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1

SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

2006-03-01

2

Information Theory in Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of information theory (IT) to ecology has occurred along two separate lines: (1) it has been used to quantify the distribution of stocks and numbers of organisms; and (2) it has been employed to quantify the pattern of interactions of trophic processes. By and large, the first endeavor has resulted in relatively few insights into ecosystem dynamics and

Robert E. Ulanowicz

2001-01-01

3

Environmental information in a recent bone assemblage: roles of taphonomic processes and ecological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taphonomic processes have the potential to obscure or enhance original associations between paleoenvironments and organisms through selective destruction, post-mortem transport, and time-averaging. Ecological changes through time in habitat utilization by living organisms also can blur distinctions between faunas or floras associated with particular habitats. If taphonomic processes affect habitat specificity in bone assemblages, then this should be revealed in time

Alan H Cutler; Anna K Behrensmeyer; Ralph E Chapman

1999-01-01

4

Secrecy vs. the need for ecological information: challenges to environmental activism in Russia.  

PubMed

This article identifies the lessons learned from the Nikitin case study in Russia. The Nikitin case involves the analysis of sources of radioactive contamination in several Russian counties and in the Russian Northern Fleet. Norway was interested in the issue due to proximity to the storage sites. The issue involved national security and environmental protection. It was learned that mixing national security issues with environmental issues offers dangerous and multiple challenges. Environmental groups must build relationships with a wide audience. International security policy must include the issues of globalization of trade and the spread of environmental problems into the global commons (oceans and atmosphere). The risk of an environmentally dangerous accident as a consequence of Cold War activities is greater than the risk of nuclear war. Secrecy in military affairs is not justified when there is inadequate storage of nuclear weapons and contaminated materials. In Russia, the concern is great due to their economic transition and shortages of funds for even the most basic needs, which excludes nuclear waste clean up. The Bellona Foundation studied the extent of nuclear pollution from military nuclear reactors in the Kola peninsula of northwest Russia, in 1994 and 1996. Russian security police arrested one of the report authors for alleged national security violations. A valuable lesson learned was that local Russian environmental groups needed international support. The military nuclear complex poses an enormous hazard. Limiting inspections is an unacceptable national security risk. The new Russian law on state secrets is too broad. PMID:12321718

Jandl, T

1998-01-01

5

Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-01

6

Ecological Dimensions of Information Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: We examine relationships between information literacy and information ecology with regard to conceptual innovation in information science. We aim to expand our understanding of human information behaviour and relevance assessment in the electronic environment. Method: Conceptual analysis and conceptual mapping is used and…

Steinerova, Jela

2010-01-01

7

Foundations for an Ecological Aesthetic: Can Information Alter Landscape Preferences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological restoration often requires altering existing environmental conditions. Public acceptance of restoration options may be contingent on perceptions of aesthetic qualities and knowledge of ecological benefits for existing and proposed conditions. This experiment investigated the effect of ecological information on scenic beauty and acceptability judgments for a sample of woodland sites. A computer-implemented survey presented images of woodland scenes, ranging

Dawn Hill; Terry C. Daniel

2007-01-01

8

Statistics for Ecology and Environmental Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides the author's teaching philosophy for statistics. It includes brief lesson plans and assignments/activities which aim to instill a better understanding of statistics in students of the Ecology and Environmental Science disciplines.

Streever, Bill

2010-02-16

9

Catabolic plasmids of environmental and ecological significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental and ecological significance of catabolic plasmids and their host strains are discussed in the context of their potential application for environmental biotechnology. Included is a comprehensive list of naturally occurring discrete catabolic plasmids isolated from either natural habitats or selective enrichment studies. General properties, such as plasmid maintenance, stability and transfer, are discussed together with the techniques for

Gary S. Sayler; Scott W. Hooper; Alice C. Layton; J. M. Henry King

1990-01-01

10

On Science, Ecology and Environmentalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using ecological science as a backdrop for this discussion, the author applies Michel Foucault's historical genealogical strategy to an analysis of the processes through which sustainable development (SD) gained hegemonic acceptance in the West. She analyses some of the ideological mutations that have seen SD emerge from an environmentalist…

Tulloch, Lynley

2013-01-01

11

Distinguishing ecological engineering from environmental engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses complex system thinking to identify key peculiarities of ecological engineering. In particular it focuses on the distinction between the purpose-driven design of structures in environmental engineering and the natural process of self-organization characteristic of life, which needs to be integrated into ecological engineering.Conventional engineering addresses the problem of fabrication of an organized structure, say a road, which

T. F. H Allen; M Giampietro; A. M Little

2003-01-01

12

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy

C. C. Trettin; V. R. Tolbert; A. T. Jones; C. R. Smith; A. J. Kalmijn

1994-01-01

13

Environmental information in Czechoslovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines environmental problems in Czechoslovakia, the nature of environmental information and new recognition of the importance of such information in Czechoslovakia in the European context, following recent political changes. Provides general information about the organizational and legal framework of environmental matters in Czechoslovakia. Describes existing environmental information systems and their problems and the scope of action required. Describes the conceptual

Pavia Stanciková

1992-01-01

14

Information Ecologies: Highlights of the Keynote Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents case studies on information ecology. Includes a chapter on librarians as "keystone species" in that they are very critical to the functioning of the ecology. Discusses the massive amounts of information available on the Internet and the role of librarians. Cites the need for Librarians to be more proactive in their local information

Nardi, Bonnie A.

1998-01-01

15

Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio eco sensing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. (Research on environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bioecosensing technology was studied which detects and identifies feeble signals generated by biosystem communication in wide biological environment. The following were reported as current notable environmental biosensing technologies: a quick measure...

1996-01-01

16

Energy conservation, ecological stability and environmental quality  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the lifeblood of the ecosystem and, therefore, of the human-social enterprise as well. The ecological stability in all levels of biosphere functions is a problem of environmental quality and ultimately of public health, economy and life styles: the impact of energy availability, its use and abuse. In the age of energy and natural resource scarcity with all sorts of disruptions in the industrial-economic fabric, the perilous energy crisis and the threat of ecological breakdown, a hard new look and evaluation of energy use and conservation potential is urgently needed. The following scheme of pertinent questions is in order: a. Energy and Mass Flow in the Ecosystems: Energy and the determinants of ecosystem structure and dynamics. Food chain and food webs. How much is needed. How much is wasted. What is an optimum ecological efficiency within conservation planning systems analysis. b. Energy and Mass Flow in the Human Environment: Human ecosystem adaptability. Environmental stresses and ecological instability. Biological control: energy conservation and the re-establishment of a tolerable stable state. c. Energy Conservation Planning: How much energy do we use and waste. How can energy use and waste be reduced in developed and developing countries within the context of enhancing ecological balance and economic-social growth.

Bourodimos, E.L.

1980-12-01

17

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

1994-06-01

18

Mobile Environmental Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents foundations for building mobile environmental information systems (MEIS) that require a multidisciplinary approach. MEIS require expertise from environmental biology, geography and mobile technology. MEIS are very promising in bringing added value in the acquisition of environmental information with a multitude of mobile devices. Automatic mobile acquisition makes it easy to forward the information to central databases for

Harri Antikainen; Alfred Colpaert; Niina Jaako; JARMOV RUSANEN; Dan Bendas; Mauri Myllyaho; Markku Oivo; Pasi Kuvaja; Jouni Similä; Kyösti Marjoniemi; Kari Laine; Esko Saari

2004-01-01

19

The Conceptualization of a Regional-Ecological Information System Essential to Environmental Design and Community Development in the State of Nebraska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research proposes a conceptual structure for an Environmental Information System. An Eco-Systems approach is employed maintaining whole units of analysis allowing for collection and storage of information of use to regional environmental planning and design. The suggested system design incorporates some of the basic concepts of the two…

Steward, W. Cecil; Menary, John A.

20

Information and the Ecology of Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests a logical basis for the use of ecological concepts in modeling a special subculture; that of scholars (and in particular scientists), who produce, barter, and structure information as an ecosystem produces, exchanges, and structures biomass. (JR)|

Blackburn, Thomas R.

1973-01-01

21

Ecology, Environmental Impact Statements, and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Brief Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risk assessment will continue to increase in importance as a conceptual and methodological basis for evaluating environmental impacts as required by the National Environmental Policy Act. Understanding the historical strengths and limitations of more traditional environmental assessments performed in support of the NEPA can facilitate the effective incorporation of ecological risk assessment into the NEPA process. Such integration will

S. M. Bartell

1998-01-01

22

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

PubMed

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. PMID:23474334

Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

2013-03-05

23

Environmental geographic information system.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

Peek, Dennis; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

2010-08-01

24

Exploring Connections between Environmental Education and Ecological Public Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As an artist and educator with a strong interest in environmental issues, the author relates how he was led to ask the following questions: (1) How effective is environmental education, as it is currently taught? (2) How can ecological public art infuse environmental education with new ways of perceiving and addressing environmental issues? (3)…

Song, Young Imm Kang

2008-01-01

25

ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH APPLICATIONS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although the importance of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) in natural resource management has been widely acknowledged, the potential of GlS as an ecological research tool has just begun to be explored. The establishment of a major GIS facility at the University of Minnesot...

26

Models of Financial Market Information Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss a new simple framework that allows a more realistic modelling of speculation. The resulting model features expliciting position holding, contagion between predictability patterns, allows for an explicit measure of market inefficiency and substantiates the use of the minority game to study information ecology in financial markets.

Challet, Damien

27

From environmental to ecological ethics: toward a practical ethics for ecologists and conservationists.  

PubMed

Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of "ecological ethics" is a practical or scientific ethics that offers a superior approach to the ethical dilemmas of the ecologist and conservation manager. Even though ecological ethics necessarily draws from the principles and commitments of mainstream environmental ethics, it is normatively pluralistic, including as well the frameworks of animal, research, and professional ethics. It is also methodologically pragmatic, focused on the practical problems of researchers and managers and informed by these problems in turn. The ecological ethics model offers environmental scientists and practitioners a useful analytical tool for identifying, clarifying, and harmonizing values and positions in challenging ecological research and management situations. Just as bioethics provides a critical intellectual and problem-solving service to the biomedical community, ecological ethics can help inform and improve ethical decision making in the ecology and conservation communities. PMID:18985441

Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

2008-11-05

28

Social-Ecological Resilience and Environmental Education: Synopsis, Application, Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The resilience approach is rooted in ecology and is being advanced as a means to understand change in social-ecological systems. How can resilience be applied to understanding change in social systems, including in environmental education? In probing this question the main resilience approaches are described, the manner in which they may be…

Plummer, Ryan

2010-01-01

29

Social-Ecological Resilience and Environmental Education: Synopsis, Application, Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resilience approach is rooted in ecology and is being advanced as a means to understand change in social-ecological systems. How can resilience be applied to understanding change in social systems, including in environmental education? In probing this question the main resilience approaches are described, the manner in which they may be…

Plummer, Ryan

2010-01-01

30

Ecological adaptation as a perspective for environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental management decisions are typically evaluated from the perspective of environmental impacts. However, that perspective fails to accommodate complex reciprocal relationships between society and environment. This study evaluates ecological adaptation as an alternative perspective for environmental management. Adaptation refers to interactive problem-solving processes. It draws on concepts from a variety of disciplines, but is developed in this study within the

1992-01-01

31

Environmental release of chemicals and reproductive ecology.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive ecology is defined as "the study of causes and mechanisms of the effects of environmental risk factors on reproductive health and the methods of their prevention and management." Major areas of concern, within the purview of this paper, relate to adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects on target tissues in the male and the female, and alterations in the control and regulatory mechanisms of reproductive processes. Teratogenic potential of chemicals, released as a result of accidents and catastrophes, is of critical significance. Congenital Minamata disease is due to transplacental fetal toxicity caused by accidental ingestion of methyl mercury. Generalized disorders of ectodermal tissue following prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls have been reported in Taiwan and Japan. The Bhopal gas disaster, a catastrophic industrial accident, was due to a leak of toxic gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), in the pesticide manufacturing process. The outcome of pregnancy was studied in female survivors of MIC exposure. The spontaneous abortion rate was nearly four times more common in the affected areas as compared to the control area (24.2% versus 5.6%; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, while stillbirth rate was found to be similar in the affected and control areas, the perinatal and neonatal mortality rates were observed to be higher in the affected area. The rate of congenital malformations in the affected and control areas did not show any significant difference. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were investigated in human survivors of exposure. The observed SCE frequencies in control and exposed groups indicated that mutagenesis has been induced. Strategies for the management, prediction, and preventability of such disasters are outlined.

Bajaj, J S; Misra, A; Rajalakshmi, M; Madan, R

1993-01-01

32

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

NONE

1995-05-31

33

The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)|

Bicak, Charles J.

1997-01-01

34

From ecological science to environmental education: A professional turning point?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the significance of a shift in young people's professional career from ecological science to environmental education. The article reflects on the role of higher education in addressing social and political issues in environment and sustainability, and then provides an account of a course on environmental education research methodology at the Universidad Nacional Autfinoma de México. The course

Laura Barraza; Ian Robottom

35

The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains the papers presented in the 1970-1971 Environmental and Ecological Forum series, planned to provide an overview of the significant environmental, social, and economic aspects of electric power generation, more specifically, the pros and cons of nuclear power production. The Forum was organized as a public service to foster…

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

36

FISHER INFORMATION AND DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher Information and Dynamic Regime Changes in Ecological Systems Abstract for the 3rd Conference of the International Society for Ecological Informatics Audrey L. Mayer, Christopher W. Pawlowski, and Heriberto Cabezas The sustainable nature of particular dynamic...

37

Putting the "Ecology" into Environmental Flows: Ecological Dynamics and Demographic Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been significant diversions of water from rivers and streams around the world; natural flow regimes have been perturbed by dams, barriers and excessive extractions. Many aspects of the ecological `health' of riverine systems have declined due to changes in water flows, which has stimulated the development of thinking about the maintenance and restoration of these systems, which we refer to as environmental flow methodologies (EFMs). Most existing EFMs cannot deliver information on the population viability of species because they: (1) use habitat suitability as a proxy for population status; (2) use historical time series (usually of short duration) to forecast future conditions and flow sequences; (3) cannot, or do not, handle extreme flow events associated with climate variability; and (4) assume process stationarity for flow sequences, which means the past sequences are treated as good indicators of the future. These assumptions undermine the capacity of EFMs to properly represent risks associated with different flow management options; assumption (4) is untenable given most climate-change predictions. We discuss these concerns and advocate the use of demographic modelling as a more appropriate tool for linking population dynamics to flow regime change. A `meta-species' approach to demographic modelling is discussed as a useful step from habitat based models towards modelling strategies grounded in ecological theory when limited data are available on flow-demographic relationships. Data requirements of demographic models will undoubtedly expose gaps in existing knowledge, but, in so doing, will strengthen future efforts to link changes in river flows with their ecological consequences.

Shenton, Will; Bond, Nicholas R.; Yen, Jian D. L.; Mac Nally, Ralph

2012-07-01

38

Putting the "ecology" into environmental flows: ecological dynamics and demographic modelling.  

PubMed

There have been significant diversions of water from rivers and streams around the world; natural flow regimes have been perturbed by dams, barriers and excessive extractions. Many aspects of the ecological 'health' of riverine systems have declined due to changes in water flows, which has stimulated the development of thinking about the maintenance and restoration of these systems, which we refer to as environmental flow methodologies (EFMs). Most existing EFMs cannot deliver information on the population viability of species because they: (1) use habitat suitability as a proxy for population status; (2) use historical time series (usually of short duration) to forecast future conditions and flow sequences; (3) cannot, or do not, handle extreme flow events associated with climate variability; and (4) assume process stationarity for flow sequences, which means the past sequences are treated as good indicators of the future. These assumptions undermine the capacity of EFMs to properly represent risks associated with different flow management options; assumption (4) is untenable given most climate-change predictions. We discuss these concerns and advocate the use of demographic modelling as a more appropriate tool for linking population dynamics to flow regime change. A 'meta-species' approach to demographic modelling is discussed as a useful step from habitat based models towards modelling strategies grounded in ecological theory when limited data are available on flow-demographic relationships. Data requirements of demographic models will undoubtedly expose gaps in existing knowledge, but, in so doing, will strengthen future efforts to link changes in river flows with their ecological consequences. PMID:22543580

Shenton, Will; Bond, Nicholas R; Yen, Jian D L; Mac Nally, Ralph

2012-04-28

39

Study on environmental information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept and category was discussed in this paper, which introduces the present situation and several basic questions and studied methods of environmental information technology, centers on several kinds of environmental information technology, and prospects for the developmental trend of it. It is important to solve environmental problems, prevent environmental pollution, benefit human beings.

Ji-hong Zhou; Yu lian; Zhong-tao Shi; Xiao-tao Gou; Jun-guang Zhao; Ping Li

2009-01-01

40

Information ecology: open system environment for data, memories, and knowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An information ecology provides a conceptual framework to consider data, the creation of knowledge, and the flow of information within a multidimensional context. This paper, reporting on a one year project to study the heterogeneity of information and its management within the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) community, presents some manifestations of traditionally unreported 'invisible work' and associated elements of

Karen S. Baker; Geoffrey C. Bowker

2007-01-01

41

Ecological adaptation as a perspective for environmental management  

SciTech Connect

Environmental management decisions are typically evaluated from the perspective of environmental impacts. However, that perspective fails to accommodate complex reciprocal relationships between society and environment. This study evaluates ecological adaptation as an alternative perspective for environmental management. Adaptation refers to interactive problem-solving processes. It draws on concepts from a variety of disciplines, but is developed in this study within the context of cultural ecology. The study focuses on reciprocal interactions between residential development and the effects of waste water and storm water runoff on both surface water and ground water in the Balcones Canyonlands of central Texas. Low density conventional suburban development and clustered morphologies are evaluated as alternative adaptations to problems of water quality at both the local subdivision and regional levels. It is concluded that adaptation offers a comprehensive, integrated, and process-oriented perspective for environmental management that incorporates biophysical and cultural processes.

Kimmel, J.R.

1992-01-01

42

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

43

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONH HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

44

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK: CORRELATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

45

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

46

Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society  

Treesearch

Title: Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society ... in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which ...

47

Diversity in current ecological thinking: implications for environmental management.  

PubMed

Current ecological thinking emphasizes that systems are complex, dynamic, and unpredictable across space and time. What is the diversity in interpretation of these ideas among today's ecologists, and what does this mean for environmental management? This study used a Policy Delphi survey of ecologists to explore their perspectives on a number of current topics in ecology. The results showed general concurrence with nonequilibrium views. There was agreement that disturbance is a widespread, normal feature of ecosystems with historically contingent responses. The importance of recognizing multiple levels of organization and the role of functional diversity in environmental change were also widely acknowledged. Views differed regarding the predictability of successional development, whether "patchiness" is a useful concept, and the benefits of shifting the focus from species to ecosystem processes. Because of their centrality to environmental management, these different views warrant special attention from both managers and ecologists. Such divergence is particularly problematic given widespread concerns regarding the poor linkages between science (here, ecology) and environmental policy and management, which have been attributed to scientific uncertainty and a lack of consensus among scientists, both jeopardizing the transfer of science into management. Several suggestions to help managers deal with these differences are provided, especially the need to interpret broader theory in the context of place-based assessments. The uncertainty created by these differences requires a proactive approach to environmental management, including clearly identifying environmental objectives, careful experimental design, and effective monitoring. PMID:18709471

Moore, Susan A; Wallington, Tabatha J; Hobbs, Richard J; Ehrlich, Paul R; Holling, C S; Levin, Simon; Lindenmayer, David; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Possingham, Hugh; Turner, Monica G; Westoby, Mark

2008-08-16

48

Simulating evolutionary responses of an introgressed insect resistance trait for ecological effect assessment of transgene flow: a model for supporting informed decision-making in environmental risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Predicting outcomes of transgene flow from arable crops requires a system perspective that considers ecological and evolutionary processes within a landscape context. In Europe, the arable weed Raphanus raphanistrum is a potential hybridization partner of oilseed rape, and the two species are ecologically linked through the common herbivores Meligethes spp. Observations in Switzerland show that high densities of Meligethes beetles maintained by oilseed rape crops can lead to considerable damage on R. raphanistrum. We asked how increased insect resistance in R. raphanistrum – as might be acquired through introgression from transgenic oilseed rape – would affect seed production under natural herbivore pressure. In simulation experiments, plants protected against Meligethes beetles produced about twice as many seeds as unprotected plants. All stages in the development of reproductive structures from buds to pods were negatively affected by the herbivore, with the transition from buds to flowers being the most vulnerable. We conclude that resistance to Meligethes beetles could confer a considerable selective advantage upon R. raphanistrum in regions where oilseed rape is widely grown.

Meier, Matthias S; Trtikova, Miluse; Suter, Matthias; Edwards, Peter J; Hilbeck, Angelika

2013-01-01

49

Predicting Estuarine Sediment Metal Concentrations and Inferred Ecological Conditions: An Information Theoretic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirically derived relationships associating sediment metal concentrations with degraded ecological conditions provide important information to assess estuarine condition. Resources limit the number, magnitude, and frequency of monitoring activities to acquire these data. Models that use available information and simple statistical relationships to predict sediment metal concentrations could provide an important tool for environmental assessment. We developed 45 predictive models for

Jeffrey W. Hollister; Peter V. August; John F. Paul; Henry A. Walker

2008-01-01

50

Free and Open Source Geographic Information Tools for Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information tools (GI tools) have become an essential component of research in landscape ecology. In this article we review the use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GI tools in landscape ecology, with an emphasis on free and open source software (FOSS) projects. Specifically, we introduce the background and terms related to the free and open source software movement,

Stefan Steiniger; Geoffrey J. Hay

51

Infrastructuring for the Long-Term: Ecological Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper foregrounds the long-term perspective and the role of information management in creating infrastructure to support collaborative ecological research. The case study of the Long-Term Ecological Research Network is an ongoing research collaboration that integrates ethno- graphic and action research approaches. We describe three interdependent elements of science, data and tech- nology for which information management provides sup- port,

Helena Karasti; Karen S. Baker

2004-01-01

52

Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

Lee, E. Bun

2008-01-01

53

Reactor operation environmental information document  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

1989-12-01

54

Situating trends in environmental education within the ecological debate  

SciTech Connect

For centuries there have been two philosophical orientations toward nature; one assumes humans to be the rightful owners and managers of nature, and the other is founded on a belief that humans are equal citizens within the earth's biotic community. Today these two approaches are located within reform environmentalism and deep ecology. In 1948, Aldo Leopold wrote an essay entitled [open quotes]The Land Ethic[close quotes] which proposed that humans include the land and its inhabitants within their circle of ethical concern. This essay has become a focal point of the debate between these two philosophies. The purpose of this study is to discover and describe the conceptual trends in environmental education since Leopold published [open quotes]The Land Ethic.[close quotes] Eighty-two articles, published in educational journals from 1950 to 1990, were analyzed to determine whether they expressed a reform environmentalism orientation or a deep ecology perspective. Articles were selected which provided a statement of the purposes and goals of conservation education and environmental education. Until 1969, articles were drawn from a wide variety of educational journals. After 1969, the selection was limited to articles in The Journal of Environmental Education when that journal became the leading forum for environmental education discourse. The results showed that in the 1950s and 1960s the focus was almost entirely on wise-use conservation and reform environmentalism. In the last two decades, however, even though reform environmentalism remained a dominant influence, there has been a definite trend toward incorporating deep ecology concepts in this educational discourse. Further research is needed to determine how these ideas influence curriculum design and instructional practice.

Faulconer, T.

1992-01-01

55

CERES: Environmental Information by Theme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES), features links to environmental information arranged under three categories: natural environment, natural resources, and the human environment. Natural environmental topics include such items as weather, geology, and natural disturbances (earthquakes, El nino, and others). Natural resources topics include minerals, water, fisheries, and biodiversity. Human environmental topics include cultural resources, environmental law, hazardous waste, and land use.

56

Mining environmental toxicology information: web resources.  

PubMed

Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with toxic agents is of interest to government regulators, industry, researchers, private organizations and citizen groups. In assessing the ecological risk associated with a chemical stressor, it is important to establish linkages between likely exposure concentrations and adverse effects to ecological receptors. To do so requires access to reliable information resources. The proper application of such data requires familiarity with the scientific literature and keeping abreast of new and emerging issues as well as state-of-the-art research findings and methods. In addition, an understanding of government regulations as they relate to environmental issues is also of primary interest. The advent of the Web has made these tools accessible at computer desktops. This review focuses on currently available free Web resources related to environmental toxicology, specifically those which address available empirical data sources, predictive tools and publications of interest such as standard test methods, guidance documents and governmental regulations. PMID:11955685

Russom, Christine L

2002-04-25

57

Ecology of Increasing Diseases: Population Growth and Environmental Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations report that the prevalence of human diseases during the past decade\\u000a is rapidly increasing. Population growth and the pollution of water, air, and soil are contributing to the increasing number\\u000a of human diseases worldwide. Currently an estimated 40% of world deaths are due to environmental degradation. The ecology\\u000a of increasing diseases has

D. Pimentel; S. Cooperstein; H. Randell; D. Filiberto; S. Sorrentino; B. Kaye; C. Nicklin; J. Yagi; J. Brian; J. O’Hern; A. Habas; C. Weinstein

2007-01-01

58

Measures of preferred direction for environmental and ecological circular data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular or angular variables indicating direction or cyclical time can be of great interest to scientists studying ecology,\\u000a biology or environmental issues. A common problem of interest in circular data is estimating a preferred direction and its\\u000a corresponding distribution. This problem is complicated by the so-called “wrap-around effect” on the circle, which exists\\u000a because there is no natural minimum or

B. Sango Otieno; Christine M. Anderson-Cook

2006-01-01

59

The ecological footprint housing component: A geographic information system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological footprint (EF) and its unit, the global hectare, share a reputation of effectively communicating the connection between local awareness and global impact. One use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in urban planning is decision support, while the potential of the ecological footprint in GIS has not developed significantly. The smaller the spatial unit in GIS, the more

Les W. Kuzyk

60

Environmental sex determination in reptiles: ecology, evolution, and experimental design.  

PubMed

Sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles can be divided into two convenient classifications: genotypic (GSD) and environmental (ESD). While a number of types of GSD have been identified in a wide variety of reptilian taxa, the expression of ESD in the form of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in three of the five major reptilian lineages has drawn considerable attention to this area of research. Increasing interest in sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles has resulted in many data, but much of this information is scattered throughout the literature and consequently difficult to interpret. It is known, however, that distinct sex chromosomes are absent in the tuatara and crocodilians, rare in amphisbaenians (worm lizards) and turtles, and common in lizards and snakes (but less than 20% of all species of living reptiles have been karyotyped). With less than 2 percent of all reptilian species examined, TSD apparently is absent in the tuatara, amphisbaenians and snakes; rare in lizards, frequent in turtles, and ubiquitous in crocodilians. Despite considerable inter- and intraspecific variation in the threshold temperature (temperature producing a 1:1 sex ratio) of gonadal sex determination, this variation cannot confidently be assigned a genetic basis owing to uncontrolled environmental factors or to differences in experimental protocol among studies. Laboratory studies have identified the critical period of development during which gonadal sex determination occurs for at least a dozen species. There are striking similarities in this period among the major taxa with TSD. Examination of TSD in the field indicates that sex ratios of hatchlings are affected by location of the nests, because some nests produce both sexes whereas the majority produce only one sex. Still, more information is needed on how TSD operates under natural conditions in order to fully understand its ecological and conservation implications. TSD may be the ancestral sex-determining condition in reptiles, but this result remains tentative. Physiological investigations of TSD have clarified the roles of steroid hormones, various enzymes, and H-Y antigen in sexual differentiation, whereas molecular studies have identified several plausible candidates for sex-determining genes in species with TSD. This area of research promises to elucidate the mechanism of TSD in reptiles and will have obvious implications for understanding the basis of sex determination in other vertebrates. Experimental and comparative investigations of the potential adaptive significance of TSD appear equally promising, although much work remains to be performed. The distribution of TSD within and among the major reptilian lineages may be related to the life span of individuals of a species and to the biogeography of these species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1891591

Janzen, F J; Paukstis, G L

1991-06-01

61

Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

1987-03-01

62

Regime changes in ecological systems: an information theory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our efforts at developing an ecological system index using information theory. Specifically, we derive an expression for Fisher Information based on sampling of the system trajectory as it evolves in the space defined by the state variables of the system, i.e. its state space. The Fisher Information index, as we have derived it, is a measure of system

Brian D. Fath; Heriberto Cabezas; Christopher W. Pawlowski

2003-01-01

63

1992 information please environmental almanac  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides information (including statistical data) on all aspects of the earth environment. Topics include: US green cities; war and its effects on the environment, toxins in food and water, endangered species, environmental disasters, ecotravel, wilderness, 1991 environmental legislation, alternative modes of transportation in urban areas, air pollution, old-growth forests, energy consumption, and recycling and waste disposal.

Not Available

1991-01-01

64

Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

65

Southeast Ecological Observatory Network (SEEON) Workshop on Ecological Sensors and Information Technology. Report on Second SEEON Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fundamental goal of the new National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to provide timely and broad access to the ecological data collected at NEON sites. Information management and data collection will...

L. N. Jones M. Binford R. C. Hinkle

2004-01-01

66

Geographic Information Systems in Epidemiology - Ecology of Common Vole and Distribution of Natural Foci of Tularaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pikula J., F. Treml, M. Beklová, Z. Hole‰ovská, J. Pikulová: Geographic Information Systems in Epidemiology - Ecology of Common Vole and Distribution of Natural Foci of Tularaemia.Acta Vet. Brno 2002, 71: 379-387. KORMAP geographic information system (GIS) was used to analyse the distribution and selected environmental factors related to population levels of Microtus arvalis (a potential reservoir host of F.

J. PIKULA; F. TREML; M. BEKLOVÁ; Z. HOLE; J. PIKULOVÁ

2002-01-01

67

Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint.  

PubMed

Adaptive management as applied to tourism policy treats management policies as experiments that probe the responses of the system as human behavior changes. We present a conceptual systems model that incorporates the gap between observed and desired levels of the ecological footprint with respect to biocapacity. Addressing this gap (or 'overshoot') can inform strategies to increase or decrease visitation or its associated consumption in the coming years. The feedback mechanism in this conceptual model incorporates a gap between observed and desired ecological footprint levels of tourists and residents. The work is based on longer-term and ongoing study of tourism impacts and ecological footprint assessments from the SPIN-Eco Project. We present historical tourism and environmental data from the province of Siena, Italy and discuss the use of discrete, static environmental indicators as part of an iterative feedback process to manage tourism within biophysical limits. We discuss a necessary shift of emphasis from certain and static numbers to a process-based management model that can reflect slow changes to biophysical resources. As underscored by ecological footprint analysis, the energy and material use associated with tourism and local activity can erode natural capital foundations if that use exceeds the area's biological capacity to support it. The dynamic, and iterative process of using such indicators as management feedback allows us to view sustainability more accurately as a transition and journey, rather than a static destination to which management must arrive. PMID:17157978

Patterson, Trista M; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

2006-12-08

68

MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

69

Ecotourism versus Mass Tourism. A Comparison of Environmental Impacts Based on Ecological Footprint Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic and policy interest in ecological footprint analysis has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, however, the application of ecological footprint analysis to tourism has been limited. This article aims to discuss the potential of ecological footprint analysis to assess sustainability in tourism. It is about a comparison of the global environmental impacts of different forms of tourism in

Mehdi Marzouki; Géraldine Froger; Jérôme Ballet

2012-01-01

70

Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VII: Urban Ecology - Our Future Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this module are four activities dealing with ecology and applications of ecological principles in the urban environment. Activities included are: (1) the study of ecology; (2) study of consequences of activities within an ecosystem; (3) environmental impacts--benefits and detriments; and (4) choices for the future. Also included are…

Nous, Albert P.; Biglan, Barbara

71

Conflict between ecological sustainability and environmental aesthetics: Conundrum, canärd or curiosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent theme in the relatively young field of landscape ecology is the development of an ecological aesthetic. Landscape ecologists and others are concerned with the planning and management of environments for both ecological sustainability and environmental aesthetics. Research and conceptual examples are used in the first part of this paper to illustrate the potential incompatibility of these goals in

Russ Parsons

1995-01-01

72

Integrating Environmental Restoration and Ecological Restoration: Long-Term Stewardship at the Department of Energy.  

PubMed

With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself. PMID:10982725

BURGER

2000-11-01

73

Where the wild things are: informal experience and ecological reasoning.  

PubMed

Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel diseases or insides from one species to an ecologically or taxonomically related species; they were also surveyed about hobbies and activities. Frequency of ecological inferences increased with age and with reports of informal exploration of nature, and decreased with population density. By age 10, children preferred taxonomic inferences for insides and ecological inferences for disease, but this pattern emerged earlier among rural children. These results underscore the importance of context by demonstrating effects of both domain-relevant experience and environment on biological reasoning. PMID:22548352

Coley, John D

2012-03-30

74

Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.  

PubMed

This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

Rees, William E

75

NEW APPROACHES IN RISK ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS TO HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the application of novel techniques for improving and integrating risk analysis of environmental stressors to human and ecological systems. Environmental protection decisions are guided by risk assessments serving as tools to develop regulatory policy and other relate...

76

The ecologic method in the study of environmental health. I. Overview of the method.  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the salient features of the ecologic method, with emphasis on its application in the study of environmental health. Various types of ecologic design are described, with examples. Finally, the main advantages and disadvantages are indicated. A companion paper discusses the methodology of ecologic designs in more detail and describes a census of data sets with potential suitability for the ecologic study of water quality and human health.

Walter, S D

1991-01-01

77

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds.  

PubMed

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (tau) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location. PMID:22486082

Daily, Jonathan P; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D

2012-01-01

78

Evaluation of Approaches to Depicting First Nations, Inupiat and Inuvialuit Environmental Information in GIS Format: Options for the Handling of Spatial Information in the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-Op Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the pace of climate change continues to accelerate in the North, traditional environmental knowledge systems are increasingly recognized by researchers, land use planners, government agencies, policy-makers and indigenous peoples as important contributors to environmental impact and climate change assessment and monitoring. Increasing temperatures, melting glaciers, reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice, thawing permafrost and rising sea

Jadah Elizabeth Folliott

2005-01-01

79

Construction and Validation of Textbook Analysis Grids for Ecology and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about ecology and environmental education (EE) constitutes a basic tool for promoting a sustainable future, and was a target area of the BIOHEAD-Citizen Project. School textbooks were considered as representative sources of evidence in terms of ecology and environmental education, and were used for comparison among the countries…

Caravita, Silvia; Valente, Adriana; Luzi, Daniela; Pace, Paul; Valanides, Nicos; Khalil, Iman; Berthou, Guillemette; Kozan-Naumescu, Adrienne; Clement, Pierre

2008-01-01

80

[The reference information system "Ecology and aluminum toxicology"].  

PubMed

Views of the toxicity of aluminum to man, animals, and plants and on its behavior in the ecosystems with a changing man-made loading have changed in the past 30 years. Aluminum along with its human medical consequences has been found to present problems on the acid soils in world agriculture. To systematize knowledge and to control information on aluminum and its compounds, the reference information system "Ecology and Aluminum Toxicology" whose structure is based on the developed model of an ecological aluminum cycle was designed. Basic information units were identified in a rather wide subject area: "Generation", "Spread", and "Action", which include the information available in the published materials and the data obtained in the authors' experimental studies. PMID:15197867

Kharlamova, O V; Anokhin, A N; Synzynys, B I

81

A Framework for the Design of Ecological Monitoring Programs as a Tool for Environmental and Nature Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and nature management can not operate effectivelywithout reliable information on changes in the environment andon the causes of those changes. Ecological monitoring canrepresent an important source of information. However, manyoperational monitoring programs are not very effective, i.e., not very useful for decision-making. We present a conceptualframework for the development and maintenance of effectiveecological monitoring programs. In the decision-making process,two

P. Vos; E. Meelis; W. J. Ter Keurs

2000-01-01

82

The Recession, Environmental Policy and Ecological Modernization – What's New about the Green New Deal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the impact of the Great Recession on environmental policy. We argue that the recession has a specific environmental policy dimension by challenging underlying assumptions of the dominant model of environmental policy – ecological modernization (EM). Due to its Schumpeterian connotations, the concept of EM is more vocal on the connection between the economic crisis and environmental policy

Peter H. Feindt; Richard Cowell

2010-01-01

83

Environmental indivisibilities and information costs: fanaticism, agnosticism, and intellectual progress  

SciTech Connect

This analysis suggests several distinctive policy recommendations about environmental problems. One is that some of the alarms about ecological catastrophes cannot simply be dismissed, even when some of those who sound the alarms seem almost fanatic. The information needed to be sure one way or another is simply lacking, and may not be attainable at reasonable cost for a long time. We are therefore left with inevitable risk. Ecological systems could also be incomparably more robust than the alarmists claim, so we might also be worrying needlessly. The implication for environmental and ecological research is that we should not exprect that it will produce conclusive information, but should fund a lot of it anyhow. If previous research has produced few compelling results, valid information about these problems is scarce and therefore more valuable. The harvest of research in the areas characterized by indivisibilities is then poor but precious knowledge. If it is important to be able to change behavior quickly, when and if we finally get the information that the ecosystem can't take any more, then it is important that we have the open-mindedness needed to change our views and policies the moment decisive information arrives. Those who shout wolf too often, and those who are sure there are no wolves around, could be our undoing.

Olson, M.

1982-05-01

84

An Environmental and Energy Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Information System Office (EISO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides information support for researchers and administrators involved with energy and environmental policy and progress. Multiple EISO activities for various governmental agencies have resulted in establishment of compatible data bases concerned with energy and environmental information, methods for effectively developing these, development and computer display of numerical data

G. U. Ulrikson; G. M. Caton; M. P. Guthrie; H. F. McDuffie

1975-01-01

85

Artificial persons against nature: environmental governmentality, economic corporations, and ecological ethics.  

PubMed

Despite the 194 nation-state signatories to the global Convention on Biological Diversity, the conservation effort is failing to halt an ongoing spiral of decline in most habitats and ecological communities on land and ocean. Environmental ethicists argue that the failure to halt the unsustainable predation on the ecosystems that sustain industrial civilization is indicative of a moral as well as a scientific crisis. Principal ethical interventions in ecology include the ascription of value to species and ecosystems, wilderness ethics, and ecological virtue. Ecological virtue ethics identifies agency, character, institutions, and practices as crucial to moral formation and outcomes. However, the dominant role of the economic corporation in ecological destruction subverts a virtues approach. Corporations as fictive persons will not learn ecological virtue absent of legal and regulatory reform and the ecological education of business leaders and owners. PMID:22168354

Northcott, Michael S

2011-12-14

86

Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

Kimmerer, Robin Wall

2012-01-01

87

Environmental Education and the Science of Ecology: Exploration of an Uneasy Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While modern science is receiving harsh criticism within the framework of environmental education, at the same time ecology is presented as an alternative science, characterized as 'holistic' and 'non-exploitative'. However, many of the characteristics of the science of ecology do not comply with its characterization as alternative science.…

Korfiatis, Konstantinos J.

2005-01-01

88

An environmental and energy information system.  

PubMed

The Environmental Information System Office (EISO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides information support for researchers and administrators involved with energy and environmental policy and progress. Multiple EISO activities for various governmental agencies have resulted in establishment of compatible data bases concerned with energy environmental information, methods for effectively developing these, development and computer display of numerical daya summaries, and reports evaluating published information. Direction is provided by continuing dialogue between users and information system staff. PMID:1193029

Ulrikson, G U; Caton, G M; Guthrie, M P; McDuffie, H F

1975-01-01

89

Ecological genomics in Daphnia: stress responses and environmental sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological genomics is the study of adaptation of natural populations to their environment, and therefore seeks to link organism and population level processes through an under- standing of genome organization and function. The plank- tonic microcrustacean Daphnia, which has long been an important system for ecology, is now being used as a genomic model as well. Here we review recent

BD Eads; J Andrews; JK Colbourne

2007-01-01

90

Ecological Risk Factors Related to Environmental Uses of Genetically Engineered Organisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the ecological questions and concerns related to environmental applications of biotechnology. There are a number of uncertainties about the risks entailed in the use of such products. These uncertainties ari...

F. E. Sharples

1987-01-01

91

The ecologic method in the study of environmental health. II. Methodologic issues and feasibility.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews some methodological aspects of ecologic studies of human health, with emphasis on investigations of environmental quality. A recent census of Canadian and U.S. data sets potentially suitable for this type of study is summarized. It is concluded that despite the considerable utility of the ecologic design for this purpose, substantial practical difficulties are common in their implementation. Particular problems are the relative scarcity of relevant environmental data and complications associated with rendering them compatible with health data.

Walter, S D

1991-01-01

92

[Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].  

PubMed

Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of training activity in ecologically-based primary prevention. Training in this important field is not adequate in medical, technological, and also natural subjects of studies. There is not enough opportunity for education of the students and graduates toward the application of integrated system approach of new achievements in different sciences and technologies. Interesting are experiences connected with long-term case studies in highly polluted regions in Poland, Japan, India, as well as exchange of methodological experiences during the series of International Summer Schools on the Human Environment from 1972, as well as during series of 11 International Conferences on Sustainable Development organized at AGH-UST from 1989 to 2006 and Polish Conferences in 2004 and 2007. It seems necessary not only to develop a training of experts that would be adequate to present needs, but also education of the whole society (including formal activities at all levels of education) as well as informal education (e.g. at Open Universities and Distance Education, based on the Internet) to achieve the integration of activity of scientists, practitioners and the whole society. It would be useful to focus this activity on crucial problems and selected regions. Let me propose as the top priority for inhabitants of Tarnow region as well as pilot projects for Poland; utilization of all possible achievements of science and technology for primary prevention of health hazard for inhabitants of Gmina Szczucin that is very polluted by asbestos, and also model management reducing risk factors for the natural environment and health of inhabitants in the regions of new motor-ways, as well as better primary prevention against flood accidents and connected with their effects (higher humidity of housing environment and its contamination by toxinogenic moulds) risk factors for health of communities living in rivers regions. For the purpose of optimisation of preventive action, it is necessary not only to apply the results of studies on human ecology and exchange experiences with specialists (e. g. with

Dobrowolski, Jan W

2007-01-01

93

Center for Environmental Information and Statistics (CEIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1997 as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's national commitment to "improve public access" to EPA's information resources, the new Center for Environmental Information and Statistics (CEIS) Website "provides access to integrated information on environmental quality, status and trends." Available at the site are Environmental Profiles (for each US state, county, and territory), a substantial, searchable Digital Library of Environmental Quality, and the Environmental Atlas, offering "full-color, national and state maps ... covering a wide range of natural resources." This impressive Website will prove valuable to researchers and educators, alike.

1997-01-01

94

Biotechnology and the Political Ecology of Information in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move of crop biotechnology into the south raises issues about effects on cultural agricultural practices. The case of recently introduced genetically modified cotton in India is used to explore how crop biotechnology can affect change in processes underlying local practice. The particular focus is agricultural skilling—acquiring information and adopting management practices derived from that information—based on both environmental learning

Glenn Davis Stone

2004-01-01

95

Using Formative Research to Develop Environmental and Ecological Interventions to Address Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper presents the formative research phase of a large multi-site intervention study conducted to inform the feasibility of introducing environmental and ecological interventions. Methods Using mixed methods that included an environmental assessment, climate survey, leadership focus groups and interviews, and archival data, information was collected on employee health and job factors, the physical environment, social-organizational environment, and current health programs. Results Results show that 83% of employees at the study sites were overweight or obese. Leadership was very supportive of health initiatives and felt integrating the strategies into organizational operations would increase their likelihood of success. Environmental assessment scores ranged from 47 to 19 on a 100 point scale. Health services personnel tended to view the organizational climate for health more positively than site leadership (mean of 3.6 vs 3.0 respectively). Conclusions Intervention strategies chosen included increasing healthy food choices in vending, cafeterias, and company meetings, providing a walking path, targeting messages, developing site goals, training leaders, and establishing leaders at the work group level.

Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; DeJoy, Dave M.; Della, Lindsay; Roemer, Enid Chung; Schneider, Jennifer; Tully, Karen J.; White, John M.; Baase, Catherine M.

2010-01-01

96

Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Description: Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. ... while continuing to maintain the rigor and accountability that earns scientific knowledge its privileged status in contemporary society.

97

Environmental Information Document: L-Reactor Reactivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy...

H. E. Mackey

1982-01-01

98

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Tr...

C. A. Davidson J. T. Foley

1982-01-01

99

Educational Reflections on the "Ecological Crisis": EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the "ecological crisis" as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of…

Mueller, Michael P.

2009-01-01

100

Consumption, Ecological Footprints and Global Inequality: A Lesson in Individual and Structural Components of Environmental Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As evidence of the growing ecological crisis mounts, it is imperative that sociologists speak to this social problem and incorporate a sociological perspective on environmental issues into the curriculum. Central to understanding how social issues relate to environmental problems is an examination of the ties between consumption and its…

Obach, Brian K.

2009-01-01

101

Green urban political ecologies: toward a better understanding of inner-city environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research uses a Marxist urban political ecology framework to link processes of urban environmental metabolization explicitly to the consumption fund of the built environment. Instead of reinventing the wheel, I argue in this paper that Marxist notions of metabolism are ideal for investigating urban environmental change and the production of uneven urban environments. In so doing, I argue that

Nik Heynen

2006-01-01

102

Integrating industrial ecology principles into a set of environmental sustainability indicators for technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the environmental component of sustainability of technology, taking into account the role of industrial ecology. Assessment of environmental sustainability of technology traditionally focuses on immediate impact of technology on the environment through quantifying resource extraction and generated emissions. However, technology does not only exchange materials with the environment but also with the industrial society as a

Jo Dewulf; Herman Van Langenhove

2005-01-01

103

Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center  

SciTech Connect

This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

Maza, B.G.

1991-02-01

104

Environmental Testing Assessment Using Ecological Variables in a Successional Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many techniques are available for the detection of trend when the trend is of a simple form. However, for ecological data, the processes of interest often involve succession, in which case trend analysis becomes more difficult. This paper presents a dynam...

C. Loehle E. P. Smith

1989-01-01

105

The Living Forest. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, designed for intermediate grades of elementary schools, focuses on the living forest by presenting such concepts as succession, forest communities, adaptation, ecological interrelationships, animal populations, the impact of man on forests, and job opportunities in the forest industry. The unit includes the behavioral objectives and…

Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

106

An ecological succession model applied to environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented which applies current ecological succession theory to land?use management. A brief history of succession theory is followed by a more detailed summary of the recently developed facilitation, tolerance and inhibition succession models. The five steps of the management model, designed disturbance, selective colonization, inhibitory persistence, removal, and regeneration, are described. Application of the model for land?use

Stephen M. Freedman; Diane B. Rosenberg

1984-01-01

107

Communities in Nature. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised June, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, an interdisciplinary ecological approach to study communities in nature, considers various types of relationships such as mutualism, commensalism and succession to determine general characteristics of a community and interrelationships between communities. Designed for primary school children, food chains, food webs, reproduction,…

Abbott, Verlin M.

108

Planetary Microbial Ecology on Mars: Environmental Biophysics of Martian Microenvironments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's planetary habitable zone, the biosphere, includes parts of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Microbial life thrives within this region due to the availability of liquid water, an energy source, nutrients, and the right environment. The field of microbial ecology studies the interactions of microbial life with the environment. There are many models and techniques within this field that can

A. Mendez

2000-01-01

109

Small Groups' Ecological Reasoning While Making an Environmental Management Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the ideas and reasoning students use to make a collaborative environmental management decision. Compares students' discussions with scientists' guidelines for making environmental management decisions. Finds that whereas across groups students touched on all of the themes that scientists consider to be important for making environmental

Hogan, Kathleen

2002-01-01

110

Advancing a Political Ecology of Global Environmental Discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade international and national environmental policy and action have been dominated by issues generally defined as global environmental problems. In this article, we identify the major discourses associated with four global environmental issues: deforestation, desertification, biodiversity use and climate change. These discourses are analysed in terms of their messages, narrative structures and policy prescriptions. We find striking

W. Neil Adger; Tor A. Benjaminsen; Katrina Brown; Hanne Svarstad

2001-01-01

111

Environmental remediation and waste management information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System)

M. W. Harrington; C. P. Harlan

1993-01-01

112

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William

1998-09-01

113

Ideologically Structured Information Exchange among Environmental Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We use social network analysis to test the hypothesis that group ideology affects information exchange among environmental groups. The analysis is based on interviews with leaders of 136 environmental groups in Alabama. This paper adds to the literature on resource mobilization among social movement organizations by exploring information exchange…

Lhotka, Laura; Bailey, Conner; Dubois, Mark

2008-01-01

114

Defending Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

Margolis, Brian

2000-01-01

115

Defending Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

Margolis, Brian

2000-01-01

116

Breathless in houston: a political ecology of health approach to understanding environmental health concerns.  

PubMed

A political ecology approach to the study of environmental health problems can provide a comprehensive analytical framework with which to understand geographical and social disparities in health status. To date, however, political ecology has remained limited in its application to health problems, and where health has been addressed, biomedical models have prevailed, with little attention to differing explanatory models of health and disease. By integrating political ecology with an interpretive critical medical anthropology, one can better understand the ways in which health and environment intersect, and the differing social responses to environmental practices that affect human health. In this paper I summarize these theoretical issues and then discuss how this theory can be applied toward an analysis of air quality and health in Houston, Texas. This research suggests that local understandings of respiratory health often contradict public health concepts of environmental health and, in turn, differentially shape people's interactions with the environment. PMID:15545091

Harper, Janice

117

Using Wetlands to Teach Ecology & Environmental Awareness in General Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents advantages of using wetlands educationally and their relevance to local, national, and global environmental issues. Discusses field trips to mangrove forests and freshwater marshes. (Author/MKR)|

O'Neal, Lyman H.

1995-01-01

118

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems.  

PubMed

Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic-community partnership and (2) developing a place-specific strategy grounded in the cultural-experiential model of risk. We propose that practitioners need to consider a community's ecology and social context of risk as it pertains to wicked problems. These factors will determine how a diverse community interprets and responds to environmental communication and capacity-building efforts. PMID:20686630

Caron, Rosemary M; Serrell, Nancy

2009-07-01

119

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems  

PubMed Central

Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community’s ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic–community partnership and (2) developing a place-specific strategy grounded in the cultural–experiential model of risk. We propose that practitioners need to consider a community’s ecology and social context of risk as it pertains to wicked problems. These factors will determine how a diverse community interprets and responds to environmental communication and capacity-building efforts.

Caron, Rosemary M.; Serrell, Nancy

2010-01-01

120

Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment

Ana Villarroya; Jordi Puig

2010-01-01

121

Teaching Urban Ecology: Environmental Studies and the Pedagogy of Intersectionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the recognition by early champions of the environmental movement in the United States that humans and the diverse ecosystems in which they live are indivisible, many environmental education policies and programs have tended to uphold the categorical distinction between "nature" and "culture" (e.g., Sessions; Soule and Press). In the late…

Di Chiro, Giovanna

2006-01-01

122

Environmental initiatives in Costa Rica: A political ecology perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes natural resource management initiatives and environmental dilemmas in Costa Rica and derives lessons pertinent to developing countries in general. It is recognized that Costa Rica has a reputation of having “successful”; environmental policies and has made progress in conservation efforts; however, it is argued that the initiatives and policies actually have constraints and weaknesses, including failure to

Lori Ann Thrupp

1990-01-01

123

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center,...

2010-01-01

124

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center,...

2009-01-01

125

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center,...

2013-01-01

126

Using Geographic Information Systems to Reconceptualize Spatial Relationships and Ecological Context1  

PubMed Central

In this article, the author demonstrates how geographic information system (GIS) software can be used to reconceptualize spatial relationships and ecological context and address the modifiable areal unit problem. In order to do this, the author uses GIS to (1) test an important category of spatial hypotheses (spatial proximity hypotheses), (2) overcome methodological problems that arise when data sets are not spatially comparable, and (3) measure ecological context. The author introduces a set of GIS variable construction techniques that are designed to accomplish these tasks, illustrates these techniques empirically by using them to test spatial proximity hypotheses drawn from the literature on environmental inequality, and demonstrates that results obtained using these techniques are methodologically superior to and substantively different from results obtained using traditional techniques. Finally, the author demonstrates that these techniques are the product of an alternative conceptualization of physical space that allows sociologists to develop new ways to think about and measure spatial relationships, ecological context, and place-based social inequality and that gives them the ability to reconceptualize spatially based methodological problems that have confronted them for years.

Downey, Liam

2011-01-01

127

Environmental testing assessment using ecological variables in a successional framework  

SciTech Connect

Many techniques are available for the detection of trend when the trend is of a simple form. However, for ecological data, the processes of interest often involve succession, in which case trend analysis becomes more difficult. This paper presents a dynamic framework for trend analysis when the system under study is also undergoing successional changes. The null model for change in state with time is characterized in terms of a stochastic envelope around a nominal trajectory. Specific tests for the detection of trends associated with succession are described and illustrated on example data. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Loehle, C.; Smith, E.P.

1989-01-01

128

Pathogen survival trajectories: an eco-environmental approach to the modeling of human campylobacteriosis ecology.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacteriosis, like many human diseases, has its own ecology in which the propagation of human infection and disease depends on pathogen survival and finding new hosts in order to replicate and sustain the pathogen population. The complexity of this process, a process common to other enteric pathogens, has hampered control efforts. Many unknowns remain, resulting in a poorly understood disease ecology. To provide structure to these unknowns and help direct further research and intervention, we propose an eco-environmental modeling approach for campylobacteriosis. This modeling approach follows the pathogen population as it moves through the environments that define the physical structure of its ecology. In this paper, we term the ecologic processes and environments through which these populations move "pathogen survival trajectories." Although such a modeling approach could have veterinary applications, our emphasis is on human campylobacteriosis and focuses on human exposures to Campylobacter through feces, food, and aquatic environments. The pathogen survival trajectories that lead to human exposure include ecologic filters that limit population size, e.g., cooking food to kill Campylobacter. Environmental factors that influence the size of the pathogen reservoirs include temperature, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the period of time the pathogen population is moving through the environment between infected and susceptible hosts. We anticipate that the modeling approach proposed here will work symbiotically with traditional epidemiologic and microbiologic research to help guide and evaluate the acquisition of new knowledge about the ecology, eventual intervention, and control of campylobacteriosis.

Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

2003-01-01

129

Environmental acoustics as an ecological variable to understand the dynamics of ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although acoustic variables play a key role in understanding the ecology and behavior of vocal organisms, little work has been done to investigate whether acoustic signals can serve as an ecological variable to assess the current state of ecosystems. Our research was guided by two overarching questions. The first question is can environmental acoustics be used as ecological attributes that reflect ecosystem structure and processes? The second question is can environmental acoustics provide a key means to measure and monitor the biodiversity and distribution of vocal species? The study first developed analytical methods to understand acoustic properties including: (1) development and refinement of an Acoustic Habitat Quality Index using the distribution of acoustic power across different frequency spectrum bands; and (2) measurement and analysis of vocalizing species diversity using multiple methods of recording acoustic signals. The second part of the study investigated a new approach to surveying avian species using acoustic recordings. This analysis revealed that automated acoustic recordings facilitated simultaneous breeding bird surveys at multiple locations with minimal variability and high accuracy of bird community measures. Third, the study characterized the urban-rural variability using environmental sounds based on quantification of environmental acoustic properties across a gradient of ecosystems and landscapes. Finally, the study illustrated that using wireless sensor networks as a new sampling tool in ecology and environmental science provides tremendous opportunities to measure and monitor complex ecological variables at relevant spatial and temporal scales. The integration of acoustic research with the multi-science communities and advances in wireless sensor networks will potentially enable and enhance our understanding of ecological change and our ability to forecast changes in complex, interconnected ecosystems at scales ranging from the ecosystem to global level.

Joo, Wooyeong

130

Development of E-Government from Information Ecology View: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development and popularization of ICT, many governments came to perceive ICT as an important means for implementing e-government. This article epurates the concept of e-government from information ecology view integrating many viewpoints of scholars of information ecology and practical experts, and considers not taking ICT as focus in e-government but a society-technology system. Six basic ecologic traits of

Liu Weizhang; Zhang Jiefang

2010-01-01

131

Managing ecological thresholds in coupled environmental-human systems  

PubMed Central

Many ecosystems appear subject to regime shifts—abrupt changes from one state to another after crossing a threshold or tipping point. Thresholds and their associated stability landscapes are determined within a coupled socioeconomic–ecological system (SES) where human choices, including those of managers, are feedback responses. Prior work has made one of two assumptions about managers: that they face no institutional constraints, in which case the SES may be managed to be fairly robust to shocks and tipping points are of little importance, or that managers are rigidly constrained with no flexibility to adapt, in which case the inferred thresholds may poorly reflect actual managerial flexibility. We model a multidimensional SES to investigate how alternative institutions affect SES stability landscapes and alter tipping points. With institutionally dependent human feedbacks, the stability landscape depends on institutional arrangements. Strong institutions that account for feedback responses create the possibility for desirable states of the world and can cause undesirable states to cease to exist. Intermediate institutions interact with ecological relationships to determine the existence and nature of tipping points. Finally, weak institutions can eliminate tipping points so that only undesirable states of the world remain.

Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Drury, Kevin L. S.; Lodge, David M.

2011-01-01

132

Molecular Ecology of Bacterial Populations in Environmental Hazardous Chemical Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic research was conducted to develop and explore the use of modern molecular biology techniques in understanding the dynamics of microbial populations engaged in biodegradation of environmental pollutants. The research focused on (1) the use of environ...

G. S. Sayler

1991-01-01

133

The Ecological Classroom: Environmental Education Activities K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides interdisciplinary ideas to accompany environmental education activities for kindergarten through grade 12. Topics of the activities include water pollution, soil erosion, and salmon homing instincts. Interdisciplinary areas include fine arts, language arts, and social studies. (DDR)|

Gillam, David A.; And Others

1995-01-01

134

Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system based on the Drupal content management system technology. Building on knowledge and experience with the Sevilleta and Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research sites, we successfully deployed the first two medium-scale customized prototypes. In this paper, we describe the vision behind our Drupal based information management instances, and list the features offered through these Drupal based systems. We also outline the plans to expand the information services offered through these metadata centered management systems. We will conclude with the growing list of participants deploying similar instances.

San Gil, Inigo; White, Marshall; Melendez, Eda; Vanderbilt, Kristin

135

The Interest of Consumers in Ecological Product Information Is Growing – Evidence From Two German Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a German survey from 1989, consumers showed less interest in information about ecologically relevant product attributes than could be expected after several years of vivacious discussion in the mass media about ecological problems associated with consumer products and consumer behaviour. However, a replication of the study in 1998 showed a considerable increase of consumer interest in such information. In

Heiner Imkamp

2000-01-01

136

Environmental biodosimetry: a biologically relevant tool for ecological risk assessment and biomonitoring.  

PubMed

Biodosimetry, the estimation of received doses by determining the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, is widely applied in humans acutely exposed as a result of accidents or for clinical purposes, but biodosimetric techniques have not been utilized in organisms chronically exposed to radionuclides in contaminated environments. The application of biodosimetry to environmental exposure scenarios could greatly improve the accuracy, and reduce the uncertainties, of ecological risk assessments and biomonitoring studies, because no assumptions are required regarding external exposure rates and the movement of organisms into and out of contaminated areas. Furthermore, unlike residue analyses of environmental media, environmental biodosimetry provides a genetically relevant biomarker of cumulative lifetime exposure. Symmetrical chromosome translocations can impact reproductive success, and could therefore prove to be ecologically relevant as well. We describe our experience in studying aberrations in the yellow-bellied slider turtle as an example of environmental biodosimetry. PMID:12590073

Ulsh, B; Hinton, T G; Congdon, J D; Dugan, L C; Whicker, F W; Bedford, J S

2003-01-01

137

Educational Reflections on the “Ecological Crisis”: EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the “ecological crisis” as a fundamental\\u000a reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism\\u000a reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present cultural attitudes which frame\\u000a our relationships with others and

Michael P. Mueller

2009-01-01

138

Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent simulants are employed for a range of testing and training activities where use of chemical agents is less than suitable from a safety and environmental standpoint. A variety of chemical simulant materials are used to simulate either nerve agents or blister agents. The following research describes the environmental effects and persistence of four simulants. These are the nerve agent stimulants diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphonate (BIS), and the mustard stimulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The vapor pressures for DIMP, DFP, and CEES are relatively high, reported to be 0.17, 0.58 and 3.4 mm Hg, respectively; while that of BIS is substantially less at 5.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ mm Hg at 25/degree/C. The chemical characteristics of DFP and CEES are very similar to G/VX-agents and mustard, respectively, and are employed for materials evaluation under controlled conditions. However, their toxicity precludes their use in the environment. DIMP and BIS are currently used for testing in the open air. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

1988-06-01

139

Ecological versus ecotoxicological methods for assessing the environmental risks of transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential environmental risks of cultivating transgenic crops have been the subject of much publicly funded research, which often seems to have increased controversy about transgenic crops, rather than assisted decision-makers. This stems from an ecological method of research that has several characteristics that limit its usefulness to decision-makers: a reluctance to define problems in relation to policy objectives; testing

Alan Raybould

2007-01-01

140

The Farm--Its Function and Future. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, designed for use in the primary grades (K-3), focuses on the farm and its functions. The various aspects of farming are discussed from an ecological and environmental point of view through such topics as soil, plants, animals, machinery, production of food, job opportunities, and the future of the farm. There is also a comparison of…

Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

141

Ecological Trait Composition of Freshwater Fish Across Gradients of Environmental Variability in North-Eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North-eastern Australia encompasses 18o of latitude, monsoonal/tropical to sub-tropical/temperate climates, geomorphologically diverse rivers, and flow regimes with markedly varied seasonality, constancy and predictability. Fish assemblages in the region vary in relation to the predictability of aquatic habitat availability and other topographic, climatic and/or biogeographic factors. This paper examines how environmental, biogeographic and phylogenetic factors may constrain ecological trait composition at local and regional scales. We derived 17 categories of ecological traits to describe the morphology, behaviour, habitat, life history and trophic characteristics of 114 fish species from 64 river basins. Trait composition varied substantially across the region. The number of riffle dwelling species, maximum size and longevity of fishes was greater in the hydrologically predictable and constant rivers of the Wet Tropics region than in more unpredictable or seasonal environments. The importance of herbivory was also greater in the tropics. Historical biogeographic and phylogenetic factors may confound our ability to understand the role of environmental factors in determining spatial variation in ecological trait composition. Understanding the functional linkages between environmental drivers of fish species distributions via their ecological characteristics should provide a foundation for predicting future impacts of environmental change in a region of Australia subject to increasing human pressures.

Kennard, M. J.; Pusey, B. J.; Arthington, A. H.

2005-05-01

142

Environmental and Ontogenetic Effects on Intraspecific Trait Variation of a Macrophyte Species across Five Ecological Scales  

PubMed Central

Although functional trait variability is increasingly used in community ecology, the scale- and size-dependent aspects of trait variation are usually disregarded. Here we quantified the spatial structure of shoot height, branch length, root/shoot ratio and leaf number in a macrophyte species Potamogeton maackianus, and then disentangled the environmental and ontogenetic effects on these traits. Using a hierarchical nested design, we measured the four traits from 681 individuals across five ecological scales: lake, transect, depth stratus, quadrat and individual. A notable high trait variation (coefficient variation: 48–112%) was observed within species. These traits differed in the spatial structure, depending on environmental factors of different scales. Shoot height and branch length were most responsive to lake, transect and depth stratus scales, while root/shoot ratio and leaf number to quadrat and individual scales. The trait variations caused by environment are nearly three times higher than that caused by ontogeny, with ontogenetic variance ranging from 21% (leaf number) to 33% (branch length) of total variance. Remarkably, these traits showed non-negligible ontogenetic variation (0–60%) in each ecological scale, and significant shifts in allometric trajectories at lake and depth stratus scales. Our results highlight that environmental filtering processes can sort individuals within species with traits values adaptive to environmental changes and ontogenetic variation of functional traits was non-negligible across the five ecological scales.

Zhong, Jiayou; Cao, Te; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

2013-01-01

143

Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

2008-01-01

144

The environmental, ecological, and traditional science of Alaska Natives\\/Native Americans, past and present  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the ecological, environmental, cultural, and traditional science of Alaska Native and Native American knowledge, one must examine past and present examples of the knowledge and skills of indigenous people in maintaining a balance between the use of natural resources and the protection and conservation of the environment. There is a need for a more holistic and harmonic balance

Jorgensen

1994-01-01

145

Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

146

Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

2008-01-01

147

Towards an ecological systems approach in public research for environmental regulation of transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of current research shows insufficient monitoring and testing have been conducted to reliably assess the degree of environmental risks posed by transgenic crops. The major risks include increased resistance to particular pesticides, gene flow into related plant species, and negative effects on non-target organisms. Significant gaps in knowledge, often stemming from missing markets for ecological services, warrant a

David E. Ervin; Rick Welsh; Sandra S. Batie; Chantal Line Carpentier

2003-01-01

148

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an…

Caron, Rosemary M.; Serrell, Nancy

2009-01-01

149

Swallowed: Political Ecology and Environmentalism in the Spanish American "Novela de la Selva"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, I begin with the identification of a moment of intertextuality between "Un viejo que leia novelas de amor" (1989) by Chilean Luis Sepulveda and "La voragine" (1924) by Colombian Jose Eustasio Rivera as an analytical motif for a reevaluation of the environmentalism and political ecologies in the Spanish American "novela de la selva"…

DeVries, Scott

2010-01-01

150

Using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing how environmental changes affect the distri- bution and dynamics of vegetation and animal popu- lations is becoming increasingly important for terrestrial ecologists to enable better predictions of the effects of global warming, biodiversity reduction or habitat degradation. The ability to predict ecological responses has often been hampered by our rather limited under- standing of trophic interactions. Indeed, it has

Nathalie Pettorelli; Jon Olav Vik; Atle Mysterud; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Compton J. Tucker; Nils Chr. Stenseth

2005-01-01

151

The Farm--Its Function and Future. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, designed for use in the primary grades (K-3), focuses on the farm and its functions. The various aspects of farming are discussed from an ecological and environmental point of view through such topics as soil, plants, animals, machinery, production of food, job opportunities, and the future of the farm. There is also a comparison of the…

Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

152

What are indicators? On the definition of indicators in ecology and environmental planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “indicator” is frequently used at the interface between science and policy. Although there is a great demand for clear definitions of technical terms in science and policy, the meaning of indicator is still ambiguous. In this contribution, we analyze different meanings of the term in ecology and environmental planning, suggest a general definition, and make recommendations for its

Ulrich Heink; Ingo Kowarik

2010-01-01

153

A consumption-based approach to environmental Kuznets curves using the ecological footprint indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that consumption-based measures offer an insightful perspective on the debate on the relationship between economic growth and the environment. In this article we deepen the consumption-based line of inquiry by investigating the empirical evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis using 2001 ecological footprint data for 141 countries. We perform Ordinary Least Squares and Weighted Least

Marco Bagliani; Giangiacomo Bravo; Silvana Dalmazzone

2008-01-01

154

Use of traditional ecological knowledge in environmental assessment of uranium mining in the Athabasca Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is now a requirement of many environmental review panels. It was in the remit for the investigation into uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan, but there was a mismatch between the narrow, often technical, treatment of TEK and the broader, more cultural comments of the Dene Aboriginal intervenors. It is essential to recognize when a

Anne Wiles; John McEwen; M. Husain Sadar

1999-01-01

155

Information Sharing and Environmental Policies  

PubMed Central

Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

Antoniou, Fabio; Koundouri, Phoebe; Tsakiris, Nikos

2010-01-01

156

Ecological Society of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1915, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists that is dedicated to several primary goals related to the promotion of ecological science, raising the public's level of awareness of the importance of ecological science, and increasing the resources available for the conduct of ecological science. The website is an indispensable source of material about ecological science and the society's various activities, including the annual meeting, career opportunities, membership information, and publications. The publications section is particularly useful, as visitors can learn about society journals (such as _Ecology_), monographs, and the popular Issues in Ecology series. Visitors have complete access to the Issues in Ecology series (in English and Spanish). Journalists and the general public will want to look at the Public Affairs Office area which features news releases and the bi-weekly Policy News update, which summarizes major environmental and science policy news from the previous two weeks.

157

Geographic information system environmental monitoring networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examples of environmental remote monitoring networks are described to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of computerized geographic information systems, their complexity and interdisciplinary characteristics, and some critical issues in light of diffe...

K. J. Beek A. G. Fabbri

1991-01-01

158

Ecological traits and environmental affinity explain Red Sea fish introduction into the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Alien species are considered one of the prime threats to biodiversity, driving major changes in ecosystem structure and function. Identifying the traits associated with alien introduction has been largely restricted to comparing indigenous and alien species or comparing alien species that differ in abundance or impact. However, a more complete understanding may emerge when the entire pool of potential alien species is used as a control, information that is rarely available. In the eastern Mediterranean, the marine environment is undergoing an unparalleled species composition transformation, as a flood of aliens have entered from the Red Sea following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. In this study, we compile data on species traits, geographical distribution, and environmental affinity of the entire pool of reef-associated fish species in the Red Sea and more generally across the Indo-Pacific. We use this extensive data to identify the prime characteristics separating Red Sea species that have become alien in the Mediterranean from those that have not. We find that alien species occupy a larger range of environments in their native ranges, explaining their ability to colonize the seasonal Mediterranean. Red Sea species that naturally experience high maximum temperatures in their native range have a high probability of becoming alien. Thus, contrary to predictions of an accelerating number of aliens following increased water temperatures, hotter summers in this region may prevent the establishment of many alien species. We further find that ecological trait diversity of alien species is substantially more evenly spaced and more divergent than random samples from the pool of Red Sea species, pointing at additional processes, such as competition, promoting ecological diversity among alien species. We use these results to provide a first quantitative ranking of the potential of Red Sea species to become established in the eastern Mediterranean. PMID:23505033

Belmaker, Jonathan; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel

2013-02-11

159

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INFORMATION SYSTEM - EQULS® - ITER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project consisted of an evaluation of the Environmental Quality Information System (EQuIS) software designed by Earthsoft, Inc. as an environmental data management and analysis platform for monitoring and remediation projects. In consultation with the EQuIS vendor, six pri...

160

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel.

Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

1982-06-01

161

Homeward Bound: Ecological Design of Domestic Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information technology artefacts are steadily permeating everyday life, just as they have colonized the business domain. Although research in our field has largely addressed the workplace, researchers are beginning to take an interest in the home environment too. Here, we address the domestic realm, focusing on the design of complex, interactive information systems. As such, our work sits in the design science version rather than behavioral science paradigm of IS research. We argue that the home is in many ways a more challenging environment for the designer than the workplace, making good design of critical importance. Regrettably, the opposite would appear to be the norm. Two experiments are reported, both concerned with the design of the user interface for domestic heating systems. Of note is our use of a medium-fidelity laboratory simulation or "microworld" in this work. Two main substantive findings resulted. First, that ecologically designed feedback, embodying a strong mapping between task goals and system status, produced superior task performance. Second, that predictive decision aids provided clear benefits over other forms of user support, such as advisory systems. General implications for the design of domestic information systems are discussed, followed by reflections on the nature of design work in IS, and on the design science project itself. It is concluded that the microworld approach has considerable potential for developing IS design theory. The methodological challenges of design research are highlighted, especially the presence of additional validity threats posed by the need to construct artefacts in order to evaluate theory. It is argued that design theory is necessarily complex, modal, and uncertain, and that design science (like design itself) should be prosecuted in an open, heuristic spirit, drawing more on the proven methods of "good design" (e.g.,prototyping, user participation) in terms of its own praxis.

Wastell, David G.; Sauer, Juergen S.; Schmeink, Claudia

162

Use of QSARs in international decision-making frameworks to predict ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemical substances.  

PubMed Central

This article is a review of the use, by regulatory agencies and authorities, of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to predict ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemicals. For many years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been the most prominent regulatory agency using QSARs to predict the ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemicals. However, as increasing numbers of standard QSAR methods are developed and validated to predict ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemicals, it is anticipated that more regulatory agencies and authorities will find them to be acceptable alternatives to chemical testing.

Cronin, Mark T D; Walker, John D; Jaworska, Joanna S; Comber, Michael H I; Watts, Christopher D; Worth, Andrew P

2003-01-01

163

[Optimization of ecological footprint model based on environmental pollution accounts: a case study in Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration].  

PubMed

To solve the problem of ignoring the calculation of environment pollution in traditional ecological footprint model accounts, this paper put forward an optimized ecological footprint (EF) model, taking the pollution footprint into account. In the meantime, the environmental capacity's calculation was also added into the system of ecological capacity, and further used to do ecological assessment of Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in 2005. The results showed a perfect inosculation between the ecological footprint and the development characteristics and spatial pattern, and illustrated that the optimized EF model could make a better orientation for the environmental pollution in the system, and also, could roundly explain the environmental effects of human activity. The optimization of ecological footprint model had better integrality and objectivity than traditional models. PMID:18975759

Bai, Yu; Zeng, Hui; Wei, Jian-bing; Zhang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Hong-wei

2008-08-01

164

Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their\\u000a scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed\\u000a by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered\\u000a information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system

Inigo San Gil; Marshall White; Eda Melendez; Kristin Vanderbilt

2010-01-01

165

[Environmental behavior and ecological effect of polydimethylsiloxane: a review].  

PubMed

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is widely used in industrial products, medical and health care products, and personal care products. In the treatment process of sewage, PDMS can be hardly biodegraded but enter the environment mainly through the discharge of excess sludge, and only a small amount of PDMS adsorbed on the suspended solids or sludge particle surface is discharged into water body and sediment with treated sewage. There is no enough evidence to verify that PDMS can vertically migrate in sediment. The degradation of PDMS in sediment is very slow, but PDMS can be degraded in different types of soils. PDMS has less risk to aquatic ecosystem, and no apparent acute toxicity to benthos. In soil environment, PDMS and its degradation products have no significant effects on the soil microorganisms, soil animals, and crops. Though a few studies indicated that PDMS and its degradation products have relatively low ecological toxicity in various environments, it is still very important to clarify the potential threat of PDMS to the environment because of the increasingly large number of PDMS being produced and used. PMID:23189715

Yang, Shang-Yuan; Li, Xin; Yang, Jia; Shen, Chao-Feng; Yu, Hua-Dong; Lu, Kang

2012-08-01

166

Ecoregions and ecodistricts: Ecological regionalizations for the Netherlands' environmental policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For communicating data on the state of the environment to policy makers, various integrative frameworks are used, including regional integration. For this kind of integration we have developed two related ecological regionalizations, ecoregions and ecodistricts, which are two levels in a series of classifications for hierarchically nested ecosystems at different spatial scale levels. We explain the compilation of the maps from existing geographical data, demonstrating the relatively holistic, a priori integrated approach. The resulting maps are submitted to discriminant analysis to test the consistancy of the use of mapping characteristics, using data on individual abiotic ecosystem components from a national database on a 1-km2 grid. This reveals that the spatial patterns of soil, groundwater, and geomorphology correspond with the ecoregion and ecodistrict maps. Differences between the original maps and maps formed by automatically reclassifying 1-km2 cells with these discriminant components are found to be few. These differences are discussed against the background of the principal dilemma between deductive, a priori integrated, and inductive, a posteriori, classification.

Klijn, Frans; de Waal, Rein W.; Oude Voshaar, Jan H.

1995-11-01

167

Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

168

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel. The purpose of the Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center is to collect, analyze, store, and make available descriptions of the environment of transportation expressed in engineering terms. The data stored in the Center are expected to be useful in a variety of transportation related analyses. Formulations of environmental criteria for shipment of cargo, risk assessments, and detailed structural analyses of shipping containers are examples where these data have been applied. For purposes of indexing and data retrieval, the data are catalogued under two major headings: Normal and Abnormal Environments.

Davidson, C. A.; Foley, J. T.

1980-10-01

169

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS) FACT SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the fact sheet is to provide information about the US EPA Office of Research and Developments Environmental Information Management System. The fact sheet indicates the type of records that are in EIMS, systems that are integrated with EIMS as well as some highligh...

170

Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

171

Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

172

Environmental regulation of bivalve growth in the southern Barents Sea: A combined ecological and geochemical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological and geochemical analyses of bivalve shells provide potentially complimentary information on patterns and drivers of natural variability in Arctic marine populations, yet are rarely considered together. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the Greenland Smooth Cockle (Serripes groenlandicus) from the southern Barents Sea between 1882 and 1968. Growth, stable isotope (oxygen and carbon), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth rates exhibited multi-year periodicity inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) and positively related to river discharge. Up to 60% of the interannual variability in Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at stations closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Stable isotope data (18O, 13C), and Sr/Ca patterns suggest that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, implying that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of the annual growth cycle. Combining annually-integrated growth results and higher resolution geochemical results thus elucidated the annual growth cycle of an Arctic bivalve and mechanisms of biophysical coupling over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

Carroll, M. L.; Johnson, B. J.; Henkes, G. A.; McMahon, K. W.; Voronkov, A.; Ambrose, W. G., Jr.; Denisenko, S. G.

2009-04-01

173

Social Ecology of Children's Vulnerability to Environmental Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Background The outcomes of exposure to neurotoxic chemicals early in life depend on the properties of both the chemical and the host’s environment. When our questions focus on the toxicant, the environmental properties tend to be regarded as marginal and designated as covariates or confounders. Such approaches blur the reality of how the early environment establishes enduring biologic substrates. Objectives In this commentary, we describe another perspective, based on decades of biopsychological research on animals, that shows how the early, even prenatal, environment creates permanent changes in brain structure and chemistry and behavior. Aspects of the early environment—encompassing enrichment, deprivation, and maternal and neonatal stress—all help determine the functional responses later in life that derive from the biologic substrate imparted by that environment. Their effects then become biologically embedded. Human data, particularly those connected to economically disadvantaged populations, yield equivalent conclusions. Discussion In this commentary, we argue that treating such environmental conditions as confounders is equivalent to defining genetic differences as confounders, a tactic that laboratory research, such as that based on transgenic manipulations, clearly rejects. The implications extend from laboratory experiments that, implicitly, assume that the early environment can be standardized to risk assessments based on epidemiologic investigations. Conclusions The biologic properties implanted by the early social environment should be regarded as crucial elements of the translation from laboratory research to human health and, in fact, should be incorporated into human health research. The methods for doing so are not clearly defined and present many challenges to investigators.

Weiss, Bernard; Bellinger, David C.

2006-01-01

174

Reactor operation environmental information document  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

1989-12-01

175

Effects of Ecological Information on Judgments about Scenic Impacts of Timber Harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is unlikely to accept ecosystem management practices unless they believe its ecological benefits outweigh its potentially adverse impacts. This study tested whether information about ecological benefits of ecosystem management can improve acceptance of impacts to visual resources. Students and office workers rated photographs of forest stands showing traditional and ecosystem management timber harvests. Half of the respondents first

Mark W. Brunson; Douglas K. Reiter

1996-01-01

176

FISHER INFORMATION AND DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystems often exhibit transitions between dynamic regimes (or steady states), such as the conversion of oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions and associated aquatic ecological communities, due to natural (or increasingly) anthropogenic disturbances. As ecosystems experience per...

177

The evolutionary roots of our environmental problems: toward a Darwinian ecology.  

PubMed

It is widely acknowledged that we need to stabilize population growth and reduce our environmental impact; however, there is little consensus about how we might achieve these changes. Here I show how evolutionary analyses of human behavior provide important, though generally ignored, insights into our environmental problems. First, I review increasing evidence that Homo sapiens has a long history of causing ecological problems. This means that, contrary to popular belief, our species' capacity for ecological destruction is not simply due to "Western" culture. Second, I provide an overview of how evolutionary research can help to understand why humans are ecologically destructive, including the reasons why people often overpopulate, overconsume, exhaust common-pool resources, discount the future, and respond maladaptively to modern environmental hazards. Evolutionary approaches not only explain our darker sides, they also provide insights into why people cherish plants and animals and often support environmental and conservation efforts (e.g., Wilson's "biophilia hypothesis"). Third, I show how evolutionary analyses of human behavior offer practical implications for environmental policy, education, and activism. I suggest that education is necessary but insufficient because people also need incentives. Individual incentives are likely to be the most effective, but these include much more than narrow economic interests (e.g., they include one's reputation in society). Moralizing and other forms of social pressure used by environmentalists to bring about change appear to be effective, but this idea needs more research. Finally, I suggest that integrating evolutionary perspectives into the environmental sciences will help to break down the artificial barriers that continue to divide the biological and social sciences, which unfortunately obstruct our ability to understand ourselves and effectively address our environmental problems. PMID:14528621

Penn, Dustin J

2003-09-01

178

Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

Mackey, H.E. Jr. (comp.)

1982-04-01

179

Developing an integrated ecological resource management and monitoring plan as part of an environmental management system  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in defining the appropriate content of an Environmental Management System (EMS) as specified by ISO 14001 prompted a study to determine how ecological concerns should be integrated into an EMS and subsequently implemented. This paper describes an approach for developing objectives, targets, and processes for ecological resource management at those Department of Energy (DOE) facilities where an ecological resource management approach that goes beyond simple regulatory compliance is warranted. A major goal of this approach is to position DOE facilities so that they can proactively address ecological concerns, rather than being forced to respond retroactively to damage claims, restoration requirements, and/or bad publicity. Although DOE is not requiring ISO 14001 implementation at its facilities, it is recommending ISO 14001 as a voluntary approach to encourage good environmental practices, such as pollution prevention and sustainable development, by adopting an integrated systems approach. The DOE position is that existing DOE orders and policy statements are consistent with, and have elements of, the ISO 14001 EMS approach.

Michael, D.; Hooten, M. [Neptune and Co., Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Roy-Harrison, W. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-04-01

180

Unequal exposure to ecological hazards: environmental injustices in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the social and geographic distribution of ecological hazards across 368 communities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Combining census data with a variety of environmental data, we tested for and identified both income-based and racially based biases to the geographic distribution of 17 different types of environmentally hazardous sites and industrial facilities. We also developed a composite measure of cumulative exposure to compare the relative overall risks characteristic of each community. To the best of our knowledge, this point system makes this the first environmental justice study to develop a means for measuring and ranking cumulative exposure for communities. The study also controls for the intensity of hazards in each community by accounting for the area across which hazards are distributed. The findings indicate that ecologically hazardous sites and facilities are disproportionately located and concentrated in communities of color and working-class communities. The implication of this research for policymakers and citizen advocates is that cumulative exposure of residents to environmentally hazardous facilities and sites should receive greater consideration regarding community demographics and environmental health indicators. We conclude that the provision of additional resources for environmental monitoring and ranking, as well as yearly progress reports, is necessary for communities and state agencies to achieve equal access to clean and healthy environments for all residents.

Faber, Daniel R; Krieg, Eric J

2002-01-01

181

Urban environmental education: leveraging technology and ecology to engage students in studying the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students used geographic information systems (GIS) coupled with computer modeling

Michael Barnett; Meredith Houle Vaughn; Eric Strauss; Lindsey Cotter

2011-01-01

182

EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the World Resources Institute (WRI) with assistance from several sponsors, EarthTrends is an environmental information portal, offering searchable databases, data tables, country profiles, maps, and feature articles in ten topical sections. These include Coastal and Marine Ecosystems, Climate and Atmosphere, Agriculture and Food, and Forests and Grasslands, among others. The databases may be searched by country, region, variable, and year. Data tables and country profiles are provided in .pdf format. This slick-looking and fast-loading site is an excellent source of authoritative environmental information for teachers, students, and interested users.

183

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic–community partnership and (2) developing a place-specific strategy grounded in the cultural–experiential model of

Rosemary M. Caron; Nancy Serrell

2009-01-01

184

Ecological Thresholds: The Key to Successful Environmental Management or an Important Concept with No Practical Application?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological threshold is the point at which there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or\\u000a where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Analysis of thresholds is complicated\\u000a by nonlinear dynamics and by multiple factor controls that operate at diverse spatial and temporal scales. These complexities\\u000a have challenged the

Peter M. Groffman; Jill S. Baron; Tamara Blett; Arthur J. Gold; Iris Goodman; Lance H. Gunderson; Barbara M. Levinson; Margaret A. Palmer; Hans W. Paerl; Garry D. Peterson; N. LeRoy Poff; David W. Rejeski; James F. Reynolds; Monica G. Turner; Kathleen C. Weathers; John Wiens

2006-01-01

185

Environmental Manganese and Cancer Mortality Rates by County in North Carolina: An Ecological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese is an element essential for health in trace amounts, but toxic at higher exposures. Since manganese is replacing\\u000a lead in gasoline globally, evaluation of potential cancer effects is essential. To determine whether environmental manganese\\u000a is related to cancer at the county level in North Carolina (n?=?100 counties; North Carolina 2000 population = 8,049,313), we carried out an ecological study

John G. Spangler; Jeffrey C. Reid

2010-01-01

186

PREDICTING ESTUARINE SEDIMENT METAL CONCENTRATIONS AND INFERRED ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS: AN INFORMATION THEORETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Empirically derived values associating sediment metal concentrations with degraded ecological conditions provide important information to assess estuarine condition. However, resources limit the number, magnitude, and frequency of monitoring programs to gather these data. As su...

187

Species traits and environmental constraints: entomological research and the history of ecological theory.  

PubMed

The role that entomology has played in the historical (1800s-1970s) development of ecological theories that match species traits with environmental constraints is reviewed along three lineages originating from the ideas of a minister (Malthus TR. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson) and a chemist (Liebig J. 1840. Die Organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Braunschweig: Vieweg). Major developments in lineage 1 focus on habitat as a filter for species traits, succession, nonequilibrium and equilibrium conditions, and generalizations about the correlation of traits to environmental constraints. In lineage 2, we trace the evolution of the niche concept and focus on ecophysiological traits, biotic interactions, and environmental conditions. Finally, we describe the conceptual route from early demographic studies of human and animal populations to the r-K concept in lineage 3. In the 1970s, the entomologist Southwood merged these three lineages into the "habitat templet concept" (Southwood TRE. 1977. J. Anim. Ecol. 46:337-65), which has stimulated much subsequent research in entomology and general ecology. We conclude that insects have been a far more important resource for the development of ecological theory than previously acknowledged. PMID:11112171

Statzner, B; Hildrew, A G; Resh, V H

2001-01-01

188

Overview of climate information needs for ecological effects models  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. The report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. Some agricultural models and statistical methods are also discussed. The weather input data requirements, weather simulation methods, and other model characteristics relevant to climate change research are described for a selected number of models. The ecological models are classified as biome, ecosystem, or tree models; the ecosystem models are further subdivided into species dynamics or process models. In general, ecological modelers have had to rely on readily available meteorological data such as temperature and rainfall. Although models are becoming more sophisticated in their treatment of weather and require more kinds of data (such as wind, solar radiation, or potential evapotranspiration), modelers are still hampered by a lack of data for many applications. Future directions of ecological effects models and the climate variables that will be required by the models are discussed.

Peer, R.L.

1990-01-01

189

Paul F-Brandwein 2004 Lecture: Regarding the Ecology of Science Education: Connections to Environmental and Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Paul F-Brandwein was a visionary who looked at education broadly. He left us with an insightful view of the ecology of education in which he identified three ecological systems: school-family-community, postsecondary, and cultural. The first part of this lecture, by Dean B. Bennett, examines Brandwein's ideas related to environmental education…

Bennett, Sheila K.; Bennett, Dean B.

2004-01-01

190

Maximum entropy production in environmental and ecological systems  

PubMed Central

The coupled biosphere–atmosphere system entails a vast range of processes at different scales, from ecosystem exchange fluxes of energy, water and carbon to the processes that drive global biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric composition and, ultimately, the planetary energy balance. These processes are generally complex with numerous interactions and feedbacks, and they are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), based on statistical mechanics and information theory, states that thermodynamic processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium will adapt to steady states at which they dissipate energy and produce entropy at the maximum possible rate. This issue focuses on the latest development of applications of MEP to the biosphere–atmosphere system including aspects of the atmospheric circulation, the role of clouds, hydrology, vegetation effects, ecosystem exchange of energy and mass, biogeochemical interactions and the Gaia hypothesis. The examples shown in this special issue demonstrate the potential of MEP to contribute to improved understanding and modelling of the biosphere and the wider Earth system, and also explore limitations and constraints to the application of the MEP principle.

Kleidon, Axel; Malhi, Yadvinder; Cox, Peter M.

2010-01-01

191

U. S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, Environmental and Ecology Branch Triennial Progress Report 1977 through 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the US Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, Environmental and Ecology Branch surveillance program has been to monitor the proving ground and adjacent areas for adverse impacts attributable to human activities or natural events, and to preclu...

M. L. Chinn G. T. Crane L. G. Choules R. V. Davis M. Garbett

1981-01-01

192

Multimedia environmental chemical partitioning from molecular information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of assessing the environmental distribution of chemicals directly from their molecular information was analyzed. Multimedia chemical partitioning of 455 chemicals, expressed in dimensionless compartmental mass ratios, was predicted by SimpleBox 3, a Level III Fugacity model, together with the propagation of reported uncertainty for key physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. Chemicals, some registered in priority lists,

Izacar Martínez; Jordi Grifoll; Francesc Giralt; Robert Rallo

2010-01-01

193

Ecology in court, and other disappointments of environmental science and environmental law  

SciTech Connect

More has been expected of environmental science than it has been able to deliver. Confusion, delay, and inefficiency in environmental management and protection have resulted. Steps for increasing communication and cooperation between environmental scientists and lawyers before, outside, and instead of the litigation process are suggested, increasing the opportunities for both professions to devise workable practices consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act. 42 references.

Carpenter, R.A.

1983-01-01

194

Ecology in Court, and Other Disappointments of Environmental Science and Environmental Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

More has been expected of environmental science than it has been able to deliver. Confusion, delay, and inefficiency in environmental management and protection have resulted. Steps for increasing communication and cooperation between environmental scientists and lawyers before, outside, and instead of the litigation process are suggested, increasing the opportunities for both professions to devise workable practices consistent with the National

RICHARD A. CARPENTER

1983-01-01

195

Where the Wild Things Are: Informal Experience and Ecological Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel "diseases" or "insides" from one…

Coley, John D.

2012-01-01

196

Measuring ecological efficiency with data envelopment analysis (DEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of ecological efficiency provides some important information for the companies’ environmental management. Ecological efficiency is usually measured by comparing environmental performance indicators. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) shows a high potential to support such comparisons, as no explicit weights are needed to aggregate the indicators. In general, DEA assumes that inputs and outputs are ‘goods’, but from an ecological

H. Dyckhoff; K. Allen

2001-01-01

197

Road A Chemical Basin: Environmental information document  

SciTech Connect

The Road A Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant was closed and backfilled in 1973. It received miscellaneous radioactive and chemical aqueous waste. Four groundwater monitoring wells indicate no elevated levels of analytes in the groundwater. The closure options considered for this waste site are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Maximum health risk due to radioactive materials (/sup 238/U) is about 8.0E-06 excess health effects per year, for the no action option. The no waste removal and closure and waste removal and closure options reduce the calculated risk to about 1.2E-06 and 1.2E-08 HE/yr, respectively. The maximum calculated impact due to noncarcinogenic materials (lead) is 0.54 ADI fraction. The maximum calculated ADI fraction for lead after the period of institutional control is 4.1 E-04 for the reclaimed-farmland pathway for the no action option. Public risk attributable to atmospheric releases of chemical and radioactive constituents is minimal. For all years and options modeled, the noncarcinogenic risks calculated were zero except for the year of excavation, which had an ADI fraction of 1.41E-09. The maximum individual radiological health risk for the waste removal and closure option is small (6.97E-12 HE/yr). The radiological health effects for the no waste removal and closure and no action options are zero. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive ($4,000,000). 41 refs., 13 figs., 41 tabs.

Pickett, J.B.; Muska, C.F.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

198

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document - Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document (EID) compiles information on the existing environment, or environmental baseline, for SNUNM. Much of the information is drawn from existing reports and databases supplemented by new research and data. The SNL/NM EID, together with the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document, provide a basis for assessing the environment, safety, and health aspects of operating selected facilities at SNL/NM. The environmental baseline provides a record of the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment at SNL/NLM prior to being altered (beneficially or adversely) by proposed programs or projects. More specifically, the EID provides information on the following topics: Geology; Land Use; Hydrology and Water Resources; Air Quality and Meteorology; Ecology; Noise and Vibration; Cultural Resources; Visual Resources; Socioeconomic and Community Services; Transportation; Material Management; Waste Management; and Regulatory Requirements.

BAYLISS, LINDA S.; GUERRERO, JOSEPH V.; JOHNS, WILLIAM H.; KUZIO, KENNETH A.; BAILEY-WHITE, BRENDA E.

1999-09-01

199

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document - Volume II  

SciTech Connect

This Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document (EID) compiles information on the existing environment, or environmental baseline, for SNUNM. Much of the information is drawn from existing reports and databases supplemented by new research and data. The SNL/NM EID, together with the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document, provide a basis for assessing the environment, safety, and health aspects of operating selected facilities at SNL/NM. The environmental baseline provides a record of the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment at SNL/NLM prior to being altered (beneficially or adversely) by proposed programs or projects. More specifically, the EID provides information on the following topics: Geology; Land Use; Hydrology and Water Resources; Air Quality and Meteorology; Ecology; Noise and Vibration; Cultural Resources; Visual Resources; Socioeconomic and Community Services; Transportation; Material Management; Waste Management; and Regulatory Requirements.

GUERRERO, JOSEPH V.; KUZIO, KENNETH A.; JOHNS, WILLIAM H.; BAYLISS, LINDA S.; BAILEY-WHITE, BRENDA E.

1999-09-01

200

Colonization, covariance and colour: environmental and ecological drivers of diversity-stability relationships.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between community diversity and biomass stability is a fundamental topic in ecology. Theory has emphasized differences in species-specific responses to environmental fluctuations as an important stabiliser of total biomass fluctuations. However, previous analyses have often been based on simplifying assumptions, such as uniform species abundance distributions, uniform environmental variance across species, and uniform environmental responses across species pairs. We compare diversity-stability relationships in model communities, based on multi-species Ricker dynamics, that follow different colonization rules during community assembly (fixed or flexible resource use) forced by temporally uncorrelated (white) or correlated (red) environmental fluctuations. The colonization rules generate characteristic niche-dependent (hierarchical, HR) environmental covariance structures, which we compare with uncorrelated (independent, IR) species' environmental responses. Environmental reddening increases biomass stability and qualitatively alters diversity-stability patterns in HR communities, under both colonization rules. Diversity-stability patterns in IR communities are qualitatively altered by colonization rules but not by environmental colour. Our results demonstrate that diversity-stability patterns are contingent upon species' colonization strategies (resource use), emergent or independent responses to environmental fluctuations, and the colour of environmental fluctuations. We describe why our results arise through differences in species traits associated with niche position. These issues are often overlooked when considering the statistical components commonly used to describe diversity-stability patterns (e.g., Overyielding, Portfolio and Covariance effects). Mechanistic understanding of different diversity-stability relationships requires consideration of the biological processes that drive different population and community level behaviours. PMID:23416170

Fowler, Mike S; Ruokolainen, Lasse

2013-02-08

201

The information behaviors of environmental planners: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a study that explored the information behavior of environmental planners in Botswana, with a view to determine how it (information behavior) can be supported by an information policy. Ten environmental planners were purposively selected and interviewed to collect the data. The study found that an information policy for environmental planners should focus on the

Athulang Mutshewa

2007-01-01

202

Exergy vs information in ecological successions: Interpreting community changes by a classical thermodynamic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes a methodology based on classical thermodynamics, which allows the variation in ecosystem composition to be interpreted within the framework of the exergy concept. The basic equation of exergy [Mejer, H., Jorgensen, S.E., 1979. Exergy and ecological buffer capacity. State-of-the-art in Ecological Modelling 7, 829–846] was decomposed into three terms –size (C), structural information (I) and concentration (X)

A. Ludovisi

2009-01-01

203

NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatory’s construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20 ecoclimatic Domains. Data will be collected from strategically selected sites within each Domain and synthesized into information products that can be used to describe changes in the nation’s ecosystem through space and time. Sites are arrayed across different land-use types in order to understand large-scale environmental drivers affect biodiversity, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, and disease ecology across the US continent. NEON is an instrument that listens to the pulse of the US continental ecosystem: infrastructure deployed at these sites will collect an average of over 500 primary measurements at each site, including annual high-resolution airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data. These primary measurements will be transformed by a state-of-the-art cyberinfrastruture into over 100 higher-order data products. All measurements, data products, algorithms used to compute the data products, and protocols used to collect the primary measurements will be freely available to the public and assessable over the internet. The information products, including selected socio-economic datasets from cooperating Federal agencies, will be served in standard formats, grid-sizes, and geographical projections. This type of information is anticipated to have a wide range of uses, including ecological forecasting, education, public engagement, socio-economic analyses, decision support for climate-change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, and environmental risk management. Open data, interoperability, an open and integrated observation infrastructure, public engagement, and a deliberate approach to making sure that research data can be repurposed for operational purposes are the cornerstones of the NEON strategy: they facilitate the repurposing of credible, reliable data and information for multiple purposes. Often, the same data is useful in an undergraduate course on correlations as it is for public discourse on the effects of increased precipitation on stream water quality. This suggests a strategy for evolving an ecosystem of institutions whose primary responsibility is contributing to an open information commons that creates and curates credible sources of data and information products with clearly documented provenance, quality protocols, uncertainty estimates, and other qualitative descriptors. This information commons is deliberately designed to be tapped by another ecosystem of institutions whose individual missions revolve around some combination of discovery (e.g. research, forecasting, innovation), learning (e.g. public engagement, informal and formal learning, education research), and solutions (e.g. science and technology policy). This talk explores how the NEON information commons is envisioned to interact with this other community of institutions, and how the cornerstone principles enable that community to better focus their creative capabilities around their respective core missions.

Wee, B.

2010-12-01

204

Evaluating Course Impact on Student Environmental Values in Undergraduate Ecology with a Novel Survey Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors of this TIEE Research Paper investigated the effect their teaching had on the environmental attitudes and values of undergraduate students. Specifically, they wanted to know if student-active teaching approaches had an effect on attitude changes and whether or not those attitude changes were accompanied by a change in understanding of the underlying ecological principles. They used two survey instruments to assess student attitudes at the beginning and at the completion of a course. They coupled an established survey instrument (New Ecological Paradigm: NEP) with one they developed specifically for the study (Environmental Conflict Overview: ECO) to determine if attitude changes were consistent and to assess specific dimensions of attitude changes. The ECO survey asks students to respond to stakeholder perspectives in specific environmental issues. This study was done at two quite different institutions, which allowed the authors to examine responses of a wide range of students. Results showed consistent changes in attitude with both survey instruments at both schools. The ECO instrument also provided valuable insight into specific aspects of student attitudes that changed most. Results showed a significant reduction in studentsÃÂ anthropocentrism and a reduced emphasis on economic valuation in resolving stakeholder conflicts. Students also demonstrated increased understanding of underlying ecological principles. Quantitative results on the impact of specific student-active teaching methods were equivocal, though free-responses did reveal preference for course topics captured in such activities. The authors suggest that that the combined surveys provide an effective method for assessing changes in student attitudes and therefore can be used as a powerful teaching tool.

Humston, Robert

2010-02-16

205

Multivariate analyses in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental microbiology is undergoing a dramatic revolution due to the increasing accumulation of biological information and contextual environmental parameters. This will not only enable a better identification of diversity patterns, but will also shed more light on the associated environmental conditions, spatial locations, and seasonal fluctuations, which could explain such patterns. Complex ecological questions may now be addressed using multivariate

Alban Ramette

206

Elicitation by design in ecology: using expert opinion to inform priors for Bayesian statistical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian statistical modeling has several benefits within an ecological context. In particular, when observed data are limited in sample size or representativeness, then the Bayesian framework provides a mechanism to combine observed data with other ''prior'' information. Prior information may be obtained from earlier studies, or in their absence, from expert knowledge. This use of the Bayesian framework reflects the

Samantha Low Choy; Rebecca O'Leary; Kerrie Mengersen

2009-01-01

207

The environmental, ecological, and traditional science of Alaska Natives/Native Americans, past and present  

SciTech Connect

To explore the ecological, environmental, cultural, and traditional science of Alaska Native and Native American knowledge, one must examine past and present examples of the knowledge and skills of indigenous people in maintaining a balance between the use of natural resources and the protection and conservation of the environment. There is a need for a more holistic and harmonic balance to integrate people with the natural environment. The emphasis and focus should be on simplicity and stewardship of the earth to guarantee its continued viability to provide for a growing world in the 21st century.

Jorgensen, C.J.

1994-12-31

208

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...decision that such project merits environmental analysis, but less than a full-fledged environmental impact assessment as defined by that MDB's own...Director of the concerned MDB, such environmental information from the MDB...

2013-07-01

209

Road Developments in the UK: An Analysis of Ecological Assessment in Environmental Impact Statements Produced between 1993 and 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been required for certain proposed road developmentsin the UK since EC Directive (85\\/337) was implemented in 1988. The extent to which the requirements of the EIA Directive are met with respect to ecological issues has been explored in earlier reviews of road statements (Treweek et al., 1993) and of UK environmental impact statements (EISs) in

Helen Byron; Joanna Treweek; William Sheate; Stewart Thompson

2000-01-01

210

Case Study: Calculating the Ecological Footprint of the 2004 Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) Biennial Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event tourism is accompanied by social, economic and environmental benefits and costs. The assessment of this form of tourism has however largely focused on the social and economic perspectives, while environmental assessments have been bound to a destination-based approach. The application of the Ecological Footprint methodology allows for these…

Rickard, Andrew

2006-01-01

211

TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document  

SciTech Connect

The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

212

Watershed Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another informative Web site from the Environmental Protection Agency is the Online Training in Watershed Management page. Here, citizens have access to a wealth of information and tools to help them understand and protect their water resources. Six "modules" are offered, each of which take between a half to two hours to complete. They are organized by theme including an Introduction, watershed ecology, watershed change, analysis and planning, management practices, and community/ social/ water law. Each includes easy-to-follow and thorough descriptions, along with any additional resources that may be needed.

2000-01-01

213

Towards a core ontology for integrating ecological and environmental ontologies to enable improved data interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in the ecological and environmental sciences increasingly relies on the integration of traditionally small, focused studies to form larger datasets for synthetic analyses. However, a broad range of data types, structures, and semantic subtleties occur in ecological data, making data discovery and integration a difficult and time-consuming task. Our work focuses on capturing the subtleties of scientific data through semantic annotations, which involve linking ecological data to concepts and relationships in domain-specific ontologies, thereby enabling more advanced forms of data discovery and integration. A variety of ontologies related to ecological data are actively being developed, ranging from low-level and highly focused vocabularies to high-level models and classifications. However, as the number of ontologies and their included terms increase, organizing these into a coherent framework useful for data annotation becomes increasingly complex (we note that similar issues have been recognized within the molecular biology and bioinformatics communities). We describe a core ontology model for semantic annotation that provides a structured approach for integrating the growing number of ecology-relevant ontologies. The ontology defines the notion of "scientific observation" as a unifying concept for capturing the basic semantics of ecological data. Observations are distinguished at the level of the entity (e.g., location, time, thing, concept), and characteristics of an entity (e.g., height, name, color) are measured (named or classified) as data. The ontology permits observations to be related via context (such as spatial or temporal containment), further supporting the discovery and automated comparison and alignment (e.g., merging) of heterogeneous data. The core ontology also defines a set of extension points that can be used to either directly build new domain ontologies (as extension ontologies), or to provide a common basis to which existing ontologies can be mapped. Thus, by enforcing a well-defined and high-level structure, the core ontology helps organize and integrate the growing number of ontologies, leading to better data discovery and integration techniques for semantically annotated data.

Bowers, S.; Madin, J.; Jones, M.; Schildhauer, M.; Ludaescher, B.

2007-12-01

214

An implementation assessment of China's Environmental Information Disclosure Decree  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's 2007 Open Government Information Regulations is widely considered as a milestone in the country's information policy history and is praised as a “sunshine program”. The Environmental Information Disclosure Decree was the first to operationalize these general regulations into a sectoral information disclosure system on environment. This study assessed the implementation of the environmental information disclosure system about six months

Lei Zhang; Arthur P. J. Mol; Guizhen He; Yonglong Lu

2010-01-01

215

Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques. PMID:9573470

Groffman, P M

1997-01-01

216

Grounds for regulation and intervention in environmental matters: view of environmental and ecological economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The view taken by environmental economics of the environment tends to see it as having certain characteristics. Among these are that it is a free good, inexhaustible, belonging to nobody and without any form of regulatory price, in the absence of an exchange value. These characteristics lead to indiscriminate use and exploitation beyond what would be socially desirable, giving rise

Roberto Fernandez Gago; Federico Marbella Sanchez

2001-01-01

217

A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology.\\u000a An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is\\u000a currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to\\u000a the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Miriya Samarakoon; John S. Rowan

2008-01-01

218

Unfinished business in New England: a comparative assessment of environmental problems. Ecological Risk Work Group Report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a study undertaken by EPA in New England that examined 24 environmental problems to determine which areas present the greatest residual ecological risk. The analyses conducted by the Ecological Risk Work Group compared the stressors associated with each problem area with eight different ecosystems found in New England. The group found that the problems posing the most serious ecological risks are air pollution (particularly ozone), acid rain, loss of wetlands and habitat, all discharges to surface water, and accidental releases.

Not Available

1988-12-01

219

Use of Space Information for the Monitoring of Ecological Situation in Urban Agglomerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using space information for the monitoring of ecological situation in urban agglomerations and suburbs is considered. It is shown that space images in the optical range provide information about some processes and phenomena which are not detectable in ground-based observations. The space methods of remote sensing give information for routine monitoring as well as for long-term forecasts, urban development planning, and utilization of natural resources.

Lyal'Ko, V. I.; Fedorovskiy, A. D.; Teremenko, A. N.; Ryabokonenko, A. D.

220

Upscaling as ecological information transfer: a simple framework with application to Arctic ecosystem carbon exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferring ecological information across scale often involves spatial aggregation, which alters information content and\\u000a may bias estimates if the scaling process is nonlinear. Here, a potential solution, the preservation of the information content\\u000a of fine-scale measurements, is highlighted using modeled net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of an Arctic tundra landscape as an\\u000a example. The variance of aggregated normalized difference vegetation index

Paul C. Stoy; Mathew Williams; Mathias Disney; Ana Prieto-Blanco; Brian Huntley; Robert Baxter; Philip Lewis

2009-01-01

221

Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.  

PubMed

The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account. PMID:22094696

Williams, Eric

2011-11-16

222

Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information  

SciTech Connect

Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be the same group of participants who moved slowly toward a decision. These participants also tended to indicate that acquisition of information was more critical than the amount of time spent on the information search. The second group tended to form a set of specific questions for which they desired specific answers. This group was more likely to demonstrate a significant reduction in their distance to a decision much earlier than the first group. In addition, this group tended to be very confident of their final decision and indicated that time spent in information search was more critical than obtaining new information. They indicated that the value of information obtained must remain high to justify the extensive time spent in information search.

Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

2001-10-01

223

Hydrogeology and groundwater ecology: Does each inform the other?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The known, perceived and potential relationships between hydrogeology and groundwater ecology are explored, along with the spatial and temporal scale of these relations, the limit of knowledge and areas in need of research. Issues concerned with the subterranean part of the water cycle are considered from the perspective of the biology of those invertebrate animals that live, of necessity, in groundwater and the microbiological milieu essential for their survival. Groundwater ecosystems are placed in a hydrogeological context including the groundwater evolution along a flowpath, the significance of the biodiversity and of the ecosystem services potentially provided. This is considered against a background of three major components essential to the functioning of groundwater ecosystems, each of which can be affected by activities over which hydrogeologists often have control, and each, in turn, may have implications for groundwater management; these are, a place to live, oxygen and food (energy). New techniques and increasing awareness amongst hydrogeologists of the diversity and broad distribution of groundwater ecosystems offer new opportunities to develop cross disciplinary work between hydrogeologists and groundwater ecologists, already demonstrated to be a field for collaboration with broad benefits.

Humphreys, W. F.

2009-02-01

224

Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) user's manual  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is used to store, manipulate, and retrieve the data that are gathered from many types of samples taken at the Hanford Site. The HEIS provides forms-based data entry, menu-driven user access software, data browsing facilities, and ad hoc querying. A multiwindowing computing environment is supported on the engineering workstation where a geographic information system (GIS) resides. A Sequent S27 UNIX-based multiprocessor computer and ORACLE are used for the central HEIS database. An integrated database, a GIS that allows data to be displayed on a map, and a support graphics capability allow users to generate spatially related visualizations and to perform data extractions for a complete picture of the pertinent data. In addition, the HEIS data can be moved to other software environments for further analysis and assessment. The purpose of the HEIS User's Manual is to describe and explain how to use the HEIS. The manual is intended to meet the needs of two types of user: The manager, engineer, or scientist who used the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning and the operational user, who is responsible for data processing, scheduling, data collection, and quality assurance. 23 refs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

225

Homeward Bound: Ecological Design of Domestic Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology artefacts are steadily permeating everyday life, just as they have colonized the business domain. Although\\u000a research in our field has largely addressed the workplace, researchers are beginning to take an interest in the home environment\\u000a too. Here, we address the domestic realm, focusing on the design of complex, interactive information systems. As such, our\\u000a work sits in the

David Graham Wastell; Juergen S. Sauer; Claudia Schmeink

2008-01-01

226

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

An international symposium on ecological indicators was developed to explore both the potential of ecological indicators and the issues surrounding their development and implementation. his symposium presented state-of-the-science information on the identification, application re...

227

Linking Environmental Advocacy with Information from Atmospheric Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental advocacy demands keeping up-to-date on relevant research, extracting results from research with broader (or narrower) relevance to current policy questions, and posing questions that, at times, shape scientific research agendas. How do environmental advocates get and process scientific information?1) Advocates want scientists' work to be seen as objective and to be able to reference peer-reviewed articles from well-respected journals. At the same time, the community frequently leans on scientists to release supportive results as quickly as possible. How are these competing interests reconciled in ways that support quality, timely policy development without comprising a scientist's long-term credibility? 2) Some level of scientific uncertainty is the general rule and not the exception, and there is an understanding that policies will be set with some outstanding questions. There are personal and institutional efforts to ferret out what is as close to right as possible on any given issue, at a specific point in time. Are some ways more useful and accurate than others? 3) Linkages between related atmospheric chemistry problems can be missed. For example, state and national air advocacy groups have been working both to reduce tropospheric ozone to decrease the adverse health and ecological impacts of ozone and to reduce greenhouse gases for climate. Even though the IPCC and others have long included tropospheric ozone in its discussions of positive climate forcers, the policy connection between the two has remained largely unbridged. What are the forums and mechanism to keep up with not just what's new but also with what has been around and well-understood for awhile? 4) Funders have a large role in shaping environmental agendas. What is the best way to keep the funding community abreast of relevant scientific work?

Baum, E.

2002-05-01

228

Utilizing discriminant function analysis with a geographical information system to model ecological succession spatially  

Microsoft Academic Search

A raster\\/quadtree geographical information system (GIS) was established For a 932 ha natural area in central Missouri. The GIS contained map layers depicting vegetative cover from 1939 to 1982, soils, topographic aspect and distance from a forest seed source. Discriminant function analysis was used to quantify and describe ecological succession on the area during this period. The calibration of discriminant

KIM LOWELL

1991-01-01

229

Using Geographic Information Systems to Support Student Learning through Urban Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our urban street tree curriculum project in which we engage students in an ecological and economic evaluation of trees in highly populated areas through the use of Geographic Information Systems and modeling technologies. In particular, students conduct a tree inventory of the grounds surrounding their school and then use an urban tree modeling extension in ArcView called

Michael Barnett; Meredith Houle

230

Environmental effects of increased coal utilization: ecological effects of gaseous emissions from coal combustion.  

PubMed

This report is limited to an evaluation of the ecological and environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of various types which result from coal combustion. It deals with NOx, SOx, fine particulate, photochemical oxidant and acid precipitation as these pollutants affect natural and managed resources and ecosystems. Also, synergistic effects involving two or more pollutants are evaluated as well as ecosystem level effects of gaseous pollutants. There is a brief summary of the effects on materials and atmospheric visibility of increased coal combustion. The economic implications of ecological effects are identified to the extent they can be determined within acceptable limits. Aquatic and terrestrial effects are distinguished where the pollutants in question are clearly problems in both media. At present, acid precipitation is most abundant in the north central and northeastern states. Total SOx and NOx emissions are projected to remain high in these regions while increasing relatively more in the western than in the eastern regions of the country. A variety of ecological processes are affected and altered by air pollution. Such processes include community succession and retrogression, nutrient biogeochemical cycling, photosynthetic activity, primary and secondary productivity, species diversity and community stability. Estimates of the non health-related cost of air pollutants range from several hundred million dollars to $1.7 billion dollars per year. In general, these estimates include only those relatively easily measured considerations such as the known losses to cultivate crops from acute air pollution episodes or the cost of frequent repainting required as a result of air pollution. No substantial nationwide estimates of losses to forest productivity, natural ecosystem productivity which is tapped by domestic grazing animals and wildlife, and other significant dollar losses are available. PMID:44247

Glass, N R

1979-12-01

231

General Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

232

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

233

Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.  

PubMed

Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model. PMID:21253931

Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

2011-01-01

234

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

Joanna Burger

2008-01-01

235

Education, Globalization and Sustainable Futures: Struggles Over Educational Aims and Purposes in a Period of Environmental and Ecological Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the advocacy of education for sustainability in a contemporary world driven by the powerful forces of globalization and development. A brief overview of the current ecological crisis in the world is presented, and concerns about environmental degradation, social injustice, and social inequalities are discussed. The vision of…

Farrell, R. V.; Papagiannis, George

236

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTEIN PROFILE TECHNOLOGY TO EVALUATE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS USING A SMALL FISH MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Hemmer, Michael J., Robert T. Hudson and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Development of Protein Profile Technology to Evaluate Ecological Effects of Environmental Chemicals Using a Small Fish Model (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosyste...

237

Environmental Scanning: Acquisition and Use of Information by Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines environmental scanning as the acquisition and use of information about an organization's external environment to assist managers in planning. Highlights include a historical review; organizational theories; information needs and uses; managers as information users; and a review of research on environmental scanning. (Contains 124…

Choo, Chun Wei; Auster, Ethel

1993-01-01

238

INFOTERRA File on Sources of Environmental Information Provided through JOIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outline of INFOTERRA (International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information), an international information network operated by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) since 1977 and how to use it are described. Contents of an INFOTERRA File used for on-line information service by JOIS (JICST On-line Information Service) which will start on July 1, 1987 and examples of an interactive search of sources of environmental information by JOIS are also described.

Haruyama, Akemi; Hosoyama, Miki

239

Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the environment, or to diagnose the cause of an environmental problem. Ideally the suite of indicators should represent key information about structure, function, and composition of the ecological system. Three concerns hamper the use of ecological indicators as a

Virginia H. Dale; Suzanne C. Beyeler

2001-01-01

240

A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

2012-01-01

241

Diatoms: Powerful Indicators of Environmental Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diatoms are being used increasingly to assess short- and long-term environmental change, because they are informative, versatile, flexible, and powerful ecological indicators. Diatoms respond rapidly to changes in many ecological characteristics. Assembla...

S. S. Dixit J. P. Smol J. C. Kingston D. F. Charles

1992-01-01

242

DIATOMS: POWERFUL INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are being used increasingly to assess short- and long-term environmental change, because they are informative, versatile, flexible, and powerful ecological indicators. iatoms respond rapidly to changes in many ecological characteristics. ssemblages are usually diverse and...

243

Principles of Political Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the concepts and principles of political ecology, i.e., the application of ecological principles to public affairs. The public issues of direct concern in political ecology are environmental quality; energy, materials, and other natural reso...

R. L. Shelton

1976-01-01

244

Research on ecological function zoning information system based on WebGIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of information technology, application of WebGIS will make it possible to realize digitization and intellectualization in issuing and managing information of ecological function zoning. Firstly, this paper introduces the fundamental principles, basic methods and current situation of development and various support techniques about WebGIS. Secondly, the paper not only compares and analyzes the above methods but also discusses their applied prospect and feasibility in Web management. Finally, exemplified by Jiaozuo City, the paper puts forward an idea of design and a project of realization about the information system. In this research, the digital map and establishment of map database have been finished by MapInfo. Combining with some technical data of ecological environment of Jiaozuo City, the information of ecological environment resources is collected, stored, analyzed, calculated and displayed in the form of pictures and graphs on the WebGIS platform, which makes use of secondary development flat-MapXtreme for Java and some tools such as Java, JSP and JavaScript. Serve mode is adopted in the system which has realized the operating, inquiring of basic map and working out thematic map. By the finished system, it brings some references.

Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Gang

2007-08-01

245

Ecology and the future  

SciTech Connect

Ecologist Eugene P. Odum asserts that public education is an extremely important tool for conveying information on environmental matters. Public participation efforts such as Earth Day are needed to form an environmental ethic in this society. Incentives are needed for promoting land use planning policies and for encouraging energy conservation. The current energy crisis will actually speed the application of ecological principles and the strengthening of ethics. (1 photo)

Not Available

1980-04-01

246

Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.  

PubMed

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2011-12-22

247

Effect of Collectivist Orientation and Ecological Attitude on Actual Environmental Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite previous research efforts on mapping the demographic profile of a general conserving consumer, a review on the ecological concern literature shows that previous studies had limited success in explaining the social basis of ecological behaviour. An empirical study was carried out to ascertain the role of demographics in determining ecological purchase commitment. It examines the moderating role of consumer

Li Ling-Yee

1997-01-01

248

Environmentalism and the evolving information society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of environment and development on a global scale are introduced, and the author's earlier characterization of the development of environmentalism as consisting of “alarmist”, “special-issue”, and “big-issue” stages, is summarized. This analysis is extended by a description and discussion of the seeming irreconcilability of “environmentalism as plan” and “environmentalism as goal” approaches. A brief outline is presented of

D. Scott Slocombe

1987-01-01

249

Multimedia environmental chemical partitioning from molecular information.  

PubMed

The prospect of assessing the environmental distribution of chemicals directly from their molecular information was analyzed. Multimedia chemical partitioning of 455 chemicals, expressed in dimensionless compartmental mass ratios, was predicted by SimpleBox 3, a Level III Fugacity model, together with the propagation of reported uncertainty for key physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. Chemicals, some registered in priority lists, were selected according to the availability of experimental property data to minimize the influence of predicted information in model development. Chemicals were emitted in air or water in a fixed geographical scenario representing the Netherlands and characterized by five compartments (air, water, sediments, soil and vegetation). Quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models to predict mass ratios in different compartments were developed with support vector regression algorithms. A set of molecular descriptors, including the molecular weight and 38 counts of molecular constituents were adopted to characterize the chemical space. Out of the 455 chemicals, 375 were used for training and testing the QSFR models, while 80 were excluded from model development and were used as an external validation set. Training and test chemicals were selected and the domain of applicability (DOA) of the QSFRs established by means of self-organizing maps according to structural similarity. Best results were obtained with QSFR models developed for chemicals belonging to either the class [C] and [C; O], or the class with at least one heteroatom different than oxygen in the structure. These two class-specific models, with respectively 146 and 229 chemicals, showed a predictive squared coefficient of q(2) ? 0.90 both for air and water, which respectively dropped to q(2)? 0.70 and 0.40 for outlying chemicals. Prediction errors were of the same order of magnitude as the deviations associated to the uncertainty of the physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. PMID:21059471

Martínez, Izacar; Grifoll, Jordi; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

2010-11-06

250

The Economic Consequences of Voluntary Environmental Information Disclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant body of accounting and finance literature has witnessed an increase in the demand for company's environmental information over the past few decades. Using data of Australian companies from 1998 to 2000, this study provides an analysis of environmental disclosure in companies' annual reports. The evidence indicates that companies do respond to the increased demand for environmental disclosure by

Nike O. Gozali; Peter Verhoeven

251

ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological, natural resource, or environmental policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively ...

252

The informational contribution of social and environmental disclosures for investors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the paper is to investigate whether social disclosure and environmental disclosure have a substituting or a complementing effect in reducing information asymmetry between managers and stock market participants Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis of a firm's social and environmental disclosure strategy. The authors posit that this strategy simultaneously affects information

Denis Cormier; Marie-Josée Ledoux; Michel Magnan

2011-01-01

253

An intelligent service layer upgrades environmental information management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A service-oriented architecture has been developed that addresses the shortcomings of the typical environmental management information system (EIMS). Called AISLE, it is an adaptive intelligent service layer for environmental information management that mediates between existing environmental data providers and actual end-user applications that require preprocessed data streams from the sources. AISLE uses agent-oriented software engineering with service-oriented primitives to deliver

Ioannis N. Athanasiadis

2006-01-01

254

Integration of life cycle assessment in the environmental information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  As the sustainability improvement becomes an essential business task of industry, a number of companies are adopting IT-based\\u000a environmental information systems (EIS). Life cycle assessment (LCA), a tool to improve environmental friendliness of a product,\\u000a can also be systemized as a part of the EIS. This paper presents a case of an environmental information system which is

Jong-Hwan Eun; Ji-Ho Son; Jeong-Min Moon; Jong-Shik Chung

2009-01-01

255

ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION  

Cancer.gov

Phone: (800)443-0600 Fax: (508)655-2754 Email: info@americanbio.com 15 Erie Drive Natick, MA 01760 Phone: 508.655.4336 Fax: 508.655.2754 www.americanbio.com In case of emergency call 3E at 1.800.451.8346 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA

256

Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area.

Not Available

1991-01-01

257

Are environmental attitudes influenced by survey context? An investigation of the context dependency of the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale.  

PubMed

General environmental attitudes are often measured with questions added to surveys about specific environmental or non-environmental issues. Using results from a large-scale national survey on the protection of threatened and endangered marine species, we examine whether the context of the survey in which New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale items are asked influence measured environmental concern. In this application the role that specific threatened or endangered species play in affecting responses to NEP Scale items is explored using a combination of non-parametric and parametric approaches. The results in this case suggest that context does influence stated general environmental attitudes, though the effects of context differ across NEP items. PMID:24090850

Pienaar, Elizabeth F; Lew, Daniel K; Wallmo, Kristy

2013-07-13

258

Nitrogen isotopic ecology in southern Africa: Implications for environmental and dietary tracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish baseline nitrogen isotope data for certain African ecosystems, we have measured the 15 N / 14 N of some 300 marine and terrestrial organisms. The majority of these specimens come from the southwestern Cape, and were chosen to represent a cross-section of the foods important in prehistoric diets in the region. 15 N analyses of 78 Holocene human skeletons from the same area are interpreted in the light of these results. Additional terrestrial animal samples were collected from the northern and eastern Cape and from Botswana and Malawi. They represent a wide range of climatic and environmental zones, from semi-desert to sub-tropical swamps. The patterning in the values for marine organisms is consistent with previously published data; that for terrestrial organisms, however, is more complex than recent studies have indicated. Our data confirm the proposal that animal 15 N values vary with rainfall: high 15 N values for herbivores occur in areas receiving less than 400 mm of rain per annum. We critically examine a recently proposed model explaining this phenomenon, and suggest some additional mechanisms which should be considered. In such arid areas, nitrogen isotope ratios cannot be used as marine / terrestrial indicators, but may provide some indication of the trophic level of the food consumed. Dietary studies on human populations can only be undertaken with a thorough appreciation of the isotopic ecology of the relevant foodweb.

Sealy, Judith C.; van der Merwe, Nikolaas J.; Thorp, Julia A. Lee; Lanham, John L.

1987-10-01

259

Radiological and Environmental Research Division: ecology. Annual report, January-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This is the annual report of the Radiological and Environmental Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for 1982. Studies of the effects of ozone on crop growth and yield have been carried out by the Terrestrial Ecology Group for winter wheat and for sorghum. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) facility was completed in the early summer. Controlled investigations of plant and soil responses in acid rain were initiated with crop plants grown in two different midwestern soil types. The Transuranics Group has found that the solubility and adsorptive behavior of plutonium previously observed at fallout concentrations in natural waters (approx. 10/sup -16/ to 10/sup -18/ M) is applicable at plutonium concentrations as high as 10/sup -8/ M. The Lake Michigan eutrophication model has been adapted to operation in a Monte Carlo mode. Simulations based on yearly phosphorus loadings and winter conditions were selected at random from prescribed probability distributions and used to estimate some of the uncertainties associated with model forecasts of Lake Michigan water quality.

Not Available

1983-09-01

260

Towards an ecological audiology: stereophonic listening chamber and acoustic environmental tests.  

PubMed

An acoustic laboratory for reproduction of speech and acoustic environments is presented along with two sound field tests. Its design has been inspired by the LEDE (Living End Dead End) principle for construction of radio and music control rooms. The equipment and the 12 loudspeakers can simultaneously reproduce several stereophonic and monophonic recordings. The interesting feature is that the delayed first reflex in the LEDE room allows for a realistic perception of the recording room. A preliminary presentation of two newly developed tests for sound field listening is given. In DSIN. Directional Speech In Noise, the JFC (just follow conversation) threshold for continuous discourse is determined in 12 directions in quiet and in noise from +/- 60 degrees azimuth. In SEIT (Sound Environmental Identification Test), stereophonic acoustic environments are presented and the subject is asked to identify specific components and to characterize each environment as closely as possible. Results from tests with normal hearing subjects and examples of results with hearing impaired subjects are presented. The potential of the technique for use in aural rehabilitation, functional definition of auditory communication and quality assessment of hearing aids is discussed. It is pointed out that the term ecological audiology is suitable for describing the interaction between the communicating individual and the environment in a broad sense. PMID:9832401

Borg, E; Wilson, M; Samuelsson, E

1998-01-01

261

Environmental Activities for Teaching Critical Thinking. [Environmental Education Information Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to think critically is essential if individuals are to live, work, and function effectively in our current and changing society. The activities included in this publication were selected to identify a variety of effective strategies for teaching critical thinking skills through environmental education. Activities include library…

Howe, Robert W.; Disinger, John F.

262

Method and apparatus for environmental setting and information for environmental setting  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A space is set substantially in a tropical rain forest type environment to activate a human's essential brain region and realize an environment suitable for the human's brain by arranging a device for setting the tropical rain forest type environment based on characteristics of activating human's essential brain region responsive to tropical rain forest type environment information, in a space such as an urban space, a housing space or other living space. The tropical rain forest type environmental information has higher density and higher complexity than those of urban space type environmental information, and includes at least one of auditory information, visual information, and super perceptual information of aerial vibration. The tropical rain forest type environmental information is comfortable for the human with no excessive stress, and is environmental information for effecting prevention and treatment of diseases due to stress by realizing the environment comfortable for the human's brain.

Oohashi; Tsutomu (Tokyo, JP); Kawai; Norie (Tokyo, JP); Nishina; Emi (Tokyo, JP); Yagi; Reiko (Tokyo, JP); Honda; Manabu (Tokyo, JP); Nakamura; Satoshi (Tokyo, JP); Morimoto; Masako (Tokyo, JP); Maekawa; Tadao (Tokyo, JP)

2013-05-07

263

An integrated environmental information system (IEIS) for corporate environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise-wide information systems have been gradually moving into the corporate and industrial setting, driven by demands for nimbleness and efficiency in the competitive marketplace. These systems seek to integrate access to and management of such information as financial, inventory and personnel data. Implementation of these systems is often highly disruptive to the organization, because it requires a significant change in

Steven P. Frysinger

2001-01-01

264

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

GIS has become a common tool in environmental management and enforcement. Only in the last few years, however, has the technology come into use directly by litigators working on environmental cases. This presentation explores how GIS is being used in law firms to manage and sup...

265

Environmental Characteristics and Geographic Information System Applications for the Development of Nutrient Thresholds in Oklahoma Streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency has developed nutrient criteria using ecoregions to manage and protect rivers and streams in the United States. Individual states and tribes are encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to modify or improve upon the ecoregion approach. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board uses a dichotomous process that stratifies streams using environmental characteristics such as stream order and stream slope. This process is called the Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter15. The Use Support Assessment Protocols can be used to identify streams threatened by excessive amounts of nutrients, dependant upon a beneficial use designation for each stream. The Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter 15 uses nutrient and environmental characteristic thresholds developed from a study conducted in the Netherlands, but the Oklahoma Water Resources Board wants to modify the thresholds to reflect hydrologic and ecological conditions relevant to Oklahoma streams and rivers. Environmental characteristics thought to affect impairment from nutrient concentrations in Oklahoma streams and rivers were determined for 798 water-quality sites in Oklahoma. Nutrient, chlorophyll, water-properties, and location data were retrieved from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET database including data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, and Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Drainage-basin area, stream order, stream slope, and land-use proportions were determined for each site using a Geographic Information System. The methods, procedures, and data sets used to determine the environmental characteristics are described.

Masoner, Jason R.; Haggard, Brian E.; Rea, Alan

2002-01-01

266

Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

1999-05-01

267

A Daphnia magna feeding bioassay as a cost effective and ecological relevant sublethal toxicity test for Environmental Risk Assessment of toxic effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical products and effluents within EC countries require the use of cost effective standardized toxicity tests that in most cases are restricted to acute responses to high doses. Thus, subtle ecological effects are underestimated. Here we propose a short-term one day Daphnia magna feeding inhibition test as a cost effective and ecological relevant sublethal bioassay. The

C. Barata; P. Alañon; S. Gutierrez-Alonso; M. C. Riva; C. Fernández; J. V. Tarazona

2008-01-01

268

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered

T. L. Ashwood; G. W. II Suter; A. J. Stewart

1992-01-01

269

Cooperative, natural language environmental information system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the extension of a natural language interface to relational databases with respect to its cooperative behavior. We argue that cooperative behavior is especially important for a complex domain such as environmental protection. In order...

R. Becker D. Kuepper D. Roesner M. Strobel

1992-01-01

270

14 CFR 431.93 - Environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Environmental Review...a) A designated launch and reentry site, including contingency...documentation; (c) A proposed reentry to an established...

2013-01-01

271

Attitudes and Perceptions about Ecological Resources, Hazards, and Future Land Use of People Living near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the attitudes and perceptions of local people about ecological resources, environmental hazards, and future land use of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Such monitoring of attitudes is an important aspect of environmental assessment. We interviewed 262 people who attended the 42nd Annual Free Fishermen's Breakfast at St. Anthony, Idaho, on 23 March 1997. We

Joanna Burger; DONALD E. ROUSH Jr; Jessica Sanchez; Jeanine Ondrof; Robert Ramos; Michael J. McMahon; Michael Gochfeld

2000-01-01

272

Interface of biotechnology and ecology for environmental risk assessments of transgenic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered fish with enhanced phenotypic traits have yet to be implemented into commercial applications. This is partly because of the difficulties in reliably predicting the ecological risk of transgenic fish should they escape into the wild. The ecological consequences of the phenotypic differences between transgenic and wild-type fish, as determined in the laboratory, can be uncertain because of genotype-by-

Robert H. Devlin; L. Fredrik Sundström; William M. Muir

2006-01-01

273

Adult Education in Local Environmental Initiatives for Ecological and Cultural Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation examines the phenomenon of how communities can effect change in policy and practice to support greater ecological and cultural sustainability. The general purpose of this research is to examine selected local initiatives for ecological and cultural sustainability to better understand the role of adult education in those efforts.…

Woodhouse, Janice Lynn

2011-01-01

274

Application of ecological vulnerability evaluation into environmental impact assessment of Fuxin mining area development master plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a super country in coal resources exploitation and utilization, China encounters ecological environment problems resulting from large-scale coal mining coupled with rapid economic development that have become increasingly serious such that they directly threaten regional ecological security and people's normal production and livelihood in some areas. How to formulate and implement an eco-friendly development plan is the key to

Xueqin Liao; Wei Li; Jinxiang Hou

2011-01-01

275

Biomarker-based biomonitoring for evaluating health and ecological effects on environmental contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a research approach for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment. The approach uses wild animals and introduced caged animals near hazardous waste sites as (1) sentinels of bioavailable contaminants, (2) predictors of adverse ecological effects, and (3) surrogates to estimate the potential exposure and risks to humans living near these sites.

J. F. McCarthy; L. R. Shugart; B. D. Jimenez

1991-01-01

276

How Senior Managers Acquire and Use Information in Environmental Scanning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a study of how 13 chief executives in the Canadian publishing and telecommunications industries scan their environments for information and use it in decision making. Critical incidents of information use were analyzed according to their environmental sectors, information sources, and their use in decision making. (Contains 27…

Auster, Ethel; Choo, Chun Wei

1994-01-01

277

INTEGRATING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS TO IMPROVE WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE U.S.: TESTING A NEW ORGANIZING APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducting an integrated analysis to evaluate the societal and ecological consequences of environmental management actions requires decisions about data collection, theory development, modeling and valuation. Approaching these decisions in coordinated fashion necessitates a syste...

278

Integrating Sustainable Agriculture, Ecology, and Environmental Policy. Proceedings of a Workshop. Held in Arlington, Virginia, on July 22-23, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of ecological research in supporting development of one aspect of sustainable use, sustainable agriculture, was evaluated at a conference organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Arlington, Virginia, July 22-23, 1991. Agricu...

R. K. Olson

1992-01-01

279

Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

1992-07-01

280

Race and Environmental Justice in Buffalo, NY: A ZIP Code and Historical Analysis of Ecological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of toxic release inventories (TRI) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-regulated facilities in Buffalo, NY, fails to show evidence of environmental racism. Environmental racism is the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color communities (Bryant 1995, 6). The data do indicate some evidence of environmental classism, the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on lower income populations.

ERIC J. KRIEG

2005-01-01

281

Environmental Air Pollution and Acute Cerebrovascular Complications: An Ecologic Study in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: In this study, we aimed to assess the association between air pollution and cerebrovascular complications in Tehran, one of the most air-polluted cities in the world, among different subgroups of patients with stroke in 2004. Methods: In this ecologic study, we calculated the daily average levels of different air pollutants including CO, NOX, SO2, O3, and PM10 and also humidity and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke in 1 491 patients admitted with the diagnosis of stroke in eight referral hospitals in different areas of Tehran. Then, we evaluated the association between the rate of stroke admissions and the level of the selected pollutants, humidity, and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke among different subgroups of patients. Results: There was no significant association between the same-day level of the pollutants and the rate of stroke admissions, but an association was seen for their level 48 hours before stroke. These associations differed among different subgroups of age, sex, history of underlying diseases, and type of stroke. Same-day temperature had a reverse association in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and in patients without a history of heart disease or previous stroke. A direct significant association was seen for humidity level 48 hours before stroke in patients with a history of heart disease. Conclusions: It is inferred that air pollution has a direct association with the incidence of stroke and these association differs among different subgroups of patients. The results of this study are not time-dependant and can be generalized to different times and regions. Moreover, these results may be useful for environmental health policy makers.

Nabavi, Seyed Massood; Jafari, Batoul; Jalali, Mozhgan Sadat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ashrafi, Khosro; Salahesh, Alireza

2012-01-01

282

Environmental and human influence on the ecology of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi in Western Europe.  

PubMed

Surveys on Trichinella parasites in domestic and sylvatic animals collected in France, Italy, and in the Extremadura region of Spain showed that the distribution of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi is influenced by both environmental and human behaviour factors. In France, both Trichinella species are prevalent in the fox population from mountain areas and natural parks but are infrequent in wild boars (< 0.001%). In Italy, only T. britovi is present in sylvatic animals (foxes, wolves, and mustelids) living 500 m above sea level. This species is rare in wild boars (< 0.001%) in that area. Sylvatic trichinellosis is found in only 24% and 34% of French and Italian territory, respectively, while lowland areas may generally be considered Trichinella-free, because the domestic cycle is absent. The ecology of T. spiralis and T. britovi in the Extremadura shows a different picture from that observed in France and Italy because of the presence of both domestic and sylvatic cycles. The domestic cycle not only allows the maintenance of T. spiralis in the domestic environment, but it also has a great impact on the prevalence in wild boar populations. It does not influence the prevalence in vulpine populations. These data suggest (1) that domestic trichinellosis occurs only in rural areas of Western Europe in association with traditional swine-rearing practices, but not in industrialized pig farms; (2) that sylvatic trichinellosis occurs only in natural habitats which, in Western Europe, are widespread in mountain areas; (3) that the fox is the primary reservoir in the sylvatic cycle, where the parasite is maintained in a closed circuit and (4) that among sylvatic animals T. spiralis is present at lower altitude than is T. britovi. PMID:8939049

Pozio, E; La Rosa, G; Serrano, F J; Barrat, J; Rossi, L

1996-12-01

283

Discovered by chance: The role of incidental information acquisition in an ecological model of information use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of information which is incidentally or accidentally acquired has been neglected in the study of information-seeking behavior. The study reported in this article focused on “incidental information acquisition” as a key concept and investigated the information-seeking behavior of 202 older adults, aged 60 and over, from both metropolitan Melbourne and rural areas in the Australian state of Victoria.

Kirsty Williamson

1998-01-01

284

Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

1992-07-01

285

UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent expansion of the Oil and Gas Industry in to the deep waters of the UK Atlantic Frontier prompted the industry and its regulator to reappraise the needs and means of environmental monitoring. In concert, deep-sea academics, specialist contractors, the regulator and the Industry, through the Atlantic Frontier Environmental Network (AFEN), devised and implemented a large-scale environmental survey of the deep waters to the north and west of Scotland. The AFEN-funded survey was carried out during the summers of 1996 and 1998, and involved two steps; an initial sidescan sonar mapping of the survey areas, followed up with direct seabed investigations by coring and photography. This contribution deals with the latter step. Seabed samples were collected to assess sediment type, organic content, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and macrobenthos. Photographic and video observations were employed to provide both 'routine' seabed assessments and to investigate particular sidescan features of note. Although essentially intended as a 'baseline' environmental survey, anthropogenic impacts are already evident throughout the areas surveyed. Indications of the effects of deep-sea trawling were frequently encountered (seabed trawl marks and areas of disturbed sediments), being present in almost all of the areas studied and extending to water depths in excess of 1000 m. Evidence of localised contamination of the seabed by drilling muds was also detected, though background hydrocarbon contamination is predominantly of terrestrial origin or derived from shipping. The benthic ecology of the UK Atlantic Margin is dominated by the marked differences in the hydrography of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) and the Rockall Trough (RT). Comparatively warm North Atlantic Water is common to both areas; however, in the FSC, cold (subzero) waters occupy the deeper parts of the channel (>600 m). The extreme thermal gradient present on the West Shetland Slope has a substantial influence on the distribution and diversity of the macrobenthos. While there is continuous variation in the fauna with depth, warm and cold water faunas are nonetheless quite distinct. The boundary region, centred on 400 m water depth, may be best characterised as an ecotone, having a mixed warm and cold water fauna with a distinctly enhanced diversity. The Wyville-Thomson Ridge largely prevents the cold waters of the deep FSC from entering the RT (they certainly do not influence the areas of the Malin/Hebrides Slope assessed during the survey). Consequently, the deep-water faunas north and south of the ridge are highly distinct. There is also a very marked difference in the diversity of the two faunas: diversity declines with depth in the FSC but increases with depth in the RT. The distribution of macrobenthos in the RT is largely continuous with depth, with little indication of local variations but some evidence of enhanced rates of change at around 1200 m, possibly associated with the presence of Labrador Sea Water. Other observations made during the course of the survey include: (a) the occurrence of sponge dominated communities (' ostebund') at mid-slope depths (ca. 500 m) north and west of Shetland; (b) the discovery of a population of sediment surface dwelling enteropneusts associated with a sandy contourite deposit at the base of the West Shetland Slope (ca. 900 m); (c) the widespread and abundant occurrence of phytodetritus in the RT but not the FSC; and (d) the discovery of the ' Darwin Mounds' at ca. 1000 m in the northern RT, a field of numerous, small seabed mounds that support significant growths of the coral Lophelia pertusa. These mounds also have 'acoustically visible tails' with dense populations of xenophyophores ( Syringammina fragilissima), a species found to be common elsewhere in the RT.

Bett, Brian J.

2001-05-01

286

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

287

Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies  

PubMed Central

Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease.

Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

2004-01-01

288

Geospatial Technology/Traditional Ecological Knowledge-Derived Information Tools for the Enhancement of Coastal Restoration Decision Support Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated the feasibility and benefits of integrating geospatial technology with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of an indigenous Louisiana coastal population in order to assess the impacts of current and historical ecosystem change to community viability. The primary goal was to provide resource managers with a comprehensive method of assessing localized ecological change in the Gulf Coast region that can benefit community sustainability. Using Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and other geospatial technologies integrated with a coastal community's TEK to achieve this goal, the objectives were (1) to determine a method for producing vulnerability/sustainability mapping products for an ecosystem-dependent livelihood base of a coastal population that results from physical information derived from RS imagery and supported, refined, and prioritized with TEK, and (2) to demonstrate how such an approach can engage affected community residents who are interested in understanding better marsh health and ways that marsh health can be recognized, and the causes of declining marsh determined and addressed. TEK relevant to the project objectives collected included: changes in the flora and fauna over time; changes in environmental conditions observed over time such as land loss; a history of man-made structures and impacts to the area; as well as priority areas of particular community significance or concern. Scientific field data collection measured marsh vegetation health characteristics. These data were analyzed for correlation with satellite image data acquired concurrently with field data collection. Resulting regression equations were applied to the image data to produce estimated marsh health maps. Historical image datasets of the study area were acquired to understand evolution of land change to current conditions and project future vulnerability. Image processing procedures were developed and applied to produce maps that detail land change in the study area at time intervals from 1968 to 2009. This information was combined with the TEK and scientific datasets in a GIS to produce mapping products that provide new information to the coastal restoration decision making process. This information includes: (1) what marsh areas are most vulnerable; and (2) what areas are most significant to the sustainability of the community.

Bethel, Matthew Byron

289

An ecological study of the association of environmental chemicals on breast cancer incidence in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Purpose. To investigate the role of environment in breast cancer development, we conducted an ecological study to examine the association of releases for selected industrial chemicals with breast cancer incidence in Texas.

Yvonne M. Coyle; Linda S. Hynan; David M. Euhus; Abu T. M. Minhajuddin

2005-01-01

290

EDC RESEARCH AT EPA ATLANTIC ECOLOGY DIVISION: DO ENVIRONMENTAL EDCS IMPACT FISH POPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, EP A is a marine laboratory situated on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Researchers at AED are investigating the effects endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment might have on reproductive ...

291

Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health and Ecological Connections. Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary and Assessment; Vector-Borne Disease Emergence and Resurgence (Overview, The Global Threat of Emergent/Reemergent Vector-Borne Diseases, Why We Do Not Understand the Ecological Connections Between the Environment and Human Health: The Ca...

2008-01-01

292

JPRS Report Environmental Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains foreign media information on issues related to Environmental protection management including Global warning, nuclear safety, new regulation control on industrial, consumer chemicals In addition, the report greatly emphasizes ecological...

1991-01-01

293

Environmental and Ecology Branch Progress Report, 1974 through 1976. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all projects at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) are evaluated for their potential for causing adverse environmental impact. Environmental studies for other U.S. Army installations include baseli...

A. P. Adams G. L. Choules G. T. Crane F. Faulkner M. Garbett

1978-01-01

294

Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

Noran, Ovidiu

295

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be

T. F. Palik; J. T. Kunneke

1984-01-01

296

Strategic plan for Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Information Management  

SciTech Connect

This strategic plan addresses information management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Hanford Site. This Program leads the cleanup of the Hanford Site`s soil, groundwater, buried waste, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities. The vision that drives this strategic plan is to ensure that quality information is available to the people who need it, when they need it, at a convenient location, in a usable form, and at an acceptable cost. Although investments are being made in managing the vast amounts of information, which include data, records and documents associated with the Hanford Site`s production history and new cleanup mission, it is widely recognized that efforts to date have not accomplished the vision. Effective information management involves more than the compilation of massive amounts of electronic and non-electronic information. It also involves integrating information management into business processes that support user`s needs and decisionmaking. Only then can information management complement and enable environmental restoration priorities and practices, help identify environmental restoration requirements, and enable communication within the Environmental Restoration Program and between the Program and its stakeholders. Successfully accomplishing the Hanford Site mission requires an integrated approach to information management that crosses organizational boundaries, streamlines existing systems, and builds new systems that support the needs of the future. This plan outlines that approach.

Cowley, P.J.; Beck, J.E.; Gephart, R.E. [and others

1994-06-01

297

Fusion of Visual and Ultrasonic Information for Environmental Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information obtained from calibrated cameras by means of computer vision is integrated with location events from an ultrasonic tracking system deployed in an indoor office. This results in improved estimates of state and location which are used to augment the environmental model maintained by a sentient computing system. Fusion of the different sources of information takes place at a high

Christopher Town

2004-01-01

298

Toxics Release Information: A Policy Tool for Environmental Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines investor reactions to the repeated public disclosure of environmental information about firms in the chemical industry and the effectiveness of this information as a decentralized mechanism for deterring their pollution. By allowing investors to benchmark the performance of firms, repeated provision of the Toxics Release Inventory led firms to incur statistically significant negative stock market returns during

Madhu Khanna; Wilma Rose H. Quimio; Dora Bojilova

1998-01-01

299

Historical Development of Environmentalism and Recorded Environmental Information in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides the history and current status of environmental information (EI) and a bibliography of sources pertaining to the historical development of environmentalism in the United States. Discusses federal government and nongovernmental initiatives, print literature, on-line databases, CD-ROM databases, access to and availability of EI sources.…

Ronald, Karen; Nicholls, Paul

1992-01-01

300

Post-auditing of environmental impact statements using data held in public registers of environmental information  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is feasible to monitor some environmental impact statement (EIS) predictions using existing data held in public registers of environmental information, but only a limited number. An analysis of six case studies showed that, of 166 EIS predictions, 138 were auditable, monitoring data were available for 16 of these, and 12 of the 16 predictions were correct. One reason for

Ashley Bird; Riki Therivel

1996-01-01

301

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

302

Environmental education and environmental information systems: A project on the Grand River Basin, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges and opportunities inherent in the development and use of geographical\\/environmental information systems in educational settings are examined. Hardware\\/software needs, data needs and acquisition, and resulting educational opportunities are discussed. The paper draws on a case?study of development of a geographic\\/environmental information system for the Grand River Basin of Ontario, Canada in the Geography Department of Wilfrid Laurier University.

Bob Sharpe

1995-01-01

303

The Nexus between ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment under CERCLA: introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and ChemistryTechnical Workshop.  

PubMed

A SETAC Technical Workshop titled "The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings," was held 18-22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexus, and overlap between ecological risk assessment (ERA) and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Experts from a broad range of relevant scientific, legal, and policy disciplines convened to 1) ascertain the potential for improved scientific harmonization of the processes of ERA and NRDA; 2) identify where statutory, regulatory, or scientific constraints might exist that would constrain or preclude the harmonization of the 2 processes; 3) determine approaches that might overcome these constraints; and 4) recommend research or potential changes in regulatory policies that might serve to improve both processes. This is the introduction to a series of 3 papers that describe the findings and conclusions of this workshop. Although unanimity was not achieved on all technical, legal, or policy questions posed to the participants, some consensus areas did arise. First, there appear to be few if any legal constraints to using the environmental data collected for ERA or NRDA for both processes. Second, although it is important to recognize and preserve the distinctions between ERA and NRDA, opportunities for data sharing exist, particularly for the characterization of environmental exposures and derivation of ecotoxicological information. Thus, effective coordination is not precluded by the underlying science. Where a cooperative, interactive process is involved among the response agencies, the natural resource trustees, and the responsible party(s), technical, legal or regulatory constraints can be minimized. Finally, one approach that might enhance the potential applicability of data collected for the ERA is to consider ecosystem services in the development of assessment endpoints. These points are explained in greater detail in the series of papers published herein. PMID:19545185

Stahl, Ralph G; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Clements, Will; Gala, Will; Haddad, Robert; Helm, Roger; Landis, Wayne; Maki, Al; Munns, Wayne R; Young, Dale

2009-06-22

304

DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK AND INFORMATION EXCHANGE (DENIX)  

EPA Science Inventory

DENIX serves as a central platform for the dissemination of environment, safety and occupational health (ESOH) news, policy, and guidance within Department of Defense (DoD) activities worldwide, in support of the national defense mission. DENIX informs ESOH professionals of salie...

305

Between economy and ecology? The single market and the integration of environmental policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years influential voices in the international environmental policy community, including policy?makers in the European Community, have been calling for the integration of environmental considerations into the making of economic policy. Despite acknowledgements in formal statements of the importance of environmental policy integration in the Community and the attempt by policy?makers to argue that environmental protection was

Albert Weale; Andrea Williams

1992-01-01

306

Molecular ecology meets remote sensing: environmental drivers to population structure of humpback dolphins in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Genetic analyses of population structure can be placed in explicit environmental contexts if appropriate environmental data are available. Here, we use high-coverage and high-resolution oceanographic and genetic sequence data to assess population structure patterns and their potential environmental influences for humpback dolphins in the Western Indian Ocean. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA data from 94 dolphins from the coasts of South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania and Oman, employing frequency-based and maximum-likelihood algorithms to assess population structure and migration patterns. The genetic data were combined with 13 years of remote sensing oceanographic data of variables known to influence cetacean dispersal and population structure. Our analyses show strong and highly significant genetic structure between all putative populations, except for those in South Africa and Mozambique. Interestingly, the oceanographic data display marked environmental heterogeneity between all sampling areas and a degree of overlap between South Africa and Mozambique. Our combined analyses therefore suggest the occurrence of genetically isolated populations of humpback dolphins in areas that are environmentally distinct. This study highlights the utility of molecular tools in combination with high-resolution and high-coverage environmental data to address questions not only pertaining to genetic population structure, but also to relevant ecological processes in marine species.

Mendez, M; Subramaniam, A; Collins, T; Minton, G; Baldwin, R; Berggren, P; Sarnblad, A; Amir, O A; Peddemors, V M; Karczmarski, L; Guissamulo, A; Rosenbaum, H C

2011-01-01

307

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program; Surface Waters: Field Operations and Methods Manual for Measuring the Ecological Condition of Wadeable Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes procedures for collecting data, samples, and information about biotic assemblages, environmental measures, or attributes of indicators of stream ecosystem condition. As such, it represents one of the tools developed by the Environm...

D. J. Klemm D. V. Peck J. M. Lazorchak

1998-01-01

308

Ecology of Weddell seals during winter: Influence of environmental parameters on their foraging behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the foraging strategies of top predators can provide information on both how animals interact with their environment and the distribution of their prey. We studied the winter foraging behaviour of Weddell seals in Adélie Land, East Antarctica, and the influence of abiotic parameters (bathymetry, hydrology, sea ice, light intensity) on their foraging behaviour. A total of six seals were fitted with Conductivity Temperature Depth Satellite Relayed Data Loggers (CTD-SRDL) at Dumont D'Urville (˜67°S, 140°E) during the austral winters in 2007 and 2008. The tags transmitted positions and dive information over 169±31 day, providing a total of 20,400 dive profiles and 2350 CTD profiles. Significant environmental influences on seal diving behaviour and habitat use were detected. Seals dived deeper, longer and increased their foraging effort during the day than at night with intermediate values for twilight. During the winter season the maximum dive depth decreased in association with an increase in dive duration, but foraging effort was unchanged. Seals spent more time at the bottom of their dives in shallow waters associated with relatively smooth bathymetry and dominated by Antarctic Surface Water. Considering the whole winter, Weddell seals tended to favour enriched, warmer and less dense water masses following their seasonal appearance on the shelf (Antarctic Surface Water and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water). Our results are consistent with seals feeding primarily on Pleuragramma antarcticum during winter, tracking their vertical diel migrations and foraging in areas associated with bathymetric and hydrographic features likely to concentrate prey patches.

Heerah, Karine; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Williams, Guy; Sultan, Emanuelle; Hindell, Mark; Patterson, Toby; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

2013-04-01

309

Development of requirements for environmental specimen banking in ecological monitoring (exemplified by the Chernobyl NPP accident area).  

PubMed

Development of requirements for a data bank for natural media as a system of intercorrelated parameters to estimate system states are determined. The problems of functional agreement between experimental and calculation methods are analysed when organizing the ecological monitoring. The methods of forming the environmental specimen bank to estimate and forecast radioactive contamination and exposure dose are considered to be exemplified by the peculiarities of the spatial distribution of radioactive contamination in fields. Analysed is the temporal dynamics of contamination for atmospheric air, soil and water. PMID:8272829

Borzilov, V A

1993-11-01

310

Understanding subarctic wildlife in Eastern James Bay under changing climatic and socio-environmental conditions: bringing together Cree hunters' ecological knowledge and scientific observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Subarctic is undergoing climatic and environmental changes which are leading to wide-ranging implications for wildlife, ecosystems and aboriginal communities. Through their long-term experience and observations, Cree hunters of the Eastern James Bay are aware of the local manifestations of changes to animal ecology. This article presents and analyses Cree observations of the effects of altering climatic and environmental

Thora Martina Herrmann; Marie-Jeanne S. Royer; Rick Cuciurean

2012-01-01

311

Warfare Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

312

Using Text Messaging to Assess Adolescents' Health Information Needs: An Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Use of mobile technology has made a huge impact on communication, access, and information/resource delivery to adolescents. Mobile technology is frequently used by adolescents. Objective The purpose of this study was to understand the health information needs of adolescents in the context of their everyday lives and to assess how they meet their information needs. Methods We gave 60 adolescents smartphones with unlimited text messaging and data for 30 days. Each smartphone had applications related to asthma, obesity, human immunodeficiency virus, and diet preinstalled on the phone. We sent text messages 3 times per week and asked the following questions: (1) What questions did you have about your health today? (2) Where did you look for an answer (mobile device, mobile application, online, friend, book, or parent)? (3) Was your question answered and how? (4) Anything else? Results Our participants ranged from 13-18 years of age, 37 (62%) participants were male and 22 (37%) were female. Of the 60 participants, 71% (42/60) participants identified themselves as Hispanic and 77% (46/60) were frequent users of mobile devices. We had a 90% (1935/2150) response rate to our text messages. Participants sent a total of 1935 text messages in response to the ecological momentary assessment questions. Adolescents sent a total of 421 text messages related to a health information needs, and 516 text messages related to the source of information to the answers of their questions, which were related to parents, friends, online, mobile apps, teachers, or coaches. Conclusions Text messaging technology is a useful tool for assessing adolescents’ health behavior in real-time. Adolescents are willing to use text messaging to report their health information. Findings from this study contribute to the evidence base on addressing the health information needs of adolescents. In particular, attention should be paid to issues related to diet and exercise. These findings may be the harbinger for future obesity prevention programs for adolescents.

Okoniewski, Anastasia; Tiase, Victoria; Low, Alexander; Rodriguez, Martha; Kaplan, Steven

2013-01-01

313

Linking Environmental Advocacy with Information from Atmospheric Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental advocacy demands keeping up-to-date on relevant research, extracting results from research with broader (or narrower) relevance to current policy questions, and posing questions that, at times, shape scientific research agendas. How do environmental advocates get and process scientific information?1) Advocates want scientists' work to be seen as objective and to be able to reference peer-reviewed articles from well-respected journals.

E. Baum

2002-01-01

314

Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

Holleman, Hannah

2012-01-01

315

Computer simulation model of ecological succession in Australian subtropical rainforest. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1407  

SciTech Connect

KIAMBRAM, a detailed simulation model for ecological succession in an Australian subtropical humid rainforest is documented in respect to model structure. Model parameters for 125 rainforest tree species are provided. A listing of the KIAMBRAM model and a sample of output from the model is included.

Shugart, H.H.; Mortlock, A.T.; Hopkins, M.S.; Burgess, I.P.

1980-04-01

316

Strategies for enhancing the learning of ecological research methods and statistics by tertiary environmental science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To undertake rigorous research in biology and ecology, students must be able to pose testable hypotheses, design decisive studies, and analyse results using suitable statistics. Yet, few biology students excel in topics involving statistics and most attempt to evade optional courses in research methods. Over the last few years, we have developed a tertiary-level unit to create a positive, inquiry-based,

D L Panizzon; A J Boulton

2004-01-01

317

Traditional Arts Knowledge, Traditional Ecological Lore: The Intersection of Art Education and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about Native artworks as part of school arts curriculum can serve to pass on traditional ecological knowledge while also contextualizing colonialism's influence on traditional and contemporary Native arts practices. This article explores how schools can actively engage in community arts partnerships with American Indians who have…

Bequette, James W.

2007-01-01

318

From the Cover: Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted

Henk Visscher; Cindy V. Looy; Margaret E. Collinson; Henk Brinkhuis; Johanna H. A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert; Wolfram M. Kürschner; Mark A. Sephton

2004-01-01

319

Risk Response to Environmental Hazards to Health – Towards an Ecological Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to risks can be seen as an ecological process, involving a community of actors whose perceptions and actions play off each other, and whose responses help to determine the way in which risk events play out. Risk governance thus needs to take account of how the many different stakeholders caught up in the event respond to the perceived risks.

David Briggs; Richard Stern

2007-01-01

320

An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern with the increasing prevalence of obesity in industrialised countries, a trend that is more apparent in the poor than in the rich. In an ecological study, the relationship between an area measure of socioeconomic status (SES) and the density of fast-food outlets was examined as one possible explanation for the phenomenon. It was found that there

Daniel D Reidpath; Cate Burns; Jan Garrard; Mary Mahoney; Mardie Townsend

2002-01-01

321

A History of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Four Decades of Environmental Research  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the history of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve. It briefly describes the setting; outlines historical land uses of the Reserve; describes its establishments and designations; and provides examples of the types of research and education projects PNNL conducted on the Reserve for over four decades. A comprehensive bibliography also is provided.

O'Connor, Georganne P.; Rickard, William H.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Feaster-Alley, Kathy

2003-09-01

322

Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the…

Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

2011-01-01

323

Measuring sustainability: Why the ecological footprint is bad economics and bad environmental science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological footprint is a measure of the resources necessary to produce the goods that an individual or population consumes. It is also used as a measure of sustainability, though evidence suggests that it falls short. The assumptions behind footprint calculations have been extensively criticized; I present here further evidence that it fails to satisfy simple economic principles because the

Nathan Fiala

2008-01-01

324

Ecological environmental problems caused by the exploitation of mineral products and water resources in Xinjiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent 50 years, the exploitation of mineral products and water resources in XinJiang has developed greatly, which contributes a lot to the development of economy and society in the region. However, the ecological environment problems caused by it have already aroused great attention. It is also an urgent mission for the researcher to solve the problems of harmonizing

Baosheng Sun; Ruyan Peng; Chuan Chen

2003-01-01

325

U.S. EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM - AN ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. his ...

326

Virtual Intergovernmental Linkage Through the Environmental Information Exchange Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states have partnered in developing a web-based information sharing initiative that provides state environmental agencies easy access to federal environmental monitoring data and to the environmental data of other states, and gives the EPA access to data from state sources. The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) has established basic data exchange nodes in each of the states. Using multiple regression analysis we investigate the factors that account for the number and development stage of the data exchanges in which the states participate as of 2009. Overall, we find that administrative factors, especially the EPA's grant program, are more important than political or environmental conditions. Participation in the exchanges is important not only as a way to reduce costs for data reporting and communication, but also as a precursor to greater eventual interstate environmental collaboration. Though clear evidence of a transition to collaboration is not yet seen here, there are some indications it may emerge in time.

Mahler, Julianne; Regan, Priscilla M.

2012-01-01

327

UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent expansion of the Oil and Gas Industry in to the deep waters of the UK Atlantic Frontier prompted the industry and its regulator to reappraise the needs and means of environmental monitoring. In concert, deep-sea academics, specialist contractors, the regulator and the Industry, through the Atlantic Frontier Environmental Network (AFEN), devised and implemented a large-scale environmental survey of

Brian J. Bett

2001-01-01

328

Environmental cognitions, land change, and social–ecological feedbacks: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding land use transitions requires analyzing how, when facing qualitative environmental change, human agents may modify their beliefs, values, and decision rules. This article first reviews some of the useful theories analyzing how environmental change can have a feedback effect on behaviors, via the environmental cognitions. Then, it discusses three propositions for more cognitively realistic agents in land change science:

Patrick Meyfroidt

2012-01-01

329

Campus Ecology: A Guide to Assessing Environmental Quality and Creating Strategies for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to take the environmental issues and principles currently being studied in the classroom and move them outside the classroom doors into the campus community and the larger world. By making environmental knowledge part and parcel of campus environmental practice, students, faculty, and administrators have an extraordinary…

Smith, April A.; And Others

330

Geographic information system applied to measuring benthic environmental impact with chemical measures on mariculture at Penghu Islet in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is currently grown by marine aquaculture in Taiwan, particularly on Penghu Islet. Although the effect of marine aquaculture on the environment has been the subject of many studies, an understanding of its environmental impact has yet to be attained, and the continuing expansion of cage farming has caused noticeable ecological declines. Nevertheless, useful tools to measure this environmental degradation are scant. The results of this study suggest that the combination of a geographic information system (GIS) with redox potential and sulfide measurements can be used to definitively assess the condition of the benthic environment near cobia aquaculture sites and to help develop environmental monitoring programs. These applications could easily be adopted to assess multiple marine environmental conditions. PMID:19144393

Shih, Yi-Che; Chou, Chiu L; Chiau, Wen-Yan

2009-01-14

331

THE POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF THE COLONIAS ON THE U.S.- MEXICO BORDER: HUMAN-ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND COMMUNITY RESPONSES IN SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development and population growth along the U.S.-Mexico border have been determined by the natural resources available for the physical and social transformations in this region. A critical political ecology of the U.S.-Mexico border links environmental hazards with the socioeconomic and political aspects that have generated colonia population settlements as locales within the border region's spatialized hierarchies. The political ecological

GUILLERMINA G. NÚÑEZ-MCHIRI

332

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

333

Soil Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

Killham, Ken

1994-04-01

334

Stakeholders' perspective on ecological modeling in environmental risk assessment of pesticides: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

The article closely examines the role of mechanistic effect models (e.g., population models) in the European environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides. We studied perspectives of three stakeholder groups on population modeling in ERA of pesticides. Forty-three in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from regulatory authorities, industry, and academia all over Europe. The key informant approach was employed in recruiting our participants. They were first identified as key stakeholders in the field and then sampled by means of a purposive sampling, where each stakeholder identified as important by others was interviewed and asked to suggest another potential participant for our study. Our results show that participants, although having different institutional backgrounds often presented similar perspectives and concerns about modeling. Analysis of repeating ideas and keywords revealed that all stakeholders had very high and often contradicting expectations from models. Still, all three groups expected effect models to become integrated in future ERA of pesticides. Main hopes associated with effect models were to reduce the amount of expensive and complex testing and field monitoring, both at the product development stage, and as an aid to develop mitigation measures. Our analysis suggests that, although the needs of stakeholders often overlapped, subtle differences and lack of trust hinder the process of introducing mechanistic effect models into ERA. PMID:22587756

Hunka, Agnieszka D; Meli, Mattia; Thit, Amalie; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille; Forbes, Valery E

2012-05-15

335

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.9 Computerized...

2013-01-01

336

30 CFR 550.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany...ep) § 550.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany...1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

2013-07-01

337

National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program: Bridging the Information Gap  

PubMed Central

In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program’s academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public.

McGeehin, Michael A.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda Sue

2004-01-01

338

National environmental public health tracking program: bridging the information gap.  

PubMed

In January 2001 the Pew Environmental Health Commission called for the creation of a coordinated public health system to prevent disease in the United States by tracking and combating environmental health threats. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program to integrate three distinct components of hazard monitoring and exposure and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Uniform and acceptable data standards, easily understood case definitions, and improved communication between health and environmental agencies are just a few of the challenges that must be addressed for this network to be effective. The nascent EPHT program is attempting to respond to these challenges by drawing on a wide range of expertise from federal agencies, state health and environmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the program's academic Centers of Excellence. In this mini-monograph, we present innovative strategies and methods that are being applied to the broad scope of important and complex environmental public health problems by developing EPHT programs. The data resulting from this program can be used to identify areas and populations most likely to be affected by environmental contamination and to provide important information on the health and environmental status of communities. EPHT will develop valuable data on possible associations between the environment and the risk of noninfectious health effects. These data can be used to reduce the burden of adverse health effects on the American public. PMID:15471734

McGeehin, Michael A; Qualters, Judith R; Niskar, Amanda Sue

2004-10-01

339

Geo-environmental quality assessment in Jharia coalfield, India, using multivariate statistics and geographic information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on geo-environmental quality assessment in Jharia coalfield, India, has been attempted using multivariate statistical analysis and geographic information system (GIS) modelling techniques. Water quality index, calculated for each sample network station in the study area to assess the suitability of water for human consumption, revealed very poor to poor quality surface water and mine water. Air quality indexing indicated that there is no sample station with clean air as per the Indian standards, which indicate the hazardous air quality. Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), a potential GIS tool, has been applied to the delineation of various degrees of stressed villages in terms of quality of life (QoL). The role of various geo-environmental parameters such as quality of groundwater, surface water, mine water and air together with village population densities has been emphasized for delineation of the environmentally stressed villages in Jharia coalfield. The integrated cluster analysis and MCE approach provide an improved means to geo-environmental quality assessment in Jharia coalfield in terms of QoL. The assessment study is aimed to be used for future coal mining, ensuring ecologically sustainable industrial development, particularly in a coalfield.

Sarkar, Bhabesh C.; Mahanta, Bashab N.; Saikia, Kalyan; Paul, Pradip R.; Singh, Gurdeep

2007-02-01

340

Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill—a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to

Chien-Min Chen; Ming-Chao Liu

2006-01-01

341

Environmental Information Systems on the Internet: A Need for Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cost effective delivery of scientific and policy requirements is a key driver for the realization of global sustainability\\u000a research, integrated assessment and supporting innovative systems. The next generation of geospatial information infrastructures\\u000a is proposed as a possible solution. Still, questions such as ‘what does all this mean to environmental information systems’\\u000a and ‘what is expected to change’, have only

Sven Schade; Barbara Fogarty; Michael Kobernus; Katharina Schleidt; Paul Gaughan; Paolo Mazzetti; Arne-Jørgen Berre

342

Ecological adaptation as an important factor in environmental flow assessments based on an integrated multi-objective method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multi-objective method for environmental flow assessments was developed that considered adaptation as a pivotal factor affecting how ecosystems respond to hydrological alterations. Responses of habitat area, and the magnitude of those responses as a result of fluctuations in river discharge, were established. The requirements of typical migrated species during pivotal life-stage seasons (e.g. reproduction and juvenile growth) were integrated into the flow-needs assessment. Critical environmental flows for a typical species were defined based on two primary objectives: (1) high level of habitat area and (2) low variability. After integrating the water requirements for various species with the maximum acceptable discharge boundary, appropriate temporal limits of environmental flows for ecosystems were recommended. The method was applied in the Yellow River Estuary in Eastern Shandong province, China. Our data show that, while recommended environmental flows established with ecological adaptation in mind may not necessarily benefit short-term survival of a typical resident organism on a limited temporal or spatial scale, they may encourage long-term, stable biodiversity and ecosystem health. Thus, short-term ecosystem losses are compensated by significant long-term gains.

Sun, T.; Xu, J.; Yang, Z. F.

2012-05-01

343

A stochastic model for ecological systems with strong nonlinear response to environmental drivers: application to two water-borne diseases  

PubMed Central

Ecological systems with threshold behaviour show drastic shifts in population abundance or species diversity in response to small variation in critical parameters. Examples of threshold behaviour arise in resource competition theory, epidemiological theory and environmentally driven population dynamics, to name a few. Although expected from theory, thresholds may be difficult to detect in real datasets due to stochasticity, finite population size and confounding effects that soften the observed shifts and introduce variability in the data. Here, we propose a modelling framework for threshold responses to environmental drivers that allows for a flexible treatment of the transition between regimes, including variation in the sharpness of the transition and the variance of the response. The model assumes two underlying stochastic processes whose mixture determines the system's response. For environmentally driven systems, the mixture is a function of an environmental covariate and the response may exhibit strong nonlinearity. When applied to two datasets for water-borne diseases, the model was able to capture the effect of rainfall on the mean number of cases as well as the variance. A quantitative description of this kind of threshold behaviour is of more general application to predict the response of ecosystems and human health to climate change.

Codeco, Claudia Torres; Lele, Subhash; Pascual, Mercedes; Bouma, Menno; Ko, Albert I

2007-01-01

344

Environmental monitoring and ecological risk assessment for pesticide contamination and effects in Lake Pamvotis, northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pesticide residues in water and sediments was conducted as a basis for subsequent ecotoxicological risk assessment for the shallow eutrophic Lake Pamvotis, northwestern Greece. During a one-year study period, atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), simazine, diazinon, malathion, oxamyl, carbofuran, and ethion were detected in water and atrazine, desethylatrazine, diazinon, and s-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) in sediments, all at ppb concentration level. Temporal variation in pesticide concentrations was observed. Highest residue levels for most pesticides in both water and sediment matrices occurred in the May to July period with the exception of atrazine and DEA, which show highest levels in water during the September to November period. The ecological risk associated with pesticide contamination was assessed using two different methods: The toxic unit method, which provides a first indication of the relative contribution of detected pesticides to the total toxicity and a probabilistic approach, and the inverse method of Van Straalen and Denneman, which is used to quantify the ecological risk. The maximum percentage of the ecological risk was 10.3 and 51.8% for water and 17.2 and 70.6% for sediment, based on acute and chronic level, respectively. These results show that pesticides exert a significant pressure on the aquatic system of Lake Pamvotis, especially for the chronic-effect level. Simple quotient methods should be coupled with higher-tier risk assessment, especially if restoration activities on lake ecosystems are to be undertaken for sustainable development. PMID:16117136

Hela, Dimitra G; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

2005-06-01

345

Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.  

PubMed Central

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources.

Maantay, Juliana

2002-01-01

346

Environmental Career Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This jobs listing service, provided by Environmental Careers World, an environmental position recruiting firm, posts announcements ranging from field assistants, to post-doctoral positions, to faculty positions. The site lists positions in and out of the US, with universities, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. Sites are briefly listed with hyperlinks to more complete information and are divided into the following sections: biology/ecology, environmental education, environmental policy/advocacy, environmental sciences, forestry and natural resources, and career changers.

1998-01-01

347

The Reciprocal Links between Evolutionary-Ecological Sciences and Environmental Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates the reciprocal relationships between the sciences and environmental ethics by examining the Darwinian theory of evolution and discussing its implications for ecologists and ethicists. (CCM)|

Rozzi, Ricardo

1999-01-01

348

Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center (EQIAC) operating procedures handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Operating Procedures Handbook of the Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center (EQIAC) is intended to be kept current as EQIAC develops and evolves. Its purpose is to provide a comprehensive guide to the mission, infrastructure, functions, and operational procedures of EQIAC. The handbook is a training tool for new personnel and a reference manual for existing personnel. The handbook will be distributed throughout EQIAC and maintained in binders containing current dated editions of the individual sections. The handbook will be revised at least annually to reflect the current structure and operational procedures of EQIAC. The EQIAC provides information on environmental issues such as compliance, restoration, and environmental monitoring do the Air Force and DOD contractors.

Walsh, T.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)); Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-08-01

349

EXTENDING ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE TO USEFUL PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing (PHAiRS) is addressing: (1) an atmospheric dust modeling system into which Earth observation (EO) data have been assimilated, and (2) a public health information system that is designed to link environmental data to aggregated health outcome data provided by the New Mexico Department of Health and other public health authorities. The objective is to

Stanley A. Morain; Amelia M. Budge

2008-01-01

350

INFORMATION INTEGRATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual federal and state investments in the collection, storage, and maintenance of resource and environmental data are enormous (estimated in the range of a few to tens of billions of dollars). espite these investments, the use of information from these databases for societal en...

351

Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and potentially beyond. The many different scales involved provide serious challenges to information fusion which need to be researched. Heterogeneity - Natural systems are heterogeneous, that is a system consisting of multiple components each of which may have considerable internal variation. Modelling Earth Systems requires recognition of the inherent complexity. Uncertainty - Understanding the uncertainties within a single information source can be difficult. Understanding the uncertainties across a system of linked models, each drawn from multiple information resources, represents a considerable challenge that must be addressed. The challenges to overcome appear insurmountable to individual research groups; but the potential rewards, in terms of a fuller scientific understanding of Earth Systems, are significant. A major international effort must be mounted to tackle these barriers and enable routine information fusion.

Giles, J. R.

2010-12-01

352

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: � Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species � Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies � A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

353

Integrated Risk Assessment for WFD Ecological Status classification applied to Llobregat river basin (Spain). Part II - Evaluation process applied to five environmental Lines of Evidence.  

PubMed

Many indicators and indices related to a variety of biological, physico-chemical, chemical, and hydromorphological water conditions have been recently developed or adapted by scientists in order to support water managers in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. In this context, the achievement of a comprehensive and reliable Ecological Status classification of water bodies across Europe is hampered by the lack of harmonised procedures for selecting an appropriate set of indicators and integrating heterogeneous information in a flexible way. To this purpose, an Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA)(2) methodology was developed based on the Weight of Evidence approach. This method analyses and combines a set of environmental indicators grouped into five Lines of Evidence (LoE), i.e. Biology, Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology. The whole IRA methodology has been implemented as a specific module into a freeware GIS (Geographic Information System)-based Decision Support System, named MODELKEY DSS. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the four supporting LoE (i.e. Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology), and includes a procedure for a comparison of each indicator with proper thresholds and a subsequent integration process to combine the obtained output with the LoE Biology results in order to provide a single score expressing the Ecological Status classification. The approach supports the identification of the most prominent stressors, which are responsible for the observed alterations in the river basin under investigation. The results provided by the preliminary testing of the IRA methodology through application of the MODELKEY DSS to the Llobregat case study are finally reported and discussed. PMID:21906780

Gottardo, S; Semenzin, E; Giove, S; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; de Zwart, D; Ginebreda, A; von der Ohe, P C; Marcomini, A

2011-09-08

354

30 CFR 250.1910 - What safety and environmental information is required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...safety and environmental information is required? 250...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and...safety and environmental information is required? ...for items such as temperature, pressure, flow and...mechanical design information including, as...

2013-07-01

355

EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: AN ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the nation's near coastal waters, forests, wetlands, agroecosystems, surface waters, ans arid lands. he program is also intended t...

356

Correlates of environmental factors and human plague: an ecological study in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Human plague caused by Yersinia pestis remains a public health threat in endemic countries, because the disease is associated with increased risk of mortality and severe economic and social consequences. During the past 10 years, outbreaks of plague have occasionally occurred in Vietnam's Central Highlands region. The present study sought to describe and analyse the occurrence of plague and its association with ecological factors. Methods The study included all 510 communes of the Central Highlands region (with a total population of ?4 million) where 95% of incidence of plague cases in Vietnam had been reported from 1997 through 2002. Plague was clinically ascertained by using a standard protocol by WHO. Data on domestic fleas and rodents were obtained by using traps and periodic surveillance in accordance with the WHO guidelines. Temperature, duration of sunshine, rainfall and humidity were recorded as monthly averages by local meteorological stations. The association between these ecological factors and plague was assessed by using the Poisson regression model. Results From 1997 through 2002, 472 cases of plague were reported, of whom 24 (5.1%) died. The incidence of plague peaked during the dry season, with ?63% of cases occurring from February through April. The risk of plague occurrence was associated with an increased monthly flea index (RR and 95% CI: 1.93; 1.61–2.33 for months with the flea index >1) and increased rodent density (RR 1.23; 1.15–1.32 per each 3% increase in density). Moreover, the risk of plague increased during the dry season (RR 2.07; 1.64–2.62), when rainfall fell <10 mm (RR 1.44; 1.17–1.77). Conclusions These data suggest that the flea index, rodent density and rainfall could be used as ecological indicators of plague risk in Vietnam. The data also suggest that the occurrence of plague in Vietnam's Central Highlands is likely resulted from multiple causes that remain to be delineated.

Pham, Hau V; Dang, Dat T; Tran Minh, Nguyen N; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Nguyen, Tuan V

2009-01-01

357

Valuation of ecological resources  

SciTech Connect

Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

1995-04-01

358

Linking Science and Society With an Environmental Information Bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building learning communities to engage the public in identifying and solving local and regional environmental problems is the vision of the newly created Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment at the University of North Dakota. The Center serves as an Environmental Information Bridge between science and society for citizens of the region, providing information, data, and value-added remote sensing products to precision agriculture, sustainable forestry, Native American land managers, and K-lifetime educators. Guided by the needs of end users, the new Center is a prototype for a national infrastructure that meets ESE's objective to "expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal benefits from Earth science, information, and technology". The scientific community has been good at converting raw data into useful information. However, a serious communications gap exists between the communities of scientists and non-scientists. The new Center bridges this gap, creating a many-to-many exchange of information among those who learn first about the environment and those who will put those lessons to work for their economic welfare, the betterment of the quality of their lives, and the benefit of their descendants. A major outreach component of the Center, written and produced at UND, is Our Changing Planet, a public television series aimed at increasing viewers' awareness of environmental and climate change issues. Now carried by approximately 30 public television stations the series is distributed nationwide by the National Education Television Association. The Center has also recently established a partnership with StormCenter.com, LLC, a multimedia company and fellow partner in NASA's Federation of Earth Science Information Partners that uses leading-edge technology to deliver information about the environment to regional television stations. Service to the media provides a vital link between science and the public, as local weather broadcasts are often the public's primary source of environmental news and information. Through our partnership with StormCenter.com, the Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment will deliver up-to-date satellite imagery and accurate environmental information to regional media outlets.

Welling, L.; Seielstad, G.; Jones, D.; Peterson, J.

2001-12-01

359

Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft  

SciTech Connect

The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1987-06-01

360

Governance through information: environmental monitoring from a citizen-consumer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of environmental monitoring and information in governing the environment has changed considerably in recent times. Traditionally, environmental monitoring was geared towards governments and producers; it provided them with the information required to formulate environmental policies and environmental management strategies. More recently, environmental monitoring has come to serve an additional and different function. In line with the increasing popularity

Burg van den S. W. K

2006-01-01

361

An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a…

Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

2007-01-01

362

The Ecological Response of Carex lasiocarpa Community in the Riparian Wetlands to the Environmental Gradient of Water Depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

PubMed Central

The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31?cm, 40.11?cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4?cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association.

Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

2013-01-01

363

The ecological response of Carex lasiocarpa community in the Riparian Wetlands to the environmental gradient of water depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31?cm, 40.11?cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4?cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association. PMID:24065874

Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

2013-08-26

364

The role of web-based environmental information in urban planning--the environmental information system for planners.  

PubMed

The Environmental Information System for Planners (EISP) is a proof of concept web-based system designed to support decision making within the UK planning framework by making information on environmental issues more widely accessible. It incorporates relevant outputs from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Urban Regeneration and the Environment (URGENT) research programme and from research directly commissioned by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM). It supports three principal planning functions carried out by local authorities: pre-planning enquiries, development control decisions and strategic planning. Eleven environmental science themes are incorporated: Air quality, Shallow undermining, Landslide susceptibility, Groundwater protection, Flood risk, Drainage, Land contamination, Proximity to landfill, Biodiversity, Natural and Man-made heritage. Decision flow diagrams represent detailed analysis of workflow in each theme, taking account of best practice, regulatory responsibilities and planning guidance. Industry-standard web technologies integrate the flows and provide access to the system via secure web pages. Underpinning the system is an environmental geographical information system (GIS) containing up-to-date data, information and models relevant to each theme. The modular system design allows new legislation and local priorities and datasets to be easily incorporated. Web technology delivers information and research data that have hitherto been difficult for the non-specialist to access and have therefore been under-exploited. The study has demonstrated a successful application of the principles of e-Governance in an area where informed decisions commonly require specialist information. The system, if rolled out nationally, offers potential economic benefits and efficiency savings for both planners and developers. PMID:16242758

Culshaw, M G; Nathanail, C P; Leeks, G J L; Alker, S; Bridge, D; Duffy, T; Fowler, D; Packman, J C; Swetnam, R; Wadsworth, R; Wyatt, B

2005-10-20

365

AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CORRELATES OF CHILDHOOD ACCIDENT, ASSAULT AND CHILD ABUSE INJURIES  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examines the relationships of population and environmental characteristics to hospital discharges for childhood accident, assault, and child abuse injuries among youth from 0 to 17 years of age. Methods The analysis uses aggregate data on populations and environments in 1646 California zip code areas that were collected for the year 2000. Zero inflated negative binomial models were used to assess ecological relationships between these characteristics and numbers of hospital discharges for childhood injuries from accidents and assaults; negative binomial models were used to assess these relationships for injuries related to child abuse. Results A number of different characteristics were related to the different injury outcomes. Childhood accident injuries were related to measures female headed households, adult to child ratio and non-alcohol retail establishments (e.g., numbers of gas stations). Assault injuries were related to measures of poverty and vacant housing. All three outcomes were directly related to percent of female-headed households, percent African American residents, and density of off-premise alcohol outlets. Conclusion The results demonstrate that both population and environmental characteristics are significantly correlated with rates of childhood injuries. These results suggest that some environmental characteristics, in particular the presence of many off-premise alcohol outlets in neighborhoods, may reduce the overall level of guardianship of children’s activities in zip code areas, resulting in harm to their children.

Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ring, Lori; LaScala, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

366

AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY (AEERL) PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual provides detailed procedures for EPA/AEERL's Level 1 terrestrial bioassays. (Some test methods designated for AEERL's Level 1 environmental assessment biological testing program are sufficiently new that little or no published literature is available describing specifi...

367

An Outline of Project Work in Ecology/Environmental Biology for Expedition Participants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article aims to encourage the development of safe, valuable and scientifically sound field investigations, and offers suggestions or guidelines for your people participating in environmental work on expeditions to areas in the northern United Kingdom. (Author/MDH)|

Pyatt, F. Brian

1993-01-01

368

Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook  

EPA Science Inventory

In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with an objective of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Objectiv...

369

Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with a remit of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Obj...

370

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

1993-02-01

371

Developing an Ecological Risk Framework to Assess Environmental Safety of Nanoscale Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanotechnology industry is developing rapidly and promises to spawn many exciting products in the field of medicine, manufacturing,\\u000a and various environmental fields, such as bio-control agents, and remediation catalysts. However, as legitimate questions\\u000a of environmental safety go unanswered, opposition to the industry is accelerating just as rapidly. Unique physico-chemical\\u000a properties of compounds within the nano-range present unknown toxicities relative

L. Kapustka; S. Chan-Remillard; S. Goudey

2009-01-01

372

Integrating Environmental Information: Incorporating Metadata in a Distributed Information Systems Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is presented for incorporating metatata constraints into queries to be processed by a distributed environmental information system. The approach, based on a novel metamodel unifying concepts from the Unified Modelling Language (UML), the Object Query Language (OQL), and the Resource Description Framework (RDF), allows metadata information to be represented and processed in combination with regular data queries.

Stephen Cranefield; Martin Purvis

2000-01-01

373

Integrating environmental information: incorporating metadata in a distributed information system's architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is presented for incorporating metadata constraints into queries to be processed by a distributed environmental information system. The approach, based on novel metamodel unifying concepts from the Unified Modelling Language (UML), the Object Query Language (OQL), and the Resource Description Framework (RDF), allows metadata information to be represented and processed in combination with regular data queries.

Stephen Cranefield; Martin Purvis

2001-01-01

374

Diary of a Dabbler: Ecological Influences on an EFL Teacher's Efforts to Study Japanese Informally  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this diary study, the author draws from journals written over the course of 8 years working as an English instructor at a Japanese university, with the aim of documenting the influences on her desire to invest effort in the self-study of Japanese (what she refers to as the "ecology of effort"). An ecological perspective reveals the…

Casanave, Christine Pearson

2012-01-01

375

Globalization: Ecological consequences of global-scale connectivity in people, resources and information  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Globalization is a phenomenon affecting all facets of the Earth System. Within the context of ecological systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that global connectivity among terrestrial systems, the atmosphere, and oceans is driving many ecological dynamics at finer scales and pushing thresh...

376

On the application of multilevel modeling in environmental and ecological studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper illustrates the advantages of a multilevel/hierarchical approach for predictive modeling, including flexibility of model formulation, explicitly accounting for hierarchical structure in the data, and the ability to predict the outcome of new cases. As a generalization of the classical approach, the multilevel modeling approach explicitly models the hierarchical structure in the data by considering both the within- and between-group variances leading to a partial pooling of data across all levels in the hierarchy. The modeling framework provides means for incorporating variables at different spatiotemporal scales. The examples used in this paper illustrate the iterative process of model fitting and evaluation, a process that can lead to improved understanding of the system being studied. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

Qian, S. S.; Cuffney, T. F.; Alameddine, I.; Mcmahon, G.; Reckhow, K. H.

2010-01-01

377

The 2-MEV Scale in the United States: A Measure of Children's Environmental Attitudes Based on the Theory of Ecological Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Environmental (2-MEV) Scale questionnaire was developed in Europe to measure adolescents' attitudes and gauge the effectiveness of educational programs. It also formed the basis for the Theory of Ecological Attitudes. In the present four-year study, the 2-MEV Scale was modified for use with 9-12-year-old children in the United States. Initial…

Johnson, Bruce; Manoli, Constantinos C.

2011-01-01

378

Studies on a Socio-Ecological Approach to Environmental Education: A Contribution to a Critical Position in the Education for Sustainable Development Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines a critical position in relation to education for sustainable development referring to a socio-ecological approach to environmental education. This approach was developed in a cooperative research process with pre-academic secondary schools over several years in Switzerland. For 13 years our research group has been the one in…

Kyburzgraber, Regula; Hofer, Kurt; Wolfensberger, Balz

2006-01-01

379

A Catalog of Educational Resources in Communication Arts, Cultural Ecology, and Environmental Studies for the Small High School Teacher. Curriculum Resources for the Alaskan Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A catalog of semi-annotated topical listings of curriculum resources, published between 1960 and 1980, for use by educators in small Alaska high schools, contains sections on communication arts (108 items), cultural ecology (269 items), and environmental studies (363 items). Listings are presented on pages ruled into grids; for each item the…

Madsen, Eric; And Others

380

Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-01-01

381

The Death and Life of a School-Based Environmental Education and Communication Program in Brazil: Rethinking Educational Leadership and Ecological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an exploratory case study of the sustainability of an environmental education and communication (EEC) project at an elementary public school in Brazil. Our analysis shows that a narrow view of institutional educational leadership and ecological learning negatively affected the resilience of that particular EEC development.…

Reis, Giuliano; Guimaraes-Iosif, Ranilce

2012-01-01

382

Spatiotemporal change and ecological modelling of malaria in Turkey by means of geographic information systems.  

PubMed

We described the spatiotemporal change of malaria (Plasmodium vivax) in Turkey over 34 years (1975-2008), and assessed the role of environmental variables in this change. We developed seven 5-year-period raster maps by using geo-referenced malaria case data from the centres of 81 provinces and the kriging method with a spherical variogram model in a geographic information systems (GIS) model. We also modelled malaria incidence in GIS by using our average malaria incidence raster map, and complementary spatial database including the raster map layers of 14 environmental variables. We chose linear regression analysis with backward method to investigate relationships among variables and develop a model. The model was run in GIS to obtain a model incidence raster map. We tested the reliability of the model map by residual statistics, and found the model map dependable. Five-year-period maps revealed that the distribution of malaria cases moved from the East Mediterranean region to the Southeast Anatolia region due to changing human activities. The latitude, minimum temperature, distance to seas and elevation variables were found to have significant impacts on malaria. Consequently, the model incidence map established a good background for early warning systems to predict epidemics of malaria following environmental changes. PMID:20888613

Dogan, Hakan Mete; Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit

2010-11-01

383

Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center multi-year plan  

SciTech Connect

An information analysis center (IAC) is a federal resource that provides technical information for a specific technology field. An IAC links an expert technical staff with an experienced information specialist group, supported by in-house or external data bases to provide technical information and maintain a corporate knowledge in a technical area. An IAC promotes the rapid transfer of technology among its users and provides assistance in adopting new technology and predicting and assessing emerging technology. This document outlines the concept, requirements, and proposed development of an Environmental Quality IAC (EQIAC). An EQIAC network is composed of several nodes, each of which has specific technology capabilities. This document outlines strategic and operational objectives for the phased development of one such node of an EQIAC network.

Rivera, R.G. (RDG, Inc. (United States)); Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Walsh, T.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States))

1992-09-01

384

Developing an Ecological Risk Framework to Assess Environmental Safety of Nanoscale Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanotechnology industry is developing rapidly and promises to spawn many exciting products in the field of medicine, manufacturing, and various environmental fields, such as bio-control agents, and remediation catalysts. However, as legitimate questions of environmental safety go unanswered, opposition to the industry is accelerating just as rapidly. Unique physico-chemical properties of compounds within the nano-range present unknown toxicities relative to similar substances of larger dimensions. There is a critical need for a framework to assess risk of nanoscale particles that both the public and industry can accept.

Kapustka, L.; Chan-Remillard, S.; Goudey, S.

385

An Ecological System Curriculum: An Integrated MST Approach to Environmental Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an inquiry-based, student-centered mathematics, science, and technology curriculum guide. It features activities addressing such environmental science topics as groundwater modeling, water filtration, soil permeability and porosity, water temperature and salinity, and quadrant studies. Activities are organized so that the…

Leonhardt, Nina A.

386

Ecology and Pedagogy: On the Educational Implications of Postwar Environmental Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmentalism, an ethical imperative to preserve and protect nature, has become in the last decade a central ethical, political and pedagogic theme. Against this background, this article focuses on the postwar philosophy of the German-Jewish scholar Hans Jonas (1903-93). It points to Jonas's radical theory of pedagogic responsibility, and to…

Hotam, Yotam

2010-01-01

387

Evaluating environmental risks of genetically modified crops: ecological harm criteria for regulatory decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

European risk managers currently face substantial difficulty in evaluating the risks of genetically modified (GM) crops for biodiversity. This difficulty is not primarily due to a lack of scientific data (the data are abundant) but rather to a lack of clear criteria for determining what represents environmental harm. Establishing criteria that define harm is not a scientific process but a

Olivier Sanvido; Jörg Romeis; Achim Gathmann; Marco Gielkens; Alan Raybould; Franz Bigler

388

A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for

Andrea Gazzinelli; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Guo-Jing Yang; Boakye A. Boatin; Helmut Kloos

2012-01-01

389

On ecological reflections: the tensions of cultivating ecojustice and youth environmentalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I respond to Zeyer and Roth's (2009) "A Mirror of Society" by elaborating on how the idea of interpretive repertoires is grounded by education philosophy and sociology. Vernacular languages are carried forward collectively from individuals who lived during a particular period of time, inculcated as root metaphors, which frame our relationships with others. It follows that metaphors (or interpretive repertoires) frame Swiss relationships with others, and what serves as Swiss goals for the environment and environmental protection are deeply embedded in some past conceptualizations of how a society should develop in the world. Indeed these youth's repertoires are "a mirror of society." But how do we know whether Swiss ideals are cultivating good, right, or just relationships, and embody a morally defensible environmentalism? Zeyer and Roth emphasize that teaching is a cultural process, which I agree with, but there is a contradiction in the idea that curriculum should be designed in a way that allows students to expand their existing repertoires without culturally mediated changes. Clearly students in Zeyer and Roth's study feel limited as to what they can do about the environment and environmental protection, in relation to outside influences such as US consumerism. Ecojustice, environmentalism, and sustainability should begin to dissolve this feeling of powerlessness. The purpose of this response is to show why cultural mediation is needed for defensible youth action.

Mueller, Michael P.

2009-12-01

390

The Global Ecology Handbook: What You Can Do about the Environmental Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is ample evidence of the seriousness of the world's population, resource, and environmental problems--poverty and hunger, deforestation and species loss, soil erosion and desertification, air and water pollution, acid precipitation and ozone layer depletion, as well as the greenhouse effect and climate change. This handbook was prepared as…

Corson, Walter H., Ed.

391

Ecology of Burkholderia pseudomallei and the interactions between environmental Burkholderia spp. and human–animal hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early workers thought that melioidosis was a zoonosis with a reservoir in rodents, but we now know that Burkholderia pseudomallei is a widely distributed environmental saprophyte. In northeast Thailand, two thirds of paddy fields yield the organism, and 80% of children have antibodies by the time they are 4 years old. However, interpretation of these results has been complicated by

David A. B Dance

2000-01-01

392

Creative Ecology: Art’s Role in Addressing Environmental and Sustainability Issues in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art has embodied the relationship between humans and the natural environment throughout the ages. As this relationship changed, many artists began to address concerns about the ways humans interact with nature. Today, more than ever, there is a need for channels of communication to address the major environmental and sustainability problems of our time. This study examines how art is

Michael Meade

2008-01-01

393

Population ecology on an environmental gradient: Cakile edentula on a sand dune  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturally-occurring sand dune population of the annual plant Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae) was studied for two years. The plants grew along an environmental gradient stretching from open sand beach (seaward) to densely vegetated dunes (landward). Survivorship and reproductive output were estimated from plants in permanent quadrats. The dispersal of seeds was documented by sifting fruits from the sand substrate at

Paul A. Keddy

1982-01-01

394

The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

Lysack, Mishka

2009-01-01

395

Genome sequencing of environmental Escherichia coli expands understanding of the ecology and speciation of the model bacterial species.  

PubMed

Defining bacterial species remains a challenging problem even for the model bacterium Escherichia coli and has major practical consequences for reliable diagnosis of infectious disease agents and regulations for transport and possession of organisms of economic importance. E. coli traditionally is thought to live within the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals and not to survive for extended periods outside its host; this understanding is the basis for its widespread use as a fecal contamination indicator. Here, we report the genome sequences of nine environmentally adapted strains that are phenotypically and taxonomically indistinguishable from typical E. coli (commensal or pathogenic). We find, however, that the commensal genomes encode for more functions that are important for fitness in the human gut, do not exchange genetic material with their environmental counterparts, and hence do not evolve according to the recently proposed fragmented speciation model. These findings are consistent with a more stringent and ecologic definition for bacterial species than the current definition and provide means to start replacing traditional approaches of defining distinctive phenotypes for new species with omics-based procedures. They also have important implications for reliable diagnosis and regulation of pathogenic E. coli and for the coliform cell-counting test. PMID:21482770

Luo, Chengwei; Walk, Seth T; Gordon, David M; Feldgarden, Michael; Tiedje, James M; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

2011-04-11

396

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

397

Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice  

PubMed Central

We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents.

Emmett, Edward A.; Desai, Chintan

2011-01-01

398

Ecological niche  

SciTech Connect

The ecological niche of an organism is the set of environmental conditions under which the particular functions of the organism could be expected to assure its survival. It comprises both the set of conditions where the organism lives (often termed the habitat of the organism) and the functional role of the organism in the ecosystem. Recent works in niche theory have enabled ecologists to develop predictions and actual applications. The history of the niche concept, applications of niche theory, and ecological differences between similar species are discussed.

Shugart, H.H.

1980-01-01

399

Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems.

Markwiese, J.T.; Ryti, R.T.; Hooten, M.M.; Michael, D.I.; Hlohowskyj, I.

2001-02-01

400

USING FISHER INFORMATION TO ASSESS THE RISK OF DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sustainable nature of particular dynamic regimes of ecosystems is an increasingly integral aspect of many ecological, economic, and social decisions. As ecosystems experience perturbations of varying regularity and intensity, they may either remain within the state space neig...

401

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

402

NERC's Science Information Strategy - promoting information fusion across the Environmental Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC) in the UK is responsible for funding environmental research in universities and running a number of research centres; such as the British Geological Survey. Data and information created by this research, and deposited by third parties, is managed by a number of environmental data centres for the purpose of preserving research outputs and promoting their re-use, re-purposing and information fusion. These data centres are: British Atmospheric Data Centre (http://badc.nerc.ac.uk) British Oceanographic Data Centre (http://bodc.nerc.ac.uk) Environmental Information Data Centre (http://eidc.nerc.ac.uk) National Geoscience Data Centre (http://ngdc.nerc.ac.uk) NERC Earth Observation Data Centre (http://neodc.nec.ac.uk) Polar Data Centre (http://pdc.anerc.ac.uk) The NERC Science Information Strategy (SIS) has been created to provide the framework for NERC to work more closely and effectively with its scientific communities in delivering data and information management services to support its 5 year science strategy, the Next Generation Science for Planet Earth. The strategy focuses on the continuing development of NERC’s information management processes and sets the context under which all of its science data and information activities will be carried out in the future. The anticipated benefits of the science information strategy that promote information fusion include: (1) Easier discovery and access to the data that underpin the objective scientific evidence; (2) A clear understanding of stakeholders' needs and aspirations; (3) A common understanding of the data of high value to NERC's mission and clear processes to ensure such data is ingested, managed and disseminated to the environmental science community; (4) Greater commonality of approach, development and sharing of infrastructure; leading to simpler information fusion; (5) A clear understanding of the intellectual property rights; and (6) Compliance with legislation such as INSPIRE which designed to promote information fusion across Europe. The science information strategy has been designed to make information easy to discover, freely available and in formats that the community requires for ready re-use, re-purposing and information fusion.

Thorley, M.; Thomas, D.; Brown, M.; Giles, J. R.

2010-12-01

403

Transport, transformation and ecological effects of phosphorus smokes in an environmental wind tunnel  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the terrestrial transport, transformations and ecological effects of phosphorus (red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP/BR)), smoke/obscurant was performed to characterize the effects on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of representative of soils of those sites; and (3) soil microbiological communities. The influence and interactions of smoke/obscurant concentration relative humidity and wind speed was assessed. Toxicity symptoms for plants from repeated or a single exposure included leaf tip burn, leaf curl, leaf abscission and drop, floral abortion, chlorosis, neucrotic spotting, wilting, dessication and dieback for ponderosa pine, short needle pine, sagebrush, a native grass (Blando Brome) and bushbean. Soils data suggest an increase in the mobility of selected trace elements after exposure; however, this effect appears to be ameliorated with time. This phenomenon is influenced by soil type, which is a reflection of the buffering capacity of the exposed soil (i.e., Burbank, Quallayute, Shawano, and Yamac) as well as the concentration and duration of exposure. Increased mobility of trace elements is also evidenced in the trace element content of plants grown on soils after exposure to RP/BR smoke. Soil Microbial Community effects show a reduction in the production of nitrate after soil is exposed to RP/BR smoke. This indicates a reduction in ammonium oxidizing bacterial populations, specifically Nitrosomonas and probably Nitrobacter. For the most part most of the plant, soil and soil microbial effects are transient.

Van Voris, P.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Ligotke, M.W.; Rogers, J.E.; McFadden, K.M.; Carlile, D.W.; Li, S.W.

1985-04-01

404

Monitoring Environmental Impact in the Upper Sonoran Lifestyle: A New Tool for Rapid Ecological Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterized by expensive housing, high socioeconomic status, and topographic relief, Upper Sonoran Lifestyle communities are found primarily along the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) in the Phoenix, Arizona metro area. Communities like these sprawl into the wildlands in the United States Southwest, creating a distinct urban fringe. This article, through locational comparison, introduces and evaluates a new field assessment tool for monitoring anthropogenic impact on soil-vegetation interactions along the well-maintained multi-use recreational trails in Upper Sonoran Lifestyle region. Comparing data from randomly selected transects along other multi-use trails with data from a control site revealed three key indicators of anthropogenic disturbances on soil-vegetation interactions: soil disturbance, vegetation disturbance, and vegetation density. Soil and vegetation disturbance displayed an average distance decay exponent factor of -0.60, while vegetation density displayed a reverse decay average of 0.60. Other important indicators of disturbance included vegetation type, biological soil crusts, and soil bulk density. The predictive ability of this new field tool enhances its applicability, offering a powerful rapid ecological assessment method for monitoring long-term anthropogenic impact in the Upper Sonoran Lifestyle, and other sprawling cities along the WUI.

Allen, Casey D.

2009-02-01

405

Monitoring environmental impact in the Upper Sonoran Lifestyle: a new tool for rapid ecological assessment.  

PubMed

Characterized by expensive housing, high socioeconomic status, and topographic relief, Upper Sonoran Lifestyle communities are found primarily along the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) in the Phoenix, Arizona metro area. Communities like these sprawl into the wildlands in the United States Southwest, creating a distinct urban fringe. This article, through locational comparison, introduces and evaluates a new field assessment tool for monitoring anthropogenic impact on soil-vegetation interactions along the well-maintained multi-use recreational trails in Upper Sonoran Lifestyle region. Comparing data from randomly selected transects along other multi-use trails with data from a control site revealed three key indicators of anthropogenic disturbances on soil-vegetation interactions: soil disturbance, vegetation disturbance, and vegetation density. Soil and vegetation disturbance displayed an average distance decay exponent factor of -0.60, while vegetation density displayed a reverse decay average of 0.60. Other important indicators of disturbance included vegetation type, biological soil crusts, and soil bulk density. The predictive ability of this new field tool enhances its applicability, offering a powerful rapid ecological assessment method for monitoring long-term anthropogenic impact in the Upper Sonoran Lifestyle, and other sprawling cities along the WUI. PMID:18850243

Allen, Casey D

2008-10-11

406

The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: An ecological perspective.  

PubMed

The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined in the urban space of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. Four environmental factors were investigated: thermal and social loads; CO concentrations and noise. Levels of HRV are explained mainly by subjective social stresses, noise and CO. The most interesting result is the fact that while subjective social stress and noise increase HRV, low levels of CO are reducing HRV to some extent moderating the impact of subjective social stress and noise. Beyond the poisoning effect of CO and the fact that extremely low levels of HRV associated with high dozes of CO increase risk for life, low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. The effects of thermal loads on HRV are negligible probably due to the use of behavioral means in order to neutralize heat and cold effects. PMID:23477780

Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Epstein, Yoram; Yaakov, Yaron; Hermesh, Hagai; Brenner, Shmuel; Tirosh, Emanuel

2013-03-09

407

Conceptual Strategic Plan for the GRI Environmental Technology Information Center. Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the results of a survey conducted to develop a strategic plan for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) environmental technology information center. The initial concept was that of a service to provide environmental technology information...

S. Millet J. Young

1993-01-01

408

30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP...Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the...

2010-07-01

409

30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP...Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the...

2009-07-01

410

Population dynamics under increasing environmental variability: implications of climate change for ecological network design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that climate change causes an increase in variation in conditions for plant and animal populations.\\u000a This increase in variation, e.g. amplified inter-annual variability in temperature and rainfall has population dynamical consequences\\u000a because it raises the variation in vital demographic rates (survival, reproduction) in these populations. In turn, this amplified\\u000a environmental variability enlarges population extinction risk. This

Jana Verboom; Peter Schippers; Anouk Cormont; Marjolein Sterk; Claire C. Vos; Paul F. M. Opdam

2010-01-01

411

Technical procedures for ecology: Environmental field program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including walkover surveys for threatened, endangered, or candidate species; vegetation classification and mapping; reclamation planning; wetland and floodplain determination and characterization of playas; wildlife habitat mapping methods; mammal sampling; bird survey methods; reptile and amphibian survey methods; preexisting environmental; stress and disturbance studies methods; voucher specimens for plants; and voucher specimens to wildlife. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1987-08-01

412

Organic Agriculture and Food Production: Ecological, Environmental, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional agricultural systems should not only produce much greater amounts of food, feed, fibre and energy to meet the\\u000a global needs, but also challenge problems to improve health and social well-being of man, reduce dependence on fossil fuels,\\u000a adapt to climate change and extreme weather, reduce environmental degradation and decline in the quality of soil, water, air\\u000a and land resources

Reza Ghorbani; Alireza Koocheki; Kirsten Brandt; Stephen Wilcockson; Carlo Leifert

413

Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression: Ecological aspects of animal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environment can play a significant role in the production of phenotypes. However, the developmental mechanisms by which\\u000a the environmental agents effect normal development are just becoming known. At least three paths have been found through which\\u000a the environment can modify gene activity. The first is the neuroendocrine route. Here, the nervous system monitors the environment\\u000a and transfers signals to

Scott F. Gilbert

2005-01-01

414

The Geographic Information System component of the Hanford Environmental Information System. Requirements analysis for HEISGIS  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. HEISGIS is the Geographic Information Systems component of HEIS. This report analyzes the HEISGIS functional requirements as articulated by the members of a GIS subcommittee established by the HEIS Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) in a series of meetings. These functionalities are identified throughout this report, but no implementation commitment is made. This requirements analysis document will be followed by a brief list of the functionalities that will be implemented in FY91 and a description of the requisite acceptance test criteria.

Tzemos, S.; Overton, E.S.

1992-01-01

415

The Geographic Information System component of the Hanford Environmental Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. HEISGIS is the Geographic Information Systems component of HEIS. This report analyzes the HEISGIS functional requirements as articulated by the members of a GIS subcommittee established by the HEIS Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) in a series of meetings. These functionalities are identified throughout this report, but no implementation commitment is made. This requirements analysis document will be followed by a brief list of the functionalities that will be implemented in FY91 and a description of the requisite acceptance test criteria.

Tzemos, S.; Overton, E.S.

1992-01-01

416

Four opportunities for studies of ecological succession.  

PubMed

Lessons learned from the study of ecological succession have much to offer contemporary environmental problem solving but these lessons are being underutilized. As anthropogenic disturbances increase, succession is more relevant than ever. In this review, we suggest that succession is particularly suitable to address concerns about biodiversity loss, climate change, invasive species, and ecological restoration. By incorporating modern experimental techniques and linking results across environmental gradients with meta-analyses, studies of succession can substantially improve our understanding of other ecological phenomena. Succession can help predict changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services impacted by invasive species and climate change and guide manipulative responses to these disruptions by informing restoration efforts. Succession is still a critical, integrative concept that is central to ecology. PMID:21295370

Prach, Karel; Walker, Lawrence R

2011-02-02

417

Identifying reefs of hope and hopeful actions: contextualizing environmental, ecological, and social parameters to respond effectively to climate change.  

PubMed

Priorities for conservation, management, and associated activities will differ based on the interplay between nearness of ecosystems to full recovery from a disturbance (pristineness), susceptibility to climate change (environmental susceptibility [ES]), and capacity of human communities to cope with and adapt to change (social adaptive capacity [AC]). We studied 24 human communities and adjacent coral reef ecosystems in 5 countries of the southwestern Indian Ocean. We used ecological measures of abundance and diversity of fishes and corals, estimated reef pristineness, and conducted socioeconomic household surveys to determine the AC of communities adjacent to selected coral reefs. We also used Web-based oceanographic and coral mortality data to predict each site's ES to climate warming. Coral reefs of Mauritius and eastern Madagascar had low ES and consequently were not predicted to be affected strongly by warm water, although these sites were differentiated by the AC of the human community. The higher AC in Mauritius may increase the chances for successful self-initiated recovery and protective management of reefs of this island. In contrast, Madagascar may require donor support to build AC as a prerequisite to preservation efforts. The Seychelles and Kenya had high ES, but their levels of AC and disturbance differed. The high AC in the Seychelles could be used to develop alternatives to dependence on coral reef resources and reduce the effects of climate change. Pristineness weighted toward measures of fish recovery was greatest for Kenya's marine protected areas; however, most protected areas in the region were far from pristine. Conservation priorities and actions with realistic chances for success require knowledge of where socioecological systems lie among the 3 axes of environment, ecology, and society. PMID:19245493

McClanahan, T R; Cinner, J E; Graham, N A J; Daw, T M; Maina, J; Stead, S M; Wamukota, A; Brown, K; Venus, V; Polunin, N V C

2009-02-24

418

Information, power and environmental justice in Botany: the role of community information systems.  

PubMed

In the environmental conflict that surrounds the sighting of hazardous waste facilities there is usually a volatile mix of disparities in power, expertise and information access as well as differing views on risk, which are all played out amidst commercial arrangements and environmental justice concerns. In recent times, the volatility of this mix has been further compounded by the growing climate of public concern and distrust surrounding scientific developments and technology. While there is no 'quick fix' to the complex conflict that this entails, community information systems (CISs) based on participatory models can help address the outstanding issues of capacity, information access, power inequities and environmental justice. CISs are an effective response to the five crucial elements of a toxic dispute, that is, the dialogue, capacity building, information access, evaluation of hazards and risk, and expertise. This paper will review the role of community accessible information systems in the dispute in Botany over the management and destruction of Orica Australia's stockpile of the persistent organic pollutant, hexachlorobenzene (HCB). It will focus on the role of CIS in responding to the challenges for expert information delivery, and in addressing the disparity of informational power within the toxic dispute. PMID:18804905

Lloyd-Smith, Mariann

2008-09-19

419

78 FR 64234 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice...SUMMARY: HUD has submitted the proposed information...

2013-10-28

420

New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services: OneStop Data and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) created the OneStop website to allow the public easy access to environmental data and information. The site is broken down into two main categories: OneStop Environmental Site Information and OneStop Project-Specific Information. In the Environmental Site Information component, visitors can find geographic information system (GIS) data, air stationary sources, environmental monitoring data, resources on solid waste sites, and more. The Project-Specific Information offers materials on specific hazardous waste transporters, water systems, shore land protection, various permits, and water wells. The website has helpful instructions embedded within it to help users easily navigate through the materials.

2007-07-19

421

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental

J. B. Cannon

1983-01-01

422

Seamount benthic ecology and potential environmental impact from Manganese crust mining in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benthic megafauna on Cross Seamount (18°40'N and 158°17'W) is characterized by patterns of low diversity and abundance. Various factors that might account for this include geographic isolation, small habitat area and unfavorable environmental conditions. The seamount is isolated both geographically and due to weak surrounding bottom currents. Small habitat area in combination with isolation, may restrict colonization of the seamount to species that produce only long-lived larvae. The progeny of such species, would in turn be expected to be swept away before settling, resulting in parent populations low in abundance. Unfavorable environmental conditions including sluggish bottom currents may also reduce recruitment by failing to maintain substrata free of sediment. Highest population densities were found concentrated on large rocky outcrops and summit rim areas probably subjected to accelerated water flow. In zones characterized by thick ferromanganese crust deposits, patterns of abundance were particularly low suggesting the possibility of larval avoidance of such areas. The dominant faunal elements are gorgonian corals and solitary anemones. Two species of precious coral were discovered although neither in commercial abundance. The low biotic diversity and abundance and commercial insignificance of the benthic megafauna on Cross Seamount suggests that environmental impacts produced by manganese crust mining operations in this region of the Hawaiian EEZ would be minimal to this portion of the biota. Further study is needed to better ascertain the abundances of bottom commercial fishes and crustacean resources as well as pelagic species and the extent of potential impact to these organisms from crust mining.

Grigg, Richard W.; Malaboff, A.; Chave, E. H.; Landahl, J.

423

A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

Hovardas, Tasos

2013-01-01

424

Distribution of environmentally sensitive elements in residential soils near a coal-fired power plant: Potential risks to ecology and children's health.  

PubMed

One hundred and twelve soil samples were collected from residential areas surrounding a coal-fired power plant at Huainan City, Anhui Province, China. The concentrations of environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in soil samples were determined, and their potential ecological and health risks were assessed. Mean concentrations of ESEs in the downwind soils of the power plant are relatively higher than those in the upwind soils, pointing to a potential ESEs input from coal combustion. The calculated ecological risk of ESEs in soils indicates a relatively low ecological risk. Hazard quotient (HQ) of ESEs in downwind soils is 1.5, suggesting a potential health risk for children. However, the carcinogenic risk values of ESEs in soils are within the acceptable non-hazardous range of 1E-06-1E-04. PMID:24091246

Tang, Quan; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Ruoyu

2013-09-30

425

Local knowledge, environmental politics, and the founding of ecology in the United States. Stephen Forbes and "The Lake as a Microcosm" (1887).  

PubMed

Stephen Forbes's "The Lake as a Microcosm" is one of the founding documents of the science of ecology in the United States. By tracing the connections between scientists and local fishermen underlying the research on floodplain lakes presented in "The Lake as a Microcosm," this essay shows how the birth of ecology was tied to local knowledge and the local politics of environmental transformation. Forbes and the other scientists of the Illinois Natural History Survey relied on fishermen for manual labor, expertise in catching fish, and knowledge of the natural history of the fishes. As Forbes and his colleagues worked in close contact with fishermen, they also adopted many of their political concerns over the privatization of the floodplain and became politically active in supporting their interests. The close connection between scientists and local knowledge forced the ecologists to reframe the boundaries of ecology as objective or political, pure or applied, local or scientific. PMID:11284229

Schneider, D W

2000-12-01

426

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

427

Creation of environmental health information system for public health service: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite more than a decade of research on medical information systems, deficiencies exist in our capability of establishing\\u000a an effective environmental health information infrastructure. In this research, we present a pilot study on creating a feasible\\u000a environmental health information infrastructure. The newly-developed environmental health information system is a web-based\\u000a platform that integrates databases, decision-making tools, geographic information systems for supporting

Ling Li; Li Xu; Hueiwang Anna Jeng; Dayanand N. Naik; Thomas Allen; Maria Frontini

2008-01-01

428

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2  

SciTech Connect

The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

1993-02-01

429

Combined application of energy and material flow analysis and ecological footprint for the environmental evaluation of a tailoring factory.  

PubMed

Two environmental evaluation methodologies, namely energy and materials flow analysis (EMFA) and ecological footprint (EF), were combined to assess a tailoring factory that produced jackets in the period 2002-2005. During the EMFA, aided by the software Umberto(®) 5.5, cutting was identified as the most energy consuming stage and gas-oil as an important source of pollution in spite of its low contribution to energy supply. The EF appraisal was built on the basis of a previous work, incorporating methodological contributions developed by the authors that made the indicator more suitable for its application at corporate level. Initially, an increasing tendency in the indicator was observed (from 37.8 in 2002 to 45.2 gm(2)/jacket in 2005). When including other emissions apart from CO(2), the results conveyed a significant increase in EF that ranged from 80% in 2002 to 14% in 2004, demonstrating that this contribution should not be disregarded when evaluating production processes. Finally, sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the influence in the EF of the variability in input variables. When emissions were not included, the most influencing input flow was the cotton fabric; otherwise gas-oil became the most relevant factor. Therefore, its substitution for cleaner sources of energy was advised. PMID:22959475

Herva, Marta; Alvarez, Antonio; Roca, Enrique

2012-08-23

430

Ecology versus Issue Interpretation: The Analysis of Two Different Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approximately 1,500 students in grades 4 through 6 attended two half-day interpretive programs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; one focused on ecological information, the other on environmental issues associated with the site. Each program significantly increased students' knowledge but had little impact on students' environmental attitudes…

Barrie, Elizabeth; Knapp, Doug

1998-01-01

431

Soil infiltration capacity categorisation based on a geo-information synthesis of the valuated soil-ecological units data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After destructive floods that hit the Czech Republic in 1997 and 2002, water resources managers become more interested in the spatial distribution of hydrological, hydrogeological and environmental indicators, among which the soil infiltration capacity is one of the most important. The poster summarises a methodology for interpretation of the Valuated Soil-Ecological Units (BPEJ) data in terms of the infiltration capacity of agricultural soils, in order to delineate areas within which the soil infiltration capacity is homogeneous. The methodology was developed as a partial result within a broader project in which the process of infiltration and various ways of soil infiltration capacity estimation are studied. The task is accomplished with the help of ARC/INFO 8.0.2 geographic information system. The starting point is a vectorised layer of BPEJ polygons the attributes of which are BPEJ codes. The BPEJ code is a five-digit number which contains information about the climatic zone, the main soil unit (HPJ), the soil depth, the content of stones and the terrain slope and exposition. However, the terrain slope information is not accurate enough. It was therefore derived from a digital elevation model, generated from contour lines of a digital map 1:25 000 (DMÚ-25). Each partial criterion derivable from the BPEJ codes (HPJ, depth, stoneness, slope, exposition) was categorised into six classes according to their assumed influence on the soil infiltration capacity. Appropriate weights (from 0 to 5, where 0 denotes non-agricultural lands, 1 means the highest soil infiltration capacity and 5 the lowest) were assigned to each class. Then the coverages defined by particular criteria were overlaid. The output is an ARC/INFO coverage defining relatively homogeneous spatial units. The polygon attribute table of these units contains information about the soil infiltration capacity. The infiltration capacity itself was calculated from the weights assigned to partial criteria. The relative relevance of partial criteria was estimated from a questionnaire answered by several soil scientists. The main soil unit (HPJ) appears to be the most important criterion that decides about the soil infiltration capacity. The method was tested for the Zelivka river basin upstream of the of drinking water supply reservoir Švihov, in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland. The basin is underlain by weathered acid crystalline rocks. The results were compared with outcomes of several other methods of infiltration capacity categorisation, including the use of the Comprehensive Soil Survey maps, hygrogeological maps and surveys, a geostatistical evaluation of soil temperature and soil moisture measurement campaigns, direct infiltration tests and aerial photos in the infra-red, thermal and panchromatic modes. According to this comparison, the method based on the BPEJ data is most suitable and generally applicable because the BPEJ data have already been completely vectorised. However, the method is not applicable in very small catchments where the resolution of both the BPEJ data and the readily available digital elevation models becomes insufficient.

Janglova, R.; Kvitek, T.

2003-04-01

432

Molecular ecological responses of dinoflagellate, Karenia mikimotoi to environmental nitrate stress.  

PubMed

Karenia mikimotoi is one of the most important harmful algal species in the Chinese coastal waters, and which produce hemolytic toxins and ichthyotoxins, resulting in devastating economic losses. Previous studies demonstrated that the increase of nitrate concentration could promote the growth and reproduction of K. mikimotoi. However, the intrinsic mechanisms regarding the effects of nitrate on the K. mikimotoi photosynthesis, nucleic acid replication and differential protein expression remain to be elucidated. Our study demonstrated that nitrate stress inhibited growth of K. mikimotoi (p<0.01). Algal chlorophyll fluorescence intensity varied slightly while algal cell cycle succession was significantly retarded by nitrate stress (p<0.05). Sixteen proteins were detected only in nitrate-limited cultures which related to nitrate transport, signal transduction, amino acid metabolism, DNA repair and hemolysin manufacture. Eleven proteins were detected only in nitrate-replete sample and were related to photorespiration, reproduction and growth, assistance of protein modification, cytoskeleton stability and signal transduction. Based on analysis of differential proteomic functional annotations, we hypothesized a proteomic response mechanism of K. mikimotoi to environmental nitrate stress. PMID:22019194

Lei, Qiang-Yong; Lü, Song-Hui

2011-10-20

433

Coastal environmental assessment and management by ecological simulation in Yeoja Bay, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eco-hydrodynamic model was used to estimate the carrying capacity of pollutant loads and response of water quality to environmental change in Yeoja Bay, Korea. An energy-system model also was used to simulate the fluctuation in nutrients and organic matter in the bordering wetland. Most water quality factors showed a pulsed pattern, and the concentrations of nutrients and organic matter of seawater increased when input loads of nutrients increased due to freshwater discharge. The well-developed tidal zones and wetlands in the northern area of the bay were highly sensitive to input loads. Residence times of water, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the bay were estimated to be about 16 days, 43.2 days, and 50.2 days, respectively. Water quality reacted more sensitively to the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus input than to COD. A plan to reduce the present levels of COD and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) by 20-30% and DIN by at least 50% in pollutant loads is needed for satisfying the target water quality criteria. The natural removal rate of nutrients in wetlands by reeds was assessed to be approximately 10%.

Lee, Dae-In; Choi, Jeong-Min; Lee, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Moon-Ock; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Jong-Kyu

2008-12-01

434

Information Processing by Cyanobacteria during Adaptation to Environmental Phosphate Fluctuations  

PubMed Central

Phosphate limited grown Anabaena variabilis has the capability of processing information about external phosphate fluctuations by means of interconnected adaptive events. Adaptive events are physiological processes that are characterized by two opposite manifestations, namely adapted states and adaptive operation modes. In adapted states the energy-converting constituents of the uptake system operate under the prevailing external conditions in a coherent manner with least energy dissipation. Adaptive operation modes take place when adapted states are disturbed by persistent changes in phosphate supply. In this mode the outcome of former adaptations to elevated phosphate levels guides the emergence of a new adapted state. The influence of antecedent adapted states on subsequent adaptations was studied experimentally and characteristic examples for such information processing are given. The theory of self-referential systems allowed analyzing these examples. For this purpose adaptive events had to be considered as elements of a communicating network, in which, along a historic succession of alternating adapted states and adaptive operation modes, information pertaining to the self-preservation of the organism is transferred from one adaptive event to the next: the latter “interprets” environmental changes by means of distinct adaptive operation modes, aimed at preservation of the organism. The result of this interpretation is again leading to a coherent state that is passed on to subsequent adaptive events. A generalization of this idea to the adaptive interplay of other energy converting subsystems of the cell leads to the dynamic view of cellular information processing in which the organism recreates itself in every new experience.

Falkner, Renate; Priewasser, Martin

2006-01-01

435

Wildfire History and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

2008-09-17

436

The Right to Know: Environmental Information Disclosure by Government and Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global knowledge management is crucially dependent on public access to information - in particular, information on environmental risks. Yet most existing systems of governance favour administrative or corporate secrecy, thereby monopolizing environmental information in the hands of governmental authorities or private stakeholders. This paper describes innovative initiatives to establish civil society's 'right to know', by mandatory disclosure of government-held information

Peter H. Sand

437

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed Central

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress.

Patel, C K

1992-01-01

438

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

439

The Charles River, Eastern Massachusetts: Scientific Information in Support of Environmental Restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activity has profoundly altered the Charles River and its watershed over the past 375 years. Restoration of environmental quality in the watershed has become a high priority for private- and public-sector organizations across the region. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs worked together to coordinate the efforts of the various organizations. One result of this initiative has been a series of scientific studies that provide critical information concerning some of the major hydrologic and ecological concerns in the watershed. These studies have focused upon: * Streamflows - Limited aquifer storage, growing water demands, and the spread of impervious surfaces are some of the factors exacerbating low summer streamflows in headwater areas of the watershed. Coordinated management of withdrawals, wastewater returns, and stormwater runoff could substantially increase low streamflows in the summer. Innovative approaches to flood control, including preservation of upstream wetland storage capacity and construction of a specially designed dam at the river mouth, have greatly reduced flooding in the lower part of the watershed in recent decades. * Water quality - Since the mid-1990s, the bacterial quality of the Charles River has improved markedly, because discharges from combined sewer overflows and the number of illicit sewer connections to municipal storm drains have been reduced. Improved management of stormwater runoff will likely be required, however, for full attainment of State and Federal water-quality standards. Phosphorus inputs from a variety of sources remain an important water-quality problem. * Fish communities and habitat quality - The Charles River watershed supports a varied fish community of about 20 resident and migratory species. Habitat conditions for fish and other aquatic species have improved in many parts of the river system in recent years. However, serious challenges remain, including the control of nutrients, algae, and invasive plants, mitigation of dam impacts, addressing remaining sources of bacteria to the river, and remediation of contaminated bottom habitat and the nontidal salt wedge in the lower river.

Weiskel, Peter K.

2007-01-01

440

Review of Literature on Environmentally Conscious Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of current research tasks, IDA has reviewed the literature and prepared annotated abstracts of bibliographical information directly related to environmentally conscious design. This literature compilation focuses on industrial ecology, Design f...

J. C. Rigby

1995-01-01

441

10 CFR 61.53 - Environmental monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...program to provide basic environmental data on the disposal site characteristics. The applicant shall obtain information about the ecology, meteorology, climate, hydrology, geology, geochemistry, and seismology of the disposal site. For those...

2013-01-01

442

Crossroads of Public Art, Nature and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores how environmental education through ecological art can help students develop creativity, critical thinking, and an arts-informed notion of being a citizen of the world. In illustrating the importance of uncovering the relationship between environmental education and ecological art, the paper examines how this may be used to…

Song, Young Imm Kang

2012-01-01

443

Ecological Niche of Legionella Pneumophila.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the ecological niches, relationships and controls of Legionella derived from environmental sources. Only as clinical cases and studies relate directly to the ecological understanding of the bacterium will they be discussed. This revie...

C. B. Fliermans

1983-01-01

444

An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: Certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. PMID:23913504

Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

2013-08-02

445

Beyond positivist ecology: toward an integrated ecological ethics.  

PubMed

A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change. PMID:18946726

Norton, Bryan G

2008-10-23

446

The Environmental Perceptions and Information Sources of Some Welsh Primary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questionnaires were distributed to primary schools across Wales in order to determine sources of environmental information and to consider how year 6 children perceive environmental issues. Television and school were the most commonly used sources of environmental information while the internet was used very little. (Author/SAH)|

Moakes, J.; Bond, A. J.

2001-01-01

447

Ecologic studies revisited.  

PubMed

Ecologic studies use data aggregated over groups rather than data on individuals. Such studies are popular because they use existing databases and can offer large exposure variation if the data arise from broad geographical areas. Unfortunately, the aggregation of data that define ecologic studies results in an information loss that can lead to ecologic bias. Specifically, ecologic bias arises from the inability of ecologic data to characterize within-area variability in exposures and confounders. We describe in detail particular forms of ecologic bias so that their potential impact on any particular study may be assessed. The only way to overcome such bias, while avoiding uncheckable assumptions concerning the missing information, is to supplement the ecologic with individual-level information, and we outline a number of proposals that may achieve this aim. PMID:17914933

Wakefield, Jonathan

2008-01-01

448

Research and Application of GIS-Based Oil Field Environmental Safety Information Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of science technology brings unlimited economic growth to humanity and meanwhile it leads to serious environmental safety problems threatening seriously the existence of humanity. So, environmental safety problems have become the world's focuses and must be solved with the help of some certain scientific management systems for environmental information to ensure the realization of environmental safety. However,

Cheng Xu-dong; Guan You-hai; Hu Wen-jun

2009-01-01

449

Environmental Education & Ecology in a Life Science Course for Preservice K-8 Teachers Using Project Wildlife in Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During laboratory sessions devoted to ecology, 182 preservice K-8 teachers participated in a Project Wildlife in Learning Design (WILD) workshop. Participants rated the workshop highly, indicated they would use more inquiry-based activities, and were more interested in teaching ecology following the workshop. Post-test scores indicated an…

Nelson, Allan

2010-01-01

450

Spatiotemporal analysis of ecological footprint and biological capacity of Gansu, China 1991–2015: Down from the environmental cliff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological footprint methodology, as an excellent educational tool applicable to global issues, is essential for quantifying humanity's consumption of natural capital, for overall assessments of human impact on earth as well as for planning for a sustainable future. At present, quantitative studies on the development trends of ecological footprint (EF) time series and biological capacity (BC) time series in a

Dongxia Yue; Xiaofeng Xu; Zizhen Li; Cang Hui; Wenlong Li; Hequn Yang; Jianping Ge

2006-01-01

451

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

1996-06-01

452

Mutual information reveals variation in temperature-dependent sex determination in response to environmental fluctuation, lifespan and selection  

PubMed Central

Quantifying the degree to which sex determination depends on the environment can yield insight into the evolution, ecological dynamics, and functional aspects of sex determination. In temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), theory often predicts a complete dependence of sex on temperature, with a switch-like reaction norm. However, empirical data suggest more shallow relationships between sex and temperature. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of an index, mutual information (MI), to reflect the degree of temperature dependence in sex. MI depends on both the shape of a reaction norm and the natural temperature variation, thus providing a measure of TSD that is ecologically dependent. We demonstrate that increased lifespan and decreased environmental fluctuation predict reaction norms with high MI (switch-like). However, mutation and weaker selection on sex-specific performance reduce average MI in a population, suggesting that mutation–selection balance can resolve some of the conflict between theoretical predictions of individual-based optimality and population-based empirical results. The MI index allows clear comparison of TSD across life histories and habitats and reveals functional similarities between reaction norms that may appear different. The model provides testable predictions for TSD across populations, namely that MI should increase with lifespan and decrease with historical environmental fluctuations.

Schwanz, Lisa E; Proulx, Stephen R

2008-01-01

453

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS): Phase I, System Definition Document. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Phase 1--System Definition Document documents the basis for establishing a consolidated environmental data base and information system for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office (OR) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). The Automated Data Processing System Development Methodology (ADPSDM), an Energy Systems procedure to assist in developing scientific and technical systems, was used to guide the preparation of the feasibility study and the system requirements definition, both of which are contained in this document. The Feasibility Study (Part 1) documents the existing system and data management practices and establishes and analyzes preliminary alternatives to be considered for the development of a consolidated system, i.e., the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). Alternatives were analyzed for technical and operational feasibility, benefits, and risks. Performance criteria used to rank alternatives included standardization, documentation, robustness, integration, reliability, and predictability. Of the three alternatives studied--request/referral, distributed, and centralized--the centralized system was selected to be most feasible because of its conformance to the performance criteria.

Not Available

1992-06-01

454

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-11-01

455

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

456

Characterizing Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure Assessments Improves links to Environmental Decision-Making  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Decisions often rely upon observational data or model estimates. For instance, the evaluation of human health or ecological risks often includes information on pollutant emission rates, environmental concentrations, exposures, and exposure/dose-response data. Whet...

457

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be utilized for the outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing program, in developing management plans for pipeline corridors, and onshore facilities planning. The production of this ecological atlas included four major tasks: the collection and synthesis of the latest available data on biological, socioeconomic, soil, oil and gas, hydrology, and climatological parameters; the assimilation of these data into a format which is compatible with the requirements of 1:100,000 scale mapping; the compilation of 90 ecological atlas maps; and the preparation of an atlas narrative serving to describe more fully the mapped parameters. This ecological atlas will embrace the habitat mapping study, the socioeconomic study, and the environmental synthesis being conducted for the study area.

Palik, T.F.; Kunneke, J.T.

1984-09-01

458

Environmental Sciences Division computing and geographic information system facility user handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates a Computing and Geographic Information System Facility as a tool for its environmental research. This facility provides ESD staff and guests with three major comput...

R. A. McCord

1990-01-01

459

Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication, information, and…

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2010-01-01

460

Compensatory Restoration: An Alternative to the Standard Ecological Risk Characterization and Management Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is commonly used to help inform environmental management decisions. The focus in ERAs on chemical toxicity and exposure leads to remediation goals that target reducing chemical concentrations, instead of improving ecological resources. Sometimes the very ecosystems that the process is striving to protect are destroyed in an attempt to achieve remediation goals. Compensatory restoration (CR) is

Richard W. Dunford