lowering of the water level, become isolated from the stream or retain only a small connection to it. These sites form important reservoirs of B. globosus, from where the snails are spread when the sites are flooded during the subsequent rainy season. The significance of these observations for control measures is discussed. PMID:2862780

Marti, H P; Tanner, M; Degrémont, A A; Freyvogel, T A

1985-06-01

190

Application of ecological sanitation and permaculture techniques: food and water security for indigenous tribes and rural areas in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a demonstration project carried out in an indigenous tribe in Brazil. The project works with around 20 families and carries a demonstration site at the local school, including rainwater harvesting, greywater treatment and reuse, and application of urine as fertilizer. Around the area, 13 arborloo-type toilets and 2 banana tree circles receiving greywater were implemented. The project

Adriana F. Galbiati; Gustavo C. da Silva; Marcos V. G. Affonso; Paula L. Paulo

191

Cetacean Ecology for Santa Monica Bay and Nearby Areas, California, in the Context of the Newly Established MPAs  

E-print Network

, Marina del Rey, CA 90295, USA Abstract.--Cetacean occurrence, distribution and behavior were investigated three species inhabiting the study area year-round - the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, the long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis, and the short-beaked common dolphin, D. delphis

192

[Ecological adaptability of leaf epidermis of erosion-resistant plants in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].  

PubMed

By the temporary slide method of leaf epidermis, an observation was made on the morphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of six erosion-resistant plant species in different soil erosion environments (gully, inter-gully, and inter-gully artificial Robinia pseudoacacia forest land) in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau. Compared with those in the gully, the stomata aperture, stomata density, stomata index, stomata apparatus length/width plasticity, stomata apparatus area plasticity, epidermal hair density, and epidermal cell density of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants in the inter-gully were 93.8% and 90.4%, 66.8% and 76.6%, 17.9% and 9.8%, 36.4% and 47.1%, 42.3% and 43.9%, 199.4% and 98.2%, and 46.5% and 50.1% higher, respectively; while in the inter-gully artificial R. pseudoacacia forest land, the same morphological indices of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants were 66.7% and 106.7%, 20.5% and 45.8%, 11.9% and 11.9%, 37.9% and 41.3%, 19.8% and 21.2%, 113.1% and 52.2%, and 10.8% and 28.1% higher than those in the gully, respectively. The epidermal hair length and epidermal cell area of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants in the inter-gully were 58.8% and 29.7%, and 40.3% and 37.0% lower than those in the gully, and the same morphological indices of the leaf upper and lower epidermis of the plants in the intergully artificial R. pseudoacacia forest land were respectively 25.0% and 23.6%, and 22.2% and 19.2% lower than those in the gully, respectively. The results suggested that the erosion-resistant plants in the study area were able to adapt to various soil erosion environments by increasing their leaf stomata aperture, stomata density, stomata index, stomata apparatus length/width plasticity, stomata apparatus area plasticity, epidermal hair density, and epidermal cell density, and by reducing their epidermal hair length and epidermal cell area. PMID:23359923

Miao, Fang; Du, Hua-Dong; Qin, Cui-Ping; Jiao, Ju-Ying

2012-10-01

193

Human Ecology Human ecology Research  

E-print Network

Human Ecology Impact of Human ecology Research Bonus Issue FROM SCHOLARSHIP TO POLICY MAKING OF HUMAN ECOLOGY APRIL 2005/VOLUME 33, NUMBER 1 #12;Human Ecology Volume 33, Number 1 April 2005 The New York State College of Human Ecology at Cornell University Lisa Staiano-Coico, Ph.D. Rebecca Q

Wang, Z. Jane

194

An optimization model for automated selection of economic and ecologic delivery profiles in area forwarding based inbound logistics networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Area Forwarding Based Inbound Logistics Networks are used by several large companies whose suppliers are spread widely to\\u000a reduce costs by consolidating transported goods in an early stage of the transport. Managing material flows in those networks\\u000a is a complex task, especially if the synergy effects in the main leg shall be used to reduce costs and environmental pollution.\\u000a One

Achim Koberstein; Leena Suhl

2010-01-01

195

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta  

PubMed Central

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-01-01

196

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-09-01

197

Application of a fast and efficient algorithm to detect areas with prerequisites for landslide in sensitive clays, Göta Älv, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Sweden, landslide stability maps are based on the recognition of topographical and soil conditions. The topographical criterion is based on the ratio between height of the slope and its length. The calculation of this cross-sectional angle is straight forward in one dimension, but slightly more complicated in two dimensions and very computationally expensive in a GIS environment. We present an application of a fast and efficient computer algorithm based on slope and soil criteria in Göta Älv, southwest Sweden. The algorithm, compared to other software implementations of the cross-sectional angle criterion, guarantees a fast execution, the possibility to insert several threshold values of the cross-sectional angle and the use of information on bedrock elevation. As input maps we used a 1:50000 Quaternary soil map, a DEM at 2x2 m pixel resolution, and a bedrock elevation map. We used two sets of cross-sectional angle thresholds, the first one derived from stability calculation and the second one assessed through the relationship between QCSI (i.e., estimated value of the sensitivity) and the cross-sectional angle calculated from the landslide scar database. A comparison between the results of the algorithm using or not using the bedrock information was also performed. The produced maps were validated by using the landslide scar database and a hazard map. The results show that the use of bedrock information decreases the calculated areas with prerequisites for landslides, whereas not decreasing the performance of the algorithm. The maps produced by using the two different sets of cross-angle thresholds are very similar and show similar results in the validation. This means that it would be possible to extent this methodology in areas without geotechnical information by using less expensive data such as the QCSI. Moreover, the use of several cross-sectional angle thresholds is not possible in other software implementations available at the moment. This means that the presented algorithm is the best candidate to assess landslide prerequisites in Sweden.

Melchiorre, Caterina; Tryggvason, Ari

2014-05-01

198

Improving ecological risk assessment in the Mediterranean area: selection of reference soils and evaluating the influence of soil properties on avoidance and reproduction of two oligochaete species.  

PubMed

A current challenge in soil ecotoxicology is the use of natural soils as test substrates to increase ecological relevance of data. Despite the existence of six natural reference soils (the Euro-soils), some parallel projects showed that these soils do not accurately represent the diversity of European soils. Particularly, Mediterranean soils are not properly represented. To fill this gap, 12 natural soils from the Mediterranean regions of Alentejo, Portugal; Cataluña, Spain; and Liguria, Italy, were selected and used in reproduction and avoidance tests to evaluate the soil habitat function for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). Predictive models on the influence of soil properties on the responses of these organisms were developed using generalized linear models. Results indicate that the selected soils can impact reproduction and avoidance behavior of both Oligochaete species. Reproduction of enchytraeids was affected by different soil properties, but the test validity criteria were fulfilled. The avoidance response of enchytraeids was highly variable, but significant effects of texture and pH were found. Earthworms were more sensitive to soil properties. They did not reproduce successfully in three of the 10 soils, and a positive influence of moisture, fine sand, pH, and organic matter and a negative influence of clay were found. Moreover, they strongly avoided soils with extreme textures. Despite these limitations, most of the selected soils are suitable substrates for ecotoxicological evaluations. PMID:21305581

Chelinho, Sónia; Domene, Xavier; Campana, Paolo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg; Andrés, Pilar; Sousa, José Paulo

2011-05-01

199

Risk-sensitive habitat use by brook stickleback ( Culaea inconstans ) in areas associated with minnow alarm pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) share habitat and predators with cyprinid species, and they exploit the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to avoid areas of high predation risk. In this field experiment, we measured the retention and duration of area avoidance by brook stickleback from areas marked with alarm pheromone of fathead minnows. Area avoidance was greatest during the

Brian D. Wisenden; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1994-01-01

200

A Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterline Method of Constructing a Digital Elevation Model for Intertidal Areas in ERS SAR scene of Eastern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitivity analysis of the waterline method of constructing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of an intertidal zone using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling is described. Variation in vertical height accuracy as a function of beach slope is investigated using a set of nine ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the Humber\\/Wash area on the English east coast acquired

D. C. Mason; I. J. Davenport; R. A. Flather; C. Gurney; G. J. Robinson; J. A. Smith

2001-01-01

201

The development of a more risk-sensitive and flexible airport safety area strategy: Part I. The development of an improved accident frequency model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper presents the development of an improved airport risk assessment methodology aimed at assessing risks related to aircraft accidents at and in the vicinity of airports and managing airport safety areas (ASAs) as a risk mitigation measure. The improved methodology is more quantitative, risk-sensitive, flexible and transparent than standard risk assessment approaches. As such, it contributes to the

D. K. Y. Wong; D. E. Pitfield; R. E. Caves; A. J. Appleyard

2009-01-01

202

The development of a more risk-sensitive and flexible airport safety area strategy: Part II. Accident location analysis and airport risk assessment case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper presents the development of an improved airport risk assessment methodology aimed at assessing risks related to aircraft accidents at and in the vicinity of airports and managing Airport Safety Areas (ASAs) as a risk mitigation measure. The improved methodology is more quantitative, risk-sensitive, flexible and transparent than standard risk assessment approaches. As such, it contributes to the

D. K. Y. Wong; D. E. Pitfield; R. E. Caves; A. J. Appleyard

2009-01-01

203

Fabrication of nanoporous Au films with ultra-high surface area for sensitive electrochemical detection of glucose in the presence of Cl-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous Au films with ultra-high surface area (roughness factor greater than 1000) were prepared via one-step anodization of Au in citric acid solution. The as-prepared surface of nanoporous Au films was covered with carbonaceous materials, which could be removed by electrochemical methods to produce electrochemically active surfaces. The cleaned nanoporous Au films exhibited high electrochemical activities for glucose oxidation; however, the expansion of the surface area did not necessarily contribute to the sensitivity enhancement in the absence of Cl-. The ultra-high surface area of the nanoporous Au significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the electrochemical detection of glucose in the presence of 100 mM of Cl-, enabling sensitivity as high as 120 ?A mM-1 cm-2. Nafion-coated nanoporous Au exhibited a linear amperometric response to glucose with high sensitivity without interference from ascorbic acid. The preparation of nanoporous Au with ultra-high surface area will offer new opportunity for electroanalytical applications based on nanoporous Au structures.

Jeong, Hwakyeung; Kim, Jongwon

2014-04-01

204

Ecological land classification: A survey approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape approach to ecological land mapping, as illustrated in this article, proceeds by pattern recognition based on ecological theory. The unit areas delineated are hypotheses that arise from a knowledge of what is ecologically important in the land. Units formed by the mapper are likely to be inefficient or irrelevant for ecological purposes unless he possesses a sound rationale

J. Stan Rowe; John W. Sheard

1981-01-01

205

The Doñana ecological disaster: Contamination of a world heritage estuarine marsh ecosystem with acidified pyrite mine waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important bird breeding and over wintering sites in the west of Europe, the Coto Doñana, was severely impacted by the release of 5 million cubic meters of acid waste from the processing of pyrite ore. The waste entered ecologically sensitive areas of the park (including breeding areas for internationally endangered bird species) causing sustained pH decreases

D. J Pain; A Sánchez; A. A Meharg

1998-01-01

206

Risk-sensitive habitat use by brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) in areas associated with minnow alarm pheromone.  

PubMed

Brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) share habitat and predators with cyprinid species, and they exploit the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to avoid areas of high predation risk. In this field experiment, we measured the retention and duration of area avoidance by brook stickleback from areas marked with alarm pheromone of fathead minnows. Area avoidance was greatest during the first 2 hr after the source of the alarm pheromone was removed (P<0.05), but after 4 hr, area use was not significantly different from premarking levels. This study shows that brook stickleback: (1) use the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows to avoid high risk areas, (2) continue to avoid locations associated with predation risk after the source of the pheromone has gone, and (3) avoid risky areas temporarily, and resume use of risky areas after 2-4 hr. This behavioral response by stickleback to minnow alarm pheromone could serve to minimize risk of predation. PMID:24241929

Wisenden, B D; Chivers, D P; Smith, R J

1994-11-01

207

Demography and ecology of mangrove diamondback terrapins in a wilderness area of Everglades National Park, Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are distributed in brackish water habitats along the U.S. east coast from Massachusetts to Texas, but many populations may be in decline. Whereas ample morphological, behavioral, and reproductive information has been collected for terrapins living in temperate salt marsh habitats, comparatively little is known about mangrove terrapins. To understand population structure of mangrove M. terrapin living in a wilderness area, we conducted a capture-recapture study in the remote, protected Big Sable Creek complex of Everglades National Park, Florida. The goals of the study were to collect baseline demographic data and to compare population structure and growth rates of mangrove terrapins with what is known for more well studied salt marsh terrapins in locations that experience human-imposed threats. We marked 300 terrapins; the sex ratio was 1 female:1.2 males. Considerable sexual size dimorphism was apparent, with reproductively mature females three times larger (by mass) than mature males. Eighty percent of females and 94% of males were classified as mature, based on straight plastron length (SPL). For a subset of terrapins not yet at maximum size (n = 39), we measured growth as a change in straight carapace length over time of 0.3-26.4 mm/yr for females (n = 26) and 0.9-14.5 mm/yr for males (n = 13). Our study presents the first demographic data on mangrove M. terrapin in the coastal Everglades. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Hart, K.M.; McIvor, C.C.

2008-01-01

208

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This K-12 education program gives students (especially in the Phoenix, AZ area) opportunities to take part in real scientific research led by Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) scientists. Using this site, students learn data collection techniques used by scientists, called protocols. They collect initial data, using the protocols they have learned, and apply it in looking for patterns at their own research site (schoolyard or backyard). Their data can also be shared with other researchers and school kids to see what patterns in nature exist across the Phoenix metropolitan area. Their own hypotheses and experiments will lead to a better understanding of why those patterns exist and will help them to understand what real scientists are doing in their laboratories. Topics covered include arthropods, beetles, seeds, birds and vegetation.

209

Biogeographic and Ecological Regulation of Disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus in Island Mice Is Related to Island Area, Precipitation, and Predator Richness.  

E-print Network

Biogeographic and Ecological Regulation of Disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre Virus in Island Mice naturalist may 2011 Notes and Comments Biogeographic and Ecological Regulation of Disease: Prevalence of Sin: The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important

Allan, Brian

210

Evaluating Social and Ecological Vulnerability of Coral Reef Fisheries to Climate Change  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need to evaluate the links between the social and ecological dimensions of human vulnerability to climate change. We use an empirical case study of 12 coastal communities and associated coral reefs in Kenya to assess and compare five key ecological and social components of the vulnerability of coastal social-ecological systems to temperature induced coral mortality [specifically: 1) environmental exposure; 2) ecological sensitivity; 3) ecological recovery potential; 4) social sensitivity; and 5) social adaptive capacity]. We examined whether ecological components of vulnerability varied between government operated no-take marine reserves, community-based reserves, and openly fished areas. Overall, fished sites were marginally more vulnerable than community-based and government marine reserves. Social sensitivity was indicated by the occupational composition of each community, including the importance of fishing relative to other occupations, as well as the susceptibility of different fishing gears to the effects of coral bleaching on target fish species. Key components of social adaptive capacity varied considerably between the communities. Together, these results show that different communities have relative strengths and weaknesses in terms of social-ecological vulnerability to climate change. PMID:24040228

Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; Darling, Emily S.; Humphries, Austin T.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hicks, Christina C.; Marshall, Nadine; McClanahan, Tim R.

2013-01-01

211

What is dental ecology?  

PubMed

Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. PMID:22610892

Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

2012-06-01

212

Large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers for pH measurement at the Nernstian limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated and characterized large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers and demonstrated pH sensitivities approaching the Nernstian limit. Low temperature atomic layer deposition was used to deposit tantalum pentoxide atop large area graphene ISFETs. The charge neutrality point of graphene, inferred from quantum capacitance or channel conductance, was used to monitor surface potential in the presence of an electrolyte with varying pH. Bare graphene ISFETs exhibit negligible response, while graphene ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers show increased sensitivity reaching up to 55 mV/pH over pH 3 through pH 8. Applying the Bergveld model, which accounts for site binding and a Guoy-Chapman-Stern picture of the surface-electrolyte interface, the increased pH sensitivity can be attributed to an increased buffer capacity reaching up to 1014 sites/cm2. ISFET response was found to be stable to better than 0.05 pH units over the course of two weeks.

Fakih, Ibrahim; Sabri, Shadi; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Nannini, Matthieu; Siaj, Mohamed; Szkopek, Thomas

2014-08-01

213

Ecological Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

2005-10-01

214

(International meetings on ecology)  

SciTech Connect

the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

1990-09-25

215

Modelling biodiversity and land use: urban growth, agriculture and nature in a wetland area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wherever human land use is located near sensitive natural areas, such as wetlands, it has significant impacts on biodiversity in those areas. Both species richness and species composition are affected. As biodiversity is lost, conservation efforts increase and act as a constraint on land use options. Given these links, land use is a central factor in an ecological–economic analysis of

Florian V. Eppink; Piet Rietveld

2004-01-01

216

Effects of heavy metals in soil on microbial diversity and activity as shown by the sensitivity-resistance index, an ecologically relevant parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitivity-resistance index was developed, and proved to be a very sensitive biomonitor of soil pollution with heavy metals. The index was developed by a step-by-step approach. Ultimately, the bacterial soil microflora was divided into three groups, senstivive, tolerant, and resistant microflora. Zn and Cd sensitivity was defined as no growth occurring in the presence of 5 and 0.5 mg

E. Jansen; M. Michels; M. Til; P. Doelman

1994-01-01

217

Retama species growing in different ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria have a narrow range of rhizobia that form a novel phylogenetic clade within the Bradyrhizobium genus.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven isolates were isolated from nodules collected on roots of Mediterranean shrubby legumes Retama raetam and Retama sphaerocarpa growing in seven ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria. Genetic diversity of the Retama isolates was analyzed based on genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified fragments of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer (IGS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (IGS), and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. Eleven haplotypes assigned to the Bradyrhizobium genus were identified. Significant biogeographical differentiation of the rhizobial populations was found, but one haplotype was predominant and conserved across the sites. All isolates were able to cross-nodulate the two Retama species. Accordingly, no significant genetic differentiation of the rhizobial populations was found in relation to the host species of origin. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene grouped the isolates with Bradyrhizobium elkanii, but sequence analyses of IGS, the housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, recA), nifH, and nodC yielded convergent results showing that the Retama nodule isolates from the northeast of Algeria formed a single evolutionary lineage, which was well differentiated from the currently named species or well-delineated unnamed genospecies of bradyrhizobia. Therefore, this study showed that the Retama species native to northeastern Algeria were associated with a specific clade of bradyrhizobia. The Retama isolates formed three sub-groups based on IGS and housekeeping gene phylogenies, which might form three sister species within a novel bradyrhizobial clade. PMID:19231126

Boulila, Farida; Farida, Boulila; Depret, Géraldine; Géraldine, Depret; Boulila, Abdelghani; Abdelghani, Boulila; Belhadi, Djellali; Djellali, Belhadi; Benallaoua, Said; Said, Benallaoua; Laguerre, Gisèle; Gisèle, Laguerre

2009-07-01

218

Ecological Misconceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

Munson, Bruce H.

1994-01-01

219

Ecology in Times of Scarcity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an energy-scarce future, ecosystem services will become more important in supporting the human economy. The primary role of ecology will be the sustainable management of ecosystems. Energy scarcity will affect ecology in a number of ways. Ecology will become more expensive, which will be justified by its help in solving societal problems, especially in maintaining ecosystem services. Applied research on highly productive ecosystems, including agroecosystems, will dominate ecology. Ecology may become less collegial and more competitive. Biodiversity preservation will be closely tied to preservation of productive ecosystems and provision of high ecosystem services. Restoration and management of rich natural ecosystems will be as important as protection of existing wild areas. Energy-intensive micromanagement of ecosystems will become less feasible. Ecotechnology and, more specifically, ecological engineering and self-design are appropriate bases for sustainable ecosystem management. We use the Mississippi River basin as a case study for ecology in times of scarcity.

John Day (Louisiana State University;Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences)

2009-04-01

220

Backyard Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

2003-01-01

221

Ecological Footprint  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore their own Ecological Footprint in the context of how many Earths it would take if everyone used the same amount of resources they did. They compare this to the Ecological Footprint of individuals in other parts of the world and to the Ecological footprint of a family member when they were the student's age.

2007-01-01

222

Remote Sensing Coastal Areas Personal Introduction  

E-print Network

Management · Tropical Marine Ecology, Coral Reef Ecology, GIS in Landscape Ecology, Limnology 4 #12 ­ Tropical Marine Ecology ­ Coral Reef Ecology 5 #12;Examples of Remote Sensing in Coastal Areas · Cozumel Summary · Additional Cruise Ship Piers ­ 1-3 Piers: Sediment from concrete mixing, Paraiso reef damage

Kuligowski, Bob

223

[Uncertainty analysis of ecological risk assessment caused by heavy-metals deposition from MSWI emission].  

PubMed

The CALPUFF model was applied to simulate the ground-level atmospheric concentrations of Pb and Cd from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, and the soil concentration model was used to estimate soil concentration increments after atmospheric deposition based on Monte Carlo simulation, then ecological risk assessment was conducted by the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the largest atmospheric concentrations of Pb and Cd were 5.59 x 109-3) microg x m(-3) and 5.57 x 10(-4) microg x m(-3), respectively, while the maxima of soil concentration incremental medium of Pb and Cd were 2.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively; High risk areas were located next to the incinerators, Cd contributed the most to the ecological risk, and Pb was basically free of pollution risk; Higher ecological hazard level was predicted at the most polluted point in urban areas with a 55.30% probability, while in rural areas, the most polluted point was assessed to moderate ecological hazard level with a 72.92% probability. In addition, sensitivity analysis of calculation parameters in the soil concentration model was conducted, which showed the simulated results of urban and rural area were most sensitive to soil mix depth and dry deposition rate, respectively. PMID:25158505

Liao, Zhi-Heng; Sun, Jia-Ren; Wu, Dui; Fan, Shao-Jia; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Lü, Jia-Yang

2014-06-01

224

Polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of the 121-bp repetitive sequence of Schistosoma mansoni: a highly sensitive potential diagnostic tool for areas of low endemicity.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, whose diagnosis has limitations, such as the low sensitivity and specificity of parasitological and immunological methods, respectively. In the present study an alternative molecular technique requiring previous standardization was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of a 121-bp highly repetitive sequence for Schistosoma mansoni. DNA was extracted from eggs of S. mansoni by salting out. Different conditions were standardized for the PCR technique, including the concentration of reagents and the DNA template, annealing temperature and number of cycles, followed by the determination of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Furthermore, the standardized PCR technique was employed in DNA extracted, using Chelex®100, from samples of sera of patients with an immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. The optimal conditions for the PCR were 2.5 mm MgCl2, 150 mm deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.4 ?m primers, 0.75 U DNA polymerase, using 35 cycles and an annealing temperature of 63°C. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was 10 attograms of DNA and the specificity was 100%. The DNA sequence was successfully detected in the sera of two patients, demonstrating schistosomiasis transmission, although low, in the community studied. The standardized PCR technique, using smaller amounts of reagents than in the original protocol, is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of DNA from S. mansoni and could be an important tool for diagnosis in areas of low endemicity. PMID:25141275

Ferrer, E; Pérez, F; Bello, I; Bolívar, A; Lares, M; Osorio, A; León, L; Amarista, M; Incani, R N

2014-08-20

225

Patterns of Enquiry in Ecology: 1: Principles of Biological Enquiry and Problems of Ecological Enquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first paper in a two-part series describing the patterns of inquiry used in ecology. Ecological knowledge and research are analyzed in terms of two sets of concepts: ecological problem areas, and principles of biological inquiry. Problem areas identified are classification and taxonomy, energetics, nutrition and metabolism, genecology,…

Connelly, F. Michael

226

Boreal forest mapping at the BOREAS study area using seasonal optical indices sensitive to plant pigment content  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, forest vegetation classification was investigated based on seasonal variation of pigments as inferred from visible and near-infrared spectral bands. This analysis was carried out on data collected over the southern study area of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (casi) in May and July 1994 and with the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS)

Baoxin Hu; John R. Miller; Pablo Zarco-Tejada; James Freemantle; Harold Zwick

2008-01-01

227

Linking field-based ecological data with remotely sensed data using a geographic information system in two malaria endemic urban areas of Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Remote sensing technology provides detailed spectral and thermal images of the earth's surface from which surrogate ecological indicators of complex processes can be measured. Methods Remote sensing data were overlaid onto georeferenced entomological and human ecological data randomly sampled during April and May 2001 in the cities of Kisumu (population ? 320,000) and Malindi (population ? 81,000), Kenya. Grid cells of 270 meters × 270 meters were used to generate spatial sampling units for each city for the collection of entomological and human ecological field-based data. Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite data in the visible spectrum at five meter resolution were acquired for Kisumu and Malindi during February and March 2001, respectively. The MTI data were fit and aggregated to the 270 meter × 270 meter grid cells used in field-based sampling using a geographic information system. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated and scaled from MTI data for selected grid cells. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between NDVI values and entomological and human ecological variables at the grid cell level. Results Multivariate linear regression showed that as household density increased, mean grid cell NDVI decreased (global F-test = 9.81, df 3,72, P-value = <0.01; adjusted R2 = 0.26). Given household density, the number of potential anopheline larval habitats per grid cell also increased with increasing values of mean grid cell NDVI (global F-test = 14.29, df 3,36, P-value = <0.01; adjusted R2 = 0.51). Conclusions NDVI values obtained from MTI data were successfully overlaid onto georeferenced entomological and human ecological data spatially sampled at a scale of 270 meters × 270 meters. Results demonstrate that NDVI at such a scale was sufficient to describe variations in entomological and human ecological parameters across both cities. PMID:14667243

Eisele, Thomas P; Keating, Joseph; Swalm, Chris; Mbogo, Charles M; Githeko, Andrew K; Regens, James L; Githure, John I; Andrews, Linda; Beier, John C

2003-01-01

228

Forest ecology Introduction  

E-print Network

Forest ecology Introduction Forest ecology is a part of ecology that is con- cerned with forests ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and ecosystem ecology. Forest ecology has generally focused on forest trees so it could provide the ecological basis for silviculture, forest management

Johnson, Edward A.

229

Metabolic ecology.  

PubMed

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

230

Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.  

PubMed

The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious. PMID:22783614

Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

2012-01-01

231

Spatial uncertainty and ecological models  

SciTech Connect

Applied ecological models that are used to understand and manage natural systems often rely on spatial data as input. Spatial uncertainty in these data can propagate into model predictions. Uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, error analysis, error budget analysis, spatial decision analysis, and hypothesis testing using neutral models are all techniques designed to explore the relationship between variation in model inputs and variation in model predictions. Although similar methods can be used to answer them, these approaches address different questions. These approaches differ in (a) whether the focus is forward or backward (forward to evaluate the magnitude of variation in model predictions propagated or backward to rank input parameters by their influence); (b) whether the question involves model robustness to large variations in spatial pattern or to small deviations from a reference map; and (c) whether processes that generate input uncertainty (for example, cartographic error) are of interest. In this commentary, we propose a taxonomy of approaches, all of which clarify the relationship between spatial uncertainty and the predictions of ecological models. We describe existing techniques and indicate a few areas where research is needed.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; King, Anthony Wayne [ORNL

2004-07-01

232

Conservation Ecology & Entomology Department Undergraduate Programmes  

E-print Network

Conservation Ecology & Entomology Department Undergraduate Programmes BSc ConsEcol Would you like, with an emphasis on socio-ecological systems, equips you to work at solving conservation challenges. The areas and freshwater), restoration ecology, game farm management, ecotourism, community-based natural resource

Geldenhuys, Jaco

233

Scanning-free grazing emission x-ray fluorescence by means of an angular dispersive arrangement with a two-dimensional position-sensitive area detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the application of a two-dimensional position-sensitive area detector towards grazing emission x-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) spectroscopy. GEXRF allows for surface-sensitive studies with nanometer-scale accuracy in the depth direction by measuring the intensity variation of an x-ray fluorescence line with the grazing emission angle. The presented experimental setup is based on a fixed sample-detector arrangement and does not require any moving components. We show that the dispersion of the grazing emission angle along a position-sensitive detector allows to acquire with an excellent angular resolution a full GEXRF profile in a single measurement. Moreover, the use of a two-dimensional detector allows to perform experiments with an increased solid angle of detection per emission angle. This results in combination with the nonsequential and simultaneous acquisition of the GEXRF profiles of different emission lines in considerably reduced acquisition times. The realization, the demands, and the main characteristics of the scanning-free GEXRF setup will be presented. A few experimental examples will serve to illustrate the analytical possibilities offered by the presented setup.

Kayser, Y.; Szlachetko, J.; Sà, J.

2013-12-01

234

General Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

235

Ecological risk screening to prioritize sites for cleanup at Yorktown Naval Weapons Station: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Federal facilities pose a unique and difficult problem for the Superfund process in that most federal facilities have a large number of suspect areas that require some form of environmental investigation to determine the potential risk these areas present to human health and the environment. Developing an ecological risk screening methodology for an area with known or suspect contaminated media is an integral part in assessing and characterizing existing and potential overall threat presented to the environment. Sites which indicate risk in the screening phase may be prioritized and carried into the RI process. Alternately, sites which indicate minimal risk in the screening process may be characterized for limited ecological investigation or possibly eliminated from further evaluation. This paper presents a case study of the ecological risk screening process used at the Naval Weapons Station (NWS), Yorktown, Virginia, a National Priorities List (NPL) site, to assess the effects of organic contamination to sensitive ecological receptors with habitats encompassing Lee Pond, a freshwater pond tributary to the York River Estuary. Lee Pond has been impacted by several contaminant source areas found at the NWS facility and has, therefore, become a secondary source of contamination. This discussion will include the use of the ecological risk screening process at the facility as a method of prioritizing and directing environmental restoration activities at those areas determined to have a potential threat to human health or the environment.

Pehrman, D.G.; Rowles, L.K. [Black and Veatch Waste Science, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thomson, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Region 3

1995-12-31

236

CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

NHEERL's research in this area focuses on ecological effects of bioaccumulative chemicals, such as PCBs. The research is designed with recognition that sites of different size and complexity require bioaccumulation models with correspondingly complex and/or extensive data requir...

237

Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates.  

PubMed

The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10,000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ?10(11). This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform. PMID:25220106

Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

2014-11-01

238

Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an increase in the rangeland vegetation that is dominated by scrubland, meanwhile the woodlands are reduced. Circa 50 % of the land that was classified as "Critical" to land degradation after 1985 had been previously classified as "Non-affected". However, not all changes occurred in the Cànyoles watershed are characterized by a negative change; i.e., 82 % of the land has turned from "Critical" values to "Non- sensitive" to land degradation between mid-20th century and recent times. We found this negative trend to be having been caused by the removal of those crops that are most sensitive to land degradation, such as rain-fed crops, and that are mainly located in the west of the studied watershed. Similar findings were found by Zema et al., (2012) when applying the AnnAGNPS model to the agriculture land in Belgiums, Prokop and Poreba (2012) to the India, Miao e t al., (2012) in China and Haile and Fetene (2012) in Ethiopia: man made changes in the landscape that trigger land degradation processes.. Acknowledgements This research was undertaken in the frame of the 7FP project LEDDRA - Land Ecosystem Degradation and Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses - ENV, 2009.2.1.3.2. We thank professor Costas Kosmas for his guidance. References Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. y Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Giménez Morera, A., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D. y Cerdà, A. 2010. The impact of cotton geotextiles on soil and water losses in Mediterranean rainfed agricultural land. Land Degradation and Development , 210- 217. D

Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

2014-05-01

239

ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION CONSERVATION BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

type of Ecological Compensation Area (ECA). We launched a research project in 2010, in which we at Unibe plus 6 MSc positions hosted at the Swiss Ornithological Institute At Unibe, in four main research? So far we already investigated plant- and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha), spiders, wild

Richner, Heinz

240

Teaching Ecology in Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

241

Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform.The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the AAO membrane and bare polymer film, FEM simulations of anemone-like polymeric nanopillars depending on the time and pressure, and detailed calculation of the enhancement factor both including experimental and theoretical approaches. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03909b

Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

2014-10-01

242

Rapid vulnerability and risk assessments for critical areas regarding substances set free into the atmosphere based on predicted source-receptor sensitivity fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total effect of an accident or incident based on the release of hazardous material into the atmosphere will not depend on the total area of land where a certain threshold exposure is predicted to be exceeded. Instead, it is determined by the number of people living in this area. So, the effect will be determined by an overlay of critical exposure area data with population density data. Therefore, it is evident that rapid vulnerability and risk assessments for regions of high population density are crucial for preparedness purposes. The calculation of Source-Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields for monitoring stations and networks has been shown to be very efficient in analysing or predicting measurement scenarios based on known or hypothetical atmospheric releases. If theses fields are available, complex global measurement scenarios can be predicted or reconstructed within seconds. This SRS concept originally developed for measurement points shall now be extended to population density centers. The goal is to predict the total exposure of a population Centre (i.e. the exposure of the population living into the defined boundaries) regarding a hazardous substance for the next 3-5 days, within a few seconds after a particular release gets known. The technical solution for this problem is to calculate SRS fields not for a point, but for a predefined, non-geometrical area. Besides the emergency response aspect, such data can be used for planning purposes, for example for the minimization of risks for the population from fixed and mobile point sources. In this presentation, the calculation of SRS fields for non-geometric areas will be demonstrated, and a few examples of possible applications will be provided.

Wotawa, Gerhard

2010-05-01

243

Sensitivity Analysis in Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The symposium proceedings presented focused primarily on sensitivity analysis of structural response. However, the first session, entitled, General and Multidisciplinary Sensitivity, focused on areas such as physics, chemistry, controls, and aerodynamics. The other four sessions were concerned with the sensitivity of structural systems modeled by finite elements. Session 2 dealt with Static Sensitivity Analysis and Applications; Session 3 with Eigenproblem Sensitivity Methods; Session 4 with Transient Sensitivity Analysis; and Session 5 with Shape Sensitivity Analysis.

Adelman, Howard M. (compiler); Haftka, Raphael T. (compiler)

1987-01-01

244

Terrestrial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial studies continue to contribute ideas and ecological data ; relevant to nuclear-power plant siting and the management of stored radioactive ; wastes in the semi-arid steppe region of Washington. These ideas and data are ; also largely applicable to steppe regions of Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. Much of ; the available information concerning the ecology of steppe ecosystems has

1974-01-01

245

Ecological Consultancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

2004-01-01

246

Soil Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

Killham, Ken

1994-04-01

247

SpecialFeature Ecology, 84(3), 2003, pp. 574577  

E-print Network

574 SpecialFeature Ecology, 84(3), 2003, pp. 574­577 2003 by the Ecological Society of America WHAT that genetics should be incorporated into ecological explanations (Collins 1986). C. C. Adams (1915) sug- gested. Evolutionary ecology emerged in the 1960s, driven by empirical results in three areas (Collins 1986

Antonovics, Janis

248

Sensitivity tests on the criterion of potential vorticity index for discriminating the location of ozone sources and sinks over large continental areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of a statistical-dynamic model (ISOGASP, standing for Identification of SOurces of greenhouse GAS Plus), developed by our research group to reconstruct 3D concentration patterns of greenhouse gases in large and deep atmospheric regions over continental or oceanic areas and extending vertically from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. The results of this analysis have shown the ability of the ISOGASP model to discriminate the locations of ozone sources, according to the geographical distribution patterns of atmospheric O3 concentration inside a limited number of atmospheric layers at different heights above sea level, reconstructed through the method of backward trajectories simulating the travel of air parcels from each different layer to the receptor points at their own height. The potential vorticity index has been used to discriminate the sub-sets of trajectories belonging to stratosphere or troposphere.

Cacòpardo, T.; Ferrarese, S.; Longhetto, A.; Cassardo, C.

2004-03-01

249

The Impact of Standing Water and Irrigation on AMSR-E Sensitivity to Soil Moisture over the NAFE'06 Experiment Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMSR-E sensitivity to soil moisture and its accuracy have been studied over a wide variety of surface conditions and weather regimes using both in situ measured data and aircraft derived soil moisture estimates. Several extensive soil moisture field campaigns involving ground and air-borne components have been undertaken in support of validation and development of soil moisture retrieval algorithms, addressing calibration issues, performing accuracy assessment studies etc. The lack of well established soil moisture networks worldwide to a certain extent limit the validation sites to areas located primarily throughout the continental US. In the present research we expand AMSR-E validation over an area with extensive irrigation and standing water (rice fields), located in the Murrumbidgee Catchment, SE Australia, using the National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE'06) data set and an alternative AMSR-E derived SM product (product developed by the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) utilizing C-band measured brightness temperature. Using a surface reflectance threshold methodology it was determined that rice fields coverage was greater than 1% over one-third and greater than 4% over one-ninth of the domain. It has been previously shown that as little as 2.5% of standing water at 1 km pixel size can result in worse accuracy than the desired for soil moisture retrieval value of 0.04 v/v. Therefore it was expected that the presence of irrigation and standing water will affect the retrieval algorithm performance and result in lower accuracy over these fields as compared to the rest of the domain. The spatial correlations between AMSR-E and an aircraft product, derived from the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer flown during the campaign (average R = 0.94 and RMSE = 0.04 v/v), indicated significant AMSR-E sensitivity to changes in soil moisture caused by both precipitation and irrigation. Expectedly the irrigation area was depicted as being the wettest part of the domain. Consistent wetting and drying trends, evident in both products (AMSR-E and PLMR), indicated adequate response to temporal soil moisture variability and excellent agreement for the duration of the campaign and under the NAFE'06 site specific conditions. Most importantly, the AMSR-E SM - PLMR analysis over areas with standing water and irrigation revealed retrieval accuracy better than 0.04 v/v (4% rice field coverage at 25 km pixel size: R = 0.87 and RMSE = 0.02 v/v).

Lakshmi, V.; Mladenova, I.; Jackson, T.; Walker, J.; Merlin, O.; de Jeu, R. A.

2008-12-01

250

THE ECOLOGY OF ANTIOXIDANTS & OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ANIMALS Ecological, biomedical and epidemiological approaches  

E-print Network

THE ECOLOGY OF ANTIOXIDANTS & OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ANIMALS Ecological, biomedical Summary 1. Oxidative stress and antioxidants have been studied in a number of disciplines, but these disci and weaknesses of oxidative stress and antioxidant research in the areas of (i) ecology, (ii) ageing research

de Magalhães, João Pedro

251

Knowledge-based environmental information system for sustainable development of wetland area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsuitable development of wetland area will cause serious environmental problems in flooding, the depredation of ecology, and the pollution of water quality on account of environmental sensitivity of wetland. Thus, wetland development and environmental protection has become an issue of national emphasis for the environmental management in the world. There is a demand for planning and decision strategies in this

Wu Bingshan; Zhang Weiguo; Luo Jun

2010-01-01

252

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

253

Warfare Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related\\u000a to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called “warfare ecology,”\\u000a (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research\\u000a directions and policy implications

Gary E. Machlis; Thor Hanson

254

Campus Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

National Wildlife Federation

255

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

256

An ultra-sensitive assay targeting the circulating anodic antigen for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum in a low-endemic area, People's Republic of China.  

PubMed

The downward trend in prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) has reached a level where accurate methods are required for monitoring the national schistosomiasis control programme and to verify whether transmission has been interrupted. We have assessed the prevalence of active S. japonicum infection by use of an up-converting phosphor lateral-flow (UCP-LF) assay for determination of circulating anodic antigens (CAA) in urine and serum, and compared the findings with those of the Kato-Katz technique for egg detection in stool and an immunohaemagglutination assay (IHA) for specific antibodies in serum. The study was carried out in three villages located in a remaining S. japonicum-endemic area in P.R. China. Overall, 423 individuals were investigated by Kato-Katz, 395 by IHA, 371 with the UCP-LF CAA assay adapted for urine and 178 with the UCP-LF CAA assay applied on serum. The IHA showed the highest number of positive results (n=107, 27.1%). The UCP-LF CAA urine assay detected 36 CAA positives (9.7%) and the serum-based CAA assay 21 positives (11.8%). The Kato-Katz technique revealed only six positive stool samples (1.4%). Among those 166 individuals with complete data records, sensitivities of the different assays were determined versus a combined 'gold' standard, showing the highest sensitivity for the urine CAA assay (93%), followed by the serum CAA (73%) and IHA (53%), whilst triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears had a very low sensitivity (13%). Serum CAA concentrations were about 10-fold higher than in urine and were significantly correlated. Highest prevalences as determined by CAA were found in older age groups (>40 years). Half of the CAA- or egg-positive cases were negative for antibodies by IHA, thereby revealing an important obstacle for the effectiveness of the current schistosomiasis control and elimination efforts. The significantly higher prevalence of active schistosome infections as shown by the urine and serum UCP-LF CAA assays has implications for the national control and elimination programme in P.R. China, particularly in respect to case-finding and intervention strategies. PMID:25128703

van Dam, Govert J; Xu, Jing; Bergquist, Robert; de Dood, Claudia J; Utzinger, Jürg; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Wei; Feng, Ting; Yu, Xin-Ling; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Ma; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Corstjens, Paul L A M

2015-01-01

257

Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

1991-01-01

258

The spatial patterns of initial errors related to "winter predictability barrier" of Indian Ocean dipole and sensitive areas in targeted observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) CM2p1 coupled model, the "winter predictability barrier" (WPB) phenomenon of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events is revealed from the view of error growth. Quite a few initial errors exhibit significant season-dependent evolutions with maximum growth rate in winter, finally inducing a significant WPB phenomenon. These initial errors can be classified into two groups. In one group, the initial errors tend to present positive sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western Indian Ocean and negative SSTA in the eastern Indian Ocean; while in the other group, the initial errors are inclined to have patterns almost opposite to the former. Furthermore, the anomaly signal in the subsurface temperature component of initial errors is more notable than that in the surface temperature. For the initial errors that don't show considerable season-dependent evolutions, it is difficult to identify a common characteristic of the patterns. Besides, numerical experiments demonstrate that there is no season-dependent evolution with the random initial errors, and WPB phenomenon disappears. All these indicate that the WPB of IOD events is closely related to the particular spatial patterns of initial errors. The two types of initial errors feature that the large errors concentrate a localized region; the benefits from reductions of initial errors in this localized region are quite larger than those in other regions. This region may therefore represent the sensitive areas of IOD predictions. If we increase observations in these areas and then the accuracy of initial fields, the IOD forecast skill may be greatly improved.

Feng, Rong; Mu, Mu; Duan, Wansuo

2013-04-01

259

Designing for ecology : the ecological park  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to define a) what an ecological park is, and b) whether it is a new model in park design. Reference to the literature on landscape ecology is used to analyze the natural ecological merit of these parks, ...

Power, Andres M

2006-01-01

260

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of Dorset. II. The badger population, its ecology and tuberculosis status.  

PubMed Central

Following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in Dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. The sets were found predominantly in areas of Portland Sand. A high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. The removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. Re-colonization of the area has progressed slowly and the cattle have remained free from infection for a period of 5 years. PMID:6752271

Little, T. W.; Swan, C.; Thompson, H. V.; Wilesmith, J. W.

1982-01-01

261

Local sensitivity to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency within the receptive fields of neurons in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys  

PubMed Central

We used dynamic dense noise stimuli and local spectral reverse correlation methods to reveal the local sensitivities of neurons in visual area 2 (V2) of macaque monkeys to orientation and spatial frequency within their receptive fields. This minimized the potentially confounding assumptions that are inherent in stimulus selections. The majority of neurons exhibited a relatively high degree of homogeneity for the preferred orientations and spatial frequencies in the spatial matrix of facilitatory subfields. However, about 20% of all neurons showed maximum orientation differences between neighboring subfields that were greater than 25 deg. The neurons preferring horizontal or vertical orientations showed less inhomogeneity in space than the neurons preferring oblique orientations. Over 50% of all units also exhibited suppressive profiles, and those were more heterogeneous than facilitatory profiles. The preferred orientation and spatial frequency of suppressive profiles differed substantially from those of facilitatory profiles, and the neurons with suppressive subfields had greater orientation selectivity than those without suppressive subfields. The peak suppression occurred with longer delays than the peak facilitation. These results suggest that the receptive field profiles of the majority of V2 neurons reflect the orderly convergence of V1 inputs over space, but that a subset of V2 neurons exhibit more complex response profiles having both suppressive and facilitatory subfields. These V2 neurons with heterogeneous subfield profiles could play an important role in the initial processing of complex stimulus features. PMID:22114163

Tao, X.; Zhang, B.; Smith, E. L.; Nishimoto, S.; Ohzawa, I.

2012-01-01

262

Analysis of the cavitating flow induced by an ultrasonic horn - Numerical 3D simulation for the analysis of vapour structures and the assessment of erosion-sensitive areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the outcome of a numerical study of ultrasonic cavitation using a CFD flow algorithm based on a compressible density-based finite volume method with a low-Machnumber consistent flux function and an explicit time integration [15; 18] in combination with an erosion-detecting flow analysis procedure. The model is validated against erosion data of an ultrasonic horn for different gap widths between the horn tip and a counter sample which has been intensively investigated in previous material studies at the Ruhr University Bochum [23] as well as on first optical in-house flow measurement data which is presented in a companion paper [13]. Flow features such as subharmonic cavitation oscillation frequencies as well as constricted vapour cloud structures can also be observed by the vapour regions predicted in our simulation as well as by the detected collapse event field (collapse detector) [12]. With a statistical analysis of transient wall loads we can determine the erosion sensitive areas qualitatively. Our simulation method can reproduce the influence of the gap width on vapour structure and on location of cavitation erosion.

Mottyll, Stephan; Müller, Saskia; Niederhofer, Philipp; Hussong, Jeanette; Huth, Stephan; Skoda, Romuald

2014-03-01

263

A Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterline Method of Constructing a Digital Elevation Model for Intertidal Areas in ERS SAR scene of Eastern England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensitivity analysis of the waterline method of constructing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of an intertidal zone using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling is described. Variation in vertical height accuracy as a function of beach slope is investigated using a set of nine ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the Humber/Wash area on the English east coast acquired between 1992 and 1994. Waterlines from these images are heighted using a hydrodynamic tide-surge model and interpolated using block kriging. On 1:500 slope beaches, an average block height estimation standard deviation of 18-22 cm is achieved. This rises to 27 cm on 1:100 slope beaches, and 32 cm on 1:30 slope beaches. The average heighting error at different slopes is decomposed into components due to waterline heighting error, inadequate sensor resolution and interpolation inaccuracy. It is shown that, at 1:500 slope, waterline heighting error and interpolation inaccuracy are the main error sources, whilst at 1:30 slope, errors due to inadequate sensor resolution become dominant. The ability of the technique to generate intertidal DEMs for almost the entire coastal zone in a complete ERS SAR scene covering 100×100 km is demonstrated.

Mason, D. C.; Davenport, I. J.; Flather, R. A.; Gurney, C.; Robinson, G. J.; Smith, J. A.

2001-12-01

264

Potential ecological risk assessment of soil heavy metals contamination around coal gangue piles of Baodian coal mine area of Shandong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soil samples from 12 sampling sites around coal gangue piles of Baodian coal mine area in Shandong Province, China were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in soil of Baodian coal mine area were up to 30.91, 1.97, 37.78 and 101.81 mg\\/kg, respectively, which are much higher than their

Yande Jing; Baoyu Gao; Zongqi Ma

2011-01-01

265

Human-induced marine ecological degradation: micropaleontological perspectives  

PubMed Central

We analyzed published downcore microfossil records from 150 studies and reinterpreted them from an ecological degradation perspective to address the following critical but still imperfectly answered questions: (1) How is the timing of human-induced degradation of marine ecosystems different among regions? (2) What are the dominant causes of human-induced marine ecological degradation? (3) How can we better document natural variability and thereby avoid the problem of shifting baselines of comparison as degradation progresses over time? The results indicated that: (1) ecological degradation in marine systems began significantly earlier in Europe and North America (?1800s) compared with Asia (post-1900) due to earlier industrialization in European and North American countries, (2) ecological degradation accelerated globally in the late 20th century due to post-World War II economic growth, (3) recovery from the degraded state in late 20th century following various restoration efforts and environmental regulations occurred only in limited localities. Although complex in detail, typical signs of ecological degradation were diversity decline, dramatic changes in total abundance, decrease in benthic and/or sensitive species, and increase in planktic, resistant, toxic, and/or introduced species. The predominant cause of degradation detected in these microfossil records was nutrient enrichment and the resulting symptoms of eutrophication, including hypoxia. Other causes also played considerable roles in some areas, including severe metal pollution around mining sites, water acidification by acidic wastewater, and salinity changes from construction of causeways, dikes, and channels, deforestation, and land clearance. Microfossils enable reconstruction of the ecological history of the past 102–103 years or even more, and, in conjunction with statistical modeling approaches using independent proxy records of climate and human-induced environmental changes, future research will enable workers to better address Shifting Baseline Syndrome and separate anthropogenic impacts from background natural variability. PMID:23301187

Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; Breitburg, Denise; Tsujimoto, Akira; Katsuki, Kota

2012-01-01

266

Plant Ecology An Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Plant Ecology An Introduction Ecology as a Science Study of the relationships between living and causes of the abundance and distribution of organisms Ecology as a Science We'll use the perspective of terrestrial plants Basic ecology - ecological principles Applied ecology - application of principles

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

267

Extreme precipitation during 1921 in the area of the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research site, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

An unusually high amount of precipitation, including a world record 24-h snowfall, was recorded in 1921 at Silver Lake, Colorado, near the Niwot Ridge alpine tundra Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. There was 68.3 in. (1735 mm) total annual precipitation which was over five standard deviations above the 1914-1992 mean and the April snowfall produced 76 inches (1.93 m) of snow in 24 h. An investigation of these phenomena brings to light the following points. The precipitation at Silver Lake, and presumably the Niwot Ridge LTER site, during 1921 was exceptionally high. The precipitation was highly localized. There are no obvious causes for the high precipitation to be found in the synoptic climatology for the year. However, moisture sources from the west in the winter and spring and from the south in the summer do seem to have been available. Despite well-marked, but temporary, impacts on humans and possibly other higher mammals, there is no evidence of any major or long-lasting impacts to the alpine tundra or subalpine forest ecosystems. Higher temperatures and persistent drought, as might be found with global climatic warming, are proposed as potentially more important disturbance factors to these systems. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Greenland, D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

1995-02-01

268

Mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) community structure as an indicator of the ecological status of a stream in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Ephemeroptera is an important group of insects used in the bioassessment and monitoring of freshwater bodies worldwide because of their relative abundance in a wide variety of substrates and their increasing chances of detecting pollution impacts. In this study, their faunistic composition and spatiotemporal variations in density and diversity in River Orogodo (Southern Nigeria) was investigated at five ecologically distinct stations over a 12-month period. The mayfly nymph community responses to environmental variables were evaluated by means of biological measures and multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis [RDA]). Thirteen morphologically distinct taxa belonging to six families were identified. The dominant taxa were Afrobaetodes pusillus (23.1%), Baetis sp. (13.7%), and Caenis cibaria (11.4%). The density of Ephemeroptera differed significantly (p < 0.05) both in space and time. Diversity was influenced by substrate heterogeneity which in turn was influenced by catchment processes such as flooding and anthropogenic activities especially abattoir effluent. Based on the RDA ordination and relative abundance data, Baetis sp. dominated at impacted stations while a more equitable distribution of species were observed in less disturbed sites. Water velocity, canopy cover, nature of bottom sediments, and the amount of dissolved oxygen also accounted for the variations in Ephemeroptera densities at the different stations. Shannon diversity, taxa richness, and evenness were lowest in station 3 (the abattoir discharge site). PMID:19543701

Arimoro, Francis O; Muller, Wilhelmine J

2010-07-01

269

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 °C and 17 °C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-12-01

270

Conservation Ecology & Entomology Department Stellenbosch University ecological network research (Mondi  

E-print Network

Conservation Ecology & Entomology Department Stellenbosch University ecological network research (Mondi Ecological Network Programme (MENP) Ecological networks (ENs) reduce the isolation of populations helps to prevent ecological relaxation (the loss of ecological systems and interactions) and so prevents

Geldenhuys, Jaco

271

Early diagenesis of redox-sensitive trace metals in the Peru upwelling area - response to ENSO-related oxygen fluctuations in the water column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pore water and solid phase data for redox-sensitive metals (Mn, Fe, V, Mo and U) were collected on a transect across the Peru upwelling area (11°S) at water depths between 78 and 2025 m and bottom water oxygen concentrations ranging from ˜0 to 93 ?M. By comparing authigenic mass accumulation rates and diffusive benthic fluxes, we evaluate the respective mechanisms of trace metal accumulation, retention and remobilization across the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and with respect to oxygen fluctuations in the water column related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Sediments within the permanent OMZ are characterized by diffusive uptake and authigenic fixation of U, V and Mo as well as diffusive loss of Mn and Fe across the benthic boundary. Some of the dissolved Mn and Fe in the water column re-precipitate at the oxycline and shuttle particle-reactive trace metals to the sediment surface at the lower and upper boundary of the OMZ. At the lower boundary, pore waters are not sufficiently sulfidic as to enable an efficient authigenic V and Mo fixation. As a consequence, sediments below the OMZ are preferentially enriched in U which is delivered via both in situ precipitation and lateral supply of U-rich phosphorites from further upslope. Trace metal cycling on the Peruvian shelf is strongly affected by ENSO-related oxygen fluctuations in bottom water. During periods of shelf oxygenation, surface sediments receive particulate V and Mo with metal (oxyhydr)oxides that derive from both terrigenous sources and precipitation at the retreating oxycline. After the recurrence of anoxic conditions, metal (oxyhydr)oxides are reductively dissolved and the hereby liberated V and Mo are authigenically removed. This alternation between supply of particle-reactive trace metals during oxic periods and fixation during anoxic periods leads to a preferential accumulation of V and Mo compared to U on the Peruvian shelf. The decoupling of V, Mo and U accumulation is further accentuated by the varying susceptibility to re-oxidation of the different authigenic metal phases. While authigenic U and V are readily re-oxidized and recycled during periods of shelf oxygenation, the sequestration of Mo by authigenic pyrite is favored by the transient occurrence of oxidizing conditions. Our findings reveal that redox-sensitive trace metals respond in specific manner to short-term oxygen fluctuations in the water column. The relative enrichment patterns identified might be useful for the reconstruction of past OMZ extension and large-scale redox oscillations in the geological record.

Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Noffke, Anna; Rohde, Anne; Liebetrau, Volker; Wallmann, Klaus

2011-11-01

272

Landscape pattern and its effect on ecosystem functions in Seoul Metropolitan area: urban ecology on distribution of the naturalized plant species.  

PubMed

During land transformation process in the human history, naturalized plants were introduced to several land use patterns by the different ways of plant itself. Including some naturalized plants that had been contribute to land restoration, many naturalized plants have been invaded to original habitat or landscape for native plants. Once the plants were colonized, they extend their area and population size. Urban developed areas often give an important role of source habitat for naturalized plants and expanding their population size. In recent, this situation is appearing as one of environmental problem about the urban landscape management controlling the naturalized plants that invaded in the developed area and conserving the native vegetation. This paper is focusing on relationships between distribution of habitat of naturalized plants and landscape patch in urban areas in Seoul. Gangdong-Gu, one of the administrative areas in Seoul was selected for this study. We examined the recent land use change using LANDSAT TM data and spreading of the representative naturalized plants (Robinia pseudocacia and Eupatorium rugosum) by Seoul Biotope Mapping Project and field survey in 1999. As a result, these two species were often occurred in the same habitat and distributed in forest edge disturbed by man. Their distribution patterns were related to landscape indices (patch size and shape) in the forest edge. PMID:12765262

Hong, Sun-Kee; Song, In-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Eung-Kyong

2003-03-01

273

Ecology, Microbial  

SciTech Connect

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-05-15

274

Ecology, Microbial  

SciTech Connect

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-03-19

275

Defending Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

Margolis, Brian

2000-01-01

276

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

277

Quantitative ecology and dry-heat resistance of psychrophiles. M.S. Thesis; [in soil samples from Viking spacecraft manufacturing areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microorganisms capable of growth at 7 C were enumerated and isolated from soil samples from the manufacture area (Denver, Colorado) and assembly area (Cape Kennedy, Florida) of the Viking spacecraft. Temperature requirements were determined for these isolates, and those growing at 3 C, but not at 32 C were designated as obligate psychrophiles in this investigation. These were identified to major generic groups, and the population density of obligate psychrophiles from the various groups was determined. Dry heat D-values were found for those spores that demonstrated growth or survival under a simulated Martian environment.

Winans, L., Jr.

1974-01-01

278

Export fluxes in a naturally fertilized area of the Southern Ocean, the Kerguelen Plateau: ecological vectors of carbon and biogenic silica to depth (Part 2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical (particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, biogenic silica) and biological (diatoms and faecal pellets) composition of the material exported to a moored sediment trap located under the winter mixed layer of the naturally-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean was studied over an annual cycle. Despite iron availability in spring, the annual particulate organic carbon (POC) export (98.2 mmol m-2) at 289 m was low but annual biogenic silica export was significant (114 mmol m-2). This feature was related to the abundance of empty diatom frustules and the ratio of full : empty cell exerted a first order control in BSi : POC export stoichiometry of biological pump. Chaetoceros Hyalochaete spp. and Thalassiosira antarctica resting spores were found to be responsible for more than 60% of the annual POC that occurred during two very short export events (<14 days in spring-summer) representing the majority of captured export. Low diatom fluxes were observed over the remainder of the year. Faecal pellet contribution to annual carbon flux was low (34%) and reached it's seasonal maximum in autumn and winter (>80%). The seasonal progression of faecal pellet types revealed a clear transition from small spherical shapes (small copepods) in spring, larger cylindrical and ellipsoid shapes in summer (euphausiids and large copepods) and finally large tabular shapes (salps) in autumn and winter. We propose that in this High Biomass, Low Export (HBLE) environment, small, highly silicified, fast-sinking resting spores are able to bypass the high grazing pressure and efficient carbon transfer to higher trophic levels that are responsible for the low fluxes observed the during the remainder of the year. Our study also provides a statistical framework linking the ecological succession of diatom and zooplankton communities to the seasonality of carbon and silicon export within an iron-fertilized bloom region in the Southern Ocean.

Rembauville, M.; Blain, S.; Armand, L.; Quéguiner, B.; Salter, I.

2014-12-01

279

The development of TH2 responses from infancy to 4 years of age and atopic sensitization in areas endemic for helminth infections  

PubMed Central

Background Helminth infections and allergies are associated with TH2 responses. Whereas the development of TH2 responses and allergic disorders in pediatric populations has been examined in affluent countries, no or little data exist from low income regions of the world. The aim of this study is to examine factors influencing the development of TH2 responses of children born in areas endemic for helminth infections and to relate these factors to atopic sensitization at 4 years of age. Methods Data were collected from pregnant mothers on helminth infections, education and socioeconomic status (SES). Total IgE, IL-5 in response to mitogen, and helminth antigens were measured in children at 2, 5, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Skin prick testing (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE were determined at 4 years of age. Results Strong TH2 responses were seen at 5 months of age and increased with time. Although maternal filarial infection was associated with helminth-antigen specific TH2 responses, it was low maternal education or SES but not helminth infection, which was associated with the development of high total IgE and PHA-induced IL-5. At 4 years of age when allergen reactivity was assessed by SPT, the high general TH2 responses did not translate into higher prevalence of SPT. The risk factor for SPT reactivity was low maternal education which decreased the risk of SPT positivity to allergens (adjusted OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.87) independently of maternal filarial infection which tended to reduce the child’s risk for being SPT positive (adjusted OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.07 – 1.70). Conclusions In areas endemic for helminths, potent TH2 responses were seen early in life, but did not translate into a higher SPT reactivity to allergens. Therefore, in many parts of the world TH2 responses in general and IgE in particular cannot be used for diagnosis of allergic diseases. PMID:23566643

2013-01-01

280

Landscape ecological planning based on change analysis: A case study of mangrove restoration in Phu Long - Gia Luan area, Cat Ba Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves play an important role in coastal zones in many aspects e.g. extremely essential habitats for many species, coastlines protection from natural hazards, and so on. However, in Vietnam, like in other developing countries, these mangrove areas have been destroyed and encroached as a consequence of a poorly planned economic development. The study has been conducted in Phu Long -

Nguyen An Thinh; Nguyen Xuan Huan; Pham Duc Uy; Nguyen Son Tung

281

Analysis of ecological context for identifying vegetation and animal conservation planning foci: An example from the arid South-western USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In developing conservation strategies, it is important to maximize effects of conservation within a specified land tract and to maximize conservation effects on surrounding area (ecological context). The authors proposed two criteria to select biotic entities for conservation foci: (1) the relative occurrence of fauna or flora in a tract is greater than that of an ecological context region; and (2) occurrence of the fauna or flora is relatively limited in the ecological context region. Using extensive spatial data on vegetation and wildlife habitat distribution, the authors identified strategic vegetation and fauna conservation foci for the 400 000 ha Fort Bliss military reservation in New Mexico and Texas relative to a 164 km radius ecological context region intersecting seven ecological zones and the predicted habitat distribution of 616 animal species. The authors set two specific criteria: (1) predicted area of a species' occurrence is 5% (Fort Bliss is 4.2% of the region). These criteria selected one vegetation class and 40 animal species. Further, these vegetation and animal foci were primarily located in two areas of Fort Bliss. Sensitivity analyses with other analytical radii corroborated the context radius used. Conservation of the two areas and associated taxa will maximize the contribution of Fort Bliss's conservation efforts in its ecological proximity. This relatively simple but information-rich process represents economical and defensible preliminary contextual analysis for detailed conservation planning.

Hamazaki, T.; Thompson, B.C.; Locke, B.A.; Boykin, K.G.

2003-01-01

282

Ecological Theory and Community Restoration Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community ecological theory may play an important role in the development of a science of restoration ecology. Not only will the practice of restoration bene- fit from an increased focus on theory, but basic re- search in community ecology will also benefit. We pose several major thematic questions that are rele- vant to restoration from the perspective of community ecological

Margaret A. Palmer; Richard F. Ambrose; N. LeRoy Poff

1997-01-01

283

ENDANGERED SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service share a common responsibility for the protection of our nation's aquatic species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The EPA, under the Federal Insectici...

284

What Happened to Gray Whales during the Pleistocene? The Ecological Impact of Sea-Level Change on Benthic Feeding Areas in the North Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. Methodology/Principal Findings We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. Conclusions/Significance Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf) during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes, similar to the resident gray whales found between northern Washington State and Vancouver Island. PMID:21754984

Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Lindberg, David R.

2011-01-01

285

NEW INTERNSHIP FOR WINTER Interactive Ecology  

E-print Network

NEW INTERNSHIP FOR WINTER Interactive Ecology UC Santa Cruz Arboretum Internship Agency Sponsor, back pack tracker, GPS, google earth, etc). The Interactive Ecology internship will also explore, more into areas of special interest. For more information regarding Winter Quarter, 2015 contact: Brett Hall, (831

Wilmers, Chris

286

UF in Belize Wildlife Ecology & Conservation  

E-print Network

area), Belize Zoo, Chiquibul Forest, Mountain Pine Ridge Preserve, Bladen Forest Reserve, Runaway CreekUF in Belize Wildlife Ecology & Conservation Spring Break March 1-9, 2014 Understand Ecology Principles and Practices as they Relate to the Tropics of Belize. Course Information College of Agricultural

Jawitz, James W.

287

BDNF Overexpression in the Ventral Tegmental Area Prolongs Social Defeat Stress-induced Cross-Sensitization to Amphetamine and Increases ?FosB Expression in Mesocorticolimbic Regions of Rats  

PubMed Central

Social defeat stress induces persistent cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cross-sensitization remain unclear. One candidate is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The present research examined whether ventral tegmental area (VTA) BDNF overexpression would prolong the time course of cross-sensitization after a single social defeat stress, which normally produces transient cross-sensitization lasting <1 week. ?FosB, a classic molecular marker of addiction, was also measured in mesocorticolimbic terminal regions. Separate groups of intact male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a single episode of social defeat stress or control handling, followed by amphetamine (AMPH) challenge 3 or 14 days later. AMPH cross-sensitization was apparent 3, but not 14, days after stress. Intra-VTA infusion of adeno-associated viral (AAV-BDNF) vector resulted in a twofold increase of BDNF level in comparison to the group receiving the control virus (AAV-GFP), which lasted at least 45 days. Additionally, overexpression of BDNF in the VTA alone increased ?FosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex. Fourteen days after viral infusions, a separate group of rats underwent a single social defeat stress or control handling and were challenged with AMPH 14 and 24 days after stress. AAV-BDNF rats exposed to stress showed prolonged cross-sensitization and facilitated sensitization to the second drug challenge. Immunohistochemistry showed that the combination of virally enhanced VTA BDNF, stress, and AMPH resulted in increased ?FosB in the NAc shell compared with the other groups. Thus, elevation of VTA BDNF prolongs cross-sensitization, facilitates sensitization, and increases ?FosB in mesocorticolimbic terminal regions. As such, elevated VTA BDNF may be a risk factor for drug sensitivity. PMID:23689674

Wang, Junshi; Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Bass, Caroline E; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

2013-01-01

288

Ecology and environment  

E-print Network

Ecology and environment Essentials Courses MSci (Hons) in Ecology and Environment MSci (Hons) in Ecology and Environment (research placement) BSc (Hons) in Ecology and Environment Foundation year for UK for the MSci in Ecology and Environment (research placement): AAA Typical A level offer range for the other

Sussex, University of

289

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary  

E-print Network

physiology Ingrid M. Parker * Plant ecology, plant-pathogen interactions, biological invasions Eric Palkovacs * Fish biology, phylogenetics, evolution Mark Carr * Marine ecology, applied marine ecology Daniel P. Costa * Physiological ecology of marine mammals and birds Donald A. Croll * Ecology and conservation

Wilmers, Chris

290

EN-006 Ecology March 2001 Effects of Alternative Silvicultural Treatments  

E-print Network

EN-006 Ecology March 2001 Effects of Alternative Silvicultural Treatments on the Diversity and protecting the ecological diversity of the forest. STUDY AREA The Roberts Creek Study Forest was established a previous forest. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology

291

NRE 509: Ecology: Science of Context and Interaction (2012) Instructors  

E-print Network

1 NRE 509: Ecology: Science of Context and Interaction (2012) Instructors William S. Currie in the MS program in NRE. It covers a wide range of topics in ecology, biogeochemistry, and global change some prior instruction in these areas. It covers basic ecological concepts and processes including

Awtar, Shorya

292

Ecological aspects of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Aspects of phlebotomine behavior were investigated in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The insects were captured weekly during December 2003 to November 2005, with Centers for Disease Control light traps at seven different sites including forests and residential areas. In total, 11,024 specimens (7,805 males and 3,219 females) were collected, from which 9,963 (90.38%) were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis agent. The remaining 9.62% comprised 21 species. L. longipalpis was the most frequent species in all sampled sites, and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index. In residential areas this species clearly predominated in the peridomicile (90.96%), in contrast to the intradomicile (9.04%); in animal shelters, it was more numerous in hen houses and prevailed at ground level, inside, and at forest edge around the residences; this aspect is worrying because this insect may remain sheltered in forested environments during the use of insecticides in homes. In the forest environment, other probable or proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents were also captured such as Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati), Lutzomyia antunesi (=Nyssomyia antunesi, sensu Galati), and Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (=Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, sensu Galati). PMID:22308770

Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

2012-01-01

293

The Centre for Statistics at Goettingen University, Germany, is inviting applications for 1 PhD Position in Ecology  

E-print Network

D Position in Ecology (75 % E 13 TV-L) within the Research Training Group (RTG) 1644 `Scaling Problems at the solution of current questions in the areas of agricultural economics, ecology, econometrics, genetics in Ecological Modelling, Ecological Sciences, Animal Ecology, Applied Mathematics, or in related fields, has

Munk, Axel

294

Improved probability of detection of ecological "surprises".  

PubMed

Ecological "surprises" are defined as unexpected findings about the natural environment. They are critically important in ecology because they are catalysts for questioning and reformulating views of the natural world, help shape assessments of the veracity of a priori predictions about ecological trends and phenomena, and underpin questioning of effectiveness of resource management. Despite the importance of ecological surprises, major gaps in understanding remain about how studies might be done differently or done better to improve the ability to identify them. We outline the kinds of ecological surprises that have arisen from long-term research programs that we lead in markedly different ecosystems around the world. Based on these case studies, we identify important lessons to guide both existing studies and new investigations to detect ecological surprises more readily, better anticipate unusual ecological phenomena, and take proactive steps to plan for and alleviate "undesirable" ecological surprises. Some of these lessons include: (i) maintain existing, and instigate new, long-term studies; (ii) conduct a range of kinds of parallel and concurrent research in a given target area; (iii) better use past literature and conceptual models of the target ecosystem in posing good questions and developing hypotheses and alternative hypotheses; and (iv) increase the capacity for ecological research to take advantage of opportunities arising from major natural disturbances. We argue that the increased anticipatory capability resulting from these lessons is critical given that ecological surprises may become more prevalent because of climate change and multiple and interacting environmental stressors. PMID:21098660

Lindenmayer, D B; Likens, G E; Krebs, C J; Hobbs, R J

2010-12-21

295

Improved probability of detection of ecological “surprises”  

PubMed Central

Ecological “surprises” are defined as unexpected findings about the natural environment. They are critically important in ecology because they are catalysts for questioning and reformulating views of the natural world, help shape assessments of the veracity of a priori predictions about ecological trends and phenomena, and underpin questioning of effectiveness of resource management. Despite the importance of ecological surprises, major gaps in understanding remain about how studies might be done differently or done better to improve the ability to identify them. We outline the kinds of ecological surprises that have arisen from long-term research programs that we lead in markedly different ecosystems around the world. Based on these case studies, we identify important lessons to guide both existing studies and new investigations to detect ecological surprises more readily, better anticipate unusual ecological phenomena, and take proactive steps to plan for and alleviate “undesirable” ecological surprises. Some of these lessons include: (i) maintain existing, and instigate new, long-term studies; (ii) conduct a range of kinds of parallel and concurrent research in a given target area; (iii) better use past literature and conceptual models of the target ecosystem in posing good questions and developing hypotheses and alternative hypotheses; and (iv) increase the capacity for ecological research to take advantage of opportunities arising from major natural disturbances. We argue that the increased anticipatory capability resulting from these lessons is critical given that ecological surprises may become more prevalent because of climate change and multiple and interacting environmental stressors. PMID:21098660

Lindenmayer, D. B.; Likens, G. E.; Krebs, C. J.; Hobbs, R. J.

2010-01-01

296

[Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) ecology in natural and artificial breeding places in rural areas of the northern Paraná State, Brazil. I.--Collections from a riverbed].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to identify the Culicidae species apt to colonize the waters of a creek with reduced gallery forest in the southern region of Brazil. Captures were performed using a water insect-collecting net. The following species were captured. Aedes crinifer, Aedomya squamipennis, Anopheles fluminensis, An. intermedius, An. albitarsis, An. argyritarsis, An. evansae, An. strodei, An. oswaldoi, An. Triannulatus, Chagasia fajardi, Culex bidens, Cx. group coronator, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. Mollis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coppenamensis, Cx. vaxus, Cx. group inhibitor, Cx. intrincatus, Cx. (Melanoconion) sp, Psorophora saeva (?) and Uranotaenia pulcherrima. As for the species which showed the highest frequency rate, the following aspects were studied: population fluctuation, environmental factor correlated with geographic distribution along the area. It was concluded that superficial waters with reduced gallery forest may serve as a refuge for some Culicidae. This fact may contribute to the domiciliation process of the species. PMID:8539529

Lopes, J; Lozovei, A L

1995-06-01

297

Demography and ecology of a declining endemic: The Olympic marmot.  

E-print Network

??Protected areas serve to conserve species, habitats, and ecological processes. However, biological systems within even large parks are increasingly affected by outside perturbations. The Olympic… (more)

Griffin, Suzanne Cox

2008-01-01

298

Chemical ecology of bumble bees.  

PubMed

Bumble bees are of major importance, ecologically and economically as pollinators in cool and temperate biomes and as model organisms for scientific research. Chemical signals and cues have been shown to play an outstanding role in intraspecific and interspecific communication systems within and outside of a bumble bee colony. In the present review we compile and critically assess the literature on the chemical ecology of bumble bees, including cuckoo bumble bees. The development of new and more sensitive analytical tools and improvements in sociogenetic methods significantly enhanced our knowledge about chemical compounds that mediate the regulation of reproduction in the social phase of colony development, about the interactions between host bumble bees and their social parasites, about pheromones involved in mating behavior, as well as about the importance of signals, cues and context-dependent learning in foraging behavior. Our review intends to stimulate new studies on the many unresolved questions concerning the chemical ecology of these fascinating insects. PMID:24160431

Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

2014-01-01

299

An ecological model for quantitative risk assessment for schistosomiasis: the case of a patchy environment in the coastal tropical area of northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We developed a stochastic model for quantitative risk assessment for the Schistosoma mansoni (SM) parasite, which causes an endemic disease of public concern. The model provides answers in a useful format for public health decisions, uses data and expert opinion, and can be applied to any landscape where the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the main intermediate host (South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa). It incorporates several realistic and case-specific features: stage-structured parasite populations, periodic praziquantel (PZQ) drug treatment for humans, density dependence, extreme events (prolonged rainfall), site-specific sanitation quality, environmental stochasticity, monthly rainfall variation, uncertainty in parameters, and spatial dynamics. We parameterize the model through a real-world application in the district of Porto de Galinhas (PG), one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil, where previous studies identified four parasite populations within the metapopulation. The results provide a good approximation of the dynamics of the system and are in agreement with our field observations, i.e., the lack of basic infrastructure (sanitation level and health programs) makes PG a suitable habitat for the persistence and growth of a parasite metapopulation. We quantify the risk of SM metapopulation explosion and quasi-extinction and the time to metapopulation explosion and quasi-extinction. We evaluate the sensitivity of the results under varying scenarios of future periodic PZQ treatment (based on the Brazilian Ministry of Health's plan) and sanitation quality. We conclude that the plan might be useful to slow SM metapopulation growth but not to control it. Additional investments in better sanitation are necessary. PMID:24200189

Duarte, Heitor de Oliveira; Droguett, Enrique Lopez; Moura, Márcio das Chagas; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Barbosa, Constança; Barbosa, Verônica; Araújo, Moacyr

2014-05-01

300

Comparative Ecology of Lynx in North America  

E-print Network

the contiguous United States diverge from the well-studied areas of the taiga. We caution against uncritical have much greater knowledge of lynx ecology in the taiga (Chapters 6, 9) than in southern boreal

301

Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples by Canberra with HP-Ge detector. To evaluate 137Cs and 90Sr mobility a sequential extraction of radionuclides has been performed in the selected soil in radiochemical laboratory. Obtained data has been compared with the results of air-gamma survey of the area carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA (grid size: 100 m x100 m) and the data of RPA "TYPHOON" on contamination density of settlements. A comparison of these data with that of the experimental plots at different scales proved the selected monitoring scheme to be suitable for extrapolation of the obtained experimental data on radionuclide contamination the settlement and regional scale.

Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

2013-04-01

302

Education for Today's Ecological Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

Singer, S. Fred

1970-01-01

303

Effects of Different Regeneration Scenarios and Fertilizer Treatments on Soil Microbial Ecology in Reclaimed Opencast Mining Areas on the Loess Plateau, China  

PubMed Central

The soil microbial community in reclaimed mining areas is fundamental to vegetative establishment. However, how this community responds to different regeneration scenarios and fertilizer treatments is poorly understood. This research evaluated plant and soil microbial communities from different regeneration scenarios and different fertilizer treatments. Regeneration scenarios significantly influenced soil bacterial, archaeal, and fungal rDNA abundance. The ratios of fungi to bacteria or archaea were increased with fertilizer application. The diversity of both plants and microbes was lowest in Lotus corniculatus grasslands. Regeneration scenario, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction influenced soil microbial richness, diversity and evenness indices. Labile carbon pool 2 was a significant factor affected plant and microbe communities in July, suggesting that plants and microbes may be competing for nutrients. The higher ratios of positive to negative association were found in soil bacteria and total microbe than in archaea and fungi. Stronger clustering of microbial communities from the same regeneration scenario indicated that the vegetative composition of regeneration site may have a greater influence on soil microbial communities than fertilizer treatment. PMID:23658819

Li, Junjian; Zheng, Yuanming; Yan, Junxia; Li, Hongjian; Wang, Xiang; He, Jizheng; Ding, Guangwei

2013-01-01

304

Field Ecology Notebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field Ecology is designed to teach students general scientific methods, procedures, and thinking skills, as well as specific methods and procedures used to study plants and animals in their natural setting. The objectives for this project are as follows: Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific methods to solving problems. Demonstrate proper methods of observing and recording scientific data. Demonstrate the ability to measure in metric units and graph data correctly. Assess the interrelationships of living and non-living factors in a specific habitat. The student will select a one-meter square area near his home that is in a natural setting and make regular observations throughout the school term.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Donna Cates N:Cates; Donna ORG:Retired REV:2005-04-19 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

305

Ecology at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how rooftop gardens help the environment and the lives of people, especially in urban areas. They gain an understanding of how plants reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, provide agriculture space, reduce energy consumption and increase the aesthetic quality of cities. This draws upon the science of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation, materials, color) and ecology (plants, shade, carbon dioxide, photosynthesis), and the engineering requirements for rooftop gardens. In the associated activity, students apply their scientific knowledge to model and measure the effects of green roofs.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder,

306

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

307

Migration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

308

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be utilized for the outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing program, in developing management plans for pipeline corridors, and onshore facilities planning. The production of this ecological atlas included four major tasks: the collection and synthesis of the latest available data on biological, socioeconomic, soil, oil and gas, hydrology, and climatological parameters; the assimilation of these data into a format which is compatible with the requirements of 1:100,000 scale mapping; the compilation of 90 ecological atlas maps; and the preparation of an atlas narrative serving to describe more fully the mapped parameters. This ecological atlas will embrace the habitat mapping study, the socioeconomic study, and the environmental synthesis being conducted for the study area.

Palik, T.F.; Kunneke, J.T.

1984-09-01

309

ESTIMATION OF AQUATIC SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining species sensitivity and population-level responses of aquatic organisms to contaminants are critical components of criteria development and ecological risk assessment. To address data gaps in species sensitivity, the U.S. EPA developed the Interspecies Correlation Est...

310

ECOGRAPHY 25: 553557, 2002 Integrating the statistical analysis of spatial data in ecology  

E-print Network

ECOGRAPHY 25: 553­557, 2002 Integrating the statistical analysis of spatial data in ecology A. M of spatial data in ecology. ­ Ecography 25: 553­557. In many areas of ecology there is an increasing emphasis for the analysis of spatial data has yielded considerable insight into various ecological problems, this diversity

Liebhold, Andrew

311

Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.  

PubMed

This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow regimes was recognized. Moreover, nearshore extensive shrimp culture ponds, irrigation canals, and surrounding mangrove habitats belonging to local households seemed to act as effective natural water treatment system that can yet provide food resources in turns. These remediation-production integrated functions should be deserved depth considerations for water quality development of the Tha Chin areas. PMID:19092208

Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

2008-01-01

312

EcologyEcology IntroductionIntroduction  

E-print Network

) Defining EcologyDefining Ecology Ernst HaeckelErnst Haeckel ­­ The leading German discipleThe leading German disciple of Charles Darwinof Charles Darwin ­­ Coined the termCoined the term ""Ecology relations of living organisms to the externalorganisms to the external world, their habitat, customs

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

313

Emphasizing the ecology in parasite community ecology  

E-print Network

Emphasizing the ecology in parasite community ecology Amy B. Pedersen1 and Andy Fenton2 1 Institute of parasites. However, the significance of interactions between species and the processes that shape within-host parasite communities remain unclear. Studies of parasite community ecology are often descriptive, focusing

Pedersen, Amy B.

314

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-11-01

315

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-05-01

316

The Impact of Standing Water and Irrigation on AMSR-E Sensitivity to Soil Moisture over the NAFE'06 Experiment Area  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AMSR-E sensitivity to soil moisture and its accuracy have been studied over a wide variety of surface conditions and weather regimes using both in situ measured data and aircraft derived soil moisture estimates. Several extensive soil moisture field campaigns involving ground and air-borne component...

317

Ecology, 87(8), 2006, pp. 19671972 2006 by the the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

Ecology, 87(8), 2006, pp. 1967­1972 � 2006 by the the Ecological Society of America JELLYFISH remains poorly understood beyond sporadic and localized reports. To examine how jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria species, we employed aerial surveys to map jellyfish throughout a temperate coastal shelf area bordering

Hays, Graeme

318

Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism and fragmentary modes of existence, to a more relational (ecological) view of the world in which balance and harmony are achieved by ever-changing complexity and differentiation. Central to this view is the recognition that human communities will become increasingly more just and sustainable if their citizens understand, are committed to, and share, a set of values and ecological principles. Shared purposes and principles, however, cannot be handed down from above but must be developed from the bottom-up through community engagement and ecological citizenship.

Lopes, V. L.

2013-12-01

319

[Venous ecology].  

PubMed

The purpose of venous ecology is to study the effect of the environment on the peripheral vessels. It is very extensive but still little explored subject in need of multidisciplinary study. The author reviews some of the major problems of ecophlebology: --pollution and harmful effects of urban life (atmospheric pollution, stress and influence of noise on the vessels); --the influence of habitat (furniture, ergonomics, urbanism, sociological studies and under-floor heating); --the cites new research on terrestrial electro-magnettism, meteoropathology, biological clocks and the influence of the mass media. In conclusion he hopes that ecophlebology will be the object of research which will permit a better understanding, and hence better control, of the pathological mechanisms resulting from the environment. PMID:928510

Reinharez, D

1977-01-01

320

Ecological Integrity Assessment  

E-print Network

A. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 3 A.2 Classification Summary............................................................................................ 3 A.2 Ecological System Description................................................................................. 4

Riparian Shrublands; Ecological System; Prepared Joe Rocchio

2005-01-01

321

Ecological Integrity Assessment  

E-print Network

A. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 4 A.1 Classification Summary............................................................................................ 4 A.2 Ecological System Description................................................................................. 5

Riparian Woodland; Ecological System; Prepared Joe Rocchio

2005-01-01

322

ECOLOGY LABORATORY BIOLOGY 341  

E-print Network

Page 1 ECOLOGY LABORATORY BIOLOGY 341 Fall Semester 2008 Bighorn Sheep Rams at Bison Range National ecological data; and 3) oral and written communication skills. Thus, these ecology labs, and statistical analyses appropriate for ecological data. A major goal of this class will be for you to gain

Vonessen, Nikolaus

323

Ecology 2002 90, 223234  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2002 90, 223­234 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science Ltd and JILL LANCASTER Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Darwin Building-words: allometry, landscape pattern, peatland development, spatial processes Journal of Ecology (2002) 90, 223

324

Ecology 2005 93, 231243  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2005 93, 231­243 © 2005 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS Darkness visible: reflections on underground ecology A. H. FITTER Department of Biology Journal of Ecology (2005) 93, 231­243 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.00990.x Soil, science and civilization

Bruns, Tom

325

Ecology 2007 21, 455464  

E-print Network

Functional Ecology 2007 21, 455­464 455 © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd The speed of ecological speciation ANDREW P. HENDRY*, PATRIK on ecological time-scales (contemporary evolution) and adaptive divergence can cause reproductive isolation

Rieseberg, Loren

326

Ecology 2004 18, 404413  

E-print Network

predictions and fundamental insights. EQUILIBRIUM WATER BALANCE AND THE ECOLOGICAL OPTIMALITY HYPOTHESESFunctional Ecology 2004 18, 404­413 © 2004 British Ecological Society 404 Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. An ecological evaluation of Eagleson's optimality hypotheses A. J. KERKHOFF,* S. N. MARTENS* and B. T. MILNE

Kerkhoff, Andrew J.

327

[Human ecology and hygiene].  

PubMed

Theoretical aspects of the human ecology, its place and significance in solution of biosphere protection problems are discussed. "Human ecology", "socioecology", interrelations of the terms with hygiene were also noted. Author supported the homocentric conception in the ecology problem aricing. Special attention was paid to the ecological education of physicians. PMID:1809648

Shepelin, O P

1991-11-01

328

Air quality models sensitivity to on-road traffic speed representation: Effects on air quality of 80 km h -1 speed limit in the Barcelona Metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric modeling permits to quantitatively assess the effects of emissions abatement strategies in urban areas, which are mainly oriented to reduce on-road traffic sector contributions. Nowadays the emissions inventories are one of the causes of uncertainties in air quality modeling. This work explores the improvements in urban air quality assessment by using the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system when switching from constant on-road traffic speed to hourly variable speeds taken from measurement campaigns in the emissions model. Furthermore, the effects of limiting the speed circulation in the Barcelona Metropolitan area to 80 km h -1 are assessed. A photochemical pollution episode representative of summertime conditions (corresponding to the year 2004) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula and fitting in a usual traffic circulation pattern (working day) is selected to carry out the study. The introduction of variable speed in the HERMES emissions model affect the model evaluation in the urban area, improving specifically the O 3 precursors estimates, and consequently O 3 predictions in the area (reductions in mean normalized gross error (MNGE) around 1%). The speed limitation effects assessed with the modified modeling system represent improvements in air quality levels; specifically it reduces local NO 2, SO 2 and PM10 levels, up to 5.7%, 5.3% and 3.0% over the area affected by the speed limit, respectively. The O 3 concentrations slightly increase in the urban area (up to 2.4%), due to the chemical regime (NO x emissions reduction in a VOCs limited area), but the effects in the urban plume are negligible. The need for air quality models as management tools makes essential to improve the emissions models accuracy, by introducing changes to better represent real conditions.

Gonçalves, María; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; López, Eugeni; Baldasano, José M.

329

Pharmacological properties of the CO2/H+-sensitive area in the ventral medullary surface assessed by the effects of chemical stimulation on respiration.  

PubMed

We recently discovered that CO2/H+-sensitive neurons in the ventral medullary surface (VMS) are immunoreactive to glutamate, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), calcineurin and cAMP. We then tested the hypothesis that glutamate, GABA, calcineurin and cAMP affect the activity of CO2/H+-sensitive neurons in the VMS. Using male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and pentobarbital, we checked for changes in relative tidal volume (VT) and respiratory frequency (f) in response to injecting the VMS with a variety of test agents dissolved in mock CSF. Respiratory changes occurred immediately and were dose-dependent. (1) 200-1600 pmol Glutamate increased VT but decreased f. The glutamate effect was never abolished by concomitant injection of AP5, a NMDA receptor antagonist, but was abolished by CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist, indicating predominance of AMPA receptors in the CO2/H+-sensitive neurons in the VMS. (2) 200-1600 pmol GABA decreased both VT and f. The GABA effect was never abolished by concomitant injection of saclofen, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, but was abolished by bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, indicating predominance of GABA(A) receptors in the CO2/H+-sensitive neurons in the VMS. (3) 4-32 microg Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase 2B, and 200-1600 pmol FK506, selective inhibitor of calcineurin, had no effect on respiration when they were applied extracellularly, but 400-3200 pmol BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca2+-chelating agent, decreased both VT and f, indicating involvement of intracellular Ca2+ in the excitatory mechanisms of respiration. (4) 100-800 pmol IBMX, an enhancer of intracellular cAMP, decreased both VT and f, indicating involvement of cAMP in the inhibitory mechanisms of respiration. These results indicate that the CO2/H+-sensitive neurons in the VMS contain glutamate and/or GABA in cytoplasma, possess AMPA and/or GABA(A) receptors on surface of plasma membrane, and compose the internal circuit, and that their activities are regulated by Ca2+ and cAMP. PMID:9760077

Kanazawa, M; Sugama, S; Okada, J; Miura, M

1998-08-01

330

Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the performance of large area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). 20×20?m2 area SSPDs with 80 and 100nm linewidths and 50% fill factor were fabricated in 4-nm-thick NbN films grown on single-crystal MgO substrates. The high quality of the devices was verified by electrical and optical testing and compares favorably to measurements of 10×10?m2 area SSPDs. Measurements of kinetic inductance versus bias current indicate that the constriction density is low. The fiber-coupled detection efficiency of the devices was 0.4%-3.5% at 100Hz dark count rate.

Miki, Shigehito; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Baek, Burm; Miller, Aaron J.; Hadfield, Robert H.; Nam, Sae Woo; Wang, Zhen

2008-02-01

331

Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa  

E-print Network

Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa § Martin J. Whiting1 and geographic areas. Southern Africa has one of the most diverse gecko faunas per unit area in the world (Branch

Keogh, Scott

332

Modeling patch occupancy: Relative performance of ecologically scaled landscape indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fragmented landscapes, the likelihood that a species occupies a particular habitat patch is thought to be a function of\\u000a both patch area and patch isolation. Ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLIs) combine a species’ ecological profile,\\u000a i.e., area requirements and dispersal ability, with indices of patch area and connectivity. Since their introduction, ESLIs\\u000a for area have been modified to incorporate

Carol E. Rizkalla; Jeffrey E. Moore; Robert K. Swihart

2009-01-01

333

Aquatic Ecology Aquatic ecology group studies ecological interactions  

E-print Network

ESM 578 Aquatic Vascular Plants ESM 580 Coastal Marine Ecology Example Graduate Courses #12; and their environment in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The group focuses particularly on the ecological interactions and policy. On-going research topics include: consequences and control of aquatic species invasions

334

Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

2014-10-01

335

Critical areas: Satellite power systems concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical Areas are defined and discussed in the various areas pertinent to satellite power systems. The presentation is grouped into five areas (General, Space Systems, Solar Energy Conversion, Microwave Systems, and Environment/Ecology) with a sixth area (Power Relay) considered separately in an appendix. Areas for Future Consideration as critical areas are discussed in a second appendix.

1975-01-01

336

Air quality models sensitivity to on-road traffic speed representation: Effects on air quality of 80 km h ?1 speed limit in the Barcelona Metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric modeling permits to quantitatively assess the effects of emissions abatement strategies in urban areas, which are mainly oriented to reduce on-road traffic sector contributions. Nowadays the emissions inventories are one of the causes of uncertainties in air quality modeling. This work explores the improvements in urban air quality assessment by using the WRF-ARW\\/HERMES\\/CMAQ modeling system when switching from constant

María Gonçalves; Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero; Eugeni López; José M. Baldasano

2008-01-01

337

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is based in Germany and their work encompasses a wide range of inquiry into the relationships between everything from bugs and symbiotic bacteria to odor activation in drosophila. Visitors can wander through the News area to get a sense of the ongoing research projects and overall mission. In the Institute area visitors can learn the basics of chemical ecology, the management of the Institute and their cooperative agreements with other like-minded organizations. The Departments area contains information about separate research groups, which are focused on entomology, bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular ecology. Scientists and others will want to look over the Publications area, as it contains hundreds of research papers which can be searched by department, year, or citation number. Finally, visitors can also search available job openings.

338

Ecological Research at the Goosenest Adaptive  

E-print Network

birds, ponderosa pine, prescribed fire, small mammals, stand development, stand structure, successionEcological Research at the Goosenest Adaptive Management Area in Northeastern California Martin W. . #12;Contents 1 In Brief 3 Introduction 5 Goosenest Adaptive Management Area 7 Interdisciplinary Team

Standiford, Richard B.

339

Down by the Riverside: Urban Riparian Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian areas are hotspots of interactions between plants, soil, water, microbes, and people. While urban land use change has been shown to have dramatic effects on watershed hydrology, there has been surpris- ingly little analysis of its effects on riparian areas. Here we examine the ecology of urban riparian zones, focusing on work done in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a

Peter M. Groffman; Daniel J. Bain; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth T. Belt; Grace S. Brush; J. Morgan Grove; Richard V. Pouyat; Ian C. Yesilonis; Wayne C. Zipperer

2003-01-01

340

Prospective ecological risk assessment of sediment resuspension in an estuary.  

PubMed

This study assesses potential ecological risk of resuspended sediment in the water column during the construction of a viaduct in the estuary of the Ulla river (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula), a shellfish production area. Chemical analyses and toxicity bioassays with elutriates were performed with sediments from the area where the three pillars of the viaduct will be located (CT1, CT2 and CT3) and a reference sediment (A2). Acute toxicity of the elutriate was evaluated in five species of three trophic levels (Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Venerupis pullastra and Siriella armata). The sediments of the pillars showed moderate levels of contamination by trace elements (Cu, Cr). Clam and sea urchin embryo-larval toxicity tests showed slightly higher sensitivity than mussel embryo tests, and toxicity was not detected for phytoplankton and mysid bioassays. The predicted no-effect environmental concentration (PNEC) was calculated from the arithmetic mean of the lowest calculated EC(50)s for each sampling site. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated from a simple dilution model and the PEC/PNEC ratio was calculated according to different scenarios of resuspension. Negligible ecological risk in the water column is expected during construction of the pillars. PMID:22763505

Rial, Diego; Beiras, Ricardo

2012-08-01

341

Triazine herbcides: Ecological risk assessment in North American surface waters  

SciTech Connect

The triazine herbicides are some of the most widely used pesticides in North America. Some are found in surface waters in North America and risks to aquatic ecosystems are a possible concern. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive aquatic ecological risk assessment conducted using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The assessment of exposure data concentrated on Midwestern us watersheds, the area of greatest triazine use in North America and showed that concentrations of some triazines rarely exceeded 20 {mu}g/L in rivers, streams, and reservoirs. The effects assessment showed that phytoplankton were the most sensitive organisms to triazines followed, in decreasing order of sensitivity, by macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish. Distribution analysis of sensitivity to atrazine showed 10th percentile of 37 {mu}g/L for LC50s in all organisms and 5.4 {mu}g/L for LC50s in algae and plants. Simazine showed 10th percentiles of 188 {mu}g/L for LC50s in all organisms and 27 {mu}g/L for LC50s in aquatic plants. Comparisons of the exposure and effects distributions showed low probabilities of exceeding the 10th percentiles of the sensitivity distributions. These results will be discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of these substances and other stressors in the environment.

Solomon, K.R. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada)

1996-10-01

342

7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...characterizing areas designated as ecological preserves or as natural areas are contained in the following publications: Soil Taxonomy, a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys, USDA-NRCS Agricultural Handbook...

2013-01-01

343

7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.  

...characterizing areas designated as ecological preserves or as natural areas are contained in the following publications: Soil Taxonomy, a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys, USDA-NRCS Agricultural Handbook...

2014-01-01

344

7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...characterizing areas designated as ecological preserves or as natural areas are contained in the following publications: Soil Taxonomy, a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys, USDA-NRCS Agricultural Handbook...

2010-01-01

345

7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...characterizing areas designated as ecological preserves or as natural areas are contained in the following publications: Soil Taxonomy, a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys, USDA-NRCS Agricultural Handbook...

2011-01-01

346

7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...characterizing areas designated as ecological preserves or as natural areas are contained in the following publications: Soil Taxonomy, a Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys, USDA-NRCS Agricultural Handbook...

2012-01-01

347

Out-of-area travel from rural and urban counties: a study of ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations for New York State residents.  

PubMed

Rural patients who are admitted to hospitals outside their residence county or who travel great distances for hospitalization deprive local rural hospitals of revenue. To provide more information about such rural residents, we studied their characteristics compared to those admitted in the same county. Characteristics studied included illness severity, demographics and county resources. To validate the findings and to provide a different analytic approach, characteristics of residents who travel long distances for admission were also studied. We studied admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, as they might be most responsive to policy changes such as increasing recruitment of local primary-care physicians. Hospital discharges during 1994 for 248,656 New York State residents were studied. We constructed multivariate models using logistic regression and ordinary least squares methods. The models were applied to residents in three types of geographic location along an urban-rural continuum. Outside admissions were associated with younger age, higher illness severity and fewer county hospital resources. Same county admissions were associated with nonwhite race, and lack of insurance. Surprisingly, in rural counties, outside admissions were directly associated with increased primary-care providers. Results from the distance model generally supported findings from the outside admission model. PMID:10981364

Basu, J; Cooper, J

2000-01-01

348

Ecology or Economy  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: File this under "Statistics to the Rescue". Economy or ecology? Ecology or economy? Tough choice. Especially for China which is barreling recklessly ahead in its quest to become top consumer nation. A recent release from...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-07-18

349

ETEKOS experimental ecological system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of changes in the ecology resulting, for example, in increases in water temperature because of discharges from large thermal power plants is considered. An experiment creating a model of such an ecological system is described.

Alekseyev, V. V.; Geogiyev, A. A.; Gorbatov, Y. I.; Lyamin, M. Y.; Maksimov, V. N.; Sapozhnikov, V. V.; Shinkar, G. G.; Shirokova, Y. L.

1980-01-01

350

Long Term Ecological Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze data on temperature and precipitation collected from 26 different Long Term Ecological Research sites and compare them with annual net primary productivity. The students then form an ecological rule to explain their results.

Cooper, Scott

351

Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

2013-06-01

352

Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia  

PubMed Central

A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

2013-01-01

353

Reflections on Plant and Soil Nematode Ecology: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments include response to stressors, environmental conditions, and management practices. Methodological advances will continue to influence the role nematodes have in addressing the nature of interactions between organisms, and of organisms with their environments. In particular, the C. elegans genetic model, nematode faunal analysis and nematode metagenetic analysis can be used by ecologists generally and not restricted to nematologists. PMID:23482864

Ferris, Howard; Griffiths, Bryan S.; Porazinska, Dorota L.; Powers, Thomas O.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Tenuta, Mario

2012-01-01

354

Ecological Footprint Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the concept of ecological footprint, the overall impact of an individual on the environment. Topics include how ecological footprints are calculated, how individual footprints translate to entire nations or to the Earth, and the connection between ecological footprint and biodiversity. The students will consult some online resources on ecological footprint and use an online claculator to determine their individual fooprints, make some comparisons, and examine how making some changes in their consumption would reduce their footprints.

355

Developments in sensitivity theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of recent developments in sensitivity theory is presented with an emphasis on (a) extensions to new areas such as thermal hydraulics, reactor depletion, multi-constraint and extrema problems, and (b) recent mathematical refinements to and extensions of the basic theory. The diverse new areas of application are discussed from a unified theoretical viewpoint based on nonlinear functional analysis. Several

D. G. Cacuci; E. Greenspan; J. H. Marable; M. L. Williams

1980-01-01

356

Evaluation of the ecological state of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk using the DNase test system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the state of the Russian coastal marine ecosystems of the Sea of Japan (the Tumen River mouth) and the Sea of Okhotsk (the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island and the Sakhalin Gulf) and Kraternya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands) was carried out during the 29th expedition of the R/V Akademik Oparin. A highly sensitive express analysis using the DNase of the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin was utilized in order to evaluate the quality of the natural marine water of the areas experiencing different degrees of anthropogenic impact. The marine water quality was evaluated according to the degree of the DNase inhibition in the samples. The presence of ecological stress was shown at the aforementioned sites excluding Kraternya Bight. The method allows the fast (1 hour) analysis of the pollution of marine areas and, coupled with data on the hydrological, hydrochemical, and microbiological studies of water samples, provides the possibility to make an ecological forecast.

Menzorova, N. I.; Rasskazov, V. A.

2009-12-01

357

Wildfire History and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

358

Ecology and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on diverse taxa suggest that natural selection caused by shifts in ecology or invasions of novel habitats plays an important role in adaptive divergence and speciation. Exciting new studies integrating approaches from both the field and the laboratory suggest that ecological shifts can result in extremely rapid rates of evolutionary divergence. Although experimental approaches that link rapid ecological

Matthew R. Orr; Thomas B. Smith

1998-01-01

359

Invertebrate Ecological Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological immunology is a rapidly expanding field that examines the causes and consequences of variation in immune function in the context of evolution and of ecology. Millions of invertebrate species rely solely on innate immunity, compared with only 45,000 vertebrate species that rely additionally on an acquired immune system. Despite this difference in diversity, most studies of ecological immunology focus

J. Rolff; M. T. Siva-Jothy

2003-01-01

360

RESEARCH UPDATE Ecology Division  

E-print Network

1 RESEARCH UPDATE Ecology Division Biotype has changed its name to Ecotype! Following the re-organisation of Forest Research into five science Divisions and three Support Divisions, the former Woodland Ecology Branches to form the new Ecology Division. We decided to give the divisional newsletter a new name (and

361

Ecology 2007 21, 11301136  

E-print Network

Functional Ecology 2007 21, 1130­1136 1130 © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 British, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria Summary 1. In social insects, reproductive success and survival. Journal compilation © 2007 British Ecological Society, Functional Ecology, 21, 1130­1136 When bees collect

Paulus, Hannes F.

362

Ecological thresholds: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of ecological discontinuities and thresholds has been recognised by ecological economics as a key feature to take into account in the study of environment–economy interactions. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with ecological phenomena involving non-linear dynamics. The literature about this issue reveals that there is abundant evidence of discontinuities and threshold effects as

Roldan Muradian

2001-01-01

363

Ecological Methods & Experimentation  

E-print Network

­ Stratified random sampling ­ Systematic sampling · Number of samples ­ 20-25 is minimum ­ Statistically more1 Ecological Methods & Experimentation Ecology · Study of ecological systems ­ Organisms/Functional Hypotheses ·First test observations, then design controlled experiment Scientific Method · Deduction used

Malcolm, Stephen

364

Ecology 2007 21, 408421  

E-print Network

& Moriuchi 2005), the evolution of host­parasite interactions (Wade 1998), speciation (e.g. via host­race Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd Maternal effects and evolution at ecological time-scales K for evolution at ecological time-scales. 2. Despite an increased interest in the prevalence, composition

Nussey, Dan

365

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

366

Review of the ecology of malaria vectors in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region  

PubMed Central

On the basis of published records and unpublished reports to WHO, the author reviews the information available on the ecology of 15 anopheline malaria vectors occurring in areas of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region where attack measures are being applied. The information, which is still incomplete, relates chiefly to the period since 1956, the year when the malaria eradication programme in the Region was launched. An attempt is made to evaluate the control measures undertaken so far, and to provide data on the sensitivity to insecticides, behaviour, and mortality of vector populations. PMID:4549034

Zahar, A. R.

1974-01-01

367

DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

1997-08-31

368

Ecological response surfaces nested in a process-based vegetation-water blance model to investigate species-level sensitivity to projected climatic chanage in the North American Central Grasslands  

SciTech Connect

Empirical ecological response surfaces were nested in MAPSS, a process-based vegetation-water balance model, to increase the taxonomic resolution of simulations of vegetation change under altered climates in the Central Grasslands. Response surfaces developed for dominant grass species predict the probability of dominance as a function of both climatic variables and variables derived by MAPSS. The former include indices of warmth and moisture more directly related to the response of plants than annual or monthly measures of temperature or precipitation commonly used in ecological response surface modeling. The MAPSS-derived predictor variables include evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and lifeform LAI. Under current climatic conditions, the response surfaces provide estimates of grass species dominance with a high degree of success. Much of the variation in the simulated probability of dominance is related to the species` individualistic response to regional gradients of temperature and moisture. The equilibrium response under different doubled-CO2 climatic scenarios suggests the potential for significant change in the distribution of species dominance consistent with biome-level change simulated by MAPSS.

Lenihan, J.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Neilson, R.P. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-09-01

369

Wetlands ecology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS imagery analyzed provides approximately 2/3 coverage of the test site. Analysis was made using visual methods, density slicing, and multispectral analysis. Preliminary conclusions reached are that most, if not all, of the investigation objectives can be met. Saline and near-saline wetlands can be delineated from ERTS-1 images as the wetland-upland boundaries and land-water interface are clearly defined. Major plant species or communities such as Spartina alterniflora (high and low vigor forms), Spartina patens/Distichlis spicata, and Juncus roemarianus can be discriminated and spoil disposal areas identified.

Anderson, R. R. (principal investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

370

Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.  

PubMed

Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

Johnston, Caitlin E; Herschel, Daniel J; Lasek, Amy W; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M

2015-02-01

371

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2002 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during fiscal year 2002. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species and important biological resources were conducted for 26 NTS projects. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 374 acres. Thirteen of the projects were in desert tortoise habitat, and 13.38 acres of desert tortoise habitat were disturbed. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed at project areas or along paved roads. Compilation of historical wildlife data continued this year in efforts to develop faunal distribution maps for the NTS. Photographs associated with the NTS ecological landform units sampled to create the NTS vegetation maps were cataloged for future retrieval and analysis. The list of sensitive plant species for which long-term population monitoring is scheduled was revised. Six vascular plants and five mosses were added to the list. Plant density estimates from ten populations of Astragalus beatleyae were collected, and eight known populations of Eriogonum concinnum were visited to assess plant and habitat status. Minimal field monitoring of western burrowing owl burrows occurred. A report relating to the ecology of the western burrowing owl on the Nevada Test Site was prepared which summarizes four years of data collected on this species' distribution, burrow use, reproduction, activity patterns, and food habits. Bat roost sites within seven buildings slated for demolition were identified, and a BN biologist was a contributing author of the Nevada Bat Conservation Plan published by the Nevada Bat Working Group. Thirty-three adult horses and five foals were counted this year. Six active raptor nests (two American kestrel, two Red-tailed hawk, and two Great-horned owl nests) were found and monitored this year. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. The chemical release test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center on Frenchman Lake playa was reviewed. Seasonal sampling of downwind and upwind transects near the spill center was conducted to document baseline conditions of biota.

C. A. Wills

2002-12-01

372

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 552 - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and *Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See para 2 below) Ecology Park Hiking Path—North Fort, CTA A West Fiander Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20 Johnson...

2013-07-01

373

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 552 - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas  

...Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and *Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See para 2 below) Ecology Park Hiking Path—North Fort, CTA A West Fiander Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20 Johnson...

2014-07-01

374

32 CFR Appendix A to Part 552 - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and *Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See para 2 below) Ecology Park Hiking Path—North Fort, CTA A West Fiander Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20 Johnson...

2012-07-01

375

Sensitive Teeth  

MedlinePLUS

... tooth). When the dentin is exposed, cold or hot temperature or pressure can affect these nerve branches. This ... symptom. Less often, the teeth are sensitive to hot temperatures. If a single tooth becomes sensitive to heat, ...

376

Gluten Sensitivity  

MedlinePLUS

... Restaurant Certified Products Educational Bulletins Local Branches Gluten Sensitivity What is it? Individuals who experience distress when ... following a gluten-free diet may have gluten sensitivity (GS), instead of celiac disease (CD). These individuals ...

377

Plant Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The unit is designed to be completed in six or more sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the many varied reasons that plant life flourishes in one plot but not another. Students speculate on why plants are more abundant in some areas of the site than others. They list factors that might account for the differences, such as temperature, humidity, light, soil, rainfall, wind, and human or animal activity, and figure out how they can collect more data on these factors. They discuss why it might be important to take a count of all the individual plants in each plot and develop a plan for conducting the field study. A reading selection describes how scientists count plants and gives students tips for conducting their own survey. Students then count plants and record their data. Several optional activities are provided.

378

National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides, in full, a chapter excerpted from the book entitled "Ecosystem Management: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Resources" edited by M.S. Boyce and A. Haney, 1997. The hierarchical framework is a regionalization classification and mapping system for stratifying the Earth into progressively smaller areas of increasingly uniform ecological potentials. Ecological types are classified and ecological units are mapped based on associations of those biotic and environmental factors. Ecoregion and subregion levels of the hierarchy are developed by stratification as fine scale field classifications and inventories. The chapter stresses the connections between mapping ecological units and ecosystem management opportunities. A list of cited references appears at the end of the chapter.

379

The US Long Term Ecological Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience describes Long Term Ecological Research program in the US. The 24 projects of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research Network, whose sites range from the poles to the Tropics, from rain forests to tundras and deserts, and from offshore marine to estuarine and freshwater habitats, address fundamental and applied ecological issues that can be understood only through a long-term approach. Each project addresses different ecological questions; even the scale of research differs across sites. Projects in the network are linked by the requirement for some research at each site on five core areas, including primary production, decomposition, and trophic dynamics, and by cross-site comparisons, which are aided by the universally available databases. Many species and environmental variables are studied, and a wide range of synthetic results have been generated.

JOHN E. HOBBIE, STEPHEN R. CARPENTER, NANCY B. GRIMM, JAMES R. GOSZ, and TIMOTHY R. SEASTEDT (;)

2003-01-01

380

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

381

Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length—a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes—but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts.

Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

2012-01-01

382

Land-plant ecology on the basis of functional traits  

E-print Network

richness at a site of given size, and the species­ area curve that describes how fast new species Ecology [6]. The Hubbell question is about the rank-abundance curve that describes dominance, the species of plant species are important for land-plant ecology in two ways. First, they control ecosystem processes

Wright, Ian

383

Ecological Factors in Migration in Nonmetropolitan Counties, 1950-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the dominant ecosystem types in nonmetropolitan counties and the role of ecological factors in determination of levels of total and age-specific migration patterns within nonmetropolitan areas and ecosystem types for 1950-60 and 1960-70, 30 ecological variables representing POET concepts of population, organization, environment, and…

Murdock, Steve H.

384

IMPRINT OF THE PAST: ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR  

EPA Science Inventory

To have an understanding of ecological conditions in a highly impacted area, it is important to look at how past events affected current conditions. Historical studies provide an understanding of how current ecological conditions arose, provide information to identify past pollut...

385

Ecology and environment What ecology and environment course is  

E-print Network

Ecology and environment Essentials What ecology and environment course is there? Ecology 01273 876787 Why ecology and environment at Sussex? · You will be taught by lecturers who are leaders in research, with a broad range of experience and expertise including plant, bird and insect ecology, climate

Sussex, University of

386

Ecological considerations in scrub typhus*  

PubMed Central

Scrub typhus infection is now known to occur in geographical and ecological areas where its presence was hitherto unsuspected—north and west of the Indus River and in south-eastern Siberia; in semi-desert, montane desert, and alpine terrain high in the Himalayas, as well as in primary jungle. Additional data are presented to support the hypothesis that “ecological islands”, containing basically similar faunas of rodents and ectoparasites, exist on scattered mountains in the Pakistan Himalayas, despite the intervening “barriers” of desert, broad rivers and massive peaks. Since scrub typhus has been demonstrated in some of these isolated areas, it is felt that the infection may exist, unrecognized, in neighbouring countries as well. A number of larval trombiculid mites, largely species of the subgenus Leptotrombidium, are believed to be vectors, in addition to the well-known L. (L.) deliense and L. (L.) akamushi. The host-range of natural infection in ground-dwelling small mammals, especially rodents, is very broad in endemic areas. An important factor of time, and not only of space, may be involved in an endemic locus, the disease undergoing a sequential evolution involving different chiggers and rodents over a period of years. It is pointed out that new irrigation schemes, road construction, and agricultural projects may introduce scrub typhus into an area or greatly increase its endemicity if the infection is already present. PMID:5303404

Traub, Robert; Wisseman, Charles L.

1968-01-01

387

Population Ecology Philip M. Dixon  

E-print Network

Population Ecology Philip M. Dixon Department of Statistics Iowa State University 20 December 2001 Population ecology is the discipline in ecology that deals with the structure and dynamics (e.g. growth interacting populations. Population ecology is closely related to other ecological disciplines, e

388

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE) is a peer-reviewed web-based collection of ecological educational materials. It is "a resource for busy ecology faculty who are looking for new ways to reach their students, or who perhaps want to learn more about teaching and learning." Each of the volumes here contains Experiments, Issues, and Teaching. In the Experiments area, visitors can find resources for laboratory settings, while the Issues section features classroom exercises and web-based materials. On the site's homepage, visitors will find the All Volumes link, which will allow them to look over all the resources dating back to 2004. The field experiments area includes resources such as "Using Steam Leaf Packs to Explore Community Assembly" and "Biodiversity Responses Across a Gradient of Human Influence."

2012-08-13

389

Developments in sensitivity theory  

SciTech Connect

A review of recent developments in sensitivity theory is presented with an emphasis on (a) extensions to new areas such as thermal hydraulics, reactor depletion, multi-constraint and extrema problems, and (b) recent mathematical refinements to and extensions of the basic theory. The diverse new areas of application are discussed from a unified theoretical viewpoint based on nonlinear functional analysis. Several new applications of sensitivity theory are presented for problems in constrained reactor physics calculations, irradiation experiment analysis, reactor burnup calculations, and transient thermal-hydraulic analysis. Future directions of the research are suggested.

Cacuci, D.G.; Greenspan, E.; Marable, J.H.; Williams, M.L.

1980-01-01

390

Ecology 2005 19, 816821  

E-print Network

chestnut-coloured plumage of male and female Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) from North, Hirundo rustica, phaeomelanin, plumage coloration, sexual selection Functional Ecology (2005) 19, 816

McGraw, Kevin J.

391

Ecology 2001 15, 772781  

E-print Network

-words: Chelydra serpentina, maternal behaviour, maternal effects, offspring survival Functional Ecology (2001) 15 in the Common Snapping Turtle, Chelydra serpen- tina. Using eight simultaneous experimental releases of neonates

Janzen, Fredric

392

Curriculum in Ecological Restoration  

E-print Network

..................................................................................(0-3) 1 SCSC 301 Soil Science...............................................................................................................(3-2) 4 40 #12;Ecological Restoration Core Courses Plant Taxonomy - Choose one of the following: ESSM

393

Ecology 2002 16, 766772  

E-print Network

­body size allometry in two other natricine snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis, Storeria dekayi) suggest size, Nerodia sipedon, sexual dimorphism, Storeria dekayi, Thamnophis sirtalis Functional Ecology (2002

King, Richard B.

394

Augmenting aquatic species sensitivity distributions with interspecies toxicity estimation models  

EPA Science Inventory

Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) are cumulative distribution functions of species toxicity values. The SSD approach is increasingly being used in ecological risk assessment, but is often limited by available toxicity data necessary for diverse species representation. In ...

395

An evolutionary ecology of individual differences  

PubMed Central

Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

2014-01-01

396

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

397

ROLE OF PATHOBIOLOGY IN EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The editorial explores the role of the pathobiologist and problems encountered in estuarine/marine ecological investigations. Four areas are proposed for cooperative endeavor with scientists in other fields: (1) toxicological pathology in aquatic species; (2) pathophysiology of e...

398

Journal of Applied Ecology 2003  

E-print Network

interactions within and between species. 2. Ecological interactions involving krill are of major importance, habitat selection, species interactions Journal of Applied Ecology (2003) 40, 692­702 Introduction Interactions between species influence population dynamics and cause indirect ecological effects. Tradi

Switzer, Paul

399

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

400

ESTIMATION OF AQUATIC SPECIES SENSITIVITY USING INTERSPECIES CORRELATION AND ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract for presentation Estimation of aquatic species sensitivity using interspecies correlation and acute to chronic toxicity models Determining species sensitivity of aquatic organisms to contaminants is a critical component of criteria development and ecolog...

401

Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions (SSDs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity di...

402

Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity d...

403

The movement ecology of seagrasses  

PubMed Central

A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space–time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

2014-01-01

404

The movement ecology of seagrasses.  

PubMed

A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

2014-11-22

405

Urban tree cover: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of urban tree cover is generally limited to inventories of tree structure and composition on public lands. This approach provided valuable information for resource management. However, it does not account for all tree cover within an urban landscape, thus providing insufficient information on ecological patterns and processes. We propose evaluating tree cover for an entire urban area that is

Wayne C. Zipperer; Susan M. Sisinni; Richard V. Pouyat; Timothy W. Foresman

1997-01-01

406

Model selection in ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, researchers in several areas of ecology and evolution have begun to change the way in which they analyze data and make biological inferences. Rather than the traditional null hypothesis testing approach, they have adopted an approach called model selection, in which several competing hypotheses are simultaneously confronted with data. Model selection can be used to identify a single best

Jerald B. Johnson; Kristian S. Omland

2004-01-01

407

ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC MARINE ECOLOGY: IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE study of marine biology in the north has been pursued, in the past, mainly by the Scandinavian countries. In the northern waters which Scandinavian biologists do not normally visit, and especially in the North American Arctic, marine investigation is in its infancy, and has even lagged behind terrestrial ecology in the same area. As there are now signs that

M. J. Dunbar

408

ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC MARINE ECOLOGY: IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE study of marine biology in the north has been pursued, in the past, mainly by the Scandinavian countries. In the northern waters which Scandinavian biologists do not normally visit, and especially in the North American Arctic, marine investigation is in its infancy, and has even lagged behind terrestrial ecology in the same area. As there are now signs that

M. J. Dunbart

1953-01-01

409

Ecology and transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied ecological factors affecting transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis, the common large roundworm of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) to intermediate hosts. Infective eggs of B. procyonis are present at raccoon latrines, and these sites may be important in the transmission of this parasite to small vertebrates in forested areas. I found that raccoon latrines exhibited characteristics generally associated with

Laura Kristen Page

1998-01-01

410

SPECIAL FEATURE Neutral Community Ecology1  

E-print Network

to community structure and diversity patterns. While stochasticity has long been incorporated formallySPECIAL FEATURE Neutral Community Ecology1 Interest in neutral community models has grown rapidly broadly studied community patterns like rank abundance distributions and species­area relationships. Most

Holyoak, Marcel

411

Tracing floral adaptations from ecology to molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowers have long fascinated humans. The scientific study of floral biology unifies many diverse areas of research, ranging from systematics to ecology, and from genetics to molecular biology. Despite this unity, few plant species offer the experimental versatility to encompass all levels of biological investigation in a single system. An exception is the morning glory genus Ipomoea, in which a

Mary L. Durbin; Michael T. Clegg

2003-01-01

412

UF in Belize Wildlife Ecology & Conservation  

E-print Network

area), Belize Zoo, Chiquibul Forest, Mountain Pine Ridge Preserve, Bladen Forest Reserve, Runaway CreekUF in Belize Wildlife Ecology & Conservation Spring Break: Feb 28 - March 8, 2015 Understand, and Conservation Principles and Practices as they Relate to the Tropics of Belize. Course Information College

Jawitz, James W.

413

Areas, Volumes, Surface Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable sheet is an excellent reference tool for geometry students. It details the formulae for finding the area, volume, and surface area for a variety of two- and three-dimensional shapes and includes an illustration of each that shows which measurements are important to the calculation. Presented are: areas of polygons (square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, circle, ellipse, triangles); volumes of polyhedra (cube, rectangular prism, irregular prism, cylinder, pyramid, cone, sphere, ellipsoid); and surface area (cube, prism, sphere).

Manura, David

2002-10-18

414

Ecological Identity through Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue offers an epistemic and ontological orientation upon which an ecological identity can be established as part of an integrated, environmental education. I consider here the significance of a relational self in establishing this ecological identity, as well as the benefits from doing so. This relational,…

Scott, Charles

2010-01-01

415

Fundamentalist Dominion, Postmodern Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Christian fundamentalist dominionism is susceptible to a conventional ecological critique; that is to say, one framed in scientific-environmentalist terms of its unsustainability as a practice, given nature’s finite resources and the fragility of ecosystems. Alternatively, a postmodern ecological critique has the conceptual tools to contest dominionism at the level of its discursive transactions, that is to say, the narrative frames

Paul Maltby

2008-01-01

416

Ecological Investigations, Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities which stress ecological concepts make up the major portion of this curriculum guide. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents the course schedule, including time requirements, lists the ecological concepts to be studied, and correlates the concepts with the activities. Following…

Washington City Board of Education, NC.

417

School Yard Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents nine activities for using the school yard to integrate science and environmental studies into curriculum, including observation and collection, as well as construction of nature trails and bird feeders. Activities suggested grew out of Institute of Ecological Studies in SYEFEST (School Yard Ecology for Elementary School Teachers) program.…

Grimes, Katherine

1995-01-01

418

Terrestrial Ecology Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

419

Ecology and in Virginia  

E-print Network

. The classic text on virgin forest classifica- tion is Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America written by EForest Ecology and Management in Virginia Basic Training Course www.ext.vt.edu Publication 465;The Virginia Master Naturalist Program is jointly sponsored by: #12;3Forest Ecology and Management

Liskiewicz, Maciej

420

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ecological Soil Screening Level (Eco-SSL) Work Group, composed of scientists and risk assessors from EPA, Environment Canada, DOE, Army, Navy, Air Force, states, industry, academia, and consulting companies, has been working on the development of scientifically sound, ecologi...

421

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

Markus G Weinbauer

2004-01-01

422

Ecology 2005 19, 391395  

E-print Network

Functional Ecology 2005 19, 391­395 © 2005 British Ecological Society 391 Blackwell Publishing, Ltd insects varies among different microhabitats. Adult females can escape natural enemies by depositing that characteristics of the first trophic level (i.e. host plant exposure) can affect the foraging success of insect

Richner, Heinz

423

Ecology 2001 89, 186199  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2001 89, 186­199 © 2001 British Ecological Society 186 Blackwell Science, Ltd for more than 27 000 insects, all verified by feeding experiments, and spatial distribution of almost 9000 than with annual herbs, and may present a permanent and predictable habitat for insects even

Basset, Yves

424

Ecology 2002 16, 000000  

E-print Network

U N C O R R EC TED PRO O F Functional Ecology 2002 16, 000­000 © 2002 British Ecological Society 1 FEC_654 Pages: 10 Blackwell Science, Ltd Insects as leaf engineers: can leaf-miners alter leaf of Brathens, Banchory AB31 4DA, UK Summary 1. This study examined the indirect impacts of leaf-mining insects

Mayhew, Peter

425

CAREERS IN ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Many non-scientists treat "ecology" and "environmentalism" as roughly interchangeable words, thus the word "ecologist" commonly has come to signify a particular part of the political spectrum. As used in the scientific community and in this presentation, however, ecology is loos...

426

Ecology 2001 89, 464480  

E-print Network

Journal of Ecology 2001 89, 464­480 © 2001 British Ecological Society 464 Blackwell Science, Ltd Water use trade-offs and optimal adaptations to pulse-driven arid ecosystems SUSANNE SCHWINNING­0840, USA Summary 1 We introduce a hydraulic soil-plant model with water uptake from two soil layers; one

Ehleringer, Jim

427

Audubon Ecology Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

428

The Ecological Design Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecological Design Institute is an organization that seeks ways to design and construct buildings that meet human needs within the balance of nature. Users can explore design projects, education projects, and the five principles of ecological design on the website. The American Youth Hostel Design Studio at UC Berkeley is just one example of the several interesting demonstration educational projects.

429

Enter Keyword(s) Today's Ecology Top  

E-print Network

Enter Keyword(s) Today's Ecology Top News OMG's Business Ecology Initiative BEI Reaches 250 Member Advertisement Ecology Topics Botany Climate Research Ecology Environment Environmental Microbiology Environmental Monitoring Environmental Research Fisheries Research Marine Biology Meteorology Molecular Ecology

430

Predictive systems ecology  

PubMed Central

Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive. PMID:24089332

Evans, Matthew R.; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J.; Dall, Sasha R. X.; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mace, Georgina M.; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K. J.; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M. J.; Benton, Tim G.

2013-01-01

431

Complex Synchronization Phenomena in Ecological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological and biological systems provide us with many striking examples of synchronization phenomena. Here we discuss a number of intriguing cases and attempt to explain them taking advantage of a modelling framework. One main focus will concern synchronized ecological end epidemiological cycles which have Uniform Phase growth associated with their regular recurrence, and Chaotic Amplitudes - a feature we term UPCA. Examples come from different areas and include decadal cycles of small mammals, recurrent viral epidemics such as childhood infections (eg., measles), and seasonally driven phytoplankton blooms observed in lakes and the oceans. A more detailed theoretical analysis of seasonally synchronized chaotic population cycles is presented.

Stone, Lewi; Olinky, Ronen; Blasius, Bernd; Huppert, Amit; Cazelles, Bernard

2002-07-01

432

Nutrient addition differentially affects ecological processes of Avicennia germinans in nitrogen versus phosphorus limited mangrove ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient over-enrichment is a major threat to marine environments, but system-specific attributes of coastal ecosystems may result in differences in their sensitivity and susceptibility to eutrophication. We used fertilization experiments in nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-limited mangrove forests to test the hypothesis that alleviating different kinds of nutrient limitation may have different effects on ecosystem structure and function in natural systems. We compared a broad range of ecological processes to determine if these systems have different thresholds where shifts might occur in nutrient limitation. Growth responses indicated N limitation in Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) forests in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and P limitation at Twin Cays, Belize. When nutrient deficiency was relieved, A. germinans grew out of its stunted form by increasing wood relative to leaf biomass and shoot length relative to lateral growth. At the P-limited site, P enrichment (+P) increased specific leaf area, N resorption, and P uptake, but had no effect on P resorption. At the N-limited site, +N increased both N and P resorption, but did not alter biomass allocation. Herbivory was greater at the P-limited site and was unaffected by +P, whereas +N led to increased herbivory at the N-limited site. The responses to nutrient enrichment depended on the ecological process and limiting nutrient and suggested that N- versus P-limited mangroves do have different thresholds. +P had a greater effect on more ecological processes at Twin Cays than did +N at the IRL, which indicated that the P-limited site was more sensitive to nutrient loading. Because of this sensitivity, eutrophication is more likely to cause a shift in nutrient limitation at P-limited Twin Cays than N-limited IRL. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Feller, I.C.; Lovelock, C.E.; McKee, K.L.

2007-01-01

433

Sensitive Periods  

PubMed Central

This chapter reviews sensitive periods in human brain development based on the literature on children raised in institutions. Sensitive experiences occur when experiences are uniquely influential for the development of neural circuitry. Because in humans, we make inferences about sensitive periods from evaluations of complex behaviors, we underestimate the occurrence of sensitive periods at the level of neural circuitry. Although we are most interested in complex behaviors, such as IQ or attachment or externalizing problems, many different sensitive periods at the level of circuits probably underlie these complex behaviors. Results from a number of studies suggest that across most, but not all, domains of development, institutional rearing limited to the first 4–6 months of life is associated with no significant increase risk for long-term adverse effects relative to non-institutionalized children. Beyond that, evidence for sensitive periods is less compelling, meaning that “the earlier the better” rule for enhanced caregiving is a reasonable conclusion at the current state of the science. PMID:25125708

Zeanah, Charles H.; Gunnar, Megan R.; McCall, Robert B.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Fox, Nathan A.

2010-01-01

434

Ecology-Sivilculture Hardwood Ecology and Silviculture-  

E-print Network

reproduction of most oak species. Only one paper addressed physiological ecology of hardwood species. Better regeneration in California's major oak species, and provided an overview of mixed hardwood-conifer silviculture was addressed in papers on the mixed-evergreen forest, northern oak woodlands, valley oak riparian forests

Standiford, Richard B.

435

Master programme in Ecology & Evolution  

E-print Network

Master programme in Ecology & Evolution Jointly organized by the Institute of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Bern Selected specialisation within the MSc programme in Ecology & Evolution Programme start and conservation Plant ecology Behaviour Evolution autumn semester spring semester year: 20.. 3 semester 4 semester

Richner, Heinz

436

Journal of Animal Ecology 2002  

E-print Network

Journal of Animal Ecology 2002 71, 23­31 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science Ltd TONI LAAKSONEN, ERKKI KORPIM�KI and HARRI HAKKARAINEN Section of Ecology, Department of Biology of Animal Ecology (2002) 71, 23­31 Introduction An understanding of age-dependent reproductive out- put

Laaksonen, Toni

437

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004  

E-print Network

Journal of Applied Ecology 2004 41, 922­933 © 2004 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing that might guide management decisions. We tested whether ideas from landscape ecology (local vs. landscape-scale, Sacramento River, succession, vegetation Journal of Applied Ecology (2004) 41, 922­933 Introduction More than

Holl, Karen

438

Journal of Animal Ecology 2004  

E-print Network

Journal of Animal Ecology 2004 73, 342­352 © 2004 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing VALKAMA and VILLE P�YRI Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, reproductive value, sex allocation, sex-dependent mortality, varia- ble environment. Journal of Animal Ecology

Laaksonen, Toni

439

3, 11851214, 2006 Landscape ecology  

E-print Network

HESSD 3, 1185­1214, 2006 Landscape ecology meets catchment hydrology B. Schr¨oder Title Page, and function in landscape ecology and catchment hydrology ­ how can quantitative landscape ecology support¨oder (boschroe@uni-potsdam.de) 1185 #12;HESSD 3, 1185­1214, 2006 Landscape ecology meets catchment hydrology B

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

Journal of Animal Ecology 2002  

E-print Network

specificity of rainforest insects © 2002 British Ecological Society, Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 400Journal of Animal Ecology 2002 71, 400­412 © 2002 British Ecological Society Blackwell Science Ltd Host specialization of leaf-chewing insects in a New Guinea rainforest VOJTECH NOVOTNY*, YVES BASSET

Basset, Yves

441

Ecological Resilience, Biodiversity, and Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe existing models of the relationship between species diversity and ecological function, and propose a conceptual model that relates species richness, ecological resilience, and scale. We suggest that species interact with scale-dependent sets of ecological structures and processes that determine functional opportunities. We propose that ecologi- cal resilience is generated by diverse, but overlap- ping, function within a scale

Garry Peterson; Craig R. Allen; C. S. Holling

1998-01-01

442

Journal of Applied Ecology 2005  

E-print Network

and Environmental Planning, University California, USA; and ***Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, USA project to be considered ecologically successful. It is critical that the broad restoration community ArticleEcological success in river restorationM. A. Palmer et al. FORUM Standards for ecologically

Palmer, Margaret A.

443

Wireless Sensor Networks for Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is using wireless sensor networks in ecology. Field biologists and ecologists are starting to open new avenues of inquiry at greater spatial and temporal resolution, allowing them to "observe the unobservable" through the use of wireless sensor networks. Sensor networks facilitate the collection of diverse types of data (from temperature to imagery and sound) at frequent intervals--even multiple times per second--over large areas, allowing ecologists and field biologists to engage in intensive and expansive sampling and to unobtrusively collect new types of data. Moreover, real-time data flows allow researchers to react rapidly to events, thus extending the laboratory to the field. We review some existing uses of wireless sensor networks, identify possible areas of application, and review the underlying technologies in the hope of stimulating additional use of this promising technology to address the grand challenges of environmental science

JOHN PORTER, PETER ARZBERGER, HANS-WERNER BRAUN, PABLO BRYANT, STUART GAGE, TODD HANSEN, PAUL HANSON, CHAU-CHIN LIN, FANG-PANG LIN, TIMOTHY KRATZ, WILLIAM MICHENER, SEDRA SHAPIRO, and THOMAS WILLIAMS (;)

2005-07-01

444