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1

Ecological Information Needs for Environmental Justice  

PubMed Central

The concept that all peoples should have their voices heard on matters that affect their well-being is at the core of environmental justice (EJ). The inability of some people of small towns, rural areas, minority, and low-income communities, to become involved in environmental decisions is sometimes due to a lack of information. We provide a template for the ecological information that is essential to examine environmental risks to EJ populations within average communities, using case studies from South Carolina (Savannah River, a DOE site with minority impacts), Washington (Hanford, a DOE site with Native American impacts), and New Jersey (nonpoint, urbanized community pollution). While the basic ecological and public health information needs for risk evaluations and assessments are well described, less attention has been focused on standardizing information about EJ communities or EJ populations within larger communities. We suggest that information needed about EJ communities and populations includes demographics, consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of their regional environment (for example, maintenance and cosmetic, medicinal/religious/cultural uses), eco-dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes. A purely demographics approach might not even identify EJ populations or neighborhoods, much less their spatial relation to the impact source or to each other. Using information from three case studies, we illustrate that some information is readily available (e.g., consumption rates for standard items such as fish), but there is less information about medicinal, cultural, religious, eco-cultural dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes, all of which depend in some way on intact, functioning, and healthy ecosystems. PMID:20409031

Burger, Joanna; Harris, Stuart; Harper, Barbara; Gochfeld, Michael

2014-01-01

2

Linking ecological science to decision-making: delivering environmental monitoring information as societal feedback.  

PubMed

The paper describes the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network's (EMAN) operational and program response to certain challenges of environmental monitoring in Canada, in particular, efforts to improve the ability of the network to deliver relevant information to decision makers. In addition to its familiar roles, environmental monitoring should deliver feedback to society on environmental changes associated with development patterns, trends, processes and interventions. In order for such feedback to be effective, it must be relevant, timely, useful and accessible: all characteristics that are defined by the user, not the provider. Demand driven environmental monitoring is explored through EMAN's experiences with Canada's Biosphere Reserves, the NatureWatch Program and the Canadian Community Monitoring Network. PMID:14570425

Vaughan, Hague; Whitelaw, Graham; Craig, Brian; Stewart, Craig

2003-01-01

3

Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...

4

Environmental Studies & Ecology Sample Occupations  

E-print Network

Environmental Studies & Ecology Sample Occupations Agricultural Engineer Agronomist Animal Biologist Animal Occupations Biologist Business Owner Chemical Technician Chemist Civil Engineer Hydrologist Industrial Hygienist Intelligence Officer Journalist Land Management Specialist Land Use Analyst

Ronquist, Fredrik

5

Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for recycling, along with defective infrastructure for recycling, such as lack of an adequate collection system, results in a much lower rate of e-waste recycling than that of the EU. In addition, a large amount of e-waste generated from Korea is exported to Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Central Asia. Although the Korean government prohibits hazardous e-waste export based on the Act on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes & Their Disposal, this policy has not been adequately implemented or enforced. This study suggests policies which respond to the problems of e-waste and toxic ICT products that cause adverse impacts on both human beings and ecosystem within and among countries. It also looks forward to the challenges to and opportunities for building a sustainable ICT sector as part of a broader paradigm shift in the Korean society, the Asian region, and throughout the human communities.

Seo, Wang-Jin

6

ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Programs of Study The graduate program in Ecology & Environmental Science capitalizes on University  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Programs of Study The graduate program in Ecology & Environmental Science capitalizes on University strengths in ecology, environmental science, and environmental policy. The primary mission of the Graduate Program in Ecology & Environmental Science is to offer a graduate program

Thomas, Andrew

7

Information Theory in Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of information theory (IT) to ecology has occurred along two separate lines: (1) it has been used to quantify the distribution of stocks and numbers of organisms; and (2) it has been employed to quantify the pattern of interactions of trophic processes. By and large, the first endeavor has resulted in relatively few insights into ecosystem dynamics and

Robert E. Ulanowicz

2001-01-01

8

Secrecy vs. the need for ecological information: challenges to environmental activism in Russia.  

PubMed

This article identifies the lessons learned from the Nikitin case study in Russia. The Nikitin case involves the analysis of sources of radioactive contamination in several Russian counties and in the Russian Northern Fleet. Norway was interested in the issue due to proximity to the storage sites. The issue involved national security and environmental protection. It was learned that mixing national security issues with environmental issues offers dangerous and multiple challenges. Environmental groups must build relationships with a wide audience. International security policy must include the issues of globalization of trade and the spread of environmental problems into the global commons (oceans and atmosphere). The risk of an environmentally dangerous accident as a consequence of Cold War activities is greater than the risk of nuclear war. Secrecy in military affairs is not justified when there is inadequate storage of nuclear weapons and contaminated materials. In Russia, the concern is great due to their economic transition and shortages of funds for even the most basic needs, which excludes nuclear waste clean up. The Bellona Foundation studied the extent of nuclear pollution from military nuclear reactors in the Kola peninsula of northwest Russia, in 1994 and 1996. Russian security police arrested one of the report authors for alleged national security violations. A valuable lesson learned was that local Russian environmental groups needed international support. The military nuclear complex poses an enormous hazard. Limiting inspections is an unacceptable national security risk. The new Russian law on state secrets is too broad. PMID:12321718

Jandl, T

1998-01-01

9

Southwest Environmental Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet) is a series of linked databases and accompanying web software helpful in using those databases, which will be of interest to the environmental research community in Arizona, the Southwest, and elsewhere. SEINet allows users to locate, access, and work with a variety of data, including biological collections, ecological research data, GIS data, taxonomic information, bibliographies, and research protocols. Searchable databases include herbaria; pollen, fruit and seed collections; and mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian collections. There is also a library of plant and lichen images; links to identification keys and species checklists from various research projects; information on NaviKey (a Java applet and application for accessing descriptive data); and Symbiota web tools (which integrate biological community knowledge and data in order to help identify plants).

10

Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system for evaluating and monitoring child development projects, with possible computerization capabilities, was developed for the State of Pennsylvania in connection with 26 child development projects funded by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS), provides a series of ecological measurement…

Fiene, Richard John; And Others

11

Ecological Dimensions of Information Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: We examine relationships between information literacy and information ecology with regard to conceptual innovation in information science. We aim to expand our understanding of human information behaviour and relevance assessment in the electronic environment. Method: Conceptual analysis and conceptual mapping is used and…

Steinerova, Jela

2010-01-01

12

Environmental science and ecology involve studies  

E-print Network

Environmental science and ecology involve studies of the biosphere, hydro- sphere, and lithosphere in environmental science is conducted on spatial scales varying from a single algal cell to the Earth as a whole's environmental scientists require investigation by an interdisciplinary team, including members from several

Christensen, Dan

13

Fisher Information in Ecological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher information is being increasingly used as a tool of research into ecological systems. For example the information was shown in Chapter 7 to provide a useful diagnostic of the health of an ecology. In other applications to ecology, extreme physical information (EPI) has been used to derive the population-rate (or Lotka-Volterra) equations of ecological systems, both directly [1] and indirectly (Chapter 5) via the quantum Schrodinger wave equation (SWE). We next build on these results, to derive (i) an uncertainty principle (8.3) of biology, (ii) a simple decision rule (8.18) for predicting whether a given ecology is susceptible to a sudden drop in population (Section 8.1), (iii) the probability law (8.57) or (8.59) on the worldwide occurrence of the masses of living creatures from mice to elephants and beyond (Section 8.2), and (iv) the famous quarter-power laws for the attributes of biological and other systems. The latter approach uses EPI to derive the simultaneous quarter-power behavior of all attributes obeyed by the law, such as metabolism rate, brain size, grazing range, etc. (Section 8.3). This maximal breadth of scope is allowed by its basis in information, which of course applies to all types of quantitative data (Section 1.4.3, Chapter 1).

Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

14

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy

C. C. Trettin; V. R. Tolbert; A. T. Jones; C. R. Smith; A. J. Kalmijn

1994-01-01

15

Distinguishing ecological engineering from environmental engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses complex system thinking to identify key peculiarities of ecological engineering. In particular it focuses on the distinction between the purpose-driven design of structures in environmental engineering and the natural process of self-organization characteristic of life, which needs to be integrated into ecological engineering.Conventional engineering addresses the problem of fabrication of an organized structure, say a road, which

T. F. H Allen; M Giampietro; A. M Little

2003-01-01

16

For additional information, contact: Department of Ecology  

E-print Network

For additional information, contact: Department of Ecology Montana State University 310 Lewis Hall P.O. Box 173460 Bozeman, MT 59717-3460 Tel: 406-994-4548 Fax: 406-994-3190 www.montana.edu/ecology/ ecology@montana.edu The Department of Ecology at Montana State University offers undergraduate majors

Maxwell, Bruce D.

17

Environmental management scenarios: Ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measure of whether a management scenario is capable of establishing regional-scale ecosystem sustainability is the degree to which it recovers the historical characteristics of the regional landscape mosaic. This study examines the ability of alternate management scenarios to recover the defining ecological features of the Everglades and South Florida landscape. Five conceptual scenarios are evaluated for recovering and sustaining

John C. Ogden; Joan A. Browder; John H. Gentile; Lance H. Gunderson; Robert Fennema; John Wang

1999-01-01

18

On Science, Ecology and Environmentalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using ecological science as a backdrop for this discussion, the author applies Michel Foucault's historical genealogical strategy to an analysis of the processes through which sustainable development (SD) gained hegemonic acceptance in the West. She analyses some of the ideological mutations that have seen SD emerge from an environmentalist…

Tulloch, Lynley

2013-01-01

19

Information analysis of a spatial database for ecological land classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ecological land classification was developed for a complex region in southern California using geographic information system techniques of map overlay and contingency table analysis. Land classes were identified by mutual information analysis of vegetation pattern in relation to other mapped environmental variables. The analysis was weakened by map errors, especially errors in the digital elevation data. Nevertheless, the resulting land classification was ecologically reasonable and performed well when tested with higher quality data from the region.

Davis, Frank W.; Dozier, Jeff

1990-01-01

20

Environmental Information in Czechoslovakia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are outlined, including information about existing organizational and legal structures in the country. Described is the proposed Integrated Information System for the Environment, which is designed to provide flexible and enhanced access to environmental information needed for decision making. (six…

Stancikova, Pavla

1992-01-01

21

Abigail Golden, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology Mentor: Dr. Joshua Drew, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology  

E-print Network

Abigail Golden, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology Mentor: Dr. Joshua Drew, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology Advisor: Dr. Elisa Bone, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution their fishing practices, which species they targeted most heavily, and aspects of their traditional ecological

22

Benthic diatoms in lakes: environmental drivers and ecological  

E-print Network

Benthic diatoms in lakes: environmental drivers and ecological assessment Steffi Gottschalk Faculty #12;Benthic diatoms in lakes: environmental drivers and ecological assessment Abstract In order are frequently used for assessing ecological status in streams and for reconstructing water quality of lakes

23

SNL/CA Environmental Planning and Ecology Annual Program Report for Calendar Year 2005.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Planning and Ecology Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Planning and Ecology Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Larsen, Barbara L.

2005-05-01

24

SNL/CA Environmental Planning and Ecology Program Annual Report 2007.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Planning and Ecology Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Planning and Ecology Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Larsen, Barbara L.

2007-02-01

25

Environmental Information Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for the Environment is a joint public-private partnership between The George Washington University in Washington D.C. and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Institute has implemented the Environmental Information Resources site providing information about the environment, including everything from ocean oil spills, to environmental college research world wide, to Access EPA (an on-line data base of environmental details), to the first model Green University along with its on-line Strategic Plan, to the U.S. Green Building Council's membership form. The site links to over two hundred other sites around the world and more are being added every day. The system is entirely free and has been cited by the President and Vice-President of the United States of America in a Environmental Technology report that was given in April of 1995.

1997-01-01

26

Tool boxes for an integrated ecological and environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated ecological–environmental management represents a new approach to traditional environmental management as it is to be understood as environmental management that also include ecological principles. It may be described by a procedure which follows 7 steps: (1) define the problem, (2) determine the ecosystem(s) involved, (3) identify causes and quantify all the sources to the problem, (4) set up a

Sven Erik Jørgensen; Søren Nors Nielsen

27

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

PubMed

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. PMID:23474334

Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

2013-04-15

28

Elsa M. Ordway Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology  

E-print Network

1 Elsa M. Ordway Department of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology Schermerhorn Extension Protection Program (BBPP) 2009 - 2010 Sea Turtle Nesting Ecology Research Assistant Bioko Island, Equatorial to collect nesting ecology data on leatherback sea turtles Injecting and reading PIT tags in leatherbacks

DeFries, Ruth S.

29

Information Ecology: Open System Environment for Data, Memories and Knowing  

E-print Network

Information Ecology: Open System Environment for Data, Memories and Knowing Karen S. Baker@scu.edu Abstract. An information ecology provides a conceptual framework to consider data, the creation Ecological Research (LTER) community, presents some manifestations of traditionally unreported `invisible

Bowker, Geoffrey C.

30

What is environmental information? The Environmental Information Regulations (EIR) set out the definition of "environmental information".  

E-print Network

What is environmental information? The Environmental Information Regulations (EIR) set out the definition of "environmental information". It includes information recorded in any form on: the state by the state of the elements of the environment) If the information request related to any of the items listed

Mumby, Peter J.

31

Exploring Connections between Environmental Education and Ecological Public Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an artist and educator with a strong interest in environmental issues, the author relates how he was led to ask the following questions: (1) How effective is environmental education, as it is currently taught? (2) How can ecological public art infuse environmental education with new ways of perceiving and addressing environmental issues? (3)…

Song, Young Imm Kang

2008-01-01

32

Diversity in Current Ecological Thinking: Implications for Environmental Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ecological thinking emphasizes that systems are complex, dynamic, and unpredictable across space and time. What is the diversity in interpretation of these ideas among today's ecologists, and what does this mean for environmental management? This study used a Policy Delphi survey of ecologists to explore their per- spectives on a number of current topics in ecology. The results showed

Susan A. Moore; Tabatha J. Wallington; Richard J. Hobbs; Paul R. Ehrlich; C. S. Holling; Simon Levin; David Lindenmayer; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Hugh Possingham; Monica G. Turner; Mark Westoby

2008-01-01

33

Social-Ecological Resilience and Environmental Education: Synopsis, Application, Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resilience approach is rooted in ecology and is being advanced as a means to understand change in social-ecological systems. How can resilience be applied to understanding change in social systems, including in environmental education? In probing this question the main resilience approaches are described, the manner in which they may be…

Plummer, Ryan

2010-01-01

34

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Assessing Ecological Integrity of Ozark Rivers to  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Assessing Ecological Integrity of Ozark Rivers to Determine Suitability- disturbed streams and rivers. We applied two objective, quantitative methods to determine stream ecological integ- rity of headwater reaches of 10 Ozark rivers, 5 with Wild and Scenic River federal protective

Kwak, Thomas J.

35

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 1997 BNL Site Environmental Report 3 -1  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 1997 BNL Site Environmental Report 3 - 1 Chapter 3 ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 3.1 Environmental Program Elements Brookhaven National Laboratory is committed to environmental compliance and accountability. To evaluate BNL's impact on the environment, the Laboratory

36

Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

Lee, E. Bun

2008-01-01

37

The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)

Bicak, Charles J.

1997-01-01

38

The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains the papers presented in the 1970-1971 Environmental and Ecological Forum series, planned to provide an overview of the significant environmental, social, and economic aspects of electric power generation, more specifically, the pros and cons of nuclear power production. The Forum was organized as a public service to foster…

Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

39

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Information Management System (EIMS) organizes descriptive information (metadata) for data sets, databases, documents, models, projects, and spatial data. The EIMS design provides a repository for scientific documentation that can be easily accessed with standar...

40

Diversity in Current Ecological Thinking: Implications for Environmental Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ecological thinking emphasizes that systems are complex, dynamic, and unpredictable across space and time. What is\\u000a the diversity in interpretation of these ideas among today’s ecologists, and what does this mean for environmental management?\\u000a This study used a Policy Delphi survey of ecologists to explore their perspectives on a number of current topics in ecology.\\u000a The results showed general

Susan A. Moore; Tabatha J. Wallington; Richard J. Hobbs; Paul R. Ehrlich; C. S. Holling; Simon Levin; David Lindenmayer; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Hugh Possingham; Monica G. Turner; Mark Westoby

2009-01-01

41

Accelerate Synthesis in Ecology and Environmental Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ecology is a leading discipline in the synthesis of diverse knowledge. Ecologists have had considerable experience in bringing together diverse, multinational data sets, disciplines, and cultural perspectives to address a wide range of issues in basic and applied science. Now is the time to build on this foundation and invest in ecological synthesis through new national or international programs. While synthesis takes place through many mechanisms, including individual efforts, working groups, and research networks, centers are extraordinarily effective institutional settings for advancing synthesis projects.

Stephen Carpenter (University of Wisconsin;Center for Limnology)

2009-09-01

42

INTEGRATING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, ECOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

Current agricultural practices are contributing to environmental degradation, which also threatens the sustainability of agricultural production. cology has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of a sustainable and environmentally sound agriculture. owever...

43

An Ecological Basis for Integrated Environmental Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, approaches to environmental management activities have been reactive rather than proactive. Environmental laws and regulations have been generated primarily in response to particular issues (e.g., chemical contamination), creating a piecemeal approach for managing the environment. Responsibilities for managing different resources (e.g., water, air, forests, wildlife) have been assigned to different agencies or groups within government, further fragmenting environmental management.

Douglas P. Reagan

2006-01-01

44

Ecological Intelligence and Environmental Education: My Journey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of us are intentional in considering the environment when performing our daily tasks. But how many of us really know the true impacts of our "green" behaviors on the environment? Indeed, is it possible that engaging in green efforts can actually be counterproductive or detrimental to the environment? In his book, "Ecological Intelligence: How…

Bouley, Theresa M.

2012-01-01

45

Connecting Local to Global: Geographic Information Systems and Ecological Footprints as Tools for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools that support public engagement with sustainability are essential for local sustainability planning. This research investigates the ability of two geographic information system (GIS)-based tools to promote discussion of sustainability in a suburban context. A local ecological footprint tool and a community environmental atlas (an environmentally themed online mapping system) were created for seven suburban boroughs of Montreal. Variations of

Sonja Klinsky; Renée Sieber; Thom Meredith

2010-01-01

46

FISHER INFORMATION AND DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher Information and Dynamic Regime Changes in Ecological Systems Abstract for the 3rd Conference of the International Society for Ecological Informatics Audrey L. Mayer, Christopher W. Pawlowski, and Heriberto Cabezas The sustainable nature of particular dynamic...

47

Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

1987-03-01

48

Small estuaries: Ecology, environmental drivers and management challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is a 'small estuary'? Which environmental or anthropogenic factors rule these systems? What are the problems in managing small estuaries? In this special issue we collate current geomorphological, biogeochemical and ecological research on small estuaries, and we highlight managerial challenges and concerns.

Callaway, Ruth; Grenfell, Suzanne; Lønborg, Christian

2014-10-01

49

WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS: INTEGRATING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, ECOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of ecological research in supporting development of one aspect of sustainable use, sustainable agriculture, was evaluated at a conference organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Arlington, Virginia, July 22-23, 1991. griculture contributes to many ...

50

TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY PROTOCOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS; WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is the proceedings of a workshop held in Corvallis, Oregon, during November 1978, to discuss potential tests for inclusion in, and make recommendations for, a terrestrial ecology bioassay testing protocol for use in EPA/IERTL-RTP's environmental assessment programs. Th...

51

Profiting from prior information in Bayesian analyses of ecological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Most ecological studies include prior information only implicitly, usually in their design or the discussion of results. In this study, two examples demonstrate that using Bayesian statistics to incorporate basic ecological principles and prior data can be very cost-effective for increasing confidence in ecological research. 2. The first example is based on examining the effects of an experimental

MICHAEL A. McCARTHY; PIP MASTERS

2005-01-01

52

Simulating evolutionary responses of an introgressed insect resistance trait for ecological effect assessment of transgene flow: a model for supporting informed decision-making in environmental risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Predicting outcomes of transgene flow from arable crops requires a system perspective that considers ecological and evolutionary processes within a landscape context. In Europe, the arable weed Raphanus raphanistrum is a potential hybridization partner of oilseed rape, and the two species are ecologically linked through the common herbivores Meligethes spp. Observations in Switzerland show that high densities of Meligethes beetles maintained by oilseed rape crops can lead to considerable damage on R. raphanistrum. We asked how increased insect resistance in R. raphanistrum – as might be acquired through introgression from transgenic oilseed rape – would affect seed production under natural herbivore pressure. In simulation experiments, plants protected against Meligethes beetles produced about twice as many seeds as unprotected plants. All stages in the development of reproductive structures from buds to pods were negatively affected by the herbivore, with the transition from buds to flowers being the most vulnerable. We conclude that resistance to Meligethes beetles could confer a considerable selective advantage upon R. raphanistrum in regions where oilseed rape is widely grown. PMID:23467842

Meier, Matthias S; Trtikova, Miluse; Suter, Matthias; Edwards, Peter J; Hilbeck, Angelika

2013-01-01

53

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK: CORRELATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

54

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

55

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

56

HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSOCIATIONS AMONH HUMAN HEALTH, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

While all life is affected by the quality of the environment, environmental risk factors for human and wildlife health are typically assessed using independent processes that are dissimilar in scale and scope. However, the integrated analysis of human, ecological, and environmen...

57

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: An ecological status and trends program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. The program is also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of EPA policies in protecting the ecological resources of these systems. The monitoring data collected for

J. F. Paul; A. F. Holland; S. C. Schimmel; J. K. Summers; K. J. Scott

1990-01-01

58

From process to proxy: Ecological challenges and opportunities of tree-ring based environmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees are sessile, long-living organisms and as such constantly need to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Accordingly, they often show high phenotypic plasticity (the ability to change phenotypic traits, such as allocation of resources) in response to environmental change. This high phenotypic plasticity is generally considered as one of the main ingredients for a sessile organism to survive and reach high ages. Precisely because of the ability of trees to reach old age and their in-ability to simply run away when conditions get worse, growth information recorded in tree rings has long been used as a major environmental proxy, covering time scales from decades to millennia. Past environmental conditions (e.g. climate) are recorded in i.e. annual tree-ring width, early- and latewood width, wood density, isotopic concentrations, cell anatomy or wood chemistry. One prerequisite for a reconstruction is that the relationship between the environmental variable influencing tree growth and the tree-growth variable itself is stable through time. This, however, might contrast the ecological theory of high plasticity and the trees ability to adapt to change. To untangle possible mechanisms leading to stable or unstable relationships between tree growth and environmental variables, it is helpful to have exact site information and several proxy variables of each tree-ring series available. Although we gain insight into the environmental history of a sampling site when sampling today, this is extremely difficult when using archeological wood. In this latter case, we face the additional challenge of unknown origin, provenance and (or) site conditions, making it even more important to use multiple proxy time-series from the same sample. Here, we review typical examples, where the relationship between tree growth and environmental variables seems 1) stable and 2) instable through time, and relate these two cases to ecological theory. Based on ecological theory, we then give recommendations to improve the reliability of environmental reconstructions using tree rings.

Wilmking, Martin; Buras, Allan; Heinrich, Ingo; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Smiljanic, Marko; van der Maaten, Ernst; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke

2014-05-01

59

CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 9: Shore zone land use and land cover; Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the land use and land cover maps provides a stratification of the CARETS shore area into regions which have a similar environmental organization. Different elements of the landscape are altered less frequently moving inland. Near the beach, higher frequency of monitoring is needed than is needed in the inland areas, including the marsh and estuarine areas.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

1975-01-01

60

MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

61

Ecological literacy: the ‘missing paradigm’ in environmental education (part one)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental educators often maintain that primary school education should endeavour to improve and protect the environment through producing an ‘environmentally informed, committed and active citizenry’, yet existing research shows that the implementation of environmental education in primary schools is problematic and has had limited success. The reasons for these shortcomings are far from clear, with present research merely speculating about

Amy Cutter-Mackenzie; Richard Smith

2003-01-01

62

The Use of Carbon Substrate Utilization Patterns in Environmental and Ecological Microbiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon substrate utilization patterns have found increasing use in environmental and ecological microbiology over the past\\u000a five years. Ninety six-well microtiter plates containing various carbon substrates permit these patterns to be determined\\u000a quickly, economically, and effectively. The use of these patterns to characterize and differentiate strains isolated from\\u000a the environment has been very effective in providing information on the culturable

A. Konopka; L. Oliver

1998-01-01

63

ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later)  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY (for students entering Biology in Fall 2011 or later course other than BIOL 54200 124 Total Credits BIOLOGY: 1. BIOL 12100 Biology I: Diversity, Ecology 28600 Intro. to Ecology and Evolution (2 cr.; spring) or BIOL 29500, Intro. to Evolution & Ecology (2 cr

Jiang, Wen

64

COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

1 COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Claudio and social equity are among the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals - but, unfortunately proposes Commoning and Common Information Systems as a possible tentative to facilitate the inclusion

Boyer, Edmond

65

Environmental audit of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), principally in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. The audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s), Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), beginning September 13, 1993, and ending September 23, 1993. The scope of the audit at SREL was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater/soil, sediment, and biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive Waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of SREL operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices.

Not Available

1993-09-01

66

Community-Driven Initiatives to Achieve Interoperability for Ecological and Environmental Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in ecology and environmental science increasingly depend on information from multiple disciplines to tackle broader and more complex questions about the natural world. Such advances, however, are hindered by data heterogeneity, which impedes the ability of researchers to discover, interpret, and integrate relevant data that have been collected by others. Here, we outline two community-building initiatives for improving data interoperability in the ecological and environmental sciences, one that is well-established (the Ecological Metadata Language [EML]), and another that is actively underway (a unified model for observations and measurements). EML is a metadata specification developed for the ecology discipline, and is based on prior work done by the Ecological Society of America and associated efforts to ensure a modular and extensible framework to document ecological data. EML "modules" are designed to describe one logical part of the total metadata that should be included with any ecological dataset. EML was developed through a series of working meetings, ongoing discussion forums and email lists, with participation from a broad range of ecological and environmental scientists, as well as computer scientists and software developers. Where possible, EML adopted syntax from the other metadata standards for other disciplines (e.g., Dublin Core, Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, and more). Although EML has not yet been ratified through a standards body, it has become the de facto metadata standard for a large range of ecological data management projects, including for the Long Term Ecological Research Network, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, and the Ecological Society of America. The second community-building initiative is based on work through the Scientific Environment for Ecological Knowledge (SEEK) as well as a recent workshop on multi-disciplinary data management. This initiative aims at improving interoperability by describing the semantics of data at the level of observation and measurement (rather than the traditional focus at the level of the data set) and will define the necessary specifications and technologies to facilitate semantic interpretation and integration of observational data for the environmental sciences. As such, this initiative will focus on unifying the various existing approaches for representing and describing observation data (e.g., SEEK's Observation Ontology, CUAHSI's Observation Data Model, NatureServe's Observation Data Standard, to name a few). Products of this initiative will be compatible with existing standards and build upon recent advances in knowledge representation (e.g., W3C's recommended Web Ontology Language, OWL) that have demonstrated practical utility in enhancing scientific communication and data interoperability in other communities (e.g., the genomics community). A community-sanctioned, extensible, and unified model for observational data will support metadata standards such as EML while reducing the "babel" of scientific dialects that currently impede effective data integration, which will in turn provide a strong foundation for enabling cross-disciplinary synthetic research in the ecological and environmental sciences.

Madin, J.; Bowers, S.; Jones, M.; Schildhauer, M.

2007-12-01

67

Factors influencing acquisition of ecological and exposure information about hazards and risks from contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Considerable research indicates that a wide range of socio-economic factors influence attitudes and perceptions about environmental hazards and risks, and that social trust in those who manage a hazard is strongly correlated to judgements about risks and benefits. We suggest that there are three steps that lead to environmental risk perceptions: acquisition of information, interpretation and synthesis of different pieces of information, and understanding of that information in light of previous knowledge, perceptions, or attitudes. In this study we presented 211 college students in the sciences and non-sciences with ecological and exposure information using text, tables and maps to examine the factors that affect information acquisition and interpretation concerning ecological issues at a fictitious hazardous waste site. Students were allowed about an hour to read the materials and answer questions. The percent of students answering each question correctly varied from 4 to 82%, indicating that some questions were extremely difficult to answer. We attributed these differences to variations in the number of places information was presented (in text, tables, maps, or a combination) and the complexity of the information (how many pieces of information were required to answer the question correctly). The correlation between the number of students answering each question correctly and these combined measures (frequency, complexity) was -0.72. Thus, although there were differences in accuracy concerning ecological information as presented in this study, the major differences were accounted for by how the information was presented, and how much information was required. This suggests that risk communicators should carefully determine which ecological information is critical for the target audience, and ensure that it is presented several times (in different forms). That a lower percentage of people correctly answered questions that required synthesizing several pieces of information suggests that this complexity should be reduced where possible, or that the pieces of information should be tied clearly to the conclusion. Self-declaration of effort and perceptions of safety of the site did not markedly influence the relationship between accuracy, difficulty of finding information, and complexity of information. Other possible confounding variables (i.e., science vs non-science major) only accounted for about 27% of the variation in student's overall score on ecological questions; age, ethnicity, and gender did not enter as significant variables. We cannot manage environmental hazards with appropriate stakeholder input unless we understand how to present environmental information to achieve a full understanding. Protection of human health and the environment requires that people understand ecological and exposure information, particularly on buffer lands. PMID:17622500

Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael; Gochfeld, Michael; Shukla, Sheila; Lowrie, Karen; Keren, Roger

2008-02-01

68

The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flow regime is a primary determinant of the structure and function of aquatic and riparian ecosystems for streams and rivers. Hydrologic alteration has impaired riverine ecosystems on a global scale, and the pace and intensity of human development greatly exceeds the ability of scientists to assess the effects on a river-by-river basis. Current scientific understanding of hydrologic controls on riverine ecosystems and experience gained from individual river studies support development of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. 2. This paper presents a consensus view from a group of international scientists on a new framework for assessing environmental flow needs for many streams and rivers simultaneously to foster development and implementation of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. This framework, the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA), is a synthesis of a number of existing hydrologic techniques and environmental flow methods that are currently being used to various degrees and that can support comprehensive regional flow management. The flexible approach allows scientists, water-resource managers and stakeholders to analyse and synthesise available scientific information into ecologically based and socially acceptable goals and standards for management of environmental flows. 3. The ELOHA framework includes the synthesis of existing hydrologic and ecological databases from many rivers within a user-defined region to develop scientifically defensible and empirically testable relationships between flow alteration and ecological responses. These relationships serve as the basis for the societally driven process of developing regional flow standards. This is to be achieved by first using hydrologic modelling to build a 'hydrologic foundation' of baseline and current hydrographs for stream and river segments throughout the region. Second, using a set of ecologically relevant flow variables, river segments within the region are classified into a few distinctive flow regime types that are expected to have different ecological characteristics. These river types can be further subclassified according to important geomorphic features that define hydraulic habitat features. Third, the deviation of current-condition flows from baseline-condition flow is determined. Fourth, flow alteration-ecological response relationships are developed for each river type, based on a combination of existing hydroecological literature, expert knowledge and field studies across gradients of hydrologic alteration. 4. Scientific uncertainty will exist in the flow alteration-ecological response relationships, in part because of the confounding of hydrologic alteration with other important environmental determinants of river ecosystem condition (e.g. temperature). Application of the ELOHA framework should therefore occur in a consensus context where stakeholders and decision-makers explicitly evaluate acceptable risk as a balance between the perceived value of the ecological goals, the economic costs involved and the scientific uncertainties in functional relationships between ecological responses and flow alteration. 5. The ELOHA framework also should proceed in an adaptive management context, where collection of monitoring data or targeted field sampling data allows for testing of the proposed flow alteration-ecological response relationships. This empirical validation process allows for a fine-tuning of environmental flow management targets. The ELOHA framework can be used both to guide basic research in hydroecology and to further implementation of more comprehensive environmental flow management of freshwater sustainability on a global scale. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, M.C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

2010-01-01

69

Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen ?2H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic deuterium/hydrogen stable isotope ratios (i.e., 2H/1H, expressed as ?2H value in ‰) in animal tissues are related to the 2H/1H in diet and ingested water. Bone collagen preserves the biochemical 2H/1H isotopic signal in the ?2H value of collagen's non-exchangeable hydrogen. Therefore, ?2H preserved in bone collagen has the potential to constrain environmental and trophic conditions, which is of interest to researchers studying of both living and fossil vertebrates. Our data examine the relationship of ?2H values of collagen with geographic variation in ?2H of meteoric waters, with local variations in the ecology and trophic level of species, and with the transition from mother's milk to adult diet. Based on 97 individuals from 22 marine and terrestrial vertebrates (predominately mammals), we found the relationships of collagen ?2H to both geographic variation in meteoric water ?2H (R2 = 0.55) and to ?15N in bone collagen (R2 = 0.17) statistically significant but weaker than previously reported. The second strongest control on collagen ?2H in our data is dietary, with nearly 50 percent of the variance in ?2H explained by trophic level (R2 = 0.47). Trophic level effects potentially confound the local meteoric signal if not held constant: herbivores tend to have the lowest ?2H values, omnivores have intermediate ones, and carnivores have the highest values. Body size (most likely related to mass-specific metabolic rates) has a strong influence on collagen ?2H (R2 = 0.30), by causing greater sensitivity in smaller animals to seasonal climate variations and/or high evapotranspiration leading to 2H-enrichment in tissues. In marine mammals weaning produces a dramatic effect on collagen ?2H with adult values being universally higher than pup values (R2 = 0.79). Interestingly, the shift in ?15N at weaning is downward, even though normally hydrogen and nitrogen isotope ratios are positively correlated with one another in respect to trophic level. Our findings suggest that in carnivores, which have an especially high variance in ?2H, large samples are needed to separate signals from precipitation, trophic level, body size, and age. For ?2H of fossil collagen to be useful as a proxy of environmental or dietary information, these confounding effects need to be understood, which means careful selection of a study species. Further, ?2H from a single fossil bone collagen is likely to be uninterpretable.

Topalov, Katarina; Schimmelmann, Arndt; David Polly, P.; Sauer, Peter E.; Lowry, Mark

2013-06-01

70

Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis.  

PubMed

During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V; Collinson, Margaret E; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Sephton, Mark A

2004-08-31

71

Model Organisms Retain an “Ecological Memory” of Complex Ecologically Relevant Environmental Variation  

PubMed Central

Although tractable model organisms are essential to characterize the molecular mechanisms of evolution and adaptation, the ecological relevance of their behavior is not always clear because certain traits are easily lost during long-term laboratory culturing. Here, we demonstrate that despite their long tenure in the laboratory, model organisms retain “ecological memory” of complex environmental changes. We have discovered that Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, a halophilic archaeon that dominates microbial communities in a dynamically changing hypersaline environment, simultaneously optimizes fitness to total salinity, NaCl concentration, and the [K]/[Mg] ratio. Despite being maintained under controlled conditions over the last 50 years, peaks in the three-dimensional fitness landscape occur in salinity and ionic compositions that are not replicated in laboratory culturing but are routinely observed in the natural hypersaline environment of this organism. Intriguingly, adaptation to variations in ion composition was associated with differential regulation of anaerobic metabolism genes, suggesting an intertwined relationship between responses to oxygen and salinity. Our results suggest that the ecological memory of complex environmental variations is imprinted in the networks for coordinating multiple cellular processes. These coordination networks are also essential for dealing with changes in other physicochemically linked factors present during routine laboratory culturing and, hence, retained in model organisms. PMID:24413600

Beer, Karlyn D.; Wurtmann, Elisabeth J.; Pinel, Nicolás

2014-01-01

72

Remediation of ecosystems damaged by environmental contamination: Applications of ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the applicability of ecological engineering to pollution problems prevalent in present-day Central and Eastern Europe, a SCOPE-UNEP sponsored workshop was held in Estonia in November 1995. The workshop was undertaken specifically to obtain information from and to train planners, managers and scientists in the region. These `countries in transition' face, in many respects, unique environmental problems as a

W. J Mitsch; Ü Mander

1997-01-01

73

Environmental indivisibilities and information costs: fanaticism, agnosticism, and intellectual progress  

SciTech Connect

This analysis suggests several distinctive policy recommendations about environmental problems. One is that some of the alarms about ecological catastrophes cannot simply be dismissed, even when some of those who sound the alarms seem almost fanatic. The information needed to be sure one way or another is simply lacking, and may not be attainable at reasonable cost for a long time. We are therefore left with inevitable risk. Ecological systems could also be incomparably more robust than the alarmists claim, so we might also be worrying needlessly. The implication for environmental and ecological research is that we should not exprect that it will produce conclusive information, but should fund a lot of it anyhow. If previous research has produced few compelling results, valid information about these problems is scarce and therefore more valuable. The harvest of research in the areas characterized by indivisibilities is then poor but precious knowledge. If it is important to be able to change behavior quickly, when and if we finally get the information that the ecosystem can't take any more, then it is important that we have the open-mindedness needed to change our views and policies the moment decisive information arrives. Those who shout wolf too often, and those who are sure there are no wolves around, could be our undoing.

Olson, M.

1982-05-01

74

International Association for Ecology Environmental and Physiological Regulation of Transpiration in Tropical Forest Gap Species  

E-print Network

International Association for Ecology Environmental and Physiological Regulation of Transpiration for Ecology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4220916 Accessed: 29/11/2010 14:33 Your use of the JSTOR Association for Ecology are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Oecologia

Holbrook, N. Michele

75

REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: AN INFORMATION THEORY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

We present our efforts at developing an ecological system using Information Theory. We derive an expression for Fisher Information based on sampling of the system trajectory as it evolves in the state space. The Fisher Information index as we have derived it captures the characte...

76

NEW APPROACHES IN RISK ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS TO HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the application of novel techniques for improving and integrating risk analysis of environmental stressors to human and ecological systems. Environmental protection decisions are guided by risk assessments serving as tools to develop regulatory policy and other relate...

77

Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain  

SciTech Connect

To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.e [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Navarra) (Spain); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.e [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Navarra) (Spain)

2010-11-15

78

Maximum information entropy: a foundation for ecological theory.  

PubMed

The maximum information entropy (MaxEnt) principle is a successful method of statistical inference that has recently been applied to ecology. Here, we show how MaxEnt can accurately predict patterns such as species-area relationships (SARs) and abundance distributions in macroecology and be a foundation for ecological theory. We discuss the conceptual foundation of the principle, why it often produces accurate predictions of probability distributions in science despite not incorporating explicit mechanisms, and how mismatches between predictions and data can shed light on driving mechanisms in ecology. We also review possible future extensions of the maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE), a potentially important foundation for future developments in ecological theory. PMID:24863182

Harte, John; Newman, Erica A

2014-07-01

79

The ecological relevance of current approaches for environmental protection from exposure to ionising radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current approaches to environmental protection from ionising radiation from an ecological perspective, highlighting the need to understand fully what we are trying to protect. Ecologically relevant endpoints for environmental protection are discussed along with the need to integrate protection from ionising radiation with the approaches adopted for non-radioactive contaminants. A possible integrated assessment approach is outlined.

David Copplestone; Brenda J. Howard; François Bréchignac

2004-01-01

80

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.

2012-01-01

81

The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

Detlor, Brian

2001-01-01

82

Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

83

Environmental Engineering; Process Technology; Information Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. This episode of ATETV examines three important and growing technological fields: environmental engineering, process technology, and information security. The video can be viewed whole or in three segments: "Environmental Engineering," "Process Technology," and "Information Security." The running time for the full episode is 9:22.

2010-11-30

84

An ecological framework of place: situating environmental gerontology within a life course perspective.  

PubMed

This article presents an emergent heuristic framework for the core environmental gerontology concept of "place." Place has been a central concern in the field since the 1970s (Gubrium, 1978) for its hypothesized direct relationship to identity, the self, and agency--suggestive of the appropriateness of lateral theoretical linkages with developmental science. The Ecological Framework of Place (EFP) defines place as a socio-physical milieu involving people, the physical setting, and the program of the place, all catalyzed by situated human activity and fully acknowledging that all four may change over time. The article begins with a concise overview of the EFP before moving on to consider it within three theoretical terrains: place theory, developmental science theory, and environmental gerontology theory. The EFP will be argued to be a place theory which subsumes themes of emergent environmental gerontology theories within a developmental science perspective. Implications for theory, method and practice are discussed. One of the strengths of the model is its ability to serve both research and practice, as is exhibited in its ability to incorporate applied design research and inform architectural decision-making so often lacking in other environmental gerontology models. Place should be viewed as an integrative concept providing opportunities for both environmental gerontology and developmental science to more critically concern the profound role places have in terms of agency, identity and sense of self over the life course. PMID:25622472

Moore, Keith Diaz

2014-01-01

85

Environmental Certification of Forests in Mexico: The Political Ecology of a Nongovernmental Market Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The certification of the environmental and social characteristics of a product's production process is emerging as a significant transnational, nongovernmental, market-based approach to environmental regulation and development. Using conventions analysis and commodity network analysis, this article examines the political ecology of one such market intervention. After only a decade, environmental certification of forests has spread to cover a significant portion

Dan Klooster

2006-01-01

86

Ecological Assessments for Regional Development in Bulgaria: Implications for Environmental Policy Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) referred h ere as ecological assessment (EA), is a critical tool for integrating environmental concern s into decision-making and improving governance for sustainability. Therefore, its appli cation and influence on the policy-making can be a useful indicator for measuring the progress to wards environmental policy integration (EPI). Essentially, this paper looks at EA for regional de

Keti Medarova-Bergstrom

87

Artificial persons against nature: environmental governmentality, economic corporations, and ecological ethics.  

PubMed

Despite the 194 nation-state signatories to the global Convention on Biological Diversity, the conservation effort is failing to halt an ongoing spiral of decline in most habitats and ecological communities on land and ocean. Environmental ethicists argue that the failure to halt the unsustainable predation on the ecosystems that sustain industrial civilization is indicative of a moral as well as a scientific crisis. Principal ethical interventions in ecology include the ascription of value to species and ecosystems, wilderness ethics, and ecological virtue. Ecological virtue ethics identifies agency, character, institutions, and practices as crucial to moral formation and outcomes. However, the dominant role of the economic corporation in ecological destruction subverts a virtues approach. Corporations as fictive persons will not learn ecological virtue absent of legal and regulatory reform and the ecological education of business leaders and owners. PMID:22168354

Northcott, Michael S

2012-02-01

88

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center, National...

2012-01-01

89

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center, National...

2011-01-01

90

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center, National...

2013-01-01

91

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950...INFORMATION § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC...should be addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center, National...

2014-01-01

92

Environmental Education and the Science of Ecology: Exploration of an Uneasy Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While modern science is receiving harsh criticism within the framework of environmental education, at the same time ecology is presented as an alternative science, characterized as 'holistic' and 'non-exploitative'. However, many of the characteristics of the science of ecology do not comply with its characterization as alternative science.…

Korfiatis, Konstantinos J.

2005-01-01

93

www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America Global environmental change has moved our world  

E-print Network

, including habitat loss and degradation, water resource demands, toxic contam- inants, and invasive species456 www.frontiersinecology.org © The Ecological Society of America Global environmental change has years to: US CLIMATE-CHANGE IMPACTS Climate-change impacts on ecological systems: introduction to a US

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

94

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective and disgnostic assessments of the ecological risk of toxic chemicals require a thorough integration of aspects of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Failure to successfully achieve this can result in a lack of scientific credibility, as well as missed opportuniti...

95

Environmental agency providing policy relevant information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental protection agencies are the major providers of comprehensive environmental information to the policy-makers and politician. Information designed for policy-makers should be integrated, carefully selected and aggregated, accompanied with appropriate interpretation. During the process of aggregating the purpose of such aggregation should be kept in focus. Meteorological, climatological and hydrological information should be regarded as part of the integral environmental information. In order to enable high compatibility of environmental information with other kind of information GIS approach was introduced as an efficient and easy tool to present various combinations of data. GIS based Environmental atlas with above 100 layers available is an example of such application. EIONET and SEIS are powerful tools to implement reporting obligations and information providing to policy-makers, general and scientific community. Benefits and priorities for SEIS will be outlined. Some examples including implementation of the INSPIRE directive at the national level, environmental report, environmental indicators and country report to the EU, EEA, OECD, EUROSTAT, UNEP and UNFCCC will be presented.

Urban?i?, J.; Cegnar, T.

2009-09-01

96

The Effects of Ecology-Based Summer Nature Education Program on Primary School Students' Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Affect and Responsible Environmental Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of ecology-based nature education program on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, environmental affect, and responsible environmental behavior. A total number of 64 elementary school students including 26 females and 38 males who participated in summer natural education organized…

Erdogan, Mehmet

2011-01-01

97

Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation  

E-print Network

Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation Nikki Traylor 93950, USA Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts

Palumbi, Stephen

98

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel.

Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

1982-06-01

99

Factors influencing local ecological knowledge maintenance in Mediterranean watersheds: Insights for environmental policies.  

PubMed

Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been found to be one of the main bridges to manage biocultural diversity. We analyzed the factors affecting LEK maintenance and transmission in a Mediterranean watershed. We used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the agricultural LEK in three different dimensions: biological, soil and water management, and forecasting. We found that the main factors for its maintenance were the respondent's time living in the area and the social relationships established among farmers, which involved partner collaboration and farmer information exchanges. Protected areas also played a key role for maintaining the LEK associated with soil and water management. Finally, we found that outmigration and mechanization were the most important indirect drivers of change underlying LEK erosion. We suggest that environmental policies should focus on promoting this experiential knowledge, considering both intergenerational renewal and the gendered aspects of this knowledge. PMID:25286985

Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Del Amo, David García; García-Nieto, Ana Paula; Piñeiro, Concepción; Montes, Carlos; Martín-López, Berta

2014-10-01

100

Information Sharing and Environmental Policies  

PubMed Central

Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes. PMID:21139849

Antoniou, Fabio; Koundouri, Phoebe; Tsakiris, Nikos

2010-01-01

101

Green urban political ecologies: toward a better understanding of inner-city environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research uses a Marxist urban political ecology framework to link processes of urban environmental metabolization explicitly to the consumption fund of the built environment. Instead of reinventing the wheel, I argue in this paper that Marxist notions of metabolism are ideal for investigating urban environmental change and the production of uneven urban environments. In so doing, I argue that

Nik Heynen

2006-01-01

102

Environmental factors and ecological processes controlling vegetation patterns in boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual tree model of forest dynamics was used to examine the environmental and ecological factors controlling forest vegetation patterns in upland boreal forests of North America. Basic life history traits that characterized the regeneration, growth, and death of individual trees were combined with species-specific responses to important environmental factors. This model simulated forest structure and vegetation patterns in conifer,

Gordon B. Bonan

1989-01-01

103

CONVERGENCE OF ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RISK ASSESSMENT: TOWARDS HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A major emphasis of environmental monitoring and assessment programs is to characterize the condition of natural resources. When repeated through time, ecological assessments (EA) can be used to track changes in environmental condition that reflect on the efficacy of regulatory a...

104

EPA's environmental monitoring and assessment program: An ecological status and trends program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the nation's near coastal waters, forests, wetlands, agroecosystems, surface waters, and arid lands. The program is also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of Agency policies at protecting ecological resources occurring in these systems. Monitoring data collected for all these

J. F. Paul; F. Holland; J. K. Summers; S. C. Schimmel; K. J. Scott

1991-01-01

105

Hip-Hop, Social Justice, and Environmental Education: Toward a Critical Ecological Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay describes an educational initiative that used environmentally themed (green) hip-hop to stimulate learning in an environmental science classroom. Students were then challenged to compose their own green hip-hop and their lyrics demonstrated skills that have thematic consistency around what is called a Critical Ecological Literacy (CEL).…

Cermak, Michael J.

2012-01-01

106

Ecological genetics of populations experiencing changing environmental conditions   

E-print Network

A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how ecological factors shape the phenotypic and genetic variation that we observe in natural populations and in this thesis I examine how rapid changes in temperature ...

Husby, Arild

2010-06-26

107

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel. The purpose of the Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center is to collect, analyze, store, and make available descriptions of the environment of transportation expressed in engineering terms. The data stored in the Center are expected to be useful in a variety of transportation related analyses. Formulations of environmental criteria for shipment of cargo, risk assessments, and detailed structural analyses of shipping containers are examples where these data have been applied. For purposes of indexing and data retrieval, the data are catalogued under two major headings: Normal and Abnormal Environments.

Davidson, C. A.; Foley, J. T.

1980-10-01

108

Analytic Hierarchy Process for Personalising Environmental Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents how a Geographical Information System (GIS) can be incorporated in an intelligent learning software system for environmental matters. The system is called ALGIS and incorporates the GIS in order to present effectively information about the physical and anthropogenic environment of Greece in a more interactive way. The system…

Kabassi, Katerina

2014-01-01

109

Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

110

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS) FACT SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the fact sheet is to provide information about the US EPA Office of Research and Developments Environmental Information Management System. The fact sheet indicates the type of records that are in EIMS, systems that are integrated with EIMS as well as some highligh...

111

Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center  

SciTech Connect

This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

Maza, B.G.

1991-02-01

112

A rhetorical approach to environmental information sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`Faceted search' has recently been widely adopted as a powerful information discovery framework, enabling users to navigate a complex landscape of information by successive refinement along key dimensions. The compelling user experience that results has seen adoption of faceted search by online retailers, media outlets, and encyclopedic publishers. A key challenge with faceted browse is the choice of suitable search dimensions, or facets. Conventional facet analysis adopts principles of exclusivity and exhaustiveness; identifying facets on their relevance to the subject and discrimination ability (Spiteri, 1998). The rhetoricians of ancient Greece defined seven dimensions (`circumstances') of analytical enquiry: who, what, when, where, why, in what way, by what means. These provide a broadly applicable framework that may be seen in Ranganathan's classic (`PMEST') scheme for facet analysis. The utility of the `Five Ws' is also manifest through their adoption in daily discourse and pedagogical frameworks. If we apply the `Five Ws' to environmental information, we arrive at a model very close to the `O&M' (ISO 19156) conceptual model for standardised exchange of environmental observation and measurements data: * who: metadata * what: observed property * when: time of observation * where: feature of interest * why: metadata * how: procedure Thus, we adopt an approach for distributed environmental information sharing which factors the architecture into components aligned with the `Five Ws' (or O&M). We give an overview of this architecture and its information classes, components, interfaces and standards. We also describe how it extends the classic SDI architecture to provide additional specific benefit for environmental information. Finally, we offer a perspective on the architecture which may be seen as a `brokering' overlay to environmental information resources, enabling an O&M-conformant view. The approach to be presented is being adopted by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as the basis for a National Environmental Information Infrastructure.

Woolf, Andrew

2014-05-01

113

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William

1998-09-01

114

Reactor operation environmental information document  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

1989-12-01

115

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Upgrades and additional environmental information. 26.5 Section 26...Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT... § 26.5 Upgrades and additional environmental information. (a)...

2011-07-01

116

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Upgrades and additional environmental information. 26.5 Section 26...Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT... § 26.5 Upgrades and additional environmental information. (a)...

2012-07-01

117

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Upgrades and additional environmental information. 26.5 Section 26...Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT... § 26.5 Upgrades and additional environmental information. (a)...

2013-07-01

118

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Upgrades and additional environmental information. 26.5 Section 26...Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT... § 26.5 Upgrades and additional environmental information. (a)...

2014-07-01

119

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Upgrades and additional environmental information. 26.5 Section 26...Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT... § 26.5 Upgrades and additional environmental information. (a)...

2010-07-01

120

National Voluntary Environmental Assessment Information System (NVEAIS) Notice of Participation  

E-print Network

Voluntary Environmental Assessment Information System (NVEAIS) Notice of Participation This document identifies the agency/program and personnel participating in the National Voluntary Environmental Assessment all foodborne illness outbreak environmental assessment data into the NVEAIS. Information collected

121

Advancing a Political Ecology of Global Environmental Discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade international and national environmental policy and action have been dominated by issues generally defined as global environmental problems. In this article, we identify the major discourses associated with four global environmental issues: deforestation, desertification, biodiversity use and climate change. These discourses are analysed in terms of their messages, narrative structures and policy prescriptions. We find striking

W. Neil Adger; Tor A. Benjaminsen; Katrina Brown; Hanne Svarstad

2001-01-01

122

Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

Seydel, Jennifer

123

Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

124

An ecological decision framework for environmental restoration projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem restoration projects require planning and monitoring to maximize project success relative to costs, yet many projects completed thus far have been planned on an ad hoc, consensus basis and are virtually ignored after revegetation at the site is complete. We describe a formalized planning process geared specifically to the needs of ecological restoration projects (and ecosystem rehabilitation or management

Robert A Pastorok; Anne MacDonald; Jennifer R Sampson; Pace Wilber; David J Yozzo; John P Titre

1997-01-01

125

EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the World Resources Institute (WRI) with assistance from several sponsors, EarthTrends is an environmental information portal, offering searchable databases, data tables, country profiles, maps, and feature articles in ten topical sections. These include Coastal and Marine Ecosystems, Climate and Atmosphere, Agriculture and Food, and Forests and Grasslands, among others. The databases may be searched by country, region, variable, and year. Data tables and country profiles are provided in .pdf format. This slick-looking and fast-loading site is an excellent source of authoritative environmental information for teachers, students, and interested users.

126

Using Wetlands to Teach Ecology & Environmental Awareness in General Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents advantages of using wetlands educationally and their relevance to local, national, and global environmental issues. Discusses field trips to mangrove forests and freshwater marshes. (Author/MKR)

O'Neal, Lyman H.

1995-01-01

127

PRESENTATION ON EPAS ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Information Management System (EIMS), which integrates descriptive information (metadata) and data, is a system to capture, store, manage, and distribute information about environmental resources collected, developed, and used by EPA and its state and regional p...

128

30 CFR 783.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2013-07-01

129

30 CFR 783.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2011-07-01

130

30 CFR 779.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2011-07-01

131

30 CFR 779.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2012-07-01

132

30 CFR 783.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2012-07-01

133

30 CFR 783.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2014-07-01

134

30 CFR 779.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2013-07-01

135

30 CFR 779.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES...environmental resources information. Each application...is anticipated that individual permits for mining...based on all available information, including, but not... (ii) Conduct of field investigations,...

2014-07-01

136

Pathogen survival trajectories: an eco-environmental approach to the modeling of human campylobacteriosis ecology.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacteriosis, like many human diseases, has its own ecology in which the propagation of human infection and disease depends on pathogen survival and finding new hosts in order to replicate and sustain the pathogen population. The complexity of this process, a process common to other enteric pathogens, has hampered control efforts. Many unknowns remain, resulting in a poorly understood disease ecology. To provide structure to these unknowns and help direct further research and intervention, we propose an eco-environmental modeling approach for campylobacteriosis. This modeling approach follows the pathogen population as it moves through the environments that define the physical structure of its ecology. In this paper, we term the ecologic processes and environments through which these populations move "pathogen survival trajectories." Although such a modeling approach could have veterinary applications, our emphasis is on human campylobacteriosis and focuses on human exposures to Campylobacter through feces, food, and aquatic environments. The pathogen survival trajectories that lead to human exposure include ecologic filters that limit population size, e.g., cooking food to kill Campylobacter. Environmental factors that influence the size of the pathogen reservoirs include temperature, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the period of time the pathogen population is moving through the environment between infected and susceptible hosts. We anticipate that the modeling approach proposed here will work symbiotically with traditional epidemiologic and microbiologic research to help guide and evaluate the acquisition of new knowledge about the ecology, eventual intervention, and control of campylobacteriosis. PMID:12515674

Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

2003-01-01

137

Biological markers of environmental and ecological contamination: an overview  

SciTech Connect

An approach, using biomarkers (biological responses) for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment is described. Living organisms integrate exposure to contaminants in their environment and respond in some measurable and predictable way. Responses are observed at several levels of biological organization from the biomolecular level, where pollutants can cause damage to critical cellular macromolecules and elicit defensive strategies such as detoxication and repair mechanisms, to the organismal level, where severe disturbances are manifested as impairment in growth, reproduction, developmental abnormalities, or decreased survival. Biomarkers can provide not only evidence of exposure to a broad spectrum of anthropogenic chemicals, but also a temporally integrated measure of bioavailable contaminant levels. A suite of biomarkers are evaluated over time to determine the magnitude of the problem and possible consequences. Relationships between biomarker response and adverse ecological effects are determined from estimates of animal health and population structure.19 references.

Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S. (Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

1992-09-01

138

Rev. col. (Terre Vie), suppt. 10, 2008. THE FRENCH INFORMATION SYSTEM ON SAPROXYLIC BEETLE ECOLOGY  

E-print Network

Rev. �col. (Terre Vie), suppt. 10, 2008. ­ 33 ­ THE FRENCH INFORMATION SYSTEM ON SAPROXYLIC BEETLE Information system on Saproxylic BEetle Ecology, FRISBEE) a pour objectif la compilation organisée de l. SUMMARY. -- The FRench Information system on Saproxylic BEetle Ecology (FRISBEE) is aimed at organizing

Boyer, Edmond

139

Defending Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how non-native species' problems in the ecosystem can introduce fundamental ecological principles in the classroom. Provides background information on damages caused by non-native species. Discusses how educators can use this environmental issue in the classroom and gives the example of zebra mussels. Lists instructional strategies for…

Margolis, Brian

2000-01-01

140

Nonindigenous Species: Ecological Explanation, Environmental Ethics, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is getting a mixed message from ecologists, other scholars, and journalists on the topic of nonindigenous species. Misunderstandings and tension exist regarding the science, values, environmental ethics, and public policy relevant to invasive species, which are the subset of nonindigenous species that cause economic or environmental damage. Although there is a natural background rate at which species invasions

David M. Lodge; Kristin Shrader-Frechette

2003-01-01

141

Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

2013-01-01

142

Teaching Urban Ecology: Environmental Studies and the Pedagogy of Intersectionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the recognition by early champions of the environmental movement in the United States that humans and the diverse ecosystems in which they live are indivisible, many environmental education policies and programs have tended to uphold the categorical distinction between "nature" and "culture" (e.g., Sessions; Soule and Press). In the late…

Di Chiro, Giovanna

2006-01-01

143

Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE`s Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay.

Malone, C.R. [Nuclear Waste Project Office, Carson City, NV (United States)

1995-09-01

144

Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) at the US National Library of Medicine has developed an Internet gopher offering free access to national and international information resources and convenient connection to NLM's MEDLARS online databases. Included in the TEHIP gopher are a variety of publications (e.g., the bibliographic publication produced by TEHIP: ALTERNATIVES TO THE USE OF LIVE VERTEBRATES IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND TESTING) and direct connections to many relevant information sources from national and international government groups and universities. Training modules and documentation for the MEDLARS toxicology databases, and a calendar of meetings and courses of interest to those working in the areas of toxicology, environmental health and medicine, and occupational health and medicine are also included.

1997-01-01

145

Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

2008-01-01

146

Luc ferry's critique of deep ecology, nazi nature protection laws, and environmental anti-semitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-Humanist Luc Ferry (1995) has compared deep ecology's declarations of intrinsic value in nature to the Third Reich's nature protection laws, which prohibit maltreatment of animals having “worth in themselves.” Ferry's questionable approach fails to document the relationship between Nazi environmentalism and Nazi racism. German high art and mass media historically presented nature as dualistic, and portrayed Untermenschen as unnatural

Susan Power Bratton

1999-01-01

147

Towards an ecological systems approach in public research for environmental regulation of transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of current research shows insufficient monitoring and testing have been conducted to reliably assess the degree of environmental risks posed by transgenic crops. The major risks include increased resistance to particular pesticides, gene flow into related plant species, and negative effects on non-target organisms. Significant gaps in knowledge, often stemming from missing markets for ecological services, warrant a

David E. Ervin; Rick Welsh; Sandra S. Batie; Chantal Line Carpentier

2003-01-01

148

Environmental and ontogenetic effects on intraspecific trait variation of a macrophyte species across five ecological scales.  

PubMed

Although functional trait variability is increasingly used in community ecology, the scale- and size-dependent aspects of trait variation are usually disregarded. Here we quantified the spatial structure of shoot height, branch length, root/shoot ratio and leaf number in a macrophyte species Potamogeton maackianus, and then disentangled the environmental and ontogenetic effects on these traits. Using a hierarchical nested design, we measured the four traits from 681 individuals across five ecological scales: lake, transect, depth stratus, quadrat and individual. A notable high trait variation (coefficient variation: 48-112%) was observed within species. These traits differed in the spatial structure, depending on environmental factors of different scales. Shoot height and branch length were most responsive to lake, transect and depth stratus scales, while root/shoot ratio and leaf number to quadrat and individual scales. The trait variations caused by environment are nearly three times higher than that caused by ontogeny, with ontogenetic variance ranging from 21% (leaf number) to 33% (branch length) of total variance. Remarkably, these traits showed non-negligible ontogenetic variation (0-60%) in each ecological scale, and significant shifts in allometric trajectories at lake and depth stratus scales. Our results highlight that environmental filtering processes can sort individuals within species with traits values adaptive to environmental changes and ontogenetic variation of functional traits was non-negligible across the five ecological scales. PMID:23626856

Fu, Hui; Yuan, Guixiang; Zhong, Jiayou; Cao, Te; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

2013-01-01

149

Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

150

Caregiver, Family System, and Environmental Predictors of Child Maltreatment: An Ecological Transactional Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study employed an ecological-transactional model to better understand how caregiver, family system, and neighborhood factors contribute to child maltreatment. The study was designed to examine whether there were caregiver, family system, and environmental risk factors that distinguished children who have experienced maltreatment from children who have not, and whether these risk factors alone and in concert affected later

Kelly Brooke Graling

2010-01-01

151

Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

Rice, James

2007-01-01

152

Serving as a catalyst to promotecollaborativeinterdisciplinary environmental and ecological research through graduate  

E-print Network

research through graduate education NEED IMPACT STATEMENT INITIATIVE The ESE IGP was launched in fall 2005 environmental research among faculty. IMPACT L10 August 2013 http://www.purdue.edu/discoverypark The Ecological. The 2nd Keystone Series highlighting "High Volume Shale Gas Extraction" was a huge success with over 135

Ginzel, Matthew

153

Swallowed: Political Ecology and Environmentalism in the Spanish American "Novela de la Selva"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I begin with the identification of a moment of intertextuality between "Un viejo que leia novelas de amor" (1989) by Chilean Luis Sepulveda and "La voragine" (1924) by Colombian Jose Eustasio Rivera as an analytical motif for a reevaluation of the environmentalism and political ecologies in the Spanish American "novela de la selva"…

DeVries, Scott

2010-01-01

154

Use of QSARs in international decision-making frameworks to predict ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemical substances.  

PubMed Central

This article is a review of the use, by regulatory agencies and authorities, of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) to predict ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemicals. For many years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been the most prominent regulatory agency using QSARs to predict the ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemicals. However, as increasing numbers of standard QSAR methods are developed and validated to predict ecologic effects and environmental fate of chemicals, it is anticipated that more regulatory agencies and authorities will find them to be acceptable alternatives to chemical testing. PMID:12896861

Cronin, Mark T D; Walker, John D; Jaworska, Joanna S; Comber, Michael H I; Watts, Christopher D; Worth, Andrew P

2003-01-01

155

The Ecological Classroom: Environmental Education Activities K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides interdisciplinary ideas to accompany environmental education activities for kindergarten through grade 12. Topics of the activities include water pollution, soil erosion, and salmon homing instincts. Interdisciplinary areas include fine arts, language arts, and social studies. (DDR)

Gillam, David A.; And Others

1995-01-01

156

APPLICATION OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY RESEARCH TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Authors describe the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research program in biotechnology risk assessment to study fate and effects of nonindigenous microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. nformation from the studies can be used by industries and regulatory agen...

157

10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC...RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

2011-01-01

158

10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC...RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

2014-01-01

159

10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC...RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

2013-01-01

160

10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC...RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

2010-01-01

161

10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC...RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

2012-01-01

162

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

163

Ecological Democracy: An Environmental Approach to Citizenship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic educators strive to develop the kinds of citizens who can identify and address the significant challenges of life in society. A case can be made that we have failed in this fundamental task. In spite of our efforts, contemporary societies seem ill-equipped to cope with the enormous social and environmental issues of our age. The problem is…

Houser, Neil O.

2009-01-01

164

THE LEARNING BARGE: ENVIRONMENTAL + CULTURAL ECOLOGIES ON THE ELIZABETH RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

A University of Virginia interdisciplinary student team will design and fabricate the Learning Barge—a floating environmental education field station powered solely by site-based solar and wind energy systems. The 32’x120’ barge will support a contained be...

165

Environmental regulation of bivalve growth in the southern Barents Sea: A combined ecological and geochemical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological and geochemical analyses of bivalve shells provide potentially complimentary information on patterns and drivers of natural variability in Arctic marine populations, yet are rarely considered together. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the Greenland Smooth Cockle (Serripes groenlandicus) from the southern Barents Sea between 1882 and 1968. Growth, stable isotope (oxygen and carbon), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth rates exhibited multi-year periodicity inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) and positively related to river discharge. Up to 60% of the interannual variability in Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at stations closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Stable isotope data (18O, 13C), and Sr/Ca patterns suggest that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, implying that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of the annual growth cycle. Combining annually-integrated growth results and higher resolution geochemical results thus elucidated the annual growth cycle of an Arctic bivalve and mechanisms of biophysical coupling over a range of temporal and spatial scales.

Carroll, M. L.; Johnson, B. J.; Henkes, G. A.; McMahon, K. W.; Voronkov, A.; Ambrose, W. G., Jr.; Denisenko, S. G.

2009-04-01

166

Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

167

Applying Ecological Risk Assessment to Environmental Accidents: Harlequin Ducks and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the October 2007 issue of BioScience examines the use of biological risk assessments to determine cause-effect relationships. Ecological risk assessment is a systematic way to evaluate the likelihood that an environmental accident has caused significant ecological consequences. I apply this framework retrospectively to evaluate a scenario linking the Exxon Valdez oil spill to population effects on harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) through hydrocarbon contamination of mussels in spill-affected shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska. By evaluating the plausibility of each step of this scenario in turn, it becomes apparent that it is highly unlikely the oil spill is having continuing effects on harlequins through this pathway. This case study shows how ecological risk assessment can help clarify potential causeeffect relationships in an emotionally and socially charged situation.

John Wiens (The Nature Conservancy; )

2007-10-01

168

A model for information support of environmental management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature of environmental management systems has shown a steady development of theory supporting the production of well supported environmental management systems integrated to enterprise information systems. Research into the differences between Australian Chief Financial Officers and Information Systems Managers has shown that there is a gap between company policy on environmental management systems and existing information

Bill Davey; Clive Mathews

1996-01-01

169

Towards global environmental information and data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Belmont Forum, a coalition of national science agencies from 13 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to implement a 'Knowledge Hub' community-building and strategy development program as a first step to coordinate and streamline international efforts on community governance, interoperability and system architectures so that environmental data and information can be exchanged internationally and across subject domains easily and efficiently. This initiative represents a first step to build collaboratively an international capacity and e-infrastructure framework to address societally relevant global environmental change challenges. The project will deliver a community-owned strategy and implementation plan, which will prioritize international funding opportunities for Belmont Forum members to build pilots and exemplars in order to accelerate delivery of end-to end global change decision support systems. In 2012, the Belmont Forum held a series of public town hall meetings, and a two-day scoping meeting of scientists and program officers, which concluded that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. Pooling Belmont Forum members' resources to bring communities together for further integration, cooperation, and leveraging of existing initiatives and resources has the potential to develop the e-infrastructure framework necessary to solve pressing environmental problems, and to support the aims of many international data sharing initiatives. The plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum calls for proposals for e-Infrastructures and Data Management. The Belmont Forum is uniquely able to align resources of major national funders to support global environmental change research on specific technical and governance challenges, and the development of focused pilot systems that could be complementary to other initiatives such as GEOSS, ICSU World Data System, and Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of this Belmont Forum Knowledge Hub represents an extraordinary effort to bring together international leaders in interoperability, governance and other fields pertinent to decision-support systems in global environmental change research. It is also addressing related issues such as ensuring a cohort of environmental scientists who can use up-to-date computing techniques for data and information management, and investigating which legal issues need common international attention.

Gurney, Robert; Allison, Lee; Cesar, Roberto; Cossu, Roberto; Dietz, Volkmar; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Koike, Toshio; Mokrane, Mustapha; Peters, Dale; Thaller-Honold, Svetlana; Treloar, Andrew; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Waldmann, Christoph

2014-05-01

170

Information needs for siting new, and evaluating current, nuclear facilities: ecology, fate and transport, and human health.  

PubMed

The USA is entering an era of energy diversity, and increasing nuclear capacity and concerns focus on accidents, security, waste, and pollution. Physical buffers that separate outsiders from nuclear facilities often support important natural ecosystems but may contain contaminants. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses nuclear reactors; the applicant provides environmental assessments that serve as the basis for Environmental Impact Statements developed by NRC. We provide a template for the types of information needed for safe siting of nuclear facilities with buffers in three categories: ecological, fate and transport, and human health information that can be used for risk evaluations. Each item on the lists is an indicator for evaluation, and individual indicators can be selected for specific region. Ecological information needs include biodiversity (species, populations, communities) and structure and functioning of ecosystems, habitats, and landscapes, in addition to common, abundant, and unique species and endangered and rare ones. The key variables of fate and transport are sources of release for radionuclides and other chemicals, nature of releases (atmospheric vapors, subsurface liquids), features, and properties of environmental media (wind speed, direction and atmospheric stability, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater chemistry). Human health aspects include receptor populations (demography, density, dispersion, and distance), potential pathways (drinking water sources, gardening, fishing), and exposure opportunities (lifestyle activities). For each of the three types of information needs, we expect that only a few of the indicators will be applicable to a particular site and that stakeholders should agree on a site-specific suite. PMID:20140506

Burger, Joanna; Clarke, James; Gochfeld, Michael

2011-01-01

171

EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY/WESTERN ECOLOGY DIVISION INTERNET SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Western Ecology Division (WED) is one of four ecological effects divisions of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. The four divisions are distributed bio-geographically. WED's mission is 1) to provide EPA with national scientific leadership for t...

172

14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. 325...13 Environmental evaluations and energy information not required...file an environmental evaluation or energy information with the...

2010-01-01

173

ESSAYAS KABA AYANA Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology  

E-print Network

Management in Data Scarce Blue Nile Basin Advisor: Tammo S. Steenhuis M.Sc., Geo-information Science, 2007 - Validation of radar altimetry lake level measurements over Lake Tana, Ethiopia #12;RESEARCH Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY · 2010 ­ 2011, Interim Director, Blue Nile Water Institute, Bahir

DeFries, Ruth S.

174

Environmental Manganese and Cancer Mortality Rates by County in North Carolina: An Ecological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese is an element essential for health in trace amounts, but toxic at higher exposures. Since manganese is replacing\\u000a lead in gasoline globally, evaluation of potential cancer effects is essential. To determine whether environmental manganese\\u000a is related to cancer at the county level in North Carolina (n?=?100 counties; North Carolina 2000 population = 8,049,313), we carried out an ecological study

John G. Spangler; Jeffrey C. Reid

2010-01-01

175

Urban environmental education: leveraging technology and ecology to engage students in studying the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students used geographic information systems (GIS) coupled with computer modeling

Michael Barnett; Meredith Houle Vaughn; Eric Strauss; Lindsey Cotter

2011-01-01

176

Modeling the per capita ecological footprint for Dallas County, Texas: Examining demographic, environmental value, land-use, and spatial influences  

E-print Network

This study addresses factors driving the variation in the per capita Ecological Footprint (EF) in Dallas County, Texas. A main hypothesis was that scientifically estimated demography, environmental values, spatial attributes, and land-use patterns...

Ryu, Hyung Cheal

2005-08-29

177

Species traits and environmental constraints: entomological research and the history of ecological theory.  

PubMed

The role that entomology has played in the historical (1800s-1970s) development of ecological theories that match species traits with environmental constraints is reviewed along three lineages originating from the ideas of a minister (Malthus TR. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson) and a chemist (Liebig J. 1840. Die Organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Braunschweig: Vieweg). Major developments in lineage 1 focus on habitat as a filter for species traits, succession, nonequilibrium and equilibrium conditions, and generalizations about the correlation of traits to environmental constraints. In lineage 2, we trace the evolution of the niche concept and focus on ecophysiological traits, biotic interactions, and environmental conditions. Finally, we describe the conceptual route from early demographic studies of human and animal populations to the r-K concept in lineage 3. In the 1970s, the entomologist Southwood merged these three lineages into the "habitat templet concept" (Southwood TRE. 1977. J. Anim. Ecol. 46:337-65), which has stimulated much subsequent research in entomology and general ecology. We conclude that insects have been a far more important resource for the development of ecological theory than previously acknowledged. PMID:11112171

Statzner, B; Hildrew, A G; Resh, V H

2001-01-01

178

Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.  

PubMed

Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity. PMID:24849380

Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

2014-06-01

179

Elder Abuse and Neglect in African American Families: Informing Practice Based on Ecological and Cultural Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies

Sheena R. Horsford; José Rubén Parra-Cardona; Lori A. Post; Larry Schiamberg

2010-01-01

180

Enter Keyword(s) Today's Ecology Top  

E-print Network

Enter Keyword(s) Today's Ecology Top News OMG's Business Ecology Initiative BEI Reaches 250 Member Advertisement Ecology Topics Botany Climate Research Ecology Environment Environmental Microbiology Environmental Monitoring Environmental Research Fisheries Research Marine Biology Meteorology Molecular Ecology

181

Photosynthesis, environmental change, and plant adaptation: Research topics in plant molecular ecology. Summary report of a workshop  

SciTech Connect

As we approach the 21st Century, it is becoming increasingly clear that human activities, primarily related to energy extraction and use, will lead to marked environmental changes at the local, regional, and global levels. The realized and the potential photosynthetic performance of plants is determined by a combination of intrinsic genetic information and extrinsic environmental factors, especially climate. It is essential that the effects of environmental changes on the photosynthetic competence of individual species, communities, and ecosystems be accurately assessed. From October 24 to 26, 1993, a group of scientists specializing in various aspects of plant science met to discuss how our predictive capabilities could be improved by developing a more rational, mechanistic approach to relating photosynthetic processes to environmental factors. A consensus emerged that achieving this goal requires multidisciplinary research efforts that combine tools and techniques of genetics, molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology to understand the principles, mechanisms, and limitations of evolutional adaptation and physiological acclimation of photosynthetic processes. Many of these basic tools and techniques, often developed in other fields of science, already are available but have not been applied in a coherent, coordinated fashion to ecological research. The efforts of this research program are related to the broader efforts to develop more realistic prognostic models to forecast climate change that include photosynthetic responses and feedbacks at the regional and ecosystem levels.

NONE

1995-07-01

182

The Role of Interest in Environmental Information: A New Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of environmental information is presented in factual, expository text format. Although this form of text may be sufficient when learner interest is already high or when incentives are strong, environmental communicators cannot always rely on traditional text to provide citizens or students with environmental information that is comprehensible and motivating. The literature suggests that the qualities of written

Martha C. Monroe; Raymond DeYoung

183

Coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs: Ecological and environmental aspects [review article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly reviews coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs, with particular regard to summarizing the exogenous and endogenous factors in support of a proposed conceptual model, and to identifying critical information gaps. A phase shift occurs on a coral reef when the cover of a substrate by scleractinian corals is reduced in favor of macroalgal dominance, and resilience of the former condition is retarded because of ecological processes and/or environmental conditions. The change is often, but not always, associated with a perturbation such as coral bleaching, outbreaks of a coral-eating species, or storm damage. The new state is generally associated with some combination of reduced herbivory (from disease and/or fishing) and nutrient enrichment, although the relative importance of these factors is under debate and may vary among locations and even across single reefs. Disturbances that result in a state of generally low biotic three-dimensional structural complexity often precede a phase shift. Following such a disturbance, the system will pass to a state of higher biotic structural complexity, with either macroalgae or coral dominating. As the community progresses towards larger and more three-dimensionally complex corals or macroalgae, it exhibits greater resistance to shifting dominance from one state to the other. Studies of the phase-shift phenomena have been generally conducted at scales that are small relative to the sizes and inherent variability of whole coral reefs and systems of reefs. There is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying and simulating cause and effect aspects of the phase shift, including human-environment coupling, particularly in support of coral reef decision-making.

McManus, John W.; Polsenberg, Johanna F.

2004-02-01

184

Taking Ecology Overseas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines programs conducted by the Smithsonian Institution and the Peace Corps utilizing college graduates in environmental projects of developing countries. Requests are primarily for personnel in projects concerned with natural resource conservation and ecological research. General information for applicants is given, together with environmental…

Jenkins, Dale W.; Poole, Robert K.

1971-01-01

185

Translating Ecological Risk to Ecosystem Service Loss  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous site management in the US includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), while restoration and compensation decisions are informed by th...

186

PREDICTING ESTUARINE SEDIMENT METAL CONCENTRATIONS AND INFERRED ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS: AN INFORMATION THEORETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Empirically derived values associating sediment metal concentrations with degraded ecological conditions provide important information to assess estuarine condition. However, resources limit the number, magnitude, and frequency of monitoring programs to gather these data. As su...

187

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2014-10-01

188

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2011-10-01

189

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2013-10-01

190

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2012-10-01

191

Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

2000-01-01

192

Asymmetric information and contract design for payments for environmental services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contractual relationships involving payments for environmental services, conservation buyers know less than landowners know about the costs of contractual compliance. Landowners in such circumstances use their private information as a source of market power to extract informational rents from conservation agents. Reducing informational rents is an important task for buyers of environmental services who wish to maximize the services

Paul J. Ferraro

2008-01-01

193

The materiality of environmental information to users of annual reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the results of a survey of various groups of annual report users as to the importance, or “materiality”, of environmental information to decisions they may wish to make. Also investigates how environmental information is ranked in importance relative to various other items of social and financial information. The user groups surveyed comprise shareholders, accounting academics, stockbrokers and financial

Craig Deegan; Michaela Rankin

1997-01-01

194

FISHER INFORMATION AND DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystems often exhibit transitions between dynamic regimes (or steady states), such as the conversion of oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions and associated aquatic ecological communities, due to natural (or increasingly) anthropogenic disturbances. As ecosystems experience per...

195

Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance  

PubMed Central

In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

2004-01-01

196

INFOTERRA File on Sources of Environmental Information Provided through JOIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outline of INFOTERRA (International Referral System for Sources of Environmental Information), an international information network operated by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) since 1977 and how to use it are described. Contents of an INFOTERRA File used for on-line information service by JOIS (JICST On-line Information Service) which will start on July 1, 1987 and examples of an interactive search of sources of environmental information by JOIS are also described.

Haruyama, Akemi; Hosoyama, Miki

197

Multivariate analyses in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental microbiology is undergoing a dramatic revolution due to the increasing accumulation of biological information and contextual environmental parameters. This will not only enable a better identification of diversity patterns, but will also shed more light on the associated environmental conditions, spatial locations, and seasonal fluctuations, which could explain such patterns. Complex ecological questions may now be addressed using multivariate

Alban Ramette

198

Case Study: Calculating the Ecological Footprint of the 2004 Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) Biennial Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event tourism is accompanied by social, economic and environmental benefits and costs. The assessment of this form of tourism has however largely focused on the social and economic perspectives, while environmental assessments have been bound to a destination-based approach. The application of the Ecological Footprint methodology allows for these…

Rickard, Andrew

2006-01-01

199

National Environmental Change Information System Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference developed by the interagency DIWG. The case study "lessons learned" and "key findings" offer guidelines and considerations to the DMWG for the development and implementation of a NECIS that would support the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level.

Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

2001-01-01

200

Incorporating uncertainty in environmental models informed by imagery.  

E-print Network

??In this thesis, the issue of incorporating uncertainty for environmental modelling informed by imagery is explored by considering uncertainty in deterministic modelling, measurement uncertainty and… (more)

Falk, Matthew Gregory

2010-01-01

201

Southeast Ecological Observatory Network (SEEON) Workshop on Ecological Sensors and Information Technology. Report on Second SEEON Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental goal of the new National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to provide timely and broad access to the ecological data collected at NEON sites. Information management and data collection will be critical components to achieving this goal and a successful NEON implementation. The Southeast Ecological Observatory Network (SEEON) working group recognized the importance of information management and sensor technology in its first planning workshop and recommended that interested parties in the region come together to discuss these subjects in the context of the needs and capabilities of a southeast regional ecological observatory network. In February 2004, 28 participants from 14 organizations including academic institutions, state and federal agencies, private and non-profit entities convened at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida for two days of presentations and discussions on ecological sensors and information management. Some of the participants were previously involved in the first SEEON workshop or other meetings concerned with NEON, but many were somewhat new to the NEON community. Each day focused on a different technical component, i.e. ecological sensors the first day and cyber-infrastructure the second day, and were structured in a similar manner. The mornings were devoted to presentations by experts to help stimulate discussions on aspects of the focal topic held in the afternoon. The formal and informal discussions held during the workshop succeeded in validating some concerns and needs identified in the first SEEON workshop, but also served to bring to light other questions or issues that will need to be addressed as the NEON planning and design stages move forward. While the expansion of the SEEON community meant that some of the presentation and discussion time was needed to help bring the newcomers up to speed on the goals, objectives and current status of the various NEON efforts, the additional perspectives and technical expertise included in this workshop helped fuel some valuable interdisciplinary discussions that will need to continue to bring SEEON and NEON to fruition. Participants agreed that continued discussions of SEEON are needed , to keep up the momentum and that the southeast region must continue to be represented at the national level. It is vital that the all'the regions continue to push things forward for NEON to succeed.

Jones, Lori N.; Binford, Michael; Hinkle, Ross C.

2004-01-01

202

Environmental databases and other computerized information tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing environmental legislation has brought about the development of many new environmental databases and software application packages to aid in the quest for environmental compliance. These databases and software packages are useful tools and applicable to a wide range of environmental areas from atmospheric modeling to materials replacement technology. The great abundance of such products and services can be very overwhelming when trying to identify the tools which best meet specific needs. This paper will discuss the types of environmental databases and software packages available. This discussion will also encompass the affected environmental areas of concern, product capabilities, and hardware requirements for product utilization.

Clark-Ingram, Marceia

1995-01-01

203

New perspectives on the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in environmental health sciences.  

PubMed

At first glance, the domain of health is no typical area to applicate Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Nevertheless, the recent development clearly shows that also within the domains of environmental health, disease ecology and public health GIS have become an indispensable tool for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. In the field of geographical epidemiology, GIS are used for drawing up disease maps and for ecological analysis. The striking advantages of GIS for the disease mapping process are the considerably simplified generation and variation of maps as well as a broader variety in terms of determining a real units. In the frame of ecological analysis, GIS can significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. On the other hand, the GIS-supported methods for the detection of striking spatial patterns of disease distribution need to be much improved. An important topic in this respect is the integration of the time dimension. The increasing use of remote sensing as well as the integration into internet functionalities will stimulate the application of GIS in the field of Environmental Health Sciences (EHS). In future, the integration and analysis of health-relevant data in one single data system will open up many new research opportunities. PMID:12040915

Kistemann, Thomas; Dangendorf, Friederike; Schweikart, Jürgen

2002-04-01

204

Summarizing history of the Nevada Applied Ecology Groups' environmental studies of transuranics and other radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This report presents historical summaries of the research programs at the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG). NAEG was formed in 1970 as an outgrowth of the formation of the Office of Effects Evaluation and an anticipation by NV management of what was to become the National Environmental Policy Act. The objectives of the NAEG programs were: (1) delineate locations of contamination; (2) determine concentrations in ecosystem components; (3) quantify rates of movement among ecosystem components; and (4) evaluate potential dose from plutonium and other radionuclides.

Howard, W.

1984-02-01

205

Geography of non-melanoma skin cancer and ecological associations with environmental risk factors in England  

PubMed Central

Background: This study investigates the geography of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in England, and ecological associations with three widespread environmental hazards: radon, arsenic and ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Methods: Age-/sex-standardised registration rates of NMSC were mapped for local authority (LA) areas (n=326), along with geographical data on bright sunshine, household radon and arsenic. Associations between NMSC and environmental variables, adjusted for socio-economic confounders, were investigated. Results: There was a substantial geographical variation in NMSC rates across English local authorities and between cancer registration regions. Forty percent of variance in rates was at registry region level and 60% at LA level. No association was observed between environmental arsenic and NMSC rates. Rates were associated with area-mean bright sunshine hours. An association with area-mean radon concentration was suggested, although the strength of statistical evidence was sensitive to model specification. Conclusion: The significant geographical variation across England in NMSC registration rate is likely to be partly, but not wholly, explained by registry differences. Findings tentatively support suggestions that environmental radon may be a risk factor for NMSC. Although NMSC is rarely fatal, it has significant implications for individuals and health services, and further research into NMSC geographical and environmental risk factors is warranted. PMID:23756856

Wheeler, B W; Kothencz, G; Pollard, A S

2013-01-01

206

Complex trait divergence contributes to environmental niche differentiation in ecological speciation of Boechera stricta.  

PubMed

Ecological factors may contribute to reproductive isolation if differential local adaptation causes immigrant or hybrid fitness reduction. Because local adaptation results from the interaction between natural selection and adaptive traits, it is crucial to investigate both to understand ecological speciation. Previously, we used niche modelling to identify local water availability as an environmental correlate of incipient ecological speciation between two subspecies in Boechera stricta, a close relative of Arabidopsis. Here, we performed several large-scale glasshouse experiments to investigate the divergence of various physiological, phenological and morphological traits. Although we found no significant difference in physiological traits, the Western subspecies has significantly faster growth rate, larger leaf area, less succulent leaves, delayed reproductive time and longer flowering duration. These trait differences are concordant with previous results that habitats of the Western genotypes have more consistent water availability, while Eastern genotypes inhabit locations with more ephemeral water supplies. In addition, by comparing univariate and multivariate divergence of complex traits (Q(ST)) to the genomewide distribution of SNP FST , we conclude that the aspects of phenology and morphology (but not physiology) are under divergent selection. In addition, we also identified several highly diverged traits without obvious water-related functions. PMID:23432437

Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2013-04-01

207

The Role of Interest in Environmental Information: A New Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of environmental information is presented in factual, expository text format. Examines problems with traditional formats when interest or incentives are not strong. Discusses ways to make text providing environmental information to citizens or students more interesting, meaningful, and memorable. (LZ)

Monroe, Martha C.; DeYoung, Raymond

1994-01-01

208

A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. PMID:25062553

Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

2015-01-23

209

Game model on the information competition in the environmental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a game model of informational competition between an activist and a listed company in the environmental system, and proposes that in an equilibrium, the listed company discloses favorable information and hides unfavorable information, whereas the activist exposes what the company hide after filtering the collected information, and the media reports what they have found after an investigation

Jianjun Huai; Xuexi Huo

2009-01-01

210

40 CFR 2.310 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.310 Special rules governing...

2014-07-01

211

40 CFR 2.310 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.310 Special rules governing...

2012-07-01

212

40 CFR 2.310 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.310 Special rules governing...

2011-07-01

213

40 CFR 2.310 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.310 Special rules governing...

2013-07-01

214

Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia  

PubMed Central

This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

2008-01-01

215

Research on ecological function zoning information system based on WebGIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information technology, application of WebGIS will make it possible to realize digitization and intellectualization in issuing and managing information of ecological function zoning. Firstly, this paper introduces the fundamental principles, basic methods and current situation of development and various support techniques about WebGIS. Secondly, the paper not only compares and analyzes the above methods but also

Jianxiong Zhang; Gang Zhang

2007-01-01

216

[Possibilities for gathering environmental information for training environmental medicine specialists].  

PubMed

In the context of continuing medical education, colleagues frequently face new professional topics. Advanced questions have to be clarified often to realize new skills. Beside the "conservative" information options like journals, literature searches in libraries and questioning colleagues, the "progressive" information procurement via CD ROM or the Internet is a comprehensive option to clarify certain questions quickly. PMID:9221201

Rink, C; Eckel, H

1997-02-01

217

An integrated environmental information system (IEIS) for corporate environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise-wide information systems have been gradually moving into the corporate and industrial setting, driven by demands for nimbleness and efficiency in the competitive marketplace. These systems seek to integrate access to and management of such information as financial, inventory and personnel data. Implementation of these systems is often highly disruptive to the organization, because it requires a significant change in

Steven P. Frysinger

2001-01-01

218

ASTM standards help corporate real estate executives manage environmental information  

SciTech Connect

The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM; Philadelphia) new environmental due diligence standards assist executives in supporting environmental risk management procedures. ASTM standards help clarify environmental due diligence procedures for real estate transactions. These standards are being accepted by firms nationwide. The transaction screen and the Phase I environmental site assessment comprise the ASTM standards, and incorporate reviews of government environmental databases. The transaction screen, often called a pre-Phase I or Phase Zero, is an information-gathering process consisting of a questionnaire completed by a knowledgeable party, a nontechnical site inspection and a review of government environmental records. A limited historical investigation of fire insurance maps or contact with the local fire marshal, who typically maintains records of leaking USTs, is included. Emphasis on information review helps corporate real estate executives maintain organized information gathering an analysis systems.

Bennett, M.J.; McCarter, B.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CO (United States))

1993-09-01

219

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

220

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

GIS has become a common tool in environmental management and enforcement. Only in the last few years, however, has the technology come into use directly by litigators working on environmental cases. This presentation explores how GIS is being used in law firms to manage and sup...

221

Environmental Characteristics and Geographic Information System Applications for the Development of Nutrient Thresholds in Oklahoma Streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency has developed nutrient criteria using ecoregions to manage and protect rivers and streams in the United States. Individual states and tribes are encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to modify or improve upon the ecoregion approach. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board uses a dichotomous process that stratifies streams using environmental characteristics such as stream order and stream slope. This process is called the Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter15. The Use Support Assessment Protocols can be used to identify streams threatened by excessive amounts of nutrients, dependant upon a beneficial use designation for each stream. The Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter 15 uses nutrient and environmental characteristic thresholds developed from a study conducted in the Netherlands, but the Oklahoma Water Resources Board wants to modify the thresholds to reflect hydrologic and ecological conditions relevant to Oklahoma streams and rivers. Environmental characteristics thought to affect impairment from nutrient concentrations in Oklahoma streams and rivers were determined for 798 water-quality sites in Oklahoma. Nutrient, chlorophyll, water-properties, and location data were retrieved from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET database including data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, and Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Drainage-basin area, stream order, stream slope, and land-use proportions were determined for each site using a Geographic Information System. The methods, procedures, and data sets used to determine the environmental characteristics are described.

Masoner, Jason R.; Haggard, Brian E.; Rea, Alan

2002-01-01

222

You Can Take a Horse to Water...Environmental Education Theory and Practice in the Context of a Simple Freshwater Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a discussion-based approach focused on experiences of actual environmental issues, encountered problematically, should characterize environmental education activities. An ecology exercise dealing with organic pollution of a river provides a context for the educational principles and ecological concepts included the study. (24…

Clacherty, Alistair

1989-01-01

223

Environmental Decision Making and Information Technology: Issues Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the Information Technology and Environmental Decision Making Workshop that was held at Harvard University, October 1-3, 1998. Over sixty participants from across the US took part in discussions that focused on the current practice of using information technology to support environmental decision making and on future considerations of information technology development, information policies, and data quality issues in this area. Current practice is focusing on geographic information systems and visualization tools, Internet applications, and data warehousing. In addition, numerous organizations are developing environmental enterprise systems to integrate environmental information resources. Plaguing these efforts are issues of data quality (and public trust), system design, and organizational change. In the future, much effort needs to focus on building community-based environmental decision-making systems and processes, which will be a challenge given that exactly what needs to be developed is largely unknown and that environmental decision making in this arena has been characterized by a high level of conflict. Experimentation and evaluation are needed to contribute to efficient and effective learning about how best to use information technology to improve environmental decision making.

Barg, S.; Fletcher, T.; Mechling, J.; Tonn, B.; Turner, R.

1999-05-01

224

Environmental Effects on a Breeding Pair of Eagles- A Lesson on Habitats and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to simulate feeding practices of breeding eagles in a helpful or stressful situation to Grade 10 high school students. This activity works well near the end of a unit on Ecology. Students should have a basic understanding of biotic and abiotic factors, populations, niches, habitats and feeding relationships because once the activity is completed, students will be able to identify these characteristics of bald eagles. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Nancy Beuhner (Deubrook Area Schools)

2008-08-01

225

Maximizing colonial waterbirds' breeding events using identified ecological thresholds and environmental flow management.  

PubMed

Global wetland biodiversity loss continues unabated, driven by increased demand for freshwater. A key strategy for conservation management of freshwater systems is to maintain the quantity and quality of the natural water regimes, including the frequency and timing of flows. Formalizing an ecological model depicting the key ecological components and the underlying processes of cause and effect is required for successful conservation management. Models linking hydrology with ecological responses can prove to be an invaluable tool for robust decision-making of environmental flows. Here, we explored alternative water management strategies and identified maximal strategies for successful long-term management of colonial waterbirds in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia. We modeled fluctuations in breeding abundances of 10 colonial waterbird species over the past quarter century (1986-2010). Clear relationships existed between flows and breeding, both in frequencies and total abundances, with a strong linear relationship for flows > 200 GL. Thresholds emerged for triggering breeding events in all 10 species, but these varied among species. Three species displayed a sharp threshold response between 100 GL and 250 GL. These had a breeding probability of 0.5 when flows were > 180 GL and a 0.9 probability of breeding with flows > 350 GL. The remaining species had a probability greater than 0.5 of breeding with flows > 400 GL. Using developed models, we examined the effects of five environmental flow management strategies on the variability of flows and subsequent likelihood of breeding. Management to different target volumes of environmental flows affected overall and specific breeding probabilities. The likelihood of breeding for all 10 colonial waterbirds increased from a regulated historical mean (+/-SD) of 0.36 +/- 0.09 to 0.53 +/- 0.14, an improvement of 47.5% +/- 18.7%. Management of complex ecosystems depends on good understanding of the responses of organisms to the main drivers of change. Considerable opportunity exists for implementing similar frameworks for other ecosystem attributes, following understanding of their responses to the flow regime, achieving a more complete model of the entire ecosystem. PMID:24640540

Bino, Gilad; Steinfeld, Celine; Kingsford, Richard T

2014-01-01

226

Maine Department of Environmental Protection Washington State Department of Ecology California Environmental Protection Agency State House Station 17 Hazardous Waste & Toxics Reduction 1001 I Street  

E-print Network

Maine Department of Environmental Protection Washington State Department of Ecology California, Maine 04333-0017 P.O. Box 47600 Sacramento, California 95812 Olympia, Washington 98504-7600 States Urge Control Act AUGUSTA, MAINE DECEMBER 2, 2009--Thirteen states today released a set of principles designed

227

Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.  

PubMed

In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n?=?179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n?=?7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks. PMID:25600402

Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

2015-02-01

228

Knowledge-based environmental information system for sustainable development of wetland area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsuitable development of wetland area will cause serious environmental problems in flooding, the depredation of ecology, and the pollution of water quality on account of environmental sensitivity of wetland. Thus, wetland development and environmental protection has become an issue of national emphasis for the environmental management in the world. There is a demand for planning and decision strategies in this

Wu Bingshan; Zhang Weiguo; Luo Jun

2010-01-01

229

Environmental effects of increased coal utilization: ecological effects of gaseous emissions from coal combustion.  

PubMed Central

This report is limited to an evaluation of the ecological and environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of various types which result from coal combustion. It deals with NOx, SOx, fine particulate, photochemical oxidant and acid precipitation as these pollutants affect natural and managed resources and ecosystems. Also, synergistic effects involving two or more pollutants are evaluated as well as ecosystem level effects of gaseous pollutants. There is a brief summary of the effects on materials and atmospheric visibility of increased coal combustion. The economic implications of ecological effects are identified to the extent they can be determined within acceptable limits. Aquatic and terrestrial effects are distinguished where the pollutants in question are clearly problems in both media. At present, acid precipitation is most abundant in the north central and northeastern states. Total SOx and NOx emissions are projected to remain high in these regions while increasing relatively more in the western than in the eastern regions of the country. A variety of ecological processes are affected and altered by air pollution. Such processes include community succession and retrogression, nutrient biogeochemical cycling, photosynthetic activity, primary and secondary productivity, species diversity and community stability. Estimates of the non health-related cost of air pollutants range from several hundred million dollars to $1.7 billion dollars per year. In general, these estimates include only those relatively easily measured considerations such as the known losses to cultivate crops from acute air pollution episodes or the cost of frequent repainting required as a result of air pollution. No substantial nationwide estimates of losses to forest productivity, natural ecosystem productivity which is tapped by domestic grazing animals and wildlife, and other significant dollar losses are available. PMID:44247

Glass, N R

1979-01-01

230

Upscaling as ecological information transfer: a simple framework with application to Arctic ecosystem carbon exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferring ecological information across scale often involves spatial aggregation, which alters information content and\\u000a may bias estimates if the scaling process is nonlinear. Here, a potential solution, the preservation of the information content\\u000a of fine-scale measurements, is highlighted using modeled net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of an Arctic tundra landscape as an\\u000a example. The variance of aggregated normalized difference vegetation index

Paul C. Stoy; Mathew Williams; Mathias Disney; Ana Prieto-Blanco; Brian Huntley; Robert Baxter; Philip Lewis

2009-01-01

231

An approach for the application of the Ecological Footprint as environmental indicator in the textile sector.  

PubMed

The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a recent concept which has widely been used as an indicator of environmental sustainability applied to individual lifestyles, regions, nations or even the world. Recently, its application to enterprises has been proposed. In the present study, a textile tailoring plant has been analysed. The overall purpose of this study was to develop a tool useful for evaluating the environmental impact evolution due to the performance of the plant, as well as for comparing the environmental behaviour of different tailoring processes. Therefore, the selected data were those from the manufacturing work. Data were divided in three main categories: energy, resources and waste. The principal contribution to the final EF (expressed in hectares of land) was the resources category, mainly due to the high value associated to the cloth. The consumed energy was the second contributor, while the waste category remained in third place. The final outcomes were divided by the production rates to obtain a comparable relative index, easy to be interpreted by the different stakeholders. This is of special importance for a Company involved in Corporate Social Responsibility and thus meant to have a general communication strategy. PMID:18280032

Herva, M; Franco, A; Ferreiro, S; Alvarez, A; Roca, E

2008-08-15

232

15 CFR 950.2 - Environmental Data and Information Service (EDIS).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental Data and Information Service (EDIS). 950.2 Section...COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.2 Environmental...

2010-01-01

233

Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability facilitates the integration of data from multiple credible sources of data, and enables the repurposing of data for use at different geographical scales. Metadata that captures the transformation of data into value-added products ("provenance") lends reproducability and transparency to the entire process. This way, the datasets and model code used to create any product can be examined by other parties. This talk outlines a pathway for transforming environmental data into value-added products by various stakeholders to better inform sustainable agriculture using data from environmental observatories including NEON and LTAR.;

Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

2012-12-01

234

Demersal fishes in a tropical bay in southeastern Brazil: Partitioning the spatial, temporal and environmental components of ecological variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the factors structuring demersal fish community in a tropical bay in southeastern Brazil. The results were used to quantify the partitioning of ecological variation among the environmental, spatial and temporal components molding the fish community. Three bay zones (inner, middle and outer) were defined according to depth and salinity gradient. Monthly samplings were conducted by bottom trawl

Márcia Cristina Costa de Azevedo; Francisco Gerson Araújo; Antônio Gomes da Cruz-Filho; André Luiz Machado Pessanha; Márcio de Araújo Silva; Ana Paula Penha Guedes

2007-01-01

235

Actualizing panarchy within environmental policy: mechanisms for tweaking institutional hierarchies to mimic the social-ecological systems they manage  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping approaches to sustainability. In particular, the role of legal instruments, institutions, and the relationship of law to the inherent variability in social-ecological systems is critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the insti...

236

Enabling synthesis of spatially and temporally diverse data collected from environmental sensors within the Long Term Ecological Research Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Network Office (LNO) of the 26 site Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER) is involved in the design and implementation of cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will support and enable synthesis of spatially and temporally diverse sets of environmental sensor data. Funded by the NSF, the LTER and LNO are driven to provide a methodology and a CI that enables researchers,

J. R. Vande Castle; M. S. Servilla; I. San Gil; B. K. Michener; R. B. Waide; L. A. Scuderi

2006-01-01

237

Submitted to Environmental and Ecological Statistics A Methodology for Assessing Departure of Current Plant Communities from Historical  

E-print Network

Submitted to Environmental and Ecological Statistics 1 A Methodology for Assessing Departure of this strategy is the assessment of departure of current plant communities from historical conditions across Federal lands. Assessing departure is a difficult problem because of very limited spatial coverage of data

Steele, Brian

238

Multinomial-Regression Modeling of the Environmental Attitudes of Higher Education Students Based on the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is increasingly interested in its impact on the sustainability attributes of its students, so we wanted to explore how our students' environmental concern changed during their higher education experiences. We used the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP) with 505 students and developed and tested a multinomial…

Jowett, Tim; Harraway, John; Lovelock, Brent; Skeaff, Sheila; Slooten, Liz; Strack, Mick; Shephard, Kerry

2014-01-01

239

INTEROP: A Community-driven Scientific Observations Network to achieve Interoperability of Environmental and Ecological Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intellectual Merit. Advances in environmental science increasingly depend on information from multiple disciplines to tackle broader and more complex questions about the natural world. Such advances, however, are hindered by data heterogeneity, which impedes the ability of researchers to discover, interpret, and integrate relevant data that have been collected by oth- ers. A recent NSF-funded workshop on multi-disciplinary data management

Mark Schildhauer; Shawn Bowers; Corinna Gries; Phillip Dibner; Deborah McGuinness; Luis Bermudez; John Graybeal; Josh Madin

240

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

241

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2011-01-01

242

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2013-01-01

243

National Voluntary Environmental Assessment Information System (NVEAIS) State Notice and Acknowledgment of Local Participation  

E-print Network

Voluntary Environmental Assessment Information System (NVEAIS) State Notice and Acknowledgment of Local/program) _______________________________ in the National Voluntary Environmental Assessment Information System (NVEAIS) of the National Center all foodborne illness outbreak environmental assessment data to the system. Information collected

244

Using geographic information systems for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies.  

PubMed

Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

Nuckols, John R; Ward, Mary H; Jarup, Lars

2004-06-01

245

Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies  

PubMed Central

Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

2004-01-01

246

An online database for informing ecological network models: http://kelpforest.ucsc.edu  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological network models and analyses are recognized as valuable tools for understanding the dynamics and resiliency of ecosystems, and for informing ecosystem-based approaches to management. However, few databases exist that can provide the life history, demographic and species interaction information necessary to parameterize ecological network models. Faced with the difficulty of synthesizing the information required to construct models for kelp forest ecosystems along the West Coast of North America, we developed an online database (http://kelpforest.ucsc.edu/) to facilitate the collation and dissemination of such information. Many of the database's attributes are novel yet the structure is applicable and adaptable to other ecosystem modeling efforts. Information for each taxonomic unit includes stage-specific life history, demography, and body-size allometries. Species interactions include trophic, competitive, facilitative, and parasitic forms. Each data entry is temporally and spatially explicit. The online data entry interface allows researchers anywhere to contribute and access information. Quality control is facilitated by attributing each entry to unique contributor identities and source citations. The database has proven useful as an archive of species and ecosystem-specific information in the development of several ecological network models, for informing management actions, and for education purposes (e.g., undergraduate and graduate training). To facilitate adaptation of the database by other researches for other ecosystems, the code and technical details on how to customize this database and apply it to other ecosystems are freely available and located at the following link (https://github.com/kelpforest-cameo/data?baseui).

Beas-Luna, Rodrigo; Tinker, M. Tim; Novak, Mark; Carr, Mark H.; Black, August; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Hoban, Michael; Malone, Dan; Iles, Alison C.

2014-01-01

247

An Online Database for Informing Ecological Network Models: http://kelpforest.ucsc.edu  

PubMed Central

Ecological network models and analyses are recognized as valuable tools for understanding the dynamics and resiliency of ecosystems, and for informing ecosystem-based approaches to management. However, few databases exist that can provide the life history, demographic and species interaction information necessary to parameterize ecological network models. Faced with the difficulty of synthesizing the information required to construct models for kelp forest ecosystems along the West Coast of North America, we developed an online database (http://kelpforest.ucsc.edu/) to facilitate the collation and dissemination of such information. Many of the database's attributes are novel yet the structure is applicable and adaptable to other ecosystem modeling efforts. Information for each taxonomic unit includes stage-specific life history, demography, and body-size allometries. Species interactions include trophic, competitive, facilitative, and parasitic forms. Each data entry is temporally and spatially explicit. The online data entry interface allows researchers anywhere to contribute and access information. Quality control is facilitated by attributing each entry to unique contributor identities and source citations. The database has proven useful as an archive of species and ecosystem-specific information in the development of several ecological network models, for informing management actions, and for education purposes (e.g., undergraduate and graduate training). To facilitate adaptation of the database by other researches for other ecosystems, the code and technical details on how to customize this database and apply it to other ecosystems are freely available and located at the following link (https://github.com/kelpforest-cameo/databaseui). PMID:25343723

Beas-Luna, Rodrigo; Novak, Mark; Carr, Mark H.; Tinker, Martin T.; Black, August; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Hoban, Michael; Malone, Dan; Iles, Alison

2014-01-01

248

ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological, natural resource, or environmental policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively ...

249

A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. PMID:22545168

Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

2012-01-01

250

Drivers and Dynamics of Ecological Responses to Abrupt Environmental Change on the Early Miocene Oregon Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We know that the biosphere responds to abrupt climate change, but know less about the dynamics of those changes and their proximal drivers. Studies of well-preserved fossil time-series spanning past climate events that utilize multiple environmental proxies and examine multiple taxonomic groups can provide critical insight into (a) the specific environmental factors to which the biota respond, (b) the rate and tempo of those responses, and (c) whether taxonomic groups respond similarly or differently to the same stresses. I examine the drivers and dynamics of ecological changes in continental shelf benthic foraminifera and molluscs from the Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation in Oregon (20.3-16.3 mya), which spans a time of global warming leading into the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. Stable isotope (?18O) data from three species of benthic foraminifera from the Astoria sediments indicate that the region abruptly warmed by 2-4°C approximately 19 mya. In addition, ?13C values from epifaunal and infaunal foraminifera indicate an increase in productivity and organic carbon flux over time. Further, an increase in ?15N from bulk sediment and an increase in sedimentary laminations suggest oxygen levels declined. Multivariate analyses demonstrate a strong correlation between foraminiferal community metrics and ?15N suggesting that the foraminiferal community is tracking oxygenation levels while correlations to productivity changes appear indirect. Molluscan community metrics also have an approximately linear relationship to ?15N. Temperature itself had little direct influence on community composition. Changes in community composition and structure of both the foraminifera and the molluscs are abrupt relative to the duration of community states, but each group responds differently to the climate change. The foraminiferal community increases in the number of species and the evenness of species abundances while the molluscan community decreases in diversity, evenness, and body size suggesting the molluscs experienced greater stress. This difference in response may be explained by the shorter life cycles of benthic foraminifera and their ability to respond to seasonal changes in upwelling or oxygen stress. On the Oregon shelf in the last decade, low-oxygen conditions have increased in occurrence due to intensified wind-driven upwelling tied to modern warming. Faunal patterns from the Newport Member suggest that the benthic faunas may change in response to oxygenation and be less directly affected by productivity and temperature changes. Taxonomic groups may also to respond differently to the same environmental stresses due to physiological and ecological dissimilarities.

Belanger, C. L.

2012-12-01

251

Environmental Education in K-12 Curricula. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Information Bulletin No. 2, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1987 the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education (ERIC/SMEAC) conducted a survey of the state education agencies, asking respondents to summarize their perceptions as to how schools include environmental topics in their curricula by responding to a questionnaire. Also requested was information concerning…

Disinger, John F.

252

Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

Scapini, Felicita

2014-10-01

253

Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues involving regional extrapolations and parameterizations of dynamic land processes within simulation models.

Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

1993-01-01

254

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

255

General Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how environmental conditions and organism interactions determine animal and tree distribution and abundance. There are definitions of important ecological terms such as ecology, interactions, and abundance; descriptions of the environmental conditions needed for rainforests and how they provide habitat for many species; and an explanation of the spawning process. The tutorial also introduces food chain concepts and the unique ecology of riparian habitats. A quiz is also available.

256

REVIEW OF INFORMATION ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL OCCURRENCE OF  

E-print Network

Columbia October 1995 DOE FRAP 95-25 #12;Abstract This document is a collection of maps which form the background information summarized the accompanying report, DOE FRAP 95-24. Data on environmental contaminants`information rt%um~edam Ie rapport d'accompagnement, DOE FRAP 95-24. Les donnt$essur les contaminants trouves

257

Information Source Characteristics and Environmental Scanning by Academic Library Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article examines characteristics of the external environment of library and information centres of Islamic Azad University in Iran, focusing on perceived environmental uncertainty and perceived source accessibility and quality, and their impacts on the amount of scanning and the frequency of information source use. Methods: This…

Babalhavaeji, Fahimeh; Farhadpoor, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

258

Integrative Principles of Ecology ABIO 564 Spring 2013  

E-print Network

: Critique :: 40 : 30 : 30 #12;5 What is Ecology? POPULATION BIOLOGY: Ecology Evolution Natural Selection, Adaptation Prominent in Predictive Understanding General Definitions 1. Study relationships between organisms: Equilibrium or Far From Equilibrium? Not Natural History, Not Environmentalism Might Inform Environmental

Caraco, Thomas

259

Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.  

PubMed

Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' ?(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation. PMID:24416315

Macho, Gabriele A

2014-01-01

260

Hydrogeology and groundwater ecology: Does each inform the other?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The known, perceived and potential relationships between hydrogeology and groundwater ecology are explored, along with the spatial and temporal scale of these relations, the limit of knowledge and areas in need of research. Issues concerned with the subterranean part of the water cycle are considered from the perspective of the biology of those invertebrate animals that live, of necessity, in groundwater and the microbiological milieu essential for their survival. Groundwater ecosystems are placed in a hydrogeological context including the groundwater evolution along a flowpath, the significance of the biodiversity and of the ecosystem services potentially provided. This is considered against a background of three major components essential to the functioning of groundwater ecosystems, each of which can be affected by activities over which hydrogeologists often have control, and each, in turn, may have implications for groundwater management; these are, a place to live, oxygen and food (energy). New techniques and increasing awareness amongst hydrogeologists of the diversity and broad distribution of groundwater ecosystems offer new opportunities to develop cross disciplinary work between hydrogeologists and groundwater ecologists, already demonstrated to be a field for collaboration with broad benefits.

Humphreys, W. F.

2009-02-01

261

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

262

[The effect of thermal power plant on microbial ecology and environmental quality].  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of thermal power plant on the microbial ecology and the environmental quality, the Hsieh-Ho Thermal Power Plant was chosen and the populations of microbes including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cellulolytic, phosphate-solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing microbes were selected as the parameters of microbial ecology. The pH values of the soil sample collected from inside and outside of the plant were 5.2-6.2 and 4.0-5.3, respectively. Moisture content in plant area was lower than that in the surrounding area. Microbial populations of the topsoils were higher than those of the subsoils. Each gram of soil contained 3.64 x 10(4)-5.16 x 10(7) colonies of bacteria, 1.75 x 10(3)-1.10 x 10(6) colonies of actinomycetes and 6.72 x 10(3)-8.78 x 10(6) colonies of fungi in the plant area; while they were 5.52 x 10(4)-2.14 x 10(7), 8.26 x 10(3)-7.25 x 10(5) and 3.49 x 10(3)-2.74 x 10(6) colonies of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, respectively, in the surrounding area. The effect of seasonal change on microbial populations was not significant. The ratio of cellulolytic, phosphate-solubilizing and nitrogen-fixing microbes to the total count in the plant area was also higher than that in the surrounding area, and some of them had significant differences. From the statistical analysis, the effect of thermal power generator on the population and distribution of microbes was significantly different. PMID:10650492

Yang, S S; Yang, C K; Chang, E H; Wei, C B

1999-12-01

263

Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.  

PubMed

Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model. PMID:21253931

Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

2011-01-01

264

The application of geographic information science to environmental research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic Information Science (GISci) in general, and land cover mapping in particular are important components of many environmental studies including, but not limited to, animal habitat modeling, biogeography, conservation biology, biogeochemistry, hydrologic modeling and global change studies. This dissertation explores methods for integrating remotely sensed satellite imagery, GPS (Global Positioning System) and environmental data to create regional land cover maps and their application to environmental questions. Specifically, a statewide land cover map of Wyoming created for the Wyoming Gap Analysis Program is described and used to explore biogeographic boundaries in the state. A detailed map of Costa Rica is created by integrating remotely sensed data with other geospatial information for predicting gas flux from tropical soils. A map of dominant deciduous tree species is developed using multitemporal Landsat TM data and other information in the Catskills of New York to explore biogeochemical controls on water quality. An experiment exploring the relationship between sampling effort and sample size highlights issues associated with assessing the thematic accuracy of large area maps. All of these studies demonstrate the strengths of GISci for supporting environmental research while also revealing fundamental limitations of spectral data for mapping, especially in large map domains. These fundamental limitations are discussed, including spectral ambiguity and issues associated with modeling land cover when environmental envelopes of classes overlap or when the legacy of past land use obscures environmental relationships. Together, the papers included in this dissertation represent an exploration of the application of land cover data to environmental questions.

Driese, Kenneth L.

265

Research Program in Environmental Planning and Geographic Information Systems (REGIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California at Berkeley provides this site on Environmental Planning and Geographic Information Systems (REGIS) research. Based at the University's Center for Environmental Design Research, REGIS aims "to develop GIS tools and apply them in environmental planning, management, research, and teaching." Four sections form the heart of the homepage: GRASSLinks (an interactive Web GIS program that enables real-time display and analysis of data), GIS Analysis and Modeling (includes photos and GIS coverages of San Francisco Bay/ Delta region), Research Projects and Collaborative Partnerships (lists collaborators), and GIS Data and Information Sources at REGIS (includes publications, instructional resources, and GRASS-related software). For academics and professionals interested in GIS and Environmental Planning, this is a solid and useful resource.

266

RESEARCH ARTICLE Upscaling as ecological information transfer: a simple  

E-print Network

from CO2 sink to source. Compressing NDVI maps by 70­75% using wavelet thresholding with the Haar Normalized difference vegetation index Á Skew-normal distribution Á Tundra Á Upscaling Á Wavelet and quantification of information (Kullback 1997; Kull- back and Leibler 1951; Reza 1994; Shannon 1948

Jones, Peter JS

267

Analysis of Multi-Interpretable Ecological Monitoring Information  

E-print Network

of plant species makes it possible to derive information about a terrain's abiotic (physical and chemical) characteristics on the basis of the plant species found. More specifically, experts are able to derive the abiotic of the species comprising the vegetation. If knowledge on abiotic preferences of plant species is available

Treur, Jan

268

The ecology of the planktonic diatom Cyclotella and its implications for global environmental change studies.  

PubMed

The fossil record of diatoms in lake sediments can be used to assess the effects of climate variability on lake ecosystems if ecological relationships between diatom community structure and environmental parameters are well understood. Cyclotella sensu lato taxa are a key group of diatoms that are frequently dominant members of phytoplankton communities in low- to moderate-productivity lakes. Their relative abundances have fluctuated significantly in palaeolimnological records spanning over a century in arctic, alpine, boreal and temperate lakes. This suggests that these species are sensitive to environmental change and may serve as early indicators of ecosystem effects of global change. Yet patterns of change in Cyclotella species are not synchronous or unidirectional across, or even within, regions, raising the question of how to interpret these widespread changes in diatom community structure. We suggest that the path forward in resolving seemingly disparate records is to identify clearly the autecology of Cyclotella species, notably the role of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and light, coupled with better consideration of both the mechanisms controlling lake thermal stratification processes and the resulting effects of changing lake thermal regimes on light and nutrients. Here we begin by reviewing the literature on the resource requirements of common Cyclotella taxa, illustrating that many studies reveal the importance of light, nitrogen, phosphorus, and interactions among these resources in controlling relative abundances. We then discuss how these resource requirements can be linked to shifts in limnological processes driven by environmental change, including climate-driven change in lakewater temperature, thermal stratification and nutrient loading, as well as acidification-driven shifts in nutrients and water clarity. We examine three case studies, each involving two lakes from the same region that have disparate trends in the relative abundances of the same species, and illustrate how the mechanisms by which these species abundances are changing can be deciphered. Ultimately, changes in resource availability and water clarity are key factors leading to shifts in Cyclotella abundances. Tighter integration of the autecology of this important group of diatoms with environmental change and subsequent alterations in limnological processes will improve interpretations of palaeolimnological records, and clarify the drivers of seemingly disparate patterns in fossil records showing widespread and rapid changes across the northern hemisphere. PMID:24917134

Saros, J E; Anderson, N J

2014-06-11

269

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.9 Computerized...

2014-01-01

270

Environmental Career Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This jobs listing service, provided by Environmental Careers World, an environmental position recruiting firm, posts announcements ranging from field assistants, to post-doctoral positions, to faculty positions. The site lists positions in and out of the US, with universities, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. Sites are briefly listed with hyperlinks to more complete information and are divided into the following sections: biology/ecology, environmental education, environmental policy/advocacy, environmental sciences, forestry and natural resources, and career changers.

1998-01-01

271

An Cloud Approach to Managing Environmental Information (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Environment Research Council in the UK has a long history of managing environmental information. It has had a comprehensive set of data centres for over twenty years, with several with much longer histories. However, users usually want information, and that information involves not only data but also models and interpretation tools. Cloud services allow data, models and tools to be served, potentially seamlessly. A pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory allowed the approach to be tested for several exemplars in hydrology and soils. This approach is now being expanded across the whole environmental domain. This approach is to develop a set of exemplars across the environmental sciences, which will give an understanding of the maturity of different areas of environmental science to adopt this technology. In parallel, a private cloud will be developed to host the exemplars and to test cloud architectures and tools. This will also contain cloud burst capability to a large public cloud to allow for periods of high demand. There is also a shortage of skilled practitioners of these technologies across environmental sciences, so there will be short course training and similar activities. Further, these services must be seamless, and also interoperate internationally, and so a programme on issues of governance and interoperability will be developed through the Belmont Forum, a group of international funding agencies. Exchange of ideas and concepts in the programme will be facilitated via a Knowledge Hub. In the longer term, operational and commercial services using this approach will be developed.

Gurney, R. J.; Jackman, S.; Sharpe, A.

2013-12-01

272

Research on ecological function zoning information system based on WebGIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of information technology, application of WebGIS will make it possible to realize digitization and intellectualization in issuing and managing information of ecological function zoning. Firstly, this paper introduces the fundamental principles, basic methods and current situation of development and various support techniques about WebGIS. Secondly, the paper not only compares and analyzes the above methods but also discusses their applied prospect and feasibility in Web management. Finally, exemplified by Jiaozuo City, the paper puts forward an idea of design and a project of realization about the information system. In this research, the digital map and establishment of map database have been finished by MapInfo. Combining with some technical data of ecological environment of Jiaozuo City, the information of ecological environment resources is collected, stored, analyzed, calculated and displayed in the form of pictures and graphs on the WebGIS platform, which makes use of secondary development flat-MapXtreme for Java and some tools such as Java, JSP and JavaScript. Serve mode is adopted in the system which has realized the operating, inquiring of basic map and working out thematic map. By the finished system, it brings some references.

Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Gang

2007-06-01

273

Radiological and Environmental Research Division: ecology. Annual report, January-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This is the annual report of the Radiological and Environmental Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for 1982. Studies of the effects of ozone on crop growth and yield have been carried out by the Terrestrial Ecology Group for winter wheat and for sorghum. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) facility was completed in the early summer. Controlled investigations of plant and soil responses in acid rain were initiated with crop plants grown in two different midwestern soil types. The Transuranics Group has found that the solubility and adsorptive behavior of plutonium previously observed at fallout concentrations in natural waters (approx. 10/sup -16/ to 10/sup -18/ M) is applicable at plutonium concentrations as high as 10/sup -8/ M. The Lake Michigan eutrophication model has been adapted to operation in a Monte Carlo mode. Simulations based on yearly phosphorus loadings and winter conditions were selected at random from prescribed probability distributions and used to estimate some of the uncertainties associated with model forecasts of Lake Michigan water quality.

Not Available

1983-09-01

274

Nitrogen isotopic ecology in southern Africa: Implications for environmental and dietary tracing  

SciTech Connect

In order to establish baseline nitrogen isotope data for certain African ecosystems, they have measured the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N of some 300 marine and terrestrial organisms. The majority of these specimens come from the southwestern Cape, and were chosen to represent a cross-section of the foods important in prehistoric diets in the region. {delta}{sup 15}N analyses of 78 Holocene human skeletons from the same area are interpreted in the light of these results. Additional terrestrial animal samples were collected from the northern and eastern Cape and from Botswana and Malawi. They represent a wide range of climatic and environmental zones, from semi-desert to sub-tropical swamps. The patterning in the values for marine organisms is consistent with previously published data; that for terrestrial organisms, however, is more complex than recent studies have indicated. Their data confirm the proposal that animal {delta}{sup 15}N values vary with rainfall: high {delta}{sup 15}N values for herbivores occur in areas receiving less than 400 mm of rain per annum. They critically examine a recently proposed model explaining this phenomenon, and suggest some additional mechanisms which should be considered. In such arid areas, nitrogen isotope ratios cannot be used as marine/terrestrial indicators, but may provide some indication of the trophic level of the food consumed. Dietary studies on human populations can only be undertaken with a thorough appreciation of the isotopic ecology of the relevant foodweb.

Sealy, J.C.; Van Der Merwe, N.J.; Thorp, J.A.L.; Lanham, J.L. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa))

1987-10-01

275

Nitrogen isotopic ecology in southern Africa: Implications for environmental and dietary tracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish baseline nitrogen isotope data for certain African ecosystems, we have measured the 15N /14N of some 300 marine and terrestrial organisms. The majority of these specimens come from the southwestern Cape, and were chosen to represent a cross-section of the foods important in prehistoric diets in the region. ? 15N analyses of 78 Holocene human skeletons from the same area are interpreted in the light of these results. Additional terrestrial animal samples were collected from the northern and eastern Cape and from Botswana and Malawi. They represent a wide range of climatic and environmental zones, from semi-desert to sub-tropical swamps. The patterning in the values for marine organisms is consistent with previously published data; that for terrestrial organisms, however, is more complex than recent studies have indicated. Our data confirm the proposal that animal ? 15N values vary with rainfall: high ? 15N values for herbivores occur in areas receiving less than 400 mm of rain per annum. We critically examine a recently proposed model explaining this phenomenon, and suggest some additional mechanisms which should be considered. In such arid areas, nitrogen isotope ratios cannot be used as marine/terrestrial indicators, but may provide some indication of the trophic level of the food consumed. Dietary studies on human populations can only be undertaken with a thorough appreciation of the isotopic ecology of the relevant foodweb.

Sealy, Judith C.; van der Merwe, Nikolaas J.; Thorp, Julia A. Lee; Lanham, John L.

1987-10-01

276

Estimating Environmental Drivers for Broad-Scale Ecological Models: Comparing Performance of Modeled Stream Flow and Meteorological Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisheries ecologists are charged with assessing the impact of climate and land use changes on wild fish populations. Their ecological population models require estimates of environmental drivers, stream flow and stream temperature, across broad spatial scales. Observation data is frequently not available at that scale, especially for smaller streams and headwaters that are the habitat for target species. As estimates at a coarse temporal resolution are sufficient for many ecological population models, it is possible to develop regionalized models across the broad spatial scale required with the limited observations available. It may also be possible to use measures of air temperature and precipitation, for which meteorological observations are more readily available, as proxy metrics for stream flow and stream temperature. Since additional sources of model uncertainty are avoided by using the proxy measures, it is important to evaluate whether modeled stream flow provides enough improvement to the ecological models to justify this introduction of uncertainty. We employ wild brook trout occupancy models to evaluate these different environmental inputs. We present a regionalized model for estimating stream flow at the seasonal time-step, and a model of summary statistics. Performance of fish occupancy models using each of these estimates is then compared to the performance of a fish occupancy model using meteorological measures as the environmental driver.

Rosner, A.; Letcher, B. H.; Kanno, Y.

2013-12-01

277

Methods and general findings of a comparative ecological risk assessment: The State of Texas Environmental Priorities Project  

SciTech Connect

The State of Texas Environmental Priorities Project (STEPP) is a comparative risk project designed to analyze and rank anthropogenic environmental issues in Texas with respect to their impacts on human health, natural ecological systems, and socioeconomic welfare. The Ecological Workgroup, which was composed of members from several government agencies and academia, ranked nine environmental issues according to their relative risks to ecological systems. A report on each issue was generated. The reports consisted of risk assessments, though many were qualitative in nature. Using these reports the Workgroup ranked the risks of the issues relative to each other, e.g., low risk does not imply unimportance. The criteria used in ranking the issues, consisted of severity, population exposed, magnitude of effect, and uncertainty. A preliminary ranking of the issues, giving an equal weight to all four criteria, identified habitat alteration, loss of biodiversity, and air quality as the three issues with the greatest potential risks. A ranking of the criteria identified unequal importance values for the four criteria. A final issue ranking was performed using the two most important criteria (population exposed and magnitude of effect). The results of this ranking were (in order of greatest to least potential risks): habitat alteration, loss of biodiversity, global climate change, surface water quality, air quality, waste management, soil erosion, pesticide contamination, and water availability.

Kiesling, R.L.; Bond, J.A.; McCoy, J.T.; Wilder, J. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States); Bahktar, A. [Texas Dept. of Agriculture, Austin, TX (United States); Tinterra, J. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Brock, D. [Texas Water Development Board, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

278

Mapping the information landscape: Discerning peaks and valleys for ecological monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigate previously unreported phenomena that have a potentially significant impact on the design of surveillance monitoring programs for ecological systems. Ecological monitoring practitioners have long recognized that different species are differentially informative of a system?s dynamics, as codified in the well-known concepts of indicator or keystone species. Using a novel combination of analysis techniques from nonlinear dynamics, we describe marked variation among spatial sites in information content with respect to system dynamics in the entire region. We first observed these phenomena in a spatially extended predator?prey model, but we observed strikingly similar features in verified water-level data from a NOAA/NOS Great Lakes monitoring program. We suggest that these features may be widespread and the design of surveillance monitoring programs should reflect knowledge of their existence.

Moniz, L.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Nichols, J.M.

2007-01-01

279

Ecology of information: social transmission dynamics within groups of non-social insects.  

PubMed

While many studies focus on how animals use public information, the dynamics of information spread and maintenance within groups, i.e. the 'ecology of information', have received little attention. Here we use fruitflies trained to lay eggs on specific substrates to implement information into groups containing both trained and untrained individuals. We quantify inter-individual interactions and then measure the spread of oviposition preference with behavioural tests. Untrained individuals increase their interactive approaches in the presence of trained individuals, and the oviposition preference transmission is directly proportional to how much trained and untrained individuals interact. Unexpectedly, the preference of trained individuals to their trained oviposition substrate decreases after interactions with untrained individuals, leading to an overall informational loss. This shows that social learning alone is not enough to support informational stability. PMID:25589603

Battesti, Marine; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Moreno, Celine; Teseo, Serafino; Joly, Dominique; Klensch, Elizabeth; Petit, Odile; Sueur, Cedric; Mery, Frederic

2015-02-22

280

Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.  

PubMed Central

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

Maantay, Juliana

2002-01-01

281

Bridging Organizational Divides in Health Care: An Ecological View of Health Information Exchange  

PubMed Central

Background The fragmented nature of health care delivery in the United States leads to fragmented health information and impedes patient care continuity and safety. Technologies to support interorganizational health information exchange (HIE) are becoming more available. Understanding how HIE technology changes health care delivery and affects people and organizations is crucial to long-term successful implementation. Objective Our study investigated the impacts of HIE technology on organizations, health care providers, and patients through a new, context-aware perspective, the Regional Health Information Ecology. Methods We conducted more than 180 hours of direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and 9 formal semi-structured interviews. Data collection focused on workflow and information flow among health care team members and patients and on health care provider use of HIE technology. Results We structured the data analysis around five primary information ecology components: system, locality, diversity, keystone species, and coevolution. Our study identified three main roles, or keystone species, involved in HIE: information consumers, information exchange facilitators, and information repositories. The HIE technology impacted patient care by allowing providers direct access to health information, reducing time to obtain health information, and increasing provider awareness of patient interactions with the health care system. Developing the infrastructure needed to support HIE technology also improved connections among information technology support groups at different health care organizations. Despite the potential of this type of technology to improve continuity of patient care, HIE technology adoption by health care providers was limited. Conclusions To successfully build a HIE network, organizations had to shift perspectives from an ownership view of health data to a continuity of care perspective. To successfully integrate external health information into clinical work practices, health care providers had to move toward understanding potential contributions of external health information. Our study provides a foundation for future context-aware development and implementation of HIE technology. Integrating concepts from the Regional Health Information Ecology into design and implementation may lead to wider diffusion and adoption of HIE technology into clinical work.

Johnson, Kevin B; Gadd, Cynthia S; Lorenzi, Nancy M

2013-01-01

282

Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

1992-07-01

283

Functional ecology of saltglands in shorebirds: Flexible responses to variable environmental conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Birds of marine environments have specialized glands to excrete salt, the saltglands. Located on the skull between the eyes, the size of these organs is expected to reflect their demand, which will vary with water turnover rates as a function of environmental (heat load, salinity of prey and drinking water) and organismal (energy demand, physiological state) factors. On the basis of inter- and intraspecific comparisons of saltgland mass (m sg) in 29 species of shorebird (suborder Charadrii) from saline, fresh and mixed water habitats, we assessed the relative roles of organism and environment in determining measured m sg species. The allometric exponent, scaling dry m sg to shorebird total body mass (m b), was significantly higher for coastal marine species (0??88, N=19) than for nonmarine species (0??43, N=14). Within the marine species, those ingesting bivalves intact had significantly higher m sg than species eating soft-bodied invertebrates, indicating that seawater contained within the shells added to the salt load. In red knots (Calidris canutus), dry m sg varied with monthly averaged ambient temperature in a U-shaped way, with the lowest mass at 12??5??C. This probably reflects increased energy demand for thermoregulation at low temperatures and elevated respiratory water loss at high temperatures. In fuelling bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica), dry m sg was positively correlated with intestine mass, an indicator of relative food intake rates. These findings suggest once more that saltgland masses vary within species (and presumably individuals) in relation to salt load, that is a function of energy turnover (thermoregulation and fuelling) and evaporative water needs. Our results support the notion that m sg is strongly influenced by habitat salinity, and also by factors influencing salt load and demand for osmotically free water including ambient temperature, prey type and energy intake rates. Saltglands are evidently highly flexible organs. The small size of saltglands when demands are low suggests that any time costs of adjustment are lower than the costs of maintaining a larger size in this small but essential piece of metabolic machinery. ?? 2011 The Authors. Functional Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

Gutierrez, J.S.; Dietz, M.W.; Masero, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; Dekinga, A.; Battley, Phil F.; Sanchez-Guzman, J. M.; Piersma, T.

2012-01-01

284

Closing the data life cycle: using information management in macrosystems ecology research  

SciTech Connect

An important goal of macrosystems ecology research is to advance understanding of ecological systems at both fine and broad temporal and spatial scales. Our premise in this paper is that such projects require information management that is integrated into projects from their inception. Such efforts will lead to improved communication and sharing of knowledge among diverse project participants, better science outcomes, and more open science. We promote "closing the data life cycle" by publishing well-documented data sets, which allows for re-use of data to answer new and different questions from the ones conceived by the original projects. The practice of documenting and submitting data sets to publicly accessible data repositories ensures that research results and data are accessible to and useable by other researchers, thus fostering open science. Ecologists are often not familiar with the information management tools and requirements to effectively preserve data, however, and receive little institutional or professional incentive to do so. This paper describes recommended steps to these ends, and gives examples from current macrosystem ecology projects of why information management is so critical to ensuring that scientific results can be both reproduced and data shared for future use.

Ruegg, Janine; Gries, Corinna; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bowen, Gabriel; Felzer, Benjamin; McIntyre, Nancy; Soranno, Patricia; Vanderbilt, Kristen; Weathers, Kathleen

2014-02-01

285

Spatiotemporal information systems in soil and environmental sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with spatiotemporal information systems and their application in soil and environmental sciences. Issues investigated in this work include developments in the space\\/time modelling of natural variations, composite spatiotemporal mapping, and the incorporation of various sources of information into space\\/time analysis. Theoretical models, simulation examples, as well as real-world case studies are discussed. The models can process

George Christakos

1998-01-01

286

Geographic information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research.  

PubMed Central

Advances in geographic information system (GIS) technology, developed by geographers, provide new opportunities for environmental epidemiologists to study associations between environmental exposures and the spatial distribution of disease. A GIS is a powerful computer mapping and analysis technology capable of integrating large quantities of geographic (spatial) data as well as linking geographic with nongeographic data (e.g., demographic information, environmental exposure levels). In this paper we provide an overview of some of the capabilities and limitations of GIS technology; we illustrate, through practical examples, the use of several functions of a GIS including automated address matching, distance functions, buffer analysis, spatial query, and polygon overlay; we discuss methods and limitations of address geocoding, often central to the use of a GIS in environmental epidemiologic research; and we suggest ways to facilitate its use in future studies. Collaborative efforts between epidemiologists, biostatisticians, environmental scientists, GIS specialists, and medical geographers are needed to realize the full potential of GIS technology in environmental health research and may lead to innovative solutions to complex questions. Images p598-a Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E PMID:9288494

Vine, M F; Degnan, D; Hanchette, C

1997-01-01

287

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) Enhancements - 13109  

SciTech Connect

Significant cleanup has been accomplished on the Oak Ridge (OR) site since it was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989, and a final evaluation of Zone 1 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1988 (CERCLA) has been initiated. The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) is the database for storing OR site environmental characterization and monitoring data. Consideration of a final decision under CERCLA prompted several enhancements to OREIS that were designed to provide future users a clear picture of remediation progression across the OR site. The enhancements to OREIS are ongoing and fall into four categories: Geographic Information System Interface; Document Association; Remediation Status; Geo-spatial Data (authors)

Halsey, Patricia J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Salpas, Peter A. [Salpas Consulting, Inc., 106 Claymore Ln, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [Salpas Consulting, Inc., 106 Claymore Ln, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Clark, Phillip A.; Lewis, Larry [Restoration Services, Inc., P.O. Box 5177, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Restoration Services, Inc., P.O. Box 5177, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tharpe, Deidre

2013-07-01

288

Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

1992-07-01

289

EXTENDING ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE TO USEFUL PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing (PHAiRS) is addressing: (1) an atmospheric dust modeling system into which Earth observation (EO) data have been assimilated, and (2) a public health information system that is designed to link environmental data to aggregated health outcome data provided by the New Mexico Department of Health and other public health authorities. The objective is to

Stanley A. Morain; Amelia M. Budge

2008-01-01

290

Perceiving environmental properties from motion information: Minimal conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of motion as a minimal information source for perceiving the environmental properties of surface segregation, three-dimensional (3-D) form, displacement, and dynamics is discussed. The selection of these particular properties was motivated by a desire to present research on perceiving properties that span the range of dimensional complexity.

Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

1989-01-01

291

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF TELEMATICS: TELECOMMUNICATION, COMPUTATION, AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Current important research needs whose results will be critical to Environmental Protection Agency's mission in the next two to three decades with regard to a major expansion in the use of telematics, i.e. telecommunications, computer, and information technology, are identified. ...

292

INFORMATION INTEGRATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual federal and state investments in the collection, storage, and maintenance of resource and environmental data are enormous (estimated in the range of a few to tens of billions of dollars). espite these investments, the use of information from these databases for societal en...

293

The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification  

SciTech Connect

We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

2010-10-15

294

Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was observed. We identified several natural sources of mineral fibers in the study area, including clay-like white soils containing tremolite-actinolite, fibrous antigorite deposits, and veins of chrysotile in peridotite massifs, in addition to multiple serpentinite quarries predominantly containing antigorite. Statistical analyses revealed that the use of serpentinite to pave roads was the greatest risk factor for MM (OR=495.0, 95%CI:46.2-4679.7; multivariate IRR=13.0, 95%CI:10.2-16.6). Other MM risk factors in order of importance were the presence of antigorite, proximity to serpentinite quarries, proximity to peridotite massifs, and presence of chrysotile. Dense vegetation and land slope were protective factors. Whitewash use was not related to MM incidence. Many natural fibrous minerals are not commercially used as asbestos and are therefore not regulated. However, our study demonstrated that non-regulated antigorite fibers are related to cancer, and that soils containing these minerals pose an environmental risk to the population when the fibers are released into the air by weathering or by human activities. Regulation of additional fibrous minerals is therefore suggested.

Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

2013-05-01

295

Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated risk assessment that could assist in the EM prioritization efforts. (authors)

Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

2013-07-01

296

Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and potentially beyond. The many different scales involved provide serious challenges to information fusion which need to be researched. Heterogeneity - Natural systems are heterogeneous, that is a system consisting of multiple components each of which may have considerable internal variation. Modelling Earth Systems requires recognition of the inherent complexity. Uncertainty - Understanding the uncertainties within a single information source can be difficult. Understanding the uncertainties across a system of linked models, each drawn from multiple information resources, represents a considerable challenge that must be addressed. The challenges to overcome appear insurmountable to individual research groups; but the potential rewards, in terms of a fuller scientific understanding of Earth Systems, are significant. A major international effort must be mounted to tackle these barriers and enable routine information fusion.

Giles, J. R.

2010-12-01

297

SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

2014-01-01

298

From Romanticism to Deep Ecology: The Continuing Evolution in American Environmental Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the contributions to deep ecology of Henry Thoreau, who advocated acting upon strongly held convictions; John Muir, who adopted a biocentric view of nature; and Aldo Leopold, who formulated an egalitarian ecosystem ethic. While deep ecology is moving toward a new vision of humankind's relation to nature, it has yet to coalesce into a…

Ackerson, David

2000-01-01

299

LINKING ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ACROSS SCALES: COASTAL ECOLOGY AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CASPIAN SEA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coastal regions, such as the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Mexico face a multitude of serious environmental challenges, including energy development, overfishing and invasive species. The largest oil discovery in the past 30 years was found in the North Caspian Sea, home to the endemic Caspian Seal an...

300

UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent expansion of the Oil and Gas Industry in to the deep waters of the UK Atlantic Frontier prompted the industry and its regulator to reappraise the needs and means of environmental monitoring. In concert, deep-sea academics, specialist contractors, the regulator and the Industry, through the Atlantic Frontier Environmental Network (AFEN), devised and implemented a large-scale environmental survey of the deep waters to the north and west of Scotland. The AFEN-funded survey was carried out during the summers of 1996 and 1998, and involved two steps; an initial sidescan sonar mapping of the survey areas, followed up with direct seabed investigations by coring and photography. This contribution deals with the latter step. Seabed samples were collected to assess sediment type, organic content, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and macrobenthos. Photographic and video observations were employed to provide both 'routine' seabed assessments and to investigate particular sidescan features of note. Although essentially intended as a 'baseline' environmental survey, anthropogenic impacts are already evident throughout the areas surveyed. Indications of the effects of deep-sea trawling were frequently encountered (seabed trawl marks and areas of disturbed sediments), being present in almost all of the areas studied and extending to water depths in excess of 1000 m. Evidence of localised contamination of the seabed by drilling muds was also detected, though background hydrocarbon contamination is predominantly of terrestrial origin or derived from shipping. The benthic ecology of the UK Atlantic Margin is dominated by the marked differences in the hydrography of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) and the Rockall Trough (RT). Comparatively warm North Atlantic Water is common to both areas; however, in the FSC, cold (subzero) waters occupy the deeper parts of the channel (>600 m). The extreme thermal gradient present on the West Shetland Slope has a substantial influence on the distribution and diversity of the macrobenthos. While there is continuous variation in the fauna with depth, warm and cold water faunas are nonetheless quite distinct. The boundary region, centred on 400 m water depth, may be best characterised as an ecotone, having a mixed warm and cold water fauna with a distinctly enhanced diversity. The Wyville-Thomson Ridge largely prevents the cold waters of the deep FSC from entering the RT (they certainly do not influence the areas of the Malin/Hebrides Slope assessed during the survey). Consequently, the deep-water faunas north and south of the ridge are highly distinct. There is also a very marked difference in the diversity of the two faunas: diversity declines with depth in the FSC but increases with depth in the RT. The distribution of macrobenthos in the RT is largely continuous with depth, with little indication of local variations but some evidence of enhanced rates of change at around 1200 m, possibly associated with the presence of Labrador Sea Water. Other observations made during the course of the survey include: (a) the occurrence of sponge dominated communities (' ostebund') at mid-slope depths (ca. 500 m) north and west of Shetland; (b) the discovery of a population of sediment surface dwelling enteropneusts associated with a sandy contourite deposit at the base of the West Shetland Slope (ca. 900 m); (c) the widespread and abundant occurrence of phytodetritus in the RT but not the FSC; and (d) the discovery of the ' Darwin Mounds' at ca. 1000 m in the northern RT, a field of numerous, small seabed mounds that support significant growths of the coral Lophelia pertusa. These mounds also have 'acoustically visible tails' with dense populations of xenophyophores ( Syringammina fragilissima), a species found to be common elsewhere in the RT.

Bett, Brian J.

2001-05-01

301

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2012-10-01

302

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2011-10-01

303

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2014-10-01

304

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2010-10-01

305

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2013-10-01

306

GIS and Time-Series Integration in the Kennedy Space Center Environmental Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA started the Ecological Program 14 years ago to collect environmental data which can be used in making environmental management decisions. The EP team created the Mapping Analysis and Planning System (MAPS) to store all the data, including the appropriate tools for data analysis and exploration.

Hinkle, Ross; Costa, Joao Ribeiro da; Engel, Bernard

1996-01-01

307

Storytelling and environmental information: connecting schoolchildren and herpetofauna in Morocco.  

PubMed

Northwestern Morocco is undergoing a sudden change in the level of infrastructure growth and pressure on the environment from increased tourism. The ongoing changes are raising questions about how the ecosystem will react, and the relevant drivers of these changes. The Oued Laou valley in north-west Morocco hosts high landscape, species and human cultural diversity. The Talassemtane National Park has been established to preserve the environment in this region; however, what information tools are available to children regarding this environment? The ecosystem is illustrated here using three components: herpetofauna (representing ecosystem components), problems related to water quantity and quality (representing interactions within ecosystem components) and Talassemtane National Park (representing a case of ecosystem management). A children's book was written on this topic, and when the book was delivered to pupils, a questionnaire was included, aimed at determining their sources of environmental information. The results identified major changes in the sources of information utilized by children in this part of Morocco, a clear role of schools in explaining ecosystem components, and an increasing role of TV in environmental information supply. The role of the family was found to be less important than TV or school. Another major source of pupils' environmental knowledge is personal observation and hands-on experience, both for rural and urban children. Children are willing to discover and understand complex systems, and researchers should be encouraged to supply children with correct and up-to-date information on environmental systems, focusing at first on the local environment, as a background for sustainable development. PMID:21392289

Fanini, Lucia; Fahd, Soumia

2009-06-01

308

An ERP study on whether semantic integration exists in processing ecologically unrelated audio-visual information.  

PubMed

In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether semantic integration occurs for ecologically unrelated audio-visual information. Videos with synchronous audio-visual information were used as stimuli, where the auditory stimuli were sine wave sounds with different sound levels, and the visual stimuli were simple geometric figures with different areas. In the experiment, participants were shown an initial display containing a single shape (drawn from a set of 6 shapes) with a fixed size (14cm(2)) simultaneously with a 3500Hz tone of a fixed intensity (80dB). Following a short delay, another shape/tone pair was presented and the relationship between the size of the shape and the intensity of the tone varied across trials: in the V+A- condition, a large shape was paired with a soft tone; in the V+A+ condition, a large shape was paired with a loud tone, and so forth. The ERPs results revealed that N400 effect was elicited under the VA- condition (V+A- and V-A+) as compared to the VA+ condition (V+A+ and V-A-). It was shown that semantic integration would occur when simultaneous, ecologically unrelated auditory and visual stimuli enter the human brain. We considered that this semantic integration was based on semantic constraint of audio-visual information, which might come from the long-term learned association stored in the human brain and short-term experience of incoming information. PMID:22005579

Liu, Baolin; Meng, Xianyao; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

2011-11-14

309

DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK: OTHER  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1577 Petersen*, D., Barber, L., Dilworth, G, Fiebelkorn, T., McCaffrey, M., Murphy, S., Rudkin, C., Scott, D., and Waterman, J. Delivering Timely Environmental Information to your Community: The Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network. EPA/625/C-01/010. The Te...

310

Understanding subarctic wildlife in Eastern James Bay under changing climatic and socio-environmental conditions: bringing together Cree hunters' ecological knowledge and scientific observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Subarctic is undergoing climatic and environmental changes which are leading to wide-ranging implications for wildlife, ecosystems and aboriginal communities. Through their long-term experience and observations, Cree hunters of the Eastern James Bay are aware of the local manifestations of changes to animal ecology. This article presents and analyses Cree observations of the effects of altering climatic and environmental

Thora Martina Herrmann; Marie-Jeanne S. Royer; Rick Cuciurean

2012-01-01

311

Knowledge and Values in Science Textbooks Concerning Complexity in Ecological Systems and Environmental Problems: A Cross-cultural Study on Secondary School Manuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship" that joined 18 European and North-African countries. We report here the methodology and some of the conclusions drawn from an analysis of science textbooks that considered the topics ecology and environmental…

Boujemaa, Agorram; Silvia, Caravita; Adriana, Valente; Daniela, Luzi; Nicola, Margnelli

2009-01-01

312

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-06-01

313

Educating Young People about Environmental Health for Informed Social Action  

PubMed Central

Whereas environmental health education is rapidly becoming a global priority, it still receives little attention in schools. This paper describes a U.S. National Library of Medicine program, aiming to support environmental health education in grades 6-12 in U.S. schools. The program has four components: (1) developing reliable online resources that provide quality environmental health information; (2) creating lesson plans that integrate our resources into the classroom and extracurricular activities; (3) engaging teachers by inviting collaborations and promoting our resources and activities; and (4) conducting educational research that provides a foundation for the other components. The paper describes specific educational resources and activities and grounds them in learning theories from the fields of cognitive psychology and science education. PMID:24383062

Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M.; Kramer, Judy F.; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

2013-01-01

314

Educating Young People about Environmental Health for Informed Social Action.  

PubMed

Whereas environmental health education is rapidly becoming a global priority, it still receives little attention in schools. This paper describes a U.S. National Library of Medicine program, aiming to support environmental health education in grades 6-12 in U.S. schools. The program has four components: (1) developing reliable online resources that provide quality environmental health information; (2) creating lesson plans that integrate our resources into the classroom and extracurricular activities; (3) engaging teachers by inviting collaborations and promoting our resources and activities; and (4) conducting educational research that provides a foundation for the other components. The paper describes specific educational resources and activities and grounds them in learning theories from the fields of cognitive psychology and science education. PMID:24383062

Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M; Kramer, Judy F; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

2011-01-01

315

Molecular ecology meets remote sensing: environmental drivers to population structure of humpback dolphins in the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Genetic analyses of population structure can be placed in explicit environmental contexts if appropriate environmental data are available. Here, we use high-coverage and high-resolution oceanographic and genetic sequence data to assess population structure patterns and their potential environmental influences for humpback dolphins in the Western Indian Ocean. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA data from 94 dolphins from the coasts of South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania and Oman, employing frequency-based and maximum-likelihood algorithms to assess population structure and migration patterns. The genetic data were combined with 13 years of remote sensing oceanographic data of variables known to influence cetacean dispersal and population structure. Our analyses show strong and highly significant genetic structure between all putative populations, except for those in South Africa and Mozambique. Interestingly, the oceanographic data display marked environmental heterogeneity between all sampling areas and a degree of overlap between South Africa and Mozambique. Our combined analyses therefore suggest the occurrence of genetically isolated populations of humpback dolphins in areas that are environmentally distinct. This study highlights the utility of molecular tools in combination with high-resolution and high-coverage environmental data to address questions not only pertaining to genetic population structure, but also to relevant ecological processes in marine species. PMID:21427750

Mendez, M; Subramaniam, A; Collins, T; Minton, G; Baldwin, R; Berggren, P; Särnblad, A; Amir, O A; Peddemors, V M; Karczmarski, L; Guissamulo, A; Rosenbaum, H C

2011-10-01

316

EDC RESEARCH AT EPA ATLANTIC ECOLOGY DIVISION: DO ENVIRONMENTAL EDCS IMPACT FISH POPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development, EP A is a marine laboratory situated on Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Researchers at AED are investigating the effects endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the aquatic environment might have on reproductive ...

317

EnGenIUS -- Environmental Genome Informational Utility System.  

PubMed

Short-insert shotgun sequencing approaches have been applied in recent years to environmental genomic libraries. In the case of complex multispecies microbial communities, there can be many sequence reads that are not incorporated into assemblies, and thus need to be annotated and accessible as single reads. Most existing annotation systems and genome databases accommodate assembled genomes containing contiguous gene-encoding sequences. Thus, a solution is required that can work effectively with environmental genomic annotation information to facilitate data analysis. The Environmental Genome Informational Utility System (EnGenIUS) is a comprehensive environmental genome (metagenome) research toolset that was specifically designed to accommodate the needs of large (> 250 K sequence reads) environmental genome sequencing efforts. The core EnGenIUS modules consist of a set of UNIX scripts and PHP programs used for data preprocessing, an annotation pipeline with accompanying analysis tools, two entity relational databases, and a graphical user interface. The annotation pipeline has a modular structure and can be customized to best fit input data set properties. The integrated entity relational databases store raw data and annotation analysis results. Access to the underlying databases and services is facilitated through a web-based graphical user interface. Users have the ability to browse, upload, download, and analyze preprocessed data, based on diverse search criteria. The EnGenIUS toolset was successfully tested using the Alvinella pompejana epibiont environmental genome data set, which comprises more than 300 K sequence reads. A fully browsable EnGenIUS portal is available at (http://ocean.dbi.udel.edu/) (access code: "guest"). The scope of this paper covers the implementation details and technical aspects of the EnGenIUS toolset. PMID:19090024

Kaplarevic, Mihailo; Murray, Alison E; Cary, Stephen C; Gao, Guang R

2008-12-01

318

Campus Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

National Wildlife Federation

319

LaGESI: Laboratory for Global Environmental Science Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Laboratory for Global Environmental Science Information (LaGESI) was launched in conjunction with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory "to increase the use of Earth science data sets to improve our understanding of global and regional environmental science issues." The LaGESI Website offers access to a huge collection of Earth science data (via WWW and FTP), simulations of earth science processes, free desktop visualization software including WebWinds, earth science education activities and modules, and support information (alerts and technical assistance). Online data vary in accessibility, scope, and detail, but include atmosphere (AVIRIS, ATMOS, GENESIS, GCMD), land (AIRSAR, AVIRIS, MASTER, GCMD), and ocean data (AIRSAR, AIRSEA, AVIRIS, MASTRER, NSCAT, PO-DAAC, TOPEX, and GCMD). For any researcher seeking earth science data from the regional to global geographic scale, this is a phenomenal resource and reference tool.

320

30 CFR 250.1910 - What safety and environmental information is required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1910 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1910 What safety and environmental information is...

2012-07-01

321

30 CFR 250.1910 - What safety and environmental information is required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1910 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1910 What safety and environmental information is...

2014-07-01

322

30 CFR 250.1910 - What safety and environmental information is required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1910 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1910 What safety and environmental information is...

2013-07-01

323

Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology and Environmental Teratology Information Center Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology and Environmental Teratology Information Center (DART/ ETIC) Database is made available by the National Library of Medicine's Toxicology Data Network. The database contains over 100,000 current and earlier literature citations covering teratology and other aspects of developmental and reproductive toxicology. Users may search the database by subject, title words, chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number, and author. The Web site also includes a useful help page and sample record for familiarizing oneself with the database.

324

Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center multi-year plan  

SciTech Connect

An information analysis center (IAC) is a federal resource that provides technical information for a specific technology field. An IAC links an expert technical staff with an experienced information specialist group, supported by in-house or external data bases to provide technical information and maintain a corporate knowledge in a technical area. An IAC promotes the rapid transfer of technology among its users and provides assistance in adopting new technology and predicting and assessing emerging technology. This document outlines the concept, requirements, and proposed development of an Environmental Quality IAC (EQIAC). An EQIAC network is composed of several nodes, each of which has specific technology capabilities. This document outlines strategic and operational objectives for the phased development of one such node of an EQIAC network.

Rivera, R.G. (RDG, Inc. (United States)); Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Walsh, T.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States))

1992-09-01

325

Research and Development for an Operational Information Ecology: The User-System Interface Agent Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The User System Interface Agent (USIA) is a special type of software agent which acts as the "middle man" between a human user and an information processing environment. USIA consists of a group of cooperating agents which are responsible for assisting users in obtaining information processing services intuitively and efficiently. Some of the main features of USIA include: (1) multiple interaction modes and (2) user-specific and stereotype modeling and adaptation. This prototype system provides us with a development platform towards the realization of an operational information ecology. In the first phase of this project we focus on the design and implementation of prototype system of the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). The second face of USIA allows user interaction via a restricted query language as well as through a taxonomy of windows. In third phase the USIA system architecture was revised.

Srivastava, Sadanand; deLamadrid, James

1998-01-01

326

USER-CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING AND DECISION SUPPORT USING NASA WORLD WIND AND DOE GENIE PRO SOFTWARE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective environmental stewardship requires timely geospatial information about ecology and environment for informed environmental decision support. Unprecedented public access to high resolution imagery from earth-looking sensors via online virtual earth browsers ...

327

A fish-based index of estuarine ecological quality incorporating information from both scientific fish1 survey and experts knowledge2  

E-print Network

A fish-based index of estuarine ecological quality incorporating information from both scientific) context, a multimetric fish based index is required29 to assess the ecological status of French estuarine Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Charles10

Boyer, Edmond

328

Modelling the ecological vulnerability to forest fires in mediterranean ecosystems using geographic information technologies.  

PubMed

Forest fires represent a major driver of change at the ecosystem and landscape levels in the Mediterranean region. Environmental features and vegetation are key factors to estimate the ecological vulnerability to fire; defined as the degree to which an ecosystem is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of fire (provided a fire occurs). Given the predicted climatic changes for the region, it is urgent to validate spatially explicit tools for assessing this vulnerability in order to support the design of new fire prevention and restoration strategies. This work presents an innovative GIS-based modelling approach to evaluate the ecological vulnerability to fire of an ecosystem, considering its main components (soil and vegetation) and different time scales. The evaluation was structured in three stages: short-term (focussed on soil degradation risk), medium-term (focussed on changes in vegetation), and coupling of the short- and medium-term vulnerabilities. The model was implemented in two regions: Aragón (inland North-eastern Spain) and Valencia (eastern Spain). Maps of the ecological vulnerability to fire were produced at a regional scale. We partially validated the model in a study site combining two complementary approaches that focused on testing the adequacy of model's predictions in three ecosystems, all very common in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Spain: two shrublands and a pine forest. Both approaches were based on the comparison of model's predictions with values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which is considered a good proxy for green biomass. Both methods showed that the model's performance is satisfactory when applied to the three selected vegetation types. PMID:23052472

Duguy, Beatriz; Alloza, José Antonio; Baeza, M Jaime; De la Riva, Juan; Echeverría, Maite; Ibarra, Paloma; Llovet, Juan; Cabello, Fernando Pérez; Rovira, Pere; Vallejo, Ramon V

2012-12-01

329

Modelling the Ecological Vulnerability to Forest Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems Using Geographic Information Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires represent a major driver of change at the ecosystem and landscape levels in the Mediterranean region. Environmental features and vegetation are key factors to estimate the ecological vulnerability to fire; defined as the degree to which an ecosystem is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of fire (provided a fire occurs). Given the predicted climatic changes for the region, it is urgent to validate spatially explicit tools for assessing this vulnerability in order to support the design of new fire prevention and restoration strategies. This work presents an innovative GIS-based modelling approach to evaluate the ecological vulnerability to fire of an ecosystem, considering its main components (soil and vegetation) and different time scales. The evaluation was structured in three stages: short-term (focussed on soil degradation risk), medium-term (focussed on changes in vegetation), and coupling of the short- and medium-term vulnerabilities. The model was implemented in two regions: Aragón (inland North-eastern Spain) and Valencia (eastern Spain). Maps of the ecological vulnerability to fire were produced at a regional scale. We partially validated the model in a study site combining two complementary approaches that focused on testing the adequacy of model's predictions in three ecosystems, all very common in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Spain: two shrublands and a pine forest. Both approaches were based on the comparison of model's predictions with values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which is considered a good proxy for green biomass. Both methods showed that the model's performance is satisfactory when applied to the three selected vegetation types.

Duguy, Beatriz; Alloza, José Antonio; Baeza, M. Jaime; De la Riva, Juan; Echeverría, Maite; Ibarra, Paloma; Llovet, Juan; Cabello, Fernando Pérez; Rovira, Pere; Vallejo, Ramon V.

2012-12-01

330

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

1992-09-01

331

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

1992-01-01

332

New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services: OneStop Data and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) created the OneStop website to allow the public easy access to environmental data and information. The site is broken down into two main categories: OneStop Environmental Site Information and OneStop Project-Specific Information. In the Environmental Site Information component, visitors can find geographic information system (GIS) data, air stationary sources, environmental monitoring data, resources on solid waste sites, and more. The Project-Specific Information offers materials on specific hazardous waste transporters, water systems, shore land protection, various permits, and water wells. The website has helpful instructions embedded within it to help users easily navigate through the materials.

333

Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation strategies relies on understanding the natural cycle of pathogen transmission. This requires consideration of, for example, invertebrate and vertebrate ecology and biology, climatology, land use and habitat change. Collectively, these can be referred to as medical entomology and medical ecology. This article reviews the importance for inclusion of such disciplines when assessing the public health risk from vector-borne zoonoses and summarizes the possible future challenges and driving forces for changes in vector status and vector-borne zoonoses emergence, with a particular focus on a UK and European context. PMID:22460391

Medlock, JM; Jameson, LJ

2010-01-01

334

The Geographic Information System component of the Hanford Environmental Information System. Requirements analysis for HEISGIS  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. HEISGIS is the Geographic Information Systems component of HEIS. This report analyzes the HEISGIS functional requirements as articulated by the members of a GIS subcommittee established by the HEIS Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) in a series of meetings. These functionalities are identified throughout this report, but no implementation commitment is made. This requirements analysis document will be followed by a brief list of the functionalities that will be implemented in FY91 and a description of the requisite acceptance test criteria.

Tzemos, S.; Overton, E.S.

1992-01-01

335

The Geographic Information System component of the Hanford Environmental Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. HEISGIS is the Geographic Information Systems component of HEIS. This report analyzes the HEISGIS functional requirements as articulated by the members of a GIS subcommittee established by the HEIS Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) in a series of meetings. These functionalities are identified throughout this report, but no implementation commitment is made. This requirements analysis document will be followed by a brief list of the functionalities that will be implemented in FY91 and a description of the requisite acceptance test criteria.

Tzemos, S.; Overton, E.S.

1992-01-01

336

MetaPathways: a modular pipeline for constructing pathway/genome databases from environmental sequence information  

PubMed Central

Background A central challenge to understanding the ecological and biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in natural and human engineered ecosystems is the reconstruction of metabolic interaction networks from environmental sequence information. The dominant paradigm in metabolic reconstruction is to assign functional annotations using BLAST. Functional annotations are then projected onto symbolic representations of metabolism in the form of KEGG pathways or SEED subsystems. Results Here we present MetaPathways, an open source pipeline for pathway inference that uses the PathoLogic algorithm to map functional annotations onto the MetaCyc collection of reactions and pathways, and construct environmental Pathway/Genome Databases (ePGDBs) compatible with the editing and navigation features of Pathway Tools. The pipeline accepts assembled or unassembled nucleotide sequences, performs quality assessment and control, predicts and annotates noncoding genes and open reading frames, and produces inputs to PathoLogic. In addition to constructing ePGDBs, MetaPathways uses MLTreeMap to build phylogenetic trees for selected taxonomic anchor and functional gene markers, converts General Feature Format (GFF) files into concatenated GenBank files for ePGDB construction based on third-party annotations, and generates useful file formats including Sequin files for direct GenBank submission and gene feature tables summarizing annotations, MLTreeMap trees, and ePGDB pathway coverage summaries for statistical comparisons. Conclusions MetaPathways provides users with a modular annotation and analysis pipeline for predicting metabolic interaction networks from environmental sequence information using an alternative to KEGG pathways and SEED subsystems mapping. It is extensible to genomic and transcriptomic datasets from a wide range of sequencing platforms, and generates useful data products for microbial community structure and function analysis. The MetaPathways software package, installation instructions, and example data can be obtained from http://hallam.microbiology.ubc.ca/MetaPathways. PMID:23800136

2013-01-01

337

Information, power and environmental justice in Botany: the role of community information systems.  

PubMed

In the environmental conflict that surrounds the sighting of hazardous waste facilities there is usually a volatile mix of disparities in power, expertise and information access as well as differing views on risk, which are all played out amidst commercial arrangements and environmental justice concerns. In recent times, the volatility of this mix has been further compounded by the growing climate of public concern and distrust surrounding scientific developments and technology. While there is no 'quick fix' to the complex conflict that this entails, community information systems (CISs) based on participatory models can help address the outstanding issues of capacity, information access, power inequities and environmental justice. CISs are an effective response to the five crucial elements of a toxic dispute, that is, the dialogue, capacity building, information access, evaluation of hazards and risk, and expertise. This paper will review the role of community accessible information systems in the dispute in Botany over the management and destruction of Orica Australia's stockpile of the persistent organic pollutant, hexachlorobenzene (HCB). It will focus on the role of CIS in responding to the challenges for expert information delivery, and in addressing the disparity of informational power within the toxic dispute. PMID:18804905

Lloyd-Smith, Mariann

2009-04-01

338

Combining a Fuzzy Matter-Element Model with a Geographic Information System in Eco-Environmental Sensitivity and Distribution of Land Use Planning  

PubMed Central

Sustainable ecological and environmental development is the basis of regional development. The sensitivity classification of the ecological environment is the premise of its spatial distribution for land use planning. In this paper, a fuzzy matter-element model and factor-overlay method were employed to analyze the ecological sensitivity in Yicheng City. Four ecological indicators, including soil condition,, water condition,, atmospheric conditions and biodiversity were used to classify the ecological sensitivity. The results were categorized into five ranks: insensitive, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive and extremely sensitive zones. The spatial distribution map of environmental sensitivity for land use planning was obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques. The results illustrated that the extremely sensitive and highly sensitive areas accounted for 14.40% and 30.12% of the total area, respectively, while the moderately sensitive and slightly sensitive areas are 25.99% and 29.49%, respectively. The results provide the theoretical foundation for land use planning by categorizing all kinds of land types in Yicheng City. PMID:21695036

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xinming; Zhu, Wenjuan

2011-01-01

339

Contact and the ecology of racial division: some varieties of informal segregation.  

PubMed

The analysis of contact between groups must proceed from an uncomfortable realization. Notwithstanding its formal abolition in many societies, segregation remains pervasive as an informal mechanism for ordering and defining social relations. Social psychologists' tendency to investigate contact under 'optimal' conditions may obscure this fact. This article discusses an observational study that attempted to chart some varieties of informal segregation on an 'open' beach in post-apartheid South Africa. The study used a novel methodology to plot the ecology of racial distribution within this public setting over time. The analysis, which included measures of dissimilarity (D) and exposure (P), indicated that processes of segregation operated in various ways to limit the opportunities for racial contact. Follow-up interviews conducted with 'white' holiday-makers suggested that such processes embodied shared assumptions about the 'proper' socio-spatial organization of race relations. Some implications for research on the contact hypothesis are discussed. PMID:12713753

Dixon, John; Durrheim, Kevin

2003-03-01

340

75 FR 49489 - Establishment of a New System of Records for Personal Information Collected by the Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...Information The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...information regarding qualifications (e.g., scores...Information regarding qualifications (e.g., scores...Division, U.S. Environmental Protection...

2010-08-13

341

Campus Ecology: A Guide to Assessing Environmental Quality and Creating Strategies for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to take the environmental issues and principles currently being studied in the classroom and move them outside the classroom doors into the campus community and the larger world. By making environmental knowledge part and parcel of campus environmental practice, students, faculty, and administrators have an extraordinary…

Smith, April A.; And Others

342

A record of Lateglacial and early Holocene environmental and ecological change from southwestern Connecticut, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of a sediment core from Highstead Swamp in southwestern Connecticut, USA, reveal Lateglacial and early Holocene ecological and hydrological changes. Lateglacial pollen assemblages are dominated by Picea and Pinus subg. Pinus, and the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cold interval is evidenced by higher abundance of Abies and Alnus viridis subsp. crispa .A s climate warmed at the

W. Wyatt Oswald; David R. Foster; Elaine D. Doughty; Edward K. Faison

2009-01-01

343

Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, Ecology and Health, Grades 7, 8, and 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Man, with his ability to develop and control his environment, and, conversely, the controlling or limiting factors of the environment that affect man's health and activities are dealt with in this prototype curriculum for grades 7-9. The basic principles related to ecology affecting man's health are given primary consideration. Specific curriculum…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

344

Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students…

Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

2011-01-01

345

The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode assemblages constitute a potential instrument for assessing the quality of submersed, temporarily submersed, and terrestrial soils and for the development of an ecological typology and biomonitoring system. Interpretation of physical or pollution-induced disturbances has hitherto mainly been based on changes in diversity, dominance patterns or percentage of dorylaimids (Adenophorea). The maturity index, based on the nematode fauna, is proposed

Tom Bongers

1990-01-01

346

Improving ecological niche models by data mining large environmental datasets for surrogate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

WhyWhere is a new ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithm for mapping and explaining the distribution of species. The algorithm uses image processing methods to efficiently sift through large amounts of data to find the few variables that best predict species occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to describe and justify the main parameterizations and to show preliminary success at

David R. B. Stockwell

2005-01-01

347

Improving ecological niche models by data mining large environmental datasets for surrogate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

WhyWhere is a new ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithm for mapping and explaining the distribution of species. The algorithm uses image processing methods to efficiently sift through large amounts of data to find the few variables that best predict species occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to describe and justify the main parameterizations and to show preliminary success at

David R. B. Stockwell

2006-01-01

348

Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

Holleman, Hannah

2012-01-01

349

Exchanging environmental information and decision making: developing the local Pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory with stakeholder communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO's development and participating in local decision making alongside policy makers, government agencies and scientists.

Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.

2012-04-01

350

Addressing health disparities and environmental justice: the National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health Information Outreach Program  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Disparities in health between minority and majority populations have become a topic of high interest in the health care and information communities. This paper describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) oldest outreach program to a minority population, a project that has been going on for over fifteen years. Setting/Participants/Resources: The overview is based on internal documentation and reports, interviews, personal communications, and project reports. Brief Description: This is a historical overview of the Environmental Health Information Outreach Program, from its beginnings in 1991 as the Toxicology Information Outreach Project. The initial collaboration began with nine historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) that had graduate programs in biomedicine. The current program includes representation from HBCUs, institutions serving Hispanic students, and tribal colleges. In addition to working with these institutions to promote the use of and access to electronic health information and related technology, this program brings attention to scientific research related to health issues that disproportionately affect minorities. Results/Outcome: The program expanded due to its perceived success by the initial participants and NLM's management. Not only have faculty, staff, and students at the participating institutions received training in using NLM's toxicology, environmental health, and other electronic resources, but the participants ascribe other successes to their collaboration with NLM. PMID:17641769

Dutcher, Gale A.; Spann, Melvin; Gaines, Cynthia

2007-01-01

351

GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

Hajj, George

1999-01-01

352

Integrated Risk Assessment for WFD Ecological Status classification applied to Llobregat river basin (Spain). Part II - Evaluation process applied to five environmental Lines of Evidence.  

PubMed

Many indicators and indices related to a variety of biological, physico-chemical, chemical, and hydromorphological water conditions have been recently developed or adapted by scientists in order to support water managers in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. In this context, the achievement of a comprehensive and reliable Ecological Status classification of water bodies across Europe is hampered by the lack of harmonised procedures for selecting an appropriate set of indicators and integrating heterogeneous information in a flexible way. To this purpose, an Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA)(2) methodology was developed based on the Weight of Evidence approach. This method analyses and combines a set of environmental indicators grouped into five Lines of Evidence (LoE), i.e. Biology, Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology. The whole IRA methodology has been implemented as a specific module into a freeware GIS (Geographic Information System)-based Decision Support System, named MODELKEY DSS. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the four supporting LoE (i.e. Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology), and includes a procedure for a comparison of each indicator with proper thresholds and a subsequent integration process to combine the obtained output with the LoE Biology results in order to provide a single score expressing the Ecological Status classification. The approach supports the identification of the most prominent stressors, which are responsible for the observed alterations in the river basin under investigation. The results provided by the preliminary testing of the IRA methodology through application of the MODELKEY DSS to the Llobregat case study are finally reported and discussed. PMID:21906780

Gottardo, S; Semenzin, E; Giove, S; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; de Zwart, D; Ginebreda, A; von der Ohe, P C; Marcomini, A

2011-10-15

353

Twenty-five years of ecological recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: review of environmental problems and remedial actions.  

PubMed

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects. PMID:21384273

Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

2011-06-01

354

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

2011-06-01

355

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody s biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

356

The NASA John C. Stennis Environmental Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) presentation, we will present two live demonstrations of a portion of the work being performed in support of environmental operations onsite and NASA-wide. These live demonstrations will showcase the NASA EGIS database through working versions of two software packages available from Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI, Inc.): ArcIMS 3.0 and either ArcView 3.2a or ArcGIS 8.0.2. Using a standard web browser, the ArcIMS demo will allow users to access a project file containing several data layers found in the EGIS database. ArcIMS is configured so that a single computer can be used as the data server and as the user interface, which allows for maximum Internet security because the computer being used will not actually be connected to the World Wide Web. Further, being independent of the Internet, the demo will run at an increased speed. This demo will include several data layers that are specific to Stennis Space Center. The EGIS database demo is a representative portion of the entire EGIS project sent to NASA Headquarters last year. This demo contains data files that are readily available at various government agency Web sites for download. Although these files contain roads, rails, and other infrastructure details, they are generalized and at a small enough scale that they provide only a general idea of each NASA center's surroundings rather than specific details of the area.

Cohan, Tyrus; Grant, Kerry

2002-01-01

357

Terrestrial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial studies continue to contribute ideas and ecological data ; relevant to nuclear-power plant siting and the management of stored radioactive ; wastes in the semi-arid steppe region of Washington. These ideas and data are ; also largely applicable to steppe regions of Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. Much of ; the available information concerning the ecology of steppe ecosystems has

1974-01-01

358

Anthropocentrism, endangered species and the environmental dilemma. A studio investigation and interrogation of humanity's ecological conundrum.  

E-print Network

??The current environmental dilemma is closely connected with humanity’s history, culture, sociology, economics, and the political forces that impinge on industrialisation and capitalism in Western… (more)

Symons, Debbie

2013-01-01

359

The Ecological Response of Carex lasiocarpa Community in the Riparian Wetlands to the Environmental Gradient of Water Depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

PubMed Central

The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31?cm, 40.11?cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4?cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association. PMID:24065874

Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

2013-01-01

360

Crossroads of Public Art, Nature and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how environmental education through ecological art can help students develop creativity, critical thinking, and an arts-informed notion of being a citizen of the world. In illustrating the importance of uncovering the relationship between environmental education and ecological art, the paper examines how this may be used to…

Song, Young Imm Kang

2012-01-01

361

An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a perceived proenvironmental attitude. The authors discuss the phenomenological analysis,

James Farmer; Doug Knapp; Gregory M. Benton

2007-01-01

362

An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a…

Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

2007-01-01

363

The Unknown Ecology of an Environmental Pathogen: Buruli ulcer Disease in West Africa  

E-print Network

pathogen ? Related to leprosy and tuberculosis ? Mode of transmission and ecological niche unknown ? Flooding events, disturbance, land cover ? Most studies at local scales ? Objective: to predict potentially suitable environments for BU across West... Africa using a correlative modeling approach Images courtesy of Lindsay Campbell and http://www.who.int/buruli/photos Occurrence Data ? Laboratory confirmed cases ? (1997 – 2006) ? Sampling bias ? Random points ? 3 data sets ? ~275 locations...

Campbell, Lindsay P.

2013-11-20

364

INFORMATION SHARING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE DANISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

INFORMATION SHARING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE DANISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND THE CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ON GREEN CHEMISTRY The Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the California and relevant stakeholders, whereas the California Environmental Protection Agency and the Danish #12;Page 2

365

Ecological genomics meets community-level modelling of biodiversity: mapping the genomic landscape of current and future environmental adaptation.  

PubMed

Local adaptation is a central feature of most species occupying spatially heterogeneous environments, and may factor critically in responses to environmental change. However, most efforts to model the response of species to climate change ignore intraspecific variation due to local adaptation. Here, we present a new perspective on spatial modelling of organism-environment relationships that combines genomic data and community-level modelling to develop scenarios regarding the geographic distribution of genomic variation in response to environmental change. Rather than modelling species within communities, we use these techniques to model large numbers of loci across genomes. Using balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) as a case study, we demonstrate how our framework can accommodate nonlinear responses of loci to environmental gradients. We identify a threshold response to temperature in the circadian clock gene GIGANTEA-5 (GI5), suggesting that this gene has experienced strong local adaptation to temperature. We also demonstrate how these methods can map ecological adaptation from genomic data, including the identification of predicted differences in the genetic composition of populations under current and future climates. Community-level modelling of genomic variation represents an important advance in landscape genomics and spatial modelling of biodiversity that moves beyond species-level assessments of climate change vulnerability. PMID:25270536

Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Keller, Stephen R

2015-01-01

366

Stable isotopes, ecological integration and environmental change: wolves record atmospheric carbon isotope trend better than tree rings.  

PubMed

Large-scale patterns of isotope ratios are detectable in the tissues of organisms, but the variability in these patterns often obscures detection of environmental trends. We show that plants and animals at lower trophic levels are relatively poor indicators of the temporal trend in atmospheric carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) when compared with animals at higher trophic levels. First, we tested how differences in atmospheric delta13C values were transferred across three trophic levels. Second, we compared contemporary delta13C trends (1961-2004) in atmospheric CO2 to delta13C patterns in a tree species (jack pine, Pinus banksiana), large herbivore (moose, Alces alces) and large carnivore (grey wolf, Canis lupus) from North America. Third, we compared palaeontological (approx. 30000 to 12000 14C years before present) atmospheric CO2 trends to delta13C patterns in a tree species (Pinus flexilis, Juniperus sp.), a megaherbivore (bison, Bison antiquus) and a large carnivore (dire wolf, Canis dirus) from the La Brea tar pits (southern California, USA) and Great Basin (western USA). Contrary to previous expectations, we found that the environmental isotope pattern is better represented with increasing trophic level. Our results indicate that museum specimens of large carnivores would best reflect large-scale spatial and temporal patterns of carbon isotopes in the palaeontological record because top predators can act as ecological integrators of environmental change. PMID:17686730

Bump, Joseph K; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Bada, Jeffrey L; Koch, Paul L; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

2007-10-01

367

Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Information Series 98-1 Roots of Economics, Ecology and  

E-print Network

-1 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Roots of Economics, Ecology and Ecumenism: Foundations of the Land-Grant Household Mike Ellerbrock. #12;Roots of Economics, Ecology and Ecumenism: Foundations of the Land-Grant Household Mike Ellerbrock shall proceed by looking at what three core disciplines - economics, ecology and ecumenism - have

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

368

Warfare Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related\\u000a to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called “warfare ecology,”\\u000a (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research\\u000a directions and policy implications

Gary E. Machlis; Thor Hanson

369

A Catalog of Educational Resources in Communication Arts, Cultural Ecology, and Environmental Studies for the Small High School Teacher. Curriculum Resources for the Alaskan Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A catalog of semi-annotated topical listings of curriculum resources, published between 1960 and 1980, for use by educators in small Alaska high schools, contains sections on communication arts (108 items), cultural ecology (269 items), and environmental studies (363 items). Listings are presented on pages ruled into grids; for each item the…

Madsen, Eric; And Others

370

School of Natural Resources and Environment A university-wide program in ecology, environmental sciences and sustainability P. O. Box 110400  

E-print Network

and Communications, Law, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, and the Florida Museum of Natural History #12;TableSchool of Natural Resources and Environment A university-wide program in ecology, environmental-5870 FAX (352) 392-5113 jcato@ifas.ufl.edu www.snre.ufl.edu School of Natural Resources and Environment

Watson, Craig A.

371

The Death and Life of a School-Based Environmental Education and Communication Program in Brazil: Rethinking Educational Leadership and Ecological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an exploratory case study of the sustainability of an environmental education and communication (EEC) project at an elementary public school in Brazil. Our analysis shows that a narrow view of institutional educational leadership and ecological learning negatively affected the resilience of that particular EEC development. We…

Reis, Giuliano; Guimaraes-Iosif, Ranilce

2012-01-01

372

A "weight of evidence" approach for the integration of environmental "triad" data to assess ecological risk and biological vulnerability.  

PubMed

A new Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) that can integrate Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites has been developed. Starting with ecosystem relevance, the EDSS assigns different weights to the results obtained from Triad disciplines. The following parameters have been employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecotoxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates), 3) biomarkers (showing sublethal pollutant effects), and 4) ecological parameters (assessing changes in community structure and functions). For each Triad discipline, the EDSS compares the data obtained at the studied field sites with reference values and calculates different 0-1 indexes (e.g., Chemical Risk Index, Ecotoxicological Risk Index, and Ecological Risk Index). The EDSS output consists of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk index (EnvRI), quantifying the levels of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index (BVI), assessing the potential threats to biological equilibriums, and 3) Genotoxicity Index (GTI), screening genotoxicity effects. The EDSS has been applied in the integration of a battery of Triad data obtained during the European Union-funded Life Intervention in the Fraschetta Area (LINFA) project, which has been carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soils of a highly anthropized area (Alessandria, Italy) mainly impacted by deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Results obtained during 4 seasonal sampling campaigns (2004-2005) show maximum values of EnvRI in sites A and B (characterized by industrial releases) and lower levels in site D (affected by vehicular traffic emissions). All 3 potentially polluted sites have shown high levels of BVI and GTI, suggesting a general change from reference conditions (site C). PMID:18393577

Dagnino, Alessandro; Sforzini, Susanna; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Bona, Elisa; Jensen, John; Viarengo, Aldo

2008-07-01

373

18 CFR 380.3 - Environmental information to be supplied by an applicant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.3 Environmental information to...NEPA and other Federal laws such as the Endangered Species Act, the National Historic Preservation Act or the Coastal Zone Management Act....

2014-04-01

374

30 CFR 250.1910 - What safety and environmental information is required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1910 What safety and environmental information is...

2011-07-01

375

78 FR 50079 - Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0005...DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS); Proposed Collection; Comment...

2013-08-16

376

AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY (AEERL) PROCEDURES MANUAL: LEVEL 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual provides detailed procedures for EPA/AEERL's Level 1 terrestrial bioassays. (Some test methods designated for AEERL's Level 1 environmental assessment biological testing program are sufficiently new that little or no published literature is available describing specifi...

377

Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook  

EPA Science Inventory

In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with an objective of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Objectiv...

378

Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements and Future Outlook  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with a remit of moving omic technologies into chemical risk assessment and environmental monitoring. Obj...

379

Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example  

EPA Science Inventory

Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

380

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: ? Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species ? Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies ? A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Marianne E. Krasny

2003-01-01

381

Montana State University 1 Ph.D. Degree in Ecology  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Ph.D. Degree in Ecology and Environmental Sciences This cross of ecology and environmental sciences, within the unparalleled natural laboratory that is the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Particular program strengths include terrestrial and aquatic ecology, environmental

Lawrence, Rick L.

382

The potential impact of environmental variation on the concentrations and ecological effects of pollutants in a marine avian top predator.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and associations between OCs and fitness components were examined in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) in three colonies along the coast of northern Norway. In one of the colonies, data were collected in two subsequent seasons. Concentrations of four OCs (HCB, oxychlordane, DDE and PCB) were measured in blood (n=260) and fitness components (reproductive variables and adult return rate between breeding seasons) were recorded. In the first year, in two of the colonies, body condition and reproductive performance among the gulls were poor compared to the third colony, suggesting spatial variation in environmental conditions, especially food availability. However, in the third colony, body condition and reproductive performance were even better in the second season; i.e. environmental conditions varied temporally. OC residues were higher in the colonies where environmental conditions were poor, but much of this variation was explained by differences in body condition among colonies. Moreover, concurrent with improved body condition from one season to the next, the concentrations of OCs were halved. In the two colonies where environmental conditions were poor, female OC residues were negatively related to egg-laying date, egg size and nesting success, and in the colony where the concentrations of OC were highest, gulls with elevated DDE residues had low probability of returning between breeding seasons. In comparison, in the colony where environmental conditions were better in the first year, other types of adverse relationships between OCs and fitness components were found; i.e. chicks from females with high OC concentrations were in poor condition at hatching, suggesting maternal transfer of OCs to the eggs, and males with high OC residues had poor nesting success and chick survival, suggesting OC-mediated behavioural changes. With improved environmental conditions and lower OC concentrations in the second season, no significant adverse relationships between OCs and fitness components were found. This study thus suggests that there are complex interrelationships between both concentrations and ecological effects of OCs, and the environment, indicating that effects of OCs in nature may only be assessed after considering environmental variation. PMID:17884166

Bustnes, J O; Fauchald, P; Tveraa, T; Helberg, M; Skaare, J U

2008-02-01

383

The Soil Degradation Subsystem of the Hungarian Environmental Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regular data collection on the state of agricultural soils has not been in operation in Hungary for more than two decades. In the meantime, mainly thanks to the Hungarian Soil Strategy and the planned Soil Framework Directive, the demand for the information on state of Hungarian soils and the follow up of the harmful changes in their conditions and functioning has greatly increased. In 2010 the establishment of a new national soil monitoring system was supported by the Environment and Energy Operational Programme for Informatics Development. The aim of the project was to collect, manage, analyse and publish soil data related to the state of soils and the environmental stresses attributed to the pressures due to agriculture; setting up an appropriate information system in order to fulfil the directives of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. Further objective was the web-based publication of soil data as well as information to support the related public service mission and to inform publicity. The developed information system operates as the Soil Degradation Subsystem of the National Environmental Information System being compatible with its other elements. A suitable representative sampling method was elaborated. The representativity is meant for soil associations, landuse, agricultural practices and typical degradation processes. Soil data were collected on county levels led by regional representatives but altogether they are representative for the whole territory of Hungary. During the project, about 700,000 elementary data were generated, close to 2,000 parcels of 285 farms were surveyed resulting more than 9,000 analysis, 7,000 samples and 28,000 pictures. The overall number of the recorded parcels is 4500, with a total area of about 250,000 hectares. The effect of agricultural land use on soils manifests in rapid changes -related to natural processes- in qualitative and quantitative soil parameters. In intensively used agricultural areas, particularly because of inappropriate land use and agricultural practice soil degradation occurs. To detect the soil degradation processes, and determine their type and degree, soil condition indicators were defined, which are based on analysis of the different soil state variables. In addition to state, also load indicators were defined based on the recorded data, for the determination of the type and level of loads in connection with the agro-technical elements of the agricultural cultivation. The indication models for determining the load indicators were quantified based on the relationship of the collected load parameters. The indication models as analytical queries were built into the TERRADEGRA system. Thus with the expansion and temporal repetition of the load- and status data an increasingly accurate picture of the environmental status of our soils can be drawn. Based on the built-in queries pilot data analysis were performed, whose results are available through a public web query-graphic surface (http://okir-tdr.helion.hu/). The web publication visualizes the load indicators related to agro-technical elements, the physical, chemical and biological degradation indicators of the identified human induced soil degradation processes as well as the load-state relationships using photos, thematic maps, diagrams and textual explanations.

Szabó, József; Pirkó, Béla; Szabóné Kele, Gabriella; Dombos, Miklós; László, Péter; Koós, Sándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Laborczi, Annamária; Pásztor, László

2013-04-01

384

Soil Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

Killham, Ken

1994-04-01

385

Exploring ecology in Alaska: Reflective storytelling as a model for environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This professional project is formatted as a book that was written as a part of a qualitativeparticipatory action research study exploring best practices for diverse communities in Alaska to access reflective storytelling method as environmental education. Non-invasive assessment was utilized with participants in the form of talking circles, where program leaders and educators met in small groups with youth to practice sharing and reflecting on their experiential education activity. Youth voice and educator opinions were gathered in structured and unstructured interviews. Along with interviews, standard practice methods for a qualitative research project were utilized, including: participant observation, non-participant observation, field notes, reflexive journals, and analysis of documents and materials. The current book project was designed as a tool to assist with the implementation of the Alaska Natural Resource and Environmental Literacy Plan. Through place-based curriculum and experiential learning techniques, it shares examples of a unique method of teaching outdoor environmental education through storytelling.

Shoemaker, Kay Warren

386

Predictable Variation of Range-Sizes across an Extreme Environmental Gradient in a Lizard Adaptive Radiation: Evolutionary and Ecological Inferences  

PubMed Central

Large-scale patterns of current species geographic range-size variation reflect historical dynamics of dispersal and provide insights into future consequences under changing environments. Evidence suggests that climate warming exerts major damage on high latitude and elevation organisms, where changes are more severe and available space to disperse tracking historical niches is more limited. Species with longer generations (slower adaptive responses), such as vertebrates, and with restricted distributions (lower genetic diversity, higher inbreeding) in these environments are expected to be particularly threatened by warming crises. However, a well-known macroecological generalization (Rapoport's rule) predicts that species range-sizes increase with increasing latitude-elevation, thus counterbalancing the impact of climate change. Here, I investigate geographic range-size variation across an extreme environmental gradient and as a function of body size, in the prominent Liolaemus lizard adaptive radiation. Conventional and phylogenetic analyses revealed that latitudinal (but not elevational) ranges significantly decrease with increasing latitude-elevation, while body size was unrelated to range-size. Evolutionarily, these results are insightful as they suggest a link between spatial environmental gradients and range-size evolution. However, ecologically, these results suggest that Liolaemus might be increasingly threatened if, as predicted by theory, ranges retract and contract continuously under persisting climate warming, potentially increasing extinction risks at high latitudes and elevations. PMID:22194953

Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel

2011-01-01

387

A GIS APPLICATION AND RESOURCE TOOL FOR USE ON STUDIES OF THE LAKE TEXOMA ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations are underway at Lake Texoma to develop tools and information needed to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecological effects. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), ...

388

Ecology of Burkholderia pseudomallei and the interactions between environmental Burkholderia spp. and human–animal hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early workers thought that melioidosis was a zoonosis with a reservoir in rodents, but we now know that Burkholderia pseudomallei is a widely distributed environmental saprophyte. In northeast Thailand, two thirds of paddy fields yield the organism, and 80% of children have antibodies by the time they are 4 years old. However, interpretation of these results has been complicated by

David A. B Dance

2000-01-01

389

The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

Lysack, Mishka

2009-01-01

390

An Ecological System Curriculum: An Integrated MST Approach to Environmental Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an inquiry-based, student-centered mathematics, science, and technology curriculum guide. It features activities addressing such environmental science topics as groundwater modeling, water filtration, soil permeability and porosity, water temperature and salinity, and quadrant studies. Activities are organized so that the…

Leonhardt, Nina A.

391

Coastal environmental assessment and management by ecological simulation in Yeoja Bay, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eco-hydrodynamic model was used to estimate the carrying capacity of pollutant loads and response of water quality to environmental change in Yeoja Bay, Korea. An energy-system model also was used to simulate the fluctuation in nutrients and organic matter in the bordering wetland. Most water quality factors showed a pulsed pattern, and the concentrations of nutrients and organic matter

Dae-In Lee; Jeong-Min Choi; Yeon-Gyu Lee; Moon-Ock Lee; Won-Chan Lee; Jong-Kyu Kim

2008-01-01

392

New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

393

Future Research Challenges for Incorporating Uncertainty in Environmental and Ecological Decision-Making  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental decision-making is extremely complex due to the intricacy of the systems considered and the competing interests of multiple stakeholders. Additional research is needed to acquire further knowledge and understanding of different types of uncertainty (e.g., knowledge, variability, decisi...

394

The Global Ecology Handbook: What You Can Do about the Environmental Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is ample evidence of the seriousness of the world's population, resource, and environmental problems--poverty and hunger, deforestation and species loss, soil erosion and desertification, air and water pollution, acid precipitation and ozone layer depletion, as well as the greenhouse effect and climate change. This handbook was prepared as a…

Corson, Walter H., Ed.

395

A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for

Andrea Gazzinelli; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Guo-Jing Yang; Boakye A. Boatin; Helmut Kloos

2012-01-01

396

Population ecology on an environmental gradient: Cakile edentula on a sand dune  

Microsoft Academic Search

A naturally-occurring sand dune population of the annual plant Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae) was studied for two years. The plants grew along an environmental gradient stretching from open sand beach (seaward) to densely vegetated dunes (landward). Survivorship and reproductive output were estimated from plants in permanent quadrats. The dispersal of seeds was documented by sifting fruits from the sand substrate at

Paul A. Keddy

1982-01-01

397

Ecology and Pedagogy: On the Educational Implications of Postwar Environmental Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmentalism, an ethical imperative to preserve and protect nature, has become in the last decade a central ethical, political and pedagogic theme. Against this background, this article focuses on the postwar philosophy of the German-Jewish scholar Hans Jonas (1903-93). It points to Jonas's radical theory of pedagogic responsibility, and to…

Hotam, Yotam

2010-01-01

398

The EMAP: Ecological indicators of condition  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the Science Advisory Board to the EPA recommended a program to monitor ecological status and trends, as well as the development of innovative methods, for anticipating emerging environmental problems before a crisis. The multi-agency Environmental Monitoring And Assessment Program (EMAP) evolved with the following program elements: (1) a focus on environmental values and policy-relevant questions; (2) an activity that monitors indicators of ecological condition rather than individual stressors or pollutants; (3) an assessment-driven approach that provides probability-based, scientific results with known certainty; and (4) an activity that translates results into information useful to environmental policy makers and managers. Establishing baseline environmental conditions has received increasing attention with the growing awareness of impacts on human health and environmental integrity from global atmospheric change, acidic deposition, the loss of wetland habitats, and decreasing biodiversity. Monitoring programs can provide critical, quantitative results for scientific assessments of the complex effects of pollutants and natural changes on ecosystems. The goal of the EPA component of EMAP is to conduct research to develop place-based (e.g., large and small geographic scales) ecological monitoring and assessment. EPA/EMAP conducts research to develop and evaluate indicators of ecological condition and to detect in the long-term changes and trends in indicators and associated stresses and develops monitoring strategies to identify conditions of ecological resources in larger, high priority regions or in smaller, regional studies, such as watersheds. With its focus on long-term monitoring and assessment research and research on indicators of ecological condition, the EPA/EMAP can better determine where environmental programs are working to protect, improve, and maintain the quality of our nation`s ecological resources.

Austin, H.K.

1995-12-01

399

Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems.

Markwiese, J.T.; Ryti, R.T.; Hooten, M.M.; Michael, D.I.; Hlohowskyj, I.

2001-02-01

400

Assessing ecological correlates of marine bird declines to inform marine conservation.  

PubMed

Identifying drivers of ecosystem change in large marine ecosystems is central for their effective management and conservation. This is a sizable challenge, particularly in ecosystems transcending international borders, where monitoring and conservation of long-range migratory species and their habitats are logistically and financially problematic. Here, using tools borrowed from epidemiology, we elucidated common drivers underlying species declines within a marine ecosystem, much in the way epidemiological analyses evaluate risk factors for negative health outcomes to better inform decisions. Thus, we identified ecological traits and dietary specializations associated with species declines in a community of marine predators that could be reflective of ecosystem change. To do so, we integrated count data from winter surveys collected in long-term marine bird monitoring programs conducted throughout the Salish Sea-a transboundary large marine ecosystem in North America's Pacific Northwest. We found that decadal declines in winter counts were most prevalent among pursuit divers such as alcids (Alcidae) and grebes (Podicipedidae) that have specialized diets based on forage fish, and that wide-ranging species without local breeding colonies were more prone to these declines. Although a combination of factors is most likely driving declines of diving forage fish specialists, we propose that changes in the availability of low-trophic prey may be forcing wintering range shifts of diving birds in the Salish Sea. Such a synthesis of long-term trends in a marine predator community not only provides unique insights into the types of species that are at risk of extirpation and why, but may also inform proactive conservation measures to counteract threats-information that is paramount for species-specific and ecosystem-wide conservation. Evaluación de las Correlaciones Ecológicas de las Declinaciones de Aves Marinas para Informar a la Conservación Marina. PMID:25195954

Vilchis, L Ignacio; Johnson, Christine K; Evenson, Joseph R; Pearson, Scott F; Barry, Karen L; Davidson, Peter; Raphael, Martin G; Gaydos, Joseph K

2015-02-01

401

Ecology versus Issue Interpretation: The Analysis of Two Different Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,500 students in grades 4 through 6 attended two half-day interpretive programs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; one focused on ecological information, the other on environmental issues associated with the site. Each program significantly increased students' knowledge but had little impact on students' environmental attitudes or…

Barrie, Elizabeth; Knapp, Doug

1998-01-01

402

Multivariate analyses in microbial ecology  

PubMed Central

Environmental microbiology is undergoing a dramatic revolution due to the increasing accumulation of biological information and contextual environmental parameters. This will not only enable a better identification of diversity patterns, but will also shed more light on the associated environmental conditions, spatial locations, and seasonal fluctuations, which could explain such patterns. Complex ecological questions may now be addressed using multivariate statistical analyses, which represent a vast potential of techniques that are still underexploited. Here, well-established exploratory and hypothesis-driven approaches are reviewed, so as to foster their addition to the microbial ecologist toolbox. Because such tools aim at reducing data set complexity, at identifying major patterns and putative causal factors, they will certainly find many applications in microbial ecology. PMID:17892477

Ramette, Alban

2007-01-01

403

Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) at Stennis Space Center (SSC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation includes: 1) Background of SSC Environmental GIS (EGIS); 2) Principal Center Activities; 3) SSC's GIS Applications: a) Environmental Emergency Response Tool, b) CERCLA, c) Facilities Master Planning, d) Natural Resource Management and Site Assessment.

Carr, Hugh; Smoot, James; Parikh, Joy

2004-01-01

404

A study of the environmental information acquisition system based on smart phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it proposed a new environmental information acquisition system based on smart phones (Smartphone / Pocket PC) which combined with Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), wireless communication technology in allusion to the current actual situation of environmental protection information acquisition in city environmental protection department. System architecture and working principle is analyzed, and it designs the main modules of the software and hardware. In addition, transport protocols and application of the implementation method have been discussed. Experiments show that the environmental information acquisition system has high precision, easy to use, information transfer with high efficiency and reliability. Not only have that, the paper also discusses the effective strategies of network transmission of data encryption and the image transmission rate improvement. In brief, it can effectively enhance the work efficiency of the city environmental protection department when they collect relevant information.

Xu, Lingyan; Chen, Feixiang; Ni, Shaoliang; Wang, Ling; Wei, Chao; Gong, Bowen

2010-08-01

405

The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: an ecological perspective.  

PubMed

The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined in the urban space of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. Four environmental factors were investigated: thermal and social loads; CO concentrations and noise. Levels of HRV are explained mainly by subjective social stresses, noise and CO. The most interesting result is the fact that while subjective social stress and noise increase HRV, low levels of CO are reducing HRV to some extent moderating the impact of subjective social stress and noise. Beyond the poisoning effect of CO and the fact that extremely low levels of HRV associated with high dozes of CO increase risk for life, low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. The effects of thermal loads on HRV are negligible probably due to the use of behavioral means in order to neutralize heat and cold effects. PMID:23477780

Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Epstein, Yoram; Yaakov, Yaron; Hermesh, Hagai; Brenner, Shmuel; Tirosh, Emanuel

2013-12-01

406

Organic Agriculture and Food Production: Ecological, Environmental, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional agricultural systems should not only produce much greater amounts of food, feed, fibre and energy to meet the\\u000a global needs, but also challenge problems to improve health and social well-being of man, reduce dependence on fossil fuels,\\u000a adapt to climate change and extreme weather, reduce environmental degradation and decline in the quality of soil, water, air\\u000a and land resources

Reza Ghorbani; Alireza Koocheki; Kirsten Brandt; Stephen Wilcockson; Carlo Leifert

407

Environmental exposure to gasoline and leukemia in children and young adults–an ecology study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults, especially acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). A few studies have\\u000a indicated that exposure to gasoline is a cause of childhood leukemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate if environmental\\u000a exposure to benzene from gasoline and car exhaust was associated with leukemia in children and young adults. The exposure\\u000a to gasoline

R. Nordlinder; Bengt Järvholm

1997-01-01

408

LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and  

E-print Network

LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and Oil, Gas and understanding of the essential international and European environmental law regulating the main activities of the area of Oil, Gas &, Mining Environmental Law; 2. communicate complex legal concepts that apply within

Evans, Paul

409

Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center  

SciTech Connect

The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

1994-06-01

410

Diary of a Dabbler: Ecological Influences on an EFL Teacher's Efforts to Study Japanese Informally  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this diary study, the author draws from journals written over the course of 8 years working as an English instructor at a Japanese university, with the aim of documenting the influences on her desire to invest effort in the self-study of Japanese (what she refers to as the "ecology of effort"). An ecological perspective reveals the…

Casanave, Christine Pearson

2012-01-01

411

Globalization: Ecological consequences of global-scale connectivity in people, resources and information  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Globalization is a phenomenon affecting all facets of the Earth System. Within the context of ecological systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that global connectivity among terrestrial systems, the atmosphere, and oceans is driving many ecological dynamics at finer scales and pushing thresh...

412

Proteome changes in response to ecologically viable environmental variation in Calanus sinicus.  

PubMed

Copepods are the most abundant multicellular animal group and are often most important component of zooplankton and indicators of local and global climate change. Among this broad group of animals, Calanus sinicus holds an important role in the ecosystems of The East China Sea, The Korea Strait, and The East Sea. By comparing the response of their proteomes to ecologically viable environment changes, this study tried to identify molecular responses accountable for compensation of a change in metabolic rates. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry on C. sinicus sampled at its native environment, 45 distinct proteins were identified that changed abundance as a function of environment changes i.e., temperature elevation and/or oxygen decrease, and 14 that are only present in proteome adapted to higher temperature/lower oxygen. Although the study failed to find heat shock proteins, the abundance of disulfide-isomerase A3 precursor was higher in species thriving at higher temperatures/lower oxygen. The abundance of proteins responsible for redox homeostasis, DNA maintenance, and chromatin rearrangement was also higher at elevated temperature. Also, the molecular machinery responsible for xenobiotic metabolism is mobilized at higher temperatures/ lower oxygen levels. These data indicate fine adjustment of molecular apparatus in response to changes in living environment. PMID:22789102

Wiacek, Magdalena; Uddin, Nizam; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Zubrzycki, Igor Z

2013-01-01

413

Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of practical management solutions.

Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

2014-01-01

414

HARMONIZATION OF HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF BAYESIAN UPDATING TECHNIQUES TO INCORPORATE MECHANISTIC INFORMATION ACROSS SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bayesian statistical techniques have proven useful in clinical and environmental epidemiological applications to evaluate and integrate available information, and in regulatory applications such as the National Ambient Air Quality Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides. A recent special...

415

Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources  

SciTech Connect

This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

416

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION TO SANTIAGO DE CHILE)  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION Chile and other cities in Chile, air pollution is a dramatic problem. An Environmental Information planning. Using a model-based EIS for air pollution it is possible (i) to study complex source

Bertossi, Leopoldo

417

Seeding new ventures – green thumbs and fertile fields: Individual and environmental drivers of informal investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores individual and country level environmental drivers of informal ‘seed’ investment. We examine four types of informal investors based on business ownership experience (or no such experience) and close family relationship with investee (or no such relationship): ‘classic love money’, ‘outsider’, ‘kin owner’ and ‘classic business angel’ investors. At the environmental level, we are interested in the role

László Szerb; Siri Terjesen; Gábor Rappai

2007-01-01

418

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

419

Journal of Applied Ecology 2005  

E-print Network

and Environmental Planning, University California, USA; and ***Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, USA project to be considered ecologically successful. It is critical that the broad restoration community ArticleEcological success in river restorationM. A. Palmer et al. FORUM Standards for ecologically

Palmer, Margaret A.

420

Coral–algal phase shifts on coral reefs: Ecological and environmental aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews coral–algal phase shifts on coral reefs, with particular regard to summarizing the exogenous and endogenous factors in support of a proposed conceptual model, and to identifying critical information gaps. A phase shift occurs on a coral reef when the cover of a substrate by scleractinian corals is reduced in favor of macroalgal dominance, and resilience of

John W. McManus; Johanna F. Polsenberg

2004-01-01

421

Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.  

PubMed

Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

2014-01-01

422

The Distributional Ecology of the Maned Sloth: Environmental Influences on Its Distribution and Gaps in Knowledge  

PubMed Central

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

423

The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.  

PubMed

The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats. PMID:25338139

Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

2014-01-01

424

The Molecular Ecology of Guerrero Negro: Justifying the Need for Environmental Genomics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The record of life on the only planet where it is known to exist is contained in the biogeochemical processes that organisms catalyze for their survival, in the compounds that they produce, and in their phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships to each other. We manipulated sulfate and nutrient concentrations in intact microbial mats over periods of time up to a year. The objectives of the manipulations were: 1) characterize the diversity of process-associated functional genes; 2) understand environmental conditions leading to shifts in microbial guilds; 3) monitor/identify competitive responses of organisms sharing a metabolic niche. Characterization of functional genes associated with carbon (mcrA), nitrogen (nifH, nirK) and sulfur (dsrkB) cycling performed to date provided insight into the diversity and metabolic potential of the system; however, we only identified broad scale correlations between gene abundances and changes in mat physiology. For instance, increases in methane production by mats subjected to lowered sulfate and salinity concentrations were correlated with an observed increase in abundance of hydrogenotroph-like mcrA genes. However, due to low sequence similarity to any cultured isolates, phylogenetic associations only allow order level taxonomic commentary, preventing any associations being made on the cellular level. In each of the genes characterized from these experiments, a significant portion of sequences recovered show minimal phylogenetic affiliation to cultured organisms, preventing any understanding of inter-community dynamics and the functional capacities of these unknown organisms. Environmental genomics may provide insight into mat systems by allowing the correlation of functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

Smith, Jason M.; Green, Stefan J.; Moisander, Pia; Roberts, Kathryn J.; Francis, Chris; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bebout, Brad M.

2006-01-01

425

The effect of a required ecology course on the environmental attitudes of eighth grade students in a western Pennsylvania school district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the introduction of the Pennsylvania Standards for Environment and Ecology, schools must cover environmental topics, either in existing courses or in newly developed courses. In addition to meeting content requirements, one of the underlying goals of environmental education should be the development of positive attitudes toward the environment. Because these students will become adults who are voting on environmental policies, they need to understand the impacts and alternatives available. This study will determine if a course designed to meet these standards can also have a positive effect on the environmental attitudes of the students. An environmental attitude survey was used to determine whether this secondary goal was being accomplished. The survey tested eighth grade students during the final year before the introduction of the new curriculum and during the first year of the new course. Because of the importance of education in developing a sense of environmental responsibility, it was anticipated that the new course would have a positive impact on the environmental attitudes. Statistical analysis of the results from the pre-tests and post-tests was done to determine whether significant differences occurred in students as a result of either curriculum. Results for the survey administrations given at the end of each year do support the benefits of a course dedicated to ecology. By demonstrating positive changes in all aspects of attitude, students taking the ecology course appear to have gained a much clearer picture of environmental content as well as potential solutions, and they are more emotionally engaged in protecting our limited resources. A course designed to address the Pennsylvania Standards in Environment and Ecology had a positive effect on the beliefs and behavior of the students. This is one step toward our charge to "develop a citizenry that is aware of and concerned about the total environment and has the knowledge and skills to work toward solutions to current problems and the prevention of new ones" (22 Pa. Code, Chapter 4, Appendix B). It can be hoped that these students will become leaders who are dedicated to protecting and conserving our environment.

Travis, Holly Jill Gates

426

EPIC'S NEW REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR EPA CUSTOMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory Several new too...

427

USING FISHER INFORMATION TO ASSESS THE RISK OF DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sustainable nature of particular dynamic regimes of ecosystems is an increasingly integral aspect of many ecological, economic, and social decisions. As ecosystems experience perturbations of varying regularity and intensity, they may either remain within the state space neig...

428

TEMSIS-a transnational system for public information and environmental decision support  

Microsoft Academic Search

TEMSIS-Transnational Environmental Management Support and Information System, is intended to be a tool for transnational cooperation between the communities in the German-French urban agglomeration, Moselle-Est\\/Stadtverband Saarbrucken. Its main objective is to integrate existing information platforms of local environmental authorities in Germany and France, to support information exchange and thus strengthen the cooperation which is necessary to solve common problems. An

Ralf Denzer; Gerald Schimak; Reiner Guttler; Patrik Houy

1998-01-01

429

Coastal environmental assessment and management by ecological simulation in Yeoja Bay, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eco-hydrodynamic model was used to estimate the carrying capacity of pollutant loads and response of water quality to environmental change in Yeoja Bay, Korea. An energy-system model also was used to simulate the fluctuation in nutrients and organic matter in the bordering wetland. Most water quality factors showed a pulsed pattern, and the concentrations of nutrients and organic matter of seawater increased when input loads of nutrients increased due to freshwater discharge. The well-developed tidal zones and wetlands in the northern area of the bay were highly sensitive to input loads. Residence times of water, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the bay were estimated to be about 16 days, 43.2 days, and 50.2 days, respectively. Water quality reacted more sensitively to the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus input than to COD. A plan to reduce the present levels of COD and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) by 20-30% and DIN by at least 50% in pollutant loads is needed for satisfying the target water quality criteria. The natural removal rate of nutrients in wetlands by reeds was assessed to be approximately 10%.

Lee, Dae-In; Choi, Jeong-Min; Lee, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Moon-Ock; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Jong-Kyu

2008-12-01

430

The impacts of different management strategies and environmental forcing in ecological communities  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effects of population management on the community a target species belongs to is of key importance for successful management. It is known that the removal or extinction of a single species in a community may lead to extinctions of other community members. In our study, we assess the impacts of population management on competitive communities, studying the response of both locally stable and unstable communities of varying size (between four and 10 species) to three different management strategies; harvesting of a target species, harvesting with non-targeted catch, and stocking of the target species. We also studied the consequences of selecting target species with different relative abundances, as well as the effects of varying environmental conditions. We show here how the effects of management in competitive communities extend far beyond the target population. A crucial role is played by the underlying stability properties of the community under management. In general, locally unstable communities are more vulnerable to perturbation through management. Furthermore, the community response is shown to be sensitive to the relative density of the target species. Of considerable interest is the result that even a small (2.5%) increase in the population size of the target species through stocking may lead to extinction of other community members. These results emphasize the importance of considering and understanding multi-species interactions in population management. PMID:16959640

Enberg, Katja; Fowler, Mike S; Ranta, Esa

2006-01-01

431

Environmental Influences on the Spatial Ecology of Juvenile Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata): Results from Acoustic Monitoring  

PubMed Central

To aid recovery efforts of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) populations in U.S. waters a research project was developed to assess how changes in environmental conditions within estuarine areas affected the presence, movements, and activity space of this endangered species. Forty juvenile P. pectinata were fitted with acoustic tags and monitored within the lower 27 km of the Caloosahatchee River estuary, Florida, between 2005 and 2007. Sawfish were monitored within the study site from 1 to 473 days, and the number of consecutive days present ranged from 1 to 125. Residency index values for individuals varied considerably, with annual means highest in 2005 (0.95) and lowest in 2007 (0.73) when several P. pectinata moved upriver beyond detection range during drier conditions. Mean daily activity space was 1.42 km of river distance. The distance between 30-minute centers of activity was typically <0.1 km, suggesting limited movement over short time scales. Salinity electivity analysis demonstrated an affinity for salinities between 18 and at least 24 psu, suggesting movements are likely made in part, to remain within this range. Thus, freshwater flow from Lake Okeechobee (and its effect on salinity) affects the location of individuals within the estuary, although it remains unclear whether or not these movements are threatening recovery. PMID:21347294

Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Yeiser, Beau G.; Wiley, Tonya R.; Poulakis, Gregg R.; Stevens, Philip W.; Heupel, Michelle R.

2011-01-01

432

Semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis that the moving particle with varied speed and the simple tone with varied frequency were highly associated. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that an N400 effect and a late posterior negativity (LPN) were elicited under the Incongruent condition as compared to the Congruent condition. It was further determined that there was semantic association between ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. We considered that the N400 effect in our results reflected the process that stimulus-driven activities are bound together through a temporal semantic network (TSN) to form multimodal representations, while the state of this temporal semantic network was determined by both long-term learned association among stimuli and short-term experience of incoming information. The LPN might reflect the process that the human brain searches and retrieves context-specifying information in order to make a judgment, and the context-specifying information might have originated from the long-term learned association stored in the brain. PMID:21722711

Liu, B; Wu, G; Wang, Z; Meng, X; Wang, Q

2011-09-29

433

NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: A large-scale study of environmental change in Western North America and its implications for ecological systems and society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in high northern latitudes is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth, resulting in widespread changes in landscape structure and ecosystem function in the Arctic-Boreal Region (ABR). Recognizing its sensitivity, vulnerability and global importance, national- and international-level scientific efforts are now advancing our ability to observe, understand and model the complex, multi-scale processes that drive the ABR's natural and social systems. Long at the edge of our mental map of the world, environmental change in the ABR is increasingly becoming the focus of numerous policy discussions at the highest levels of decision-making. To improve our understanding of environmental change and its impacts in the ABR, the Terrestrial Ecology Program of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning its next major field campaign for Western Canada and Alaska. The field campaign will be based on the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) concept as described in the Revised Executive Summary from the ABoVE Scoping Study Report. The original Scoping Study Report provided the proof-of-concept demonstration of scientific importance and feasibility for this large-scale study. In early 2013, NASA announced the selection of the ABoVE Science Definition Team, which is charged with developing the Concise Experiment Plan for the campaign. Here, we outline the conceptual basis for ABoVE and present the compelling rationale explaining the scientific and societal importance of the study. We present the current status of the planning process, which includes development of the science questions to drive ABoVE research; the study design for the field campaign to address them; and the interagency and international collaborations necessary for implementation. The ABoVE study will focus on 1) developing a fuller understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the ABR, and 2) providing the scientific information required to develop options for societal responses to the impacts of these changes. The field campaign will emphasize research that integrates data collected by airborne and spaceborne sensors with information obtained from field studies and ground-based observations. Other key components of ABoVE research include the process-level analyses, scientific syntheses, and modeling needed for understanding ecosystem responses and societal implications.

Kasischke, E. S.; Hayes, D. J.; Griffith, P. C.; Larson, E. K.; Wickland, D. E.

2013-12-01

434

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

435

Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.

Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

1995-05-01

436

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

437

The influence of incomplete or unavailable information on environmental impact assessment in the USA  

SciTech Connect

One of the more common activities of environmental scientists in the United States is the preparation of environmental assessments or environmental impact statements in response to the mandates of the National Environmental Policy Act. The central thesis of this paper revolves around a frequent dilemma those scientists face: how to proceed with the environmental impact analysis when information on potential impacts is incomplete or unavailable. The paper examines how the 'hard look' standard that U.S. courts have imposed upon agencies considering proposed actions came about. Further, U.S. courts have said agencies cannot make arbitrary and capricious decisions when deciding to build a project, implement a plan, issue a permit or other give other approvals, and this paper discusses how the courts have defined what arbitrary and capricious decision are, especially when decisions are made when information about impacts is incomplete or unavailable. The paper examines why agencies win or lose lawsuits filed against the environmental assessments or environmental impact statements they write, focusing on those cases that have occurred after the Supreme Court ruled on the issue in 1989. The paper suggests recommendations to environmental scientists faced with incomplete or unavailable information when preparing an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement in the U.S.

Atkinson, Samuel F. [University of North Texas, Department of Biological Sciences, PO Box 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)]. E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu; Canter, Larry W. [Environmental Impact Training, PO Box 9143, Horseshoe Bay, TX 78657 (United States)]. E-mail: envimptr@aol.com; Ravan, Melanie D. [Naval School, Environmental Law and Planning Program, 3502 Goodspeed Street, Port Hueneme, CA 93043 (United States)]. E-mail: melanie.raven@navy.mil

2006-07-15

438

POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The theoretical analysis undertaken here addresses the following issues. First we examine whether firms with high intrinsic quality products would choose to produce more or less environmentally friendly products than their competitors. Second, we investigate how the environmen...

439

Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

Bywater, Krista

2014-01-01

440

Spatiotemporal analysis of ecological footprint and biological capacity of Gansu, China 1991–2015: Down from the environmental cliff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological footprint methodology, as an excellent educational tool applicable to global issues, is essential for quantifying humanity's consumption of natural capital, for overall assessments of human impact on earth as well as for planning for a sustainable future. At present, quantitative studies on the development trends of ecological footprint (EF) time series and biological capacity (BC) time series in a

Dongxia Yue; Xiaofeng Xu; Zizhen Li; Cang Hui; Wenlong Li; Hequn Yang; Jianping Ge

2006-01-01

441

Resource Materials To Support Your Environmental Education Efforts. EE-TIPS (Environmental Education Technical Information Packages).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection gathers together over 50 high-quality materials to support environmental education (EE) curricula. Because each community has unique environmental and educational needs, the guide includes a broad set of educational materials that can be adapted to a variety of settings. The materials can be used to supplement educational…

North American Association for Environmental Education, Troy, OH.

442

Geochemical Ecology of a High Latitude Coral: Plesiastrea versipora a new Paleo-Environmental Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corals growing in high latitude waters in Southern Australia are considered to be sensitive to changes in climate, including seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperature. The annual nature of density bands of Plesiastrea versipora were verified using U/Th ages derived from multi-collector ICP-MS analyses and the resulting extension rates varied from an average of 1.2 mm yr -1 to 9 mm yr -1 for different colonies ranging in age from 120 - 300 years, located within the same reef. High resolution laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of established paleo-temperature proxies including B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and U/Ca were obtained from several cores of P. versipora from Gulf St Vincent (34.5°S) and Spencer Gulf (35°S), South Australia. Elemental compositions were compared to in situ sea surface temperature (SST) and satellite (IGOSS) records, and demonstrate significant covariance between Ba/Ca and temperature. Barium may not have been recognised as a temperature proxy in previous studies due to the smaller temperature range for lower latitude environments (~ 5°C versus 12°C for this study) and other factors contributing to the Ba signal such as terrestrially-derived or upwelled sources. Other trace elements analysed gave an indication of both the nutrient availability (P and Mn) and terrestrially derived pollutants (V, Y, Mo, Sn and Pb) correlating strongly with luminescent bands. Several of the stronger luminescent bands coincide temporally with known oil spills at a nearby port refinery and research is ongoing to determine if this is the point source of pollution. These data taken together suggest that P. versipora can provide valuable paleoclimate information in high-latitude environments, recording large seasonal variation in both temperature and productivity regimes with high fidelity and may also be employed to reconstruct anthropogenic activity.

Burgess, S. N.; McCulloch, M. M.; Ward, T.

2005-12-01

443

The value of animal test information in environmental control decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value of information (VOI) analytic techniques are used to evaluate the benefit of performing animal bioassays to provide information about the cancer potency of specific chemical compounds. These tools allow the identification of the conditions in which the cost of reducing uncertainty about potency, by performing a subchronic or chronic bioassay, is justified by the benefit of having improved information

Alison C. Taylor; John S. Evans; Thomas E. McKone

1993-01-01

444

Wildfire History and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.

445

Hanford site solid waste management environmental impact statement technical information document [SEC 1 THRU 4  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement,'' including assumptions and waste volumes calculation data.

FRITZ, L.L.

2003-04-01

446

IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

447

30 CFR 922.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental...

2013-07-01

448

38 CFR 26.9 - Information on and public participation in VA environmental process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...element, information is available by writing to the Director, Office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20420. (Authority: 42 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

449

38 CFR 26.9 - Information on and public participation in VA environmental process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...element, information is available by writing to the Director, Office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20420. (Authority: 42 U.S.C....

2012-07-01

450

Values determine the (in)effectiveness of informational interventions in promoting pro-environmental behavior.  

PubMed

Informational interventions (e.g., awareness campaigns, carbon footprint calculators) are built on the assumption that informing the public about the environmental consequences of their actions should result in increased pro-environmental intentions and behavior. However, empirical support for this reasoning is mixed. In this paper, we argue that informational interventions may succeed in improving people's knowledge about the negative environmental consequences of one's actions, but this knowledge will not gain motivational force if people do not consider protecting the environment an important personal value. In an experiment, we measured individual differences in value priorities, and either presented participants a movie clip that portrayed the negative environmental consequences of using bottled water, or a control movie. As predicted, we found that the environmental movie improved recipients' knowledge of the negative environmental impact of bottled water, but this knowledge only resulted in concomitant changes in intentions and acceptability of related policies among participants who strongly endorsed biospheric (i.e. environmental) values, while having no effect on those who care less about the environment. Interestingly, the results suggest that although informational interventions are perhaps not always successful in directly affecting less environmentally-conscious recipients, they could still have beneficial effects, because they make those who strongly care about the environment more inclined to act on their values. PMID:24367619

Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Gorsira, Madelijne; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

2013-01-01

451

Green Grades: The Popularity and Perceived Effectiveness of Information-Based Environmental Governance Strategies  

E-print Network

company and facility performance reveals a key tradeoff for such governance efforts – companies and evaluationCompanies Not an Evaluation (Only Provides Descriptive Information) Not an Evaluation of Environmental Performancecompanies, company facilities, services or products? is an evaluation of some aspect of environmental performance

Bullock, Graham Daniel

2011-01-01

452

Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

Bae, Hyunhoe

2012-01-01

453

The ecology of primate material culture.  

PubMed

Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. PMID:25392310

Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

2014-11-01

454

Northwestern Florida ecological characterization: An ecological atlas: Map narratives  

SciTech Connect

This study provides an atlas of ecological resources along the Big Bend and Panhandle coastline of Florida. The study area comprises 18 coastal counties, an area of 30,460 square kilometers (11,764 square miles). This atlas is designed to provide information and assist government and industry decisionmakers in coastal resource and environmental planning. In particular, results of this study will be utilized for the outer continental shelf oil and gas leasing program, in developing management plans for pipeline corridors, and onshore facilities planning. The production of this ecological atlas included four major tasks: the collection and synthesis of the latest available data on biological, socioeconomic, soil, oil and gas, hydrology, and climatological parameters; the assimilation of these data into a format which is compatible with the requirements of 1:100,000 scale mapping; the compilation of 90 ecological atlas maps; and the preparation of an atlas narrative serving to describe more fully the mapped parameters. This ecological atlas will embrace the habitat mapping study, the socioeconomic study, and the environmental synthesis being conducted for the study area.

Palik, T.F.; Kunneke, J.T.

1984-09-01

455

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - CORVALLIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Research Laboratory - Corvallis is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's - national research center for terrestrial and watershed ecology, aquatic ecoregions, and for the ecological effects of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and atmospheric p...

456

Architectures for Distributed Information Systems Supporting Environmental Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different distributed environmental simulation systems are presented. They take advantage of the possibilities of modern network technologies to gather input data, perform simulation and spread the simulation results. The term `distributed' applies in this context both to the simulation, which is a parallel (distributed) simulation on computer networks, and to the fact, that all components (pre- and postprocessing and the

Steffen Unger; Torsten Asselmeyer

2000-01-01

457

Information tool for environmental conservation and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Samoa, the high population growth competing for a limited natural resource base to support it has slowly become evident. The limits in the capacity of these resources together with excessive pressures on its use develops a much greater need on how we approach a balance between environmental conservation and sustainable development. Natural disasters, which hinder and affect development and

Tagaloa Bismarck Crawley

458

Pigeon navigation: Charcoal filter removes relevant information from environmental air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homing pigeons were displaced and kept until they were released in airtight containers ventilated with environmental air that could be passed through: (a) a filter made of fiberglass paper retaining large portions of the solid and liquid aerosol particles, (b) an additional filter consisting of activated charcoal, or (c) no filter (controls). Before its release, each bird was taken out

Hans G. Wallraff; Augusto Foà

1981-01-01

459

HEIS: An integrated information system for environmental restoration and monitoring at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has about 1500 waste sites that contain a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive contaminants. After many years of environmental monitoring to assess the impact of Hanford operations to the environment, the Site`s mission is shifting to environmental restoration. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is being developed to provide advanced tools to (1) support environmental restoration and routine site-wide monitoring, and (2) aid the scientists in understanding and conducting the restoration efforts. This paper describes some of the highlights and distinctive features of HEIS.

Tzemos, S.; Kissinger, B.

1991-11-01

460

HEIS: An integrated information system for environmental restoration and monitoring at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has about 1500 waste sites that contain a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive contaminants. After many years of environmental monitoring to assess the impact of Hanford operations to the environment, the Site's mission is shifting to environmental restoration. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is being developed to provide advanced tools to (1) support environmental restoration and routine site-wide monitoring, and (2) aid the scientists in understanding and conducting the restoration efforts. This paper describes some of the highlights and distinctive features of HEIS.

Tzemos, S.; Kissinger, B.

1991-11-01

461

Building Environmental Information Systems: Myths and Interdisciplinary Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

With databases and information systems playing an increasing role in large scientific research projects, there is a growing stake in understanding how to design a useful information system and in broadening our understanding of what constitutes the scientific work involved in building these systems. Both experience and theory indicate that non-technical considerations, such as management and communication structures, are as

Karen S. Baker; Karen I. Stocks

2007-01-01

462

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Ozone Depletion Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of links to EPA information on atmospheric ozone depletion covers topics such as the causes of ozone depletion, possible effects of ultraviolet radiation and how to protect from it, information on chlorofluorocarbons in air conditioning systems and metered dose inhalers, and lists of ozone-depleting substances.

463

Molecular ecology of bacterial populations in environmental hazardous chemical control. Final report, 15 January 1992-14 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between bioavailability and biodegradative capability in the environment has always been a puzzle for bioremediation. Furthermore, the detection of I biodegradative activities in situ also has hampered biological site characterization. All of these due to lack of proper tool(s) or method(s) that can be applied readily, specifically, and feasibly to the environmental pollutants. However, the development and application of bioluminescent reporter strains for continuously real-time monitoring the relationship between bacterial degradative activities and bioavailability of environmental pollutants were examined in this study. The results obtained from this investigation suggested that bioluminescent reporters can provide continuous, and precise insight information on both molecular and physiological level. The more important is that these bioreporters will not interrupt and complete with indigenous bacteria. The versatility of the catabolic capability on the degradation of different higher molecular PAHs by a NAH plasmid-mediated metabolism was also examined. The results obtained in this study indicated that the NAH plasmid plays an important role-on the biodegradation of PAHs. Furthermore, the naphthalene degradation pathways serves an essential route for the study of bacterial degradation pathway on PAHs.

Sayler, G.S.

1995-05-14

464

Ecology and geography of human monkeypox case occurrences across Africa.  

PubMed

As ecologic niche modeling (ENM) evolves as a tool in spatial epidemiology and public health, selection of the most appropriate and informative environmental data sets becomes increasingly important. Here, we build on a previous ENM analysis of the potential distribution of human monkeypox in Africa by refining georeferencing criteria and using more-diverse environmental data to identify environmental parameters contributing to monkeypox distributional ecology. Significant environmental variables include annual precipitation, several temperature-related variables, primary productivity, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and pH. The potential distribution identified with this set of variables was broader than that identified in previous analyses but does not include areas recently found to hold monkeypox in southern Sudan. Our results emphasize the importance of selecting the most appropriate and informative environmental data sets for ENM analyses in pathogen transmission mapping. PMID:22493109

Ellis, Christine K; Carroll, Darin S; Lash, Ryan R; Peterson, A Townsend; Damon, Inger K; Malekani, Jean; Formenty, Pierre

2012-04-01

465

Environmental and ecological conditions surrounding the production of large year classes of walleye (Sander vitreus) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Saginaw Bay walleye population (Sander vitreus) has not fully recovered from a collapse that began in the 1940s and has been dependent on stocking with only limited natural reproduction. Beginning in 2003, and through at least 2005, reproductive success of walleye surged to unprecedented levels. The increase was concurrent with ecological changes in Lake Huron and we sought to quantitatively model which factors most influenced this new dynamic. We developed Ricker stock-recruitment models for both wild and stock fish and evaluated them with second-order Akaike's information criterion to find the best model. Independent variables included adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, spring water temperatures, chlorophyll a levels and total phosphorus levels. In all, 14 models were evaluated for production of wild age-0 walleyes and eight models for stocked age-0 walleyes. For wild walleyes, adult alewife abundance was the dominant factor, accounting for 58% of the variability in age-0 abundance. Production of wild age-0 fish increased when adult alewives were scarce. The only other plausible factor was spring water temperature. Predictably, alewife abundance was not important to stocked fish; instead temperature and adult walleye abundance were more significant variables. The surge in reproductive success for walleyes during 2003-2005 was most likely due to large declines in adult alewives in Lake Huron. While relatively strong year classes (age-1 and up) have been produced as a result of increased age-0 production during 2003-2005, the overall magnitude has not been as great as the initial age-0 abundance originally suggested. It appears that over-winter mortality is higher than in the past and may stem from higher predation or slower growth (lower condition for enduring winter thermal stress). From this it appears that low alewife abundance does not assure strong walleye year classes in Saginaw Bay but may be a prerequisite for them.

Fielder, D.G.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Thomas, M.V.

2007-01-01

466

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

1996-06-01

467

Historical Ecology as a Tool for Assessing Landscape Change and Informing Wetland Restoration Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast resources are devoted annually to watershed management and wetland restoration. Historical wetland losses are often cited\\u000a as a motivation for prioritizing ambitious wetland restoration efforts. However, analysis of historical conditions is often\\u000a underutilized in the planning process. In this paper we demonstrate historical ecological analysis of the San Gabriel River\\u000a watershed in southern California. We integrate multiple disparate data

Eric D. Stein; Shawna Dark; Travis Longcore; Robin Grossinger; Nicholas Hall; Michael Beland

2010-01-01

468

The Perception and Cognition of Environmental Distance: Direct Sources of Information"  

E-print Network

The Perception and Cognition of Environmental Distance: Direct Sources of Information" Daniel R.S.A. montello@geog.ucsb.edu Abstract, Research on direct sources of information for the perception and cognition: p. 316). It therefore seems likely that an understanding of the perception and cognition of distance

Montello, Daniel R.