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1

SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

2006-03-01

2

Ecological information needs for environmental justice.  

PubMed

The concept that all peoples should have their voices heard on matters that affect their well-being is at the core of environmental justice (EJ). The inability of some people of small towns, rural areas, minority, and low-income communities, to become involved in environmental decisions is sometimes due to a lack of information. We provide a template for the ecological information that is essential to examine environmental risks to EJ populations within average communities, using case studies from South Carolina (Savannah River, a DOE site with minority impacts), Washington (Hanford, a DOE site with Native American impacts), and New Jersey (nonpoint, urbanized community pollution). While the basic ecological and public health information needs for risk evaluations and assessments are well described, less attention has been focused on standardizing information about EJ communities or EJ populations within larger communities. We suggest that information needed about EJ communities and populations includes demographics, consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of their regional environment (for example, maintenance and cosmetic, medicinal/religious/cultural uses), eco-dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes. A purely demographics approach might not even identify EJ populations or neighborhoods, much less their spatial relation to the impact source or to each other. Using information from three case studies, we illustrate that some information is readily available (e.g., consumption rates for standard items such as fish), but there is less information about medicinal, cultural, religious, eco-cultural dependency webs, and eco-cultural attributes, all of which depend in some way on intact, functioning, and healthy ecosystems. PMID:20409031

Burger, Joanna; Harris, Stuart; Harper, Barbara; Gochfeld, Michael

2010-06-01

3

Linking ecological science to decision-making: delivering environmental monitoring information as societal feedback.  

PubMed

The paper describes the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network's (EMAN) operational and program response to certain challenges of environmental monitoring in Canada, in particular, efforts to improve the ability of the network to deliver relevant information to decision makers. In addition to its familiar roles, environmental monitoring should deliver feedback to society on environmental changes associated with development patterns, trends, processes and interventions. In order for such feedback to be effective, it must be relevant, timely, useful and accessible: all characteristics that are defined by the user, not the provider. Demand driven environmental monitoring is explored through EMAN's experiences with Canada's Biosphere Reserves, the NatureWatch Program and the Canadian Community Monitoring Network. PMID:14570425

Vaughan, Hague; Whitelaw, Graham; Craig, Brian; Stewart, Craig

2003-01-01

4

Environmental Planning and Ecology Program Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Planning and Ecology Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Planning and Ecology Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Larsen, Barbara L.

2008-01-01

5

Environmental changes, disease ecology and geographic information system-based tools for risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In recent years, several vector-borne, parasitic or zoonotic diseases have emerged or re-emerged in different parts of the world, with major public health, socio-economic and political consequences. Emergence of these diseases is linked to climatic change, human-induced landscape changes and human activities that have affected disease ecology. The authors illustrate geographic information system-based approaches to understand epidemiological processes and

Stéphane de La Rocque; Anne-Lise Tran; Eric Etter; Laurence Vial; Guy Hendrickx

2007-01-01

6

Deep Ecology: Beyond Mere Environmentalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the principles of deep ecology, a movement that questions the societal values that have resulted in damage to the earth's life-supporting biosphere. In contrast to shallow reform, deep ecology encourages individuals to examine their values and relationship to nature to address the environmental crisis. (LP)

Weber, Suzanne

1994-01-01

7

Information Theory in Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of information theory (IT) to ecology has occurred along two separate lines: (1) it has been used to quantify the distribution of stocks and numbers of organisms; and (2) it has been employed to quantify the pattern of interactions of trophic processes. By and large, the first endeavor has resulted in relatively few insights into ecosystem dynamics and

Robert E. Ulanowicz

2001-01-01

8

Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

9

Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

10

Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for recycling, along with defective infrastructure for recycling, such as lack of an adequate collection system, results in a much lower rate of e-waste recycling than that of the EU. In addition, a large amount of e-waste generated from Korea is exported to Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Central Asia. Although the Korean government prohibits hazardous e-waste export based on the Act on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes & Their Disposal, this policy has not been adequately implemented or enforced. This study suggests policies which respond to the problems of e-waste and toxic ICT products that cause adverse impacts on both human beings and ecosystem within and among countries. It also looks forward to the challenges to and opportunities for building a sustainable ICT sector as part of a broader paradigm shift in the Korean society, the Asian region, and throughout the human communities.

Seo, Wang-Jin

11

Large-scale physical response of the tidal system to energy extraction and its significance for informing environmental and ecological impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of harvesting tidal energy on the underlying tidal hydrodynamics is examined. Understanding of both the near-and far-field physical response of the tidal system is necessary in order to inform environmental and ecological impact assessment. A number of numerical model test cases are presented which provide first stage indications of the potential response of the system.

S. J. Couch; I. G. Bryden

2007-01-01

12

Secrecy vs. the need for ecological information: challenges to environmental activism in Russia.  

PubMed

This article identifies the lessons learned from the Nikitin case study in Russia. The Nikitin case involves the analysis of sources of radioactive contamination in several Russian counties and in the Russian Northern Fleet. Norway was interested in the issue due to proximity to the storage sites. The issue involved national security and environmental protection. It was learned that mixing national security issues with environmental issues offers dangerous and multiple challenges. Environmental groups must build relationships with a wide audience. International security policy must include the issues of globalization of trade and the spread of environmental problems into the global commons (oceans and atmosphere). The risk of an environmentally dangerous accident as a consequence of Cold War activities is greater than the risk of nuclear war. Secrecy in military affairs is not justified when there is inadequate storage of nuclear weapons and contaminated materials. In Russia, the concern is great due to their economic transition and shortages of funds for even the most basic needs, which excludes nuclear waste clean up. The Bellona Foundation studied the extent of nuclear pollution from military nuclear reactors in the Kola peninsula of northwest Russia, in 1994 and 1996. Russian security police arrested one of the report authors for alleged national security violations. A valuable lesson learned was that local Russian environmental groups needed international support. The military nuclear complex poses an enormous hazard. Limiting inspections is an unacceptable national security risk. The new Russian law on state secrets is too broad. PMID:12321718

Jandl, T

1998-01-01

13

Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system for evaluating and monitoring child development projects, with possible computerization capabilities, was developed for the State of Pennsylvania in connection with 26 child development projects funded by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS), provides a series of ecological measurement…

Fiene, Richard John; And Others

14

Ecological Dimensions of Information Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: We examine relationships between information literacy and information ecology with regard to conceptual innovation in information science. We aim to expand our understanding of human information behaviour and relevance assessment in the electronic environment. Method: Conceptual analysis and conceptual mapping is used and…

Steinerova, Jela

2010-01-01

15

Fisher Information in Ecological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher information is being increasingly used as a tool of research into ecological systems. For example the information was shown in Chapter 7 to provide a useful diagnostic of the health of an ecology. In other applications to ecology, extreme physical information (EPI) has been used to derive the population-rate (or Lotka-Volterra) equations of ecological systems, both directly [1] and indirectly (Chapter 5) via the quantum Schrodinger wave equation (SWE). We next build on these results, to derive (i) an uncertainty principle (8.3) of biology, (ii) a simple decision rule (8.18) for predicting whether a given ecology is susceptible to a sudden drop in population (Section 8.1), (iii) the probability law (8.57) or (8.59) on the worldwide occurrence of the masses of living creatures from mice to elephants and beyond (Section 8.2), and (iv) the famous quarter-power laws for the attributes of biological and other systems. The latter approach uses EPI to derive the simultaneous quarter-power behavior of all attributes obeyed by the law, such as metabolism rate, brain size, grazing range, etc. (Section 8.3). This maximal breadth of scope is allowed by its basis in information, which of course applies to all types of quantitative data (Section 1.4.3, Chapter 1).

Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

16

Statistics for Ecology and Environmental Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides the author's teaching philosophy for statistics. It includes brief lesson plans and assignments/activities which aim to instill a better understanding of statistics in students of the Ecology and Environmental Science disciplines.

Streever, Bill

2010-02-16

17

Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management  

SciTech Connect

The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

18

Environmental Information Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Information Management Plan provides an overview of the integrated approach to managing the Hanford Site environmental data. The Environmental Data Management Center has been established to ensure that all environmental information is retrievable throughout the lifetime of the environmental programs. Part I of this Environmental Information Management Plan addresses the methods by which environmental information is processed into

J. C. Steward; G. C. Main; E. J. See

1989-01-01

19

Distinguishing ecological engineering from environmental engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses complex system thinking to identify key peculiarities of ecological engineering. In particular it focuses on the distinction between the purpose-driven design of structures in environmental engineering and the natural process of self-organization characteristic of life, which needs to be integrated into ecological engineering.Conventional engineering addresses the problem of fabrication of an organized structure, say a road, which

T. F. H Allen; M Giampietro; A. M Little

2003-01-01

20

Campus Ecology: Environmental Literacy Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Wildlife Federation describes the many ways that campuses are working to ensure that students graduate with the skills and knowledge they need to make environmentally responsible choices in their lives. Environmental education can take place in or out of the classroom, whether by integrating environmental lessons into existing coursework, providing professional development for faculty, or starting student-led education campaigns around campus. This website includes examples of environmental literacy projects, course descriptions and class curricula, as well as links to related resources.

21

Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

1994-06-01

22

VALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES: INTEGRATION OF ECOLOGY AND SOCIOECONOMICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING  

EPA Science Inventory

In October 2003, a Pellston Workshop on Valuation of Ecological Resources was organized by SETAC to examine the integration of ecological assessment and socioeconomics to improve environmental decision-making. The workshop brought together a multidisciplinary group of distinguis...

23

The Conceptualization of a Regional-Ecological Information System Essential to Environmental Design and Community Development in the State of Nebraska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research proposes a conceptual structure for an Environmental Information System. An Eco-Systems approach is employed maintaining whole units of analysis allowing for collection and storage of information of use to regional environmental planning and design. The suggested system design incorporates some of the basic concepts of the two…

Steward, W. Cecil; Menary, John A.

24

Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

1995-03-01

25

Information and the Ecology of Scholars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a logical basis for the use of ecological concepts in modeling a special subculture; that of scholars (and in particular scientists), who produce, barter, and structure information as an ecosystem produces, exchanges, and structures biomass. (JR)

Blackburn, Thomas R.

1973-01-01

26

SNL/CA Environmental Planning and Ecology Annual Program Report for Calendar Year 2005.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Planning and Ecology Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Planning and Ecology Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Larsen, Barbara L.

2005-05-01

27

SNL/CA Environmental Planning and Ecology Program Annual Report 2007.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Planning and Ecology Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Planning and Ecology Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

Larsen, Barbara L.

2007-02-01

28

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

PubMed

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. PMID:23474334

Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

2013-04-15

29

EXERGY AND FISHER INFORMATION AS ECOLOGICAL INDEXES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological indices are used to provide summary information about a particular aspect of ecosystem behavior. Many such indices have been proposed and here we investigate two: exergy and Fisher Information. Exergy, a thermodynamically based index, is a measure of maximum amount o...

30

The use and abuse of ecological concepts in environmental ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at some of the ways in which environmental philosophers have sought to press ecological concepts into the service of environmental ethics. It seeks to show that although ecology plays a major role in opening our eyes to sources of value in the natural world, we should not necessarily attempt to build our account of nature's value upon

Alan Holland

1995-01-01

31

Ecological movements and environmental politics in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

“I live in a country which is said to have a strong ecological opposition, one which includes the Green Party, a great variety of citizen's initiatives, and a network of alternative institutions and communications media, and where public opinion is especially sensitive to ecological problems. This is not entirely false. The so?called ecological movement, in fact, has been quite successful

Thomas Jahn

1993-01-01

32

Social-Ecological Resilience and Environmental Education: Synopsis, Application, Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resilience approach is rooted in ecology and is being advanced as a means to understand change in social-ecological systems. How can resilience be applied to understanding change in social systems, including in environmental education? In probing this question the main resilience approaches are described, the manner in which they may be…

Plummer, Ryan

2010-01-01

33

Landscape Continuity: Ecology, Power and Social Order in Environmental Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of landscape continuity has guided a great deal of contemporary environmental planning. Landscape continuity strategies are often situated as a response either to urban sprawl, or to the need to protect ecological features and functions over vast, connected terrains and multiple jurisdictions. While the concept is rooted in the natural and physical science of landscape ecology, its interpretation

Jennifer Foster

2010-01-01

34

INTEGRAL ECOLOGY: THE WHAT, WHO, AND HOW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PHENOMENA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing an overview of Integral Ecology, this article defines and explains some of the key terms and concepts that underlie an approach to the environment that is inspired by and makes use of Ken Wilber's Integral Theory. First Integral Ecology is distinguished from other environmental approaches. Then Wilber's Integral Theory is introduced, which provides a foundation for a participatory approach

SEAN ESBJÖRN-HARGENS

2005-01-01

35

Environmental audit of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), principally in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. The audit was conducted by the US Departme...

1993-01-01

36

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to provide data for better assessments of the condition of the nation's ecological resources. ver the next five years, several integrated monitoring networks will be impl...

37

Environmental Information Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for the Environment is a joint public-private partnership between The George Washington University in Washington D.C. and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Institute has implemented the Environmental Information Resources site providing information about the environment, including everything from ocean oil spills, to environmental college research world wide, to Access EPA (an on-line data base of environmental details), to the first model Green University along with its on-line Strategic Plan, to the U.S. Green Building Council's membership form. The site links to over two hundred other sites around the world and more are being added every day. The system is entirely free and has been cited by the President and Vice-President of the United States of America in a Environmental Technology report that was given in April of 1995.

1997-01-01

38

Ecological Analysis on Evolution of Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information systems nowadays are growing and changing with a high speed. The flourish of system applications and participators\\u000a imply opportunities and enthusiasm. Knowledge of the systems’ evolution will be important to grasp the trend and so find a\\u000a direction in the new era. To study the complicated and fast changing web environment, the article refers to ecological analysis.\\u000a Two evolving

Ying Liu; Shu-Ren Zhang; Mei-Qi Fang

2007-01-01

39

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

NONE

1995-05-31

40

Fuzzy Logic Merger of Spectral and Ecological Information for Improved Montane Forest Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from Landsat?5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and environmental data based on topography and fire history. These

Joseph D. White; Steven W. Running; Kevin C. Ryan; Carl C. Key

2002-01-01

41

Ecological Intelligence and Environmental Education: My Journey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of us are intentional in considering the environment when performing our daily tasks. But how many of us really know the true impacts of our "green" behaviors on the environment? Indeed, is it possible that engaging in green efforts can actually be counterproductive or detrimental to the environment? In his book, "Ecological Intelligence: How…

Bouley, Theresa M.

2012-01-01

42

FISHER INFORMATION AND DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher Information and Dynamic Regime Changes in Ecological Systems Abstract for the 3rd Conference of the International Society for Ecological Informatics Audrey L. Mayer, Christopher W. Pawlowski, and Heriberto Cabezas The sustainable nature of particular dynamic...

43

Profiting from prior information in Bayesian analyses of ecological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Most ecological studies include prior information only implicitly, usually in their design or the discussion of results. In this study, two examples demonstrate that using Bayesian statistics to incorporate basic ecological principles and prior data can be very cost-effective for increasing confidence in ecological research. 2. The first example is based on examining the effects of an experimental

MICHAEL A. McCARTHY; PIP MASTERS

2005-01-01

44

Diversity in current ecological thinking: implications for environmental management.  

PubMed

Current ecological thinking emphasizes that systems are complex, dynamic, and unpredictable across space and time. What is the diversity in interpretation of these ideas among today's ecologists, and what does this mean for environmental management? This study used a Policy Delphi survey of ecologists to explore their perspectives on a number of current topics in ecology. The results showed general concurrence with nonequilibrium views. There was agreement that disturbance is a widespread, normal feature of ecosystems with historically contingent responses. The importance of recognizing multiple levels of organization and the role of functional diversity in environmental change were also widely acknowledged. Views differed regarding the predictability of successional development, whether "patchiness" is a useful concept, and the benefits of shifting the focus from species to ecosystem processes. Because of their centrality to environmental management, these different views warrant special attention from both managers and ecologists. Such divergence is particularly problematic given widespread concerns regarding the poor linkages between science (here, ecology) and environmental policy and management, which have been attributed to scientific uncertainty and a lack of consensus among scientists, both jeopardizing the transfer of science into management. Several suggestions to help managers deal with these differences are provided, especially the need to interpret broader theory in the context of place-based assessments. The uncertainty created by these differences requires a proactive approach to environmental management, including clearly identifying environmental objectives, careful experimental design, and effective monitoring. PMID:18709471

Moore, Susan A; Wallington, Tabatha J; Hobbs, Richard J; Ehrlich, Paul R; Holling, C S; Levin, Simon; Lindenmayer, David; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Possingham, Hugh; Turner, Monica G; Westoby, Mark

2009-01-01

45

Diversity in Current Ecological Thinking: Implications for Environmental Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current ecological thinking emphasizes that systems are complex, dynamic, and unpredictable across space and time. What is the diversity in interpretation of these ideas among today’s ecologists, and what does this mean for environmental management? This study used a Policy Delphi survey of ecologists to explore their perspectives on a number of current topics in ecology. The results showed general concurrence with nonequilibrium views. There was agreement that disturbance is a widespread, normal feature of ecosystems with historically contingent responses. The importance of recognizing multiple levels of organization and the role of functional diversity in environmental change were also widely acknowledged. Views differed regarding the predictability of successional development, whether “patchiness” is a useful concept, and the benefits of shifting the focus from species to ecosystem processes. Because of their centrality to environmental management, these different views warrant special attention from both managers and ecologists. Such divergence is particularly problematic given widespread concerns regarding the poor linkages between science (here, ecology) and environmental policy and management, which have been attributed to scientific uncertainty and a lack of consensus among scientists, both jeopardizing the transfer of science into management. Several suggestions to help managers deal with these differences are provided, especially the need to interpret broader theory in the context of place-based assessments. The uncertainty created by these differences requires a proactive approach to environmental management, including clearly identifying environmental objectives, careful experimental design, and effective monitoring.

Moore, Susan A.; Wallington, Tabatha J.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Holling, C. S.; Levin, Simon; Lindenmayer, David; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Possingham, Hugh; Turner, Monica G.; Westoby, Mark

2009-01-01

46

Simulating evolutionary responses of an introgressed insect resistance trait for ecological effect assessment of transgene flow: a model for supporting informed decision-making in environmental risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Predicting outcomes of transgene flow from arable crops requires a system perspective that considers ecological and evolutionary processes within a landscape context. In Europe, the arable weed Raphanus raphanistrum is a potential hybridization partner of oilseed rape, and the two species are ecologically linked through the common herbivores Meligethes spp. Observations in Switzerland show that high densities of Meligethes beetles maintained by oilseed rape crops can lead to considerable damage on R. raphanistrum. We asked how increased insect resistance in R. raphanistrum – as might be acquired through introgression from transgenic oilseed rape – would affect seed production under natural herbivore pressure. In simulation experiments, plants protected against Meligethes beetles produced about twice as many seeds as unprotected plants. All stages in the development of reproductive structures from buds to pods were negatively affected by the herbivore, with the transition from buds to flowers being the most vulnerable. We conclude that resistance to Meligethes beetles could confer a considerable selective advantage upon R. raphanistrum in regions where oilseed rape is widely grown.

Meier, Matthias S; Trtikova, Miluse; Suter, Matthias; Edwards, Peter J; Hilbeck, Angelika

2013-01-01

47

Investigating the relationship between children's environmental perceptions and ecological actions through environmental learning experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the relationship between children's environmental perceptions and their ecological actions before and after attending Earthkeepers, an earth education program. Participants were 604 4th , 5th, and 6th grade students from 14 schools in Arizona and Pennsylvania. A comparison of the environmental perceptions of participants revealed a statistically significant difference between those who undertook more and those who undertook fewer or no positive ecological actions. After the program, students who undertook more positive ecological actions, for example using less energy and fewer materials, had more pro-environmental perceptions than their counterparts. Individual interviews with 18 of the participants supported the positive relationship between environmental perceptions and ecological actions and provided further explanations for those actions.

Manoli, Constantinos C.

48

Infrastructuring for the Long-Term: Ecological Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper foregrounds the long-term perspective and the role of information management in creating infrastructure to support collaborative ecological research. The case study of the Long-Term Ecological Research Network is an ongoing research collaboration that integrates ethno- graphic and action research approaches. We describe three interdependent elements of science, data and tech- nology for which information management provides sup- port,

Helena Karasti; Karen S. Baker

2004-01-01

49

Free and Open Source Geographic Information Tools for Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information tools (GI tools) have become an essential component of research in landscape ecology. In this article we review the use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GI tools in landscape ecology, with an emphasis on free and open source software (FOSS) projects. Specifically, we introduce the background and terms related to the free and open source software movement,

Stefan Steiniger; Geoffrey J. Hay

50

Situating trends in environmental education within the ecological debate  

SciTech Connect

For centuries there have been two philosophical orientations toward nature; one assumes humans to be the rightful owners and managers of nature, and the other is founded on a belief that humans are equal citizens within the earth's biotic community. Today these two approaches are located within reform environmentalism and deep ecology. In 1948, Aldo Leopold wrote an essay entitled [open quotes]The Land Ethic[close quotes] which proposed that humans include the land and its inhabitants within their circle of ethical concern. This essay has become a focal point of the debate between these two philosophies. The purpose of this study is to discover and describe the conceptual trends in environmental education since Leopold published [open quotes]The Land Ethic.[close quotes] Eighty-two articles, published in educational journals from 1950 to 1990, were analyzed to determine whether they expressed a reform environmentalism orientation or a deep ecology perspective. Articles were selected which provided a statement of the purposes and goals of conservation education and environmental education. Until 1969, articles were drawn from a wide variety of educational journals. After 1969, the selection was limited to articles in The Journal of Environmental Education when that journal became the leading forum for environmental education discourse. The results showed that in the 1950s and 1960s the focus was almost entirely on wise-use conservation and reform environmentalism. In the last two decades, however, even though reform environmentalism remained a dominant influence, there has been a definite trend toward incorporating deep ecology concepts in this educational discourse. Further research is needed to determine how these ideas influence curriculum design and instructional practice.

Faulconer, T.

1992-01-01

51

CERES: Environmental Information by Theme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES), features links to environmental information arranged under three categories: natural environment, natural resources, and the human environment. Natural environmental topics include such items as weather, geology, and natural disturbances (earthquakes, El nino, and others). Natural resources topics include minerals, water, fisheries, and biodiversity. Human environmental topics include cultural resources, environmental law, hazardous waste, and land use.

52

From process to proxy: Ecological challenges and opportunities of tree-ring based environmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees are sessile, long-living organisms and as such constantly need to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Accordingly, they often show high phenotypic plasticity (the ability to change phenotypic traits, such as allocation of resources) in response to environmental change. This high phenotypic plasticity is generally considered as one of the main ingredients for a sessile organism to survive and reach high ages. Precisely because of the ability of trees to reach old age and their in-ability to simply run away when conditions get worse, growth information recorded in tree rings has long been used as a major environmental proxy, covering time scales from decades to millennia. Past environmental conditions (e.g. climate) are recorded in i.e. annual tree-ring width, early- and latewood width, wood density, isotopic concentrations, cell anatomy or wood chemistry. One prerequisite for a reconstruction is that the relationship between the environmental variable influencing tree growth and the tree-growth variable itself is stable through time. This, however, might contrast the ecological theory of high plasticity and the trees ability to adapt to change. To untangle possible mechanisms leading to stable or unstable relationships between tree growth and environmental variables, it is helpful to have exact site information and several proxy variables of each tree-ring series available. Although we gain insight into the environmental history of a sampling site when sampling today, this is extremely difficult when using archeological wood. In this latter case, we face the additional challenge of unknown origin, provenance and (or) site conditions, making it even more important to use multiple proxy time-series from the same sample. Here, we review typical examples, where the relationship between tree growth and environmental variables seems 1) stable and 2) instable through time, and relate these two cases to ecological theory. Based on ecological theory, we then give recommendations to improve the reliability of environmental reconstructions using tree rings.

Wilmking, Martin; Buras, Allan; Heinrich, Ingo; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Smiljanic, Marko; van der Maaten, Ernst; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke

2014-05-01

53

Environmental audit of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), principally in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. The audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s), Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), beginning September 13, 1993, and ending September 23, 1993. The scope of the audit at SREL was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater/soil, sediment, and biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive Waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of SREL operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices.

Not Available

1993-09-01

54

Model organisms retain an "ecological memory" of complex ecologically relevant environmental variation.  

PubMed

Although tractable model organisms are essential to characterize the molecular mechanisms of evolution and adaptation, the ecological relevance of their behavior is not always clear because certain traits are easily lost during long-term laboratory culturing. Here, we demonstrate that despite their long tenure in the laboratory, model organisms retain "ecological memory" of complex environmental changes. We have discovered that Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, a halophilic archaeon that dominates microbial communities in a dynamically changing hypersaline environment, simultaneously optimizes fitness to total salinity, NaCl concentration, and the [K]/[Mg] ratio. Despite being maintained under controlled conditions over the last 50 years, peaks in the three-dimensional fitness landscape occur in salinity and ionic compositions that are not replicated in laboratory culturing but are routinely observed in the natural hypersaline environment of this organism. Intriguingly, adaptation to variations in ion composition was associated with differential regulation of anaerobic metabolism genes, suggesting an intertwined relationship between responses to oxygen and salinity. Our results suggest that the ecological memory of complex environmental variations is imprinted in the networks for coordinating multiple cellular processes. These coordination networks are also essential for dealing with changes in other physicochemically linked factors present during routine laboratory culturing and, hence, retained in model organisms. PMID:24413600

Beer, Karlyn D; Wurtmann, Elisabeth J; Pinel, Nicolás; Baliga, Nitin S

2014-03-01

55

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Information Management System (EIMS) organizes descriptive information (metadata) for data sets, databases, documents, models, projects, and spatial data. The EIMS design provides a repository for scientific documentation that can be easily accessed with standar...

56

[Use of geographic information systems in the evaluation of medical and ecological situation in a city].  

PubMed

Study using geoinformational technology provides integrity and compatibility of diverse information about territories, determines "cause-effect" relationships between environmental pollution parameters and some health state parameters. Intensive technogenic pollution with cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper, chromium, lead, benzpyrene, radionuclides could be assessed through data of ecologic and social hygienic monitoring and results of research works. PMID:9662927

Ma?mulov, V G; Pivovarov, A N; Lomtev, A Iu; Gorbanev, S A

1998-01-01

57

NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

Cook, Beth

1995-01-01

58

Environmental Information for Industrial Designers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this dissertation, the environmental information needs of industrial designers who are in the process of designing a product is studied. The objective of this study is to develop a model that gives a summary of the specific environmental information ne...

C. A. Bakker

1995-01-01

59

Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen ?2H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic deuterium/hydrogen stable isotope ratios (i.e., 2H/1H, expressed as ?2H value in ‰) in animal tissues are related to the 2H/1H in diet and ingested water. Bone collagen preserves the biochemical 2H/1H isotopic signal in the ?2H value of collagen's non-exchangeable hydrogen. Therefore, ?2H preserved in bone collagen has the potential to constrain environmental and trophic conditions, which is of interest to researchers studying of both living and fossil vertebrates. Our data examine the relationship of ?2H values of collagen with geographic variation in ?2H of meteoric waters, with local variations in the ecology and trophic level of species, and with the transition from mother's milk to adult diet. Based on 97 individuals from 22 marine and terrestrial vertebrates (predominately mammals), we found the relationships of collagen ?2H to both geographic variation in meteoric water ?2H (R2 = 0.55) and to ?15N in bone collagen (R2 = 0.17) statistically significant but weaker than previously reported. The second strongest control on collagen ?2H in our data is dietary, with nearly 50 percent of the variance in ?2H explained by trophic level (R2 = 0.47). Trophic level effects potentially confound the local meteoric signal if not held constant: herbivores tend to have the lowest ?2H values, omnivores have intermediate ones, and carnivores have the highest values. Body size (most likely related to mass-specific metabolic rates) has a strong influence on collagen ?2H (R2 = 0.30), by causing greater sensitivity in smaller animals to seasonal climate variations and/or high evapotranspiration leading to 2H-enrichment in tissues. In marine mammals weaning produces a dramatic effect on collagen ?2H with adult values being universally higher than pup values (R2 = 0.79). Interestingly, the shift in ?15N at weaning is downward, even though normally hydrogen and nitrogen isotope ratios are positively correlated with one another in respect to trophic level. Our findings suggest that in carnivores, which have an especially high variance in ?2H, large samples are needed to separate signals from precipitation, trophic level, body size, and age. For ?2H of fossil collagen to be useful as a proxy of environmental or dietary information, these confounding effects need to be understood, which means careful selection of a study species. Further, ?2H from a single fossil bone collagen is likely to be uninterpretable.

Topalov, Katarina; Schimmelmann, Arndt; David Polly, P.; Sauer, Peter E.; Lowry, Mark

2013-06-01

60

REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: AN INFORMATION THEORY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

We present our efforts at developing an ecological system using Information Theory. We derive an expression for Fisher Information based on sampling of the system trajectory as it evolves in the state space. The Fisher Information index as we have derived it captures the characte...

61

Role of ecological farms in improving agricultural environmental problems  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the concept of regarding the agricultural ecosystem as an entirety, integrating the energy conversion and material cycle between various biocoenosiums of plants, animals and microorganisms and that between organisms and nonorganisms which run through the entire ecosystem, and composing scientifically the environment-ecosystem for the purpose of gaining the maximum biotic yield and the best efficiency in protection of the agricultural environment. It is indicated that ''methane-fermentation'' of agricultural organisms is an important link in fully utilizing matter and energy and reducing environmental pollution, and this will partly solve the problem of fuel shortage in rural areas as well. There is a need to find models of ecological farms which suit the realities of China. Even though ecological farms are a new concept in the agricultural sciences, some forms of ecological farms have long existed in traditional agricultural production of China. For example, the peasants in some flatland areas of southern China scrape sod from the borderdikes to bed down domestic animals, the mud-bearing sod is mixed with the excrement of livestock, and after pilling and rotting, the decomposed manure is applied as organic fertilizer in farmlands. A diagram of the production structure of a fishpond is presented.

Huang Zhenguan; Shu, T.

1983-01-01

62

A Module-Based Environmental Science Course for Teaching Ecology to Non-Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental

Smith, Geoffrey R.

2010-01-01

63

Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint.  

PubMed

Adaptive management as applied to tourism policy treats management policies as experiments that probe the responses of the system as human behavior changes. We present a conceptual systems model that incorporates the gap between observed and desired levels of the ecological footprint with respect to biocapacity. Addressing this gap (or 'overshoot') can inform strategies to increase or decrease visitation or its associated consumption in the coming years. The feedback mechanism in this conceptual model incorporates a gap between observed and desired ecological footprint levels of tourists and residents. The work is based on longer-term and ongoing study of tourism impacts and ecological footprint assessments from the SPIN-Eco Project. We present historical tourism and environmental data from the province of Siena, Italy and discuss the use of discrete, static environmental indicators as part of an iterative feedback process to manage tourism within biophysical limits. We discuss a necessary shift of emphasis from certain and static numbers to a process-based management model that can reflect slow changes to biophysical resources. As underscored by ecological footprint analysis, the energy and material use associated with tourism and local activity can erode natural capital foundations if that use exceeds the area's biological capacity to support it. The dynamic, and iterative process of using such indicators as management feedback allows us to view sustainability more accurately as a transition and journey, rather than a static destination to which management must arrive. PMID:17157978

Patterson, Trista M; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

2008-01-01

64

Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water catchments are functional geographical areas that integrate a variety of environmental processes and human impacts on landscapes. Integrated assessments recognize this interdependence of resources and components making up water catchments and are vital for viable long-term natural resource management. This paper couples eco-hydrological modelling with remote sensing, landscape ecological analyses and GIS to develop a series of indicators of

R Aspinall; D Pearson

2000-01-01

65

From groundless universalism to grounded generalism: improving ecological economic indicators of human–environmental interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological economics occasionally makes universal claims about how to understand and measure change in systems of human–environmental interaction. In terms of environmental policy, one of the most influential universal concepts that has come out of the ecological economics literature recently is ecological efficiency (or eco-efficiency). This article uses eco-efficiency as a vehicle to illustrate that universal indicators of human–environmental interaction

Janne Hukkinen

2003-01-01

66

A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental Versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss implications for environmental education and ecology education including a contradistinction between the instrumental and the emancipatory approach and the study of socio-scientific issues. An outline of protected areas as a socio-scientific issue, which is informed by the emancipatory approach, will be presented in the final part of the paper.

Hovardas, Tasos

2013-06-01

67

The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

Detlor, Brian

2001-01-01

68

The influence of information ecology on e-commerce initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the influence of an organization’s information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm’s electronic commerce initiatives and plans. To investigate this problem area, results are reported from a recent case study investigation on the adoption and use of a specific e-commerce initiative – namely a corporate portal – by 20 participants at a large Canadian company.

Brian Detlor

2001-01-01

69

Integrating environmental restoration and ecological restoration: long-term stewardship at the department of energy.  

PubMed

With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself. PMID:10982725

Burger, J

2000-11-01

70

Integrating Environmental Restoration and Ecological Restoration: Long-Term Stewardship at the Department of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself.

Burger, Joanna

2000-11-01

71

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds.  

PubMed

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (tau) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location. PMID:22486082

Daily, Jonathan P; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D

2012-01-01

72

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.

2012-01-01

73

Unfinished Business: A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Problems. Appendix 3. Ecological Risk Work Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is one of four reports comparing risks currently associated with major environmental problems. Specific environmental problems according to ecological risk were ranked and the results summarized in Part I of the report. Also contained in Part I...

1987-01-01

74

MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

75

Construction and Validation of Textbook Analysis Grids for Ecology and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about ecology and environmental education (EE) constitutes a basic tool for promoting a sustainable future, and was a target area of the BIOHEAD-Citizen Project. School textbooks were considered as representative sources of evidence in terms of ecology and environmental education, and were used for comparison among the countries…

Caravita, Silvia; Valente, Adriana; Luzi, Daniela; Pace, Paul; Valanides, Nicos; Khalil, Iman; Berthou, Guillemette; Kozan-Naumescu, Adrienne; Clement, Pierre

2008-01-01

76

Ecological approach to resource survey and planning for environmentally significant Areas: The ABC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resource survey and planning method for parks, reserves, and other environmentally significant areas (ESAs) is presented in the context of a holistic balanced approach to land use and environmental management. This method provides a framework for the acquisition, analysis, presentation, and application of diverse ecological data pertinent to land use planning and resource management within ESAs. Through the independent analysis and subsequent integration of abiotic, biotic, and cultural or ABC information, land areas within an ESA are identified in terms of their relative environmental significance and environmental constraints. The former term encompasses wildlife, historic, and other resource values, while the latter term reflects biophysical hazards and sensitivities, and land use conflicts. The method thus calls for a matching of an ESA's distinctive attributes with appropriate land use and institutional arrancements through an analysis of available acts, regulations, agencies, and other conservation and land use management mechanisms. The method culminates with a management proposal showing proposed park or reserve allocations, buffer areas, or other land use controls aimed at preserving an ESA's special ecological qualities, while providing for resource development. The authors suggest that all resource management decisions affecting ESA's should be governed by a philosophical stance that recognizes a spectrum of broad land use types, ranging from preservation to extractive use and rehabilitation.

Bastedo, Jamie D.; Nelson, J. Gordon; Theberge, John B.

1984-03-01

77

More ecological ERA: incorporating natural environmental factors and animal behavior.  

PubMed

We discuss the importance of selected natural abiotic and biotic factors in ecological risk assessment based on simplistic laboratory bioassays. Although it is impossible to include all possible natural factors in standard lower-tier ecotoxicological testing, neglecting them is not an option. Therefore, we try to identify the most important factors and advocate redesigning standard testing procedures to include theoretically most potent interactions. We also point out a few potentially important factors that have not been studied enough so far. The available data allowed us to identify temperature and O2 depletion as the most critical factors that should be included in ecotoxicity testing as soon as possible. Temporal limitations and fluctuations in food availability also appear important, but at this point more fundamental research in this area is necessary before making decisions on their inclusion in risk assessment procedures. We propose using specific experimental designs, such as Box-Behnken or Central Composite, which allow for simultaneous testing of 3 or more factors for their individual and interactive effects with greater precision and without increasing the effort and costs of tests dramatically. Factorial design can lead to more powerful tests and help to extend the validity of conclusions. Finally, ecological risk assessment procedures should include information on animal behavior, especially feeding patterns. This requires more basic studies, but already at this point adequate mechanistic effect models can be developed for some species. PMID:23625590

Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Jevti?, Dragan M; Laskowski, Ryszard

2013-07-01

78

A Framework for the Design of Ecological Monitoring Programs as a Tool for Environmental and Nature Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and nature management can not operate effectivelywithout reliable information on changes in the environment andon the causes of those changes. Ecological monitoring canrepresent an important source of information. However, manyoperational monitoring programs are not very effective, i.e., not very useful for decision-making. We present a conceptualframework for the development and maintenance of effectiveecological monitoring programs. In the decision-making process,two

P. Vos; E. Meelis; W. J. Ter Keurs

2000-01-01

79

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Generic Ecological Assessment Endpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency determined that one of the major impediments to the advancement and application of ecological risk assessment is doubt concerning appropriate assessment endpoints. The Agency's Risk Assessment Forum determined that the best solution to this problem was to define a set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). They are assessment endpoints that are applicable to a

Glenn W. Suter; Donald J. Rodier; Scott Schwenk; Michael E. Troyer; Patricia L. Tyler; Douglas J. Urban; Marjorie C. Wellman; Steven Wharton

2004-01-01

80

Ecological genomics in Daphnia: stress responses and environmental sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological genomics is the study of adaptation of natural populations to their environment, and therefore seeks to link organism and population level processes through an under- standing of genome organization and function. The plank- tonic microcrustacean Daphnia, which has long been an important system for ecology, is now being used as a genomic model as well. Here we review recent

BD Eads; J Andrews; JK Colbourne

2007-01-01

81

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental\\/science education praxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using

J. William Hug

1998-01-01

82

Environmental Certification of Forests in Mexico: The Political Ecology of a Nongovernmental Market Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The certification of the environmental and social characteristics of a product's production process is emerging as a significant transnational, nongovernmental, market-based approach to environmental regulation and development. Using conventions analysis and commodity network analysis, this article examines the political ecology of one such market intervention. After only a decade, environmental certification of forests has spread to cover a significant portion

Dan Klooster

2006-01-01

83

Environmental effects of increased coal utilization ecological effects of gaseous emissions from coal combustion. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is provided for the 'Health and Environmental Effects of Coal Utilization' Committee which was created by the request of the DOE in response to the President's Environmental Message. It evaluates ecological environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of various types which result from coal combustion. The report deals with NOx, SOx fine particulate, photochemical oxidant and acid

1978-01-01

84

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INCREASED COAL UTILIZATION ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is provided for the 'Health and Environmental Effects of Coal Utilization' Committee which was created by the request of the DOE in response to the President's Environmental Message. It evaluates ecological environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of va...

85

INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective and disgnostic assessments of the ecological risk of toxic chemicals require a thorough integration of aspects of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Failure to successfully achieve this can result in a lack of scientific credibility, as well as missed opportuniti...

86

18 CFR 707.11 - Environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing... § 707.11 Environmental information. Interested persons may contact the Director, U.S. Water Resources Council, 2120 L...Washington, DC 20037, for information regarding the Council's...

2013-04-01

87

An Environmental and Energy Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Information System Office (EISO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides information support for researchers and administrators involved with energy and environmental policy and progress. Multiple EISO activities for various governmental agencies have resulted in establishment of compatible data bases concerned with energy and environmental information, methods for effectively developing these, development and computer display of numerical data

G. U. Ulrikson; G. M. Caton; M. P. Guthrie; H. F. McDuffie

1975-01-01

88

Using Formative Research to Develop Environmental and Ecological Interventions to Address Overweight and Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper presents the formative research phase of a large multi-site intervention study conducted to inform the feasibility of introducing environmental and ecological interventions. Methods Using mixed methods that included an environmental assessment, climate survey, leadership focus groups and interviews, and archival data, information was collected on employee health and job factors, the physical environment, social-organizational environment, and current health programs. Results Results show that 83% of employees at the study sites were overweight or obese. Leadership was very supportive of health initiatives and felt integrating the strategies into organizational operations would increase their likelihood of success. Environmental assessment scores ranged from 47 to 19 on a 100 point scale. Health services personnel tended to view the organizational climate for health more positively than site leadership (mean of 3.6 vs 3.0 respectively). Conclusions Intervention strategies chosen included increasing healthy food choices in vending, cafeterias, and company meetings, providing a walking path, targeting messages, developing site goals, training leaders, and establishing leaders at the work group level.

Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; DeJoy, Dave M.; Della, Lindsay; Roemer, Enid Chung; Schneider, Jennifer; Tully, Karen J.; White, John M.; Baase, Catherine M.

2010-01-01

89

A Quantitative Comparison of Environmental Education, Conservation Education, Outdoor Education, Ecological Education, Environmentalized Education and General Education based on Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated was the relationship of environmental education to ecological education, outdoor education, conservation education, environmentalized education, and general education. Goals selected from the literature were analyzed to obtain 60 goals representing each of the 6 areas. Using a Q-sort procedure, 65 selected individuals, representing…

Johnson, David I.

90

Center for Environmental Information and Statistics (CEIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1997 as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's national commitment to "improve public access" to EPA's information resources, the new Center for Environmental Information and Statistics (CEIS) Website "provides access to integrated information on environmental quality, status and trends." Available at the site are Environmental Profiles (for each US state, county, and territory), a substantial, searchable Digital Library of Environmental Quality, and the Environmental Atlas, offering "full-color, national and state maps ... covering a wide range of natural resources." This impressive Website will prove valuable to researchers and educators, alike.

1997-01-01

91

CONVERGENCE OF ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RISK ASSESSMENT: TOWARDS HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A major emphasis of environmental monitoring and assessment programs is to characterize the condition of natural resources. When repeated through time, ecological assessments (EA) can be used to track changes in environmental condition that reflect on the efficacy of regulatory a...

92

The Effects of Ecology-Based Summer Nature Education Program on Primary School Students' Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Affect and Responsible Environmental Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of ecology-based nature education program on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, environmental affect, and responsible environmental behavior. A total number of 64 elementary school students including 26 females and 38 males who participated in summer natural education organized…

Erdogan, Mehmet

2011-01-01

93

Biological markers of environmental and ecological contamination: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach, using biomarkers (biological responses) for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment is described. Living organisms integrate exposure to contaminants in their environment and respond in some measurable and predictable way. Responses are observed at several levels of biological organization from the biomolecular level, where pollutants can cause damage to critical cellular macromolecules

Lee R. Shugart; John F. McCarthy; Richard S. Halbrook

1992-01-01

94

Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

95

AQUATOX: Modeling environmental fate and ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

AQUATOX combines aquatic ecosystem, chemical fate, and ecotoxicological constructs to obtain a truly integrative fate and effects model. It is a general, mechanistic ecological risk assessment model intended to be used to evaluate past, present, and future direct and indirect effects from various stressors including nutrients, organic wastes, sediments, toxic organic chemicals, flow, and temperature in aquatic ecosystems. The model

Richard A. Park; Jonathan S. Clough; Marjorie Coombs Wellman

2008-01-01

96

Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center  

SciTech Connect

This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

Maza, B.G.

1991-02-01

97

Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose\\/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent

D. A. Cataldo; M. W. Ligotke; B. D. McVeety; R. J. Fellows; H. Jr. Bolton; S. W. Li; P. Van Voris; R. S. Wentsel

1988-01-01

98

Small Groups' Ecological Reasoning While Making an Environmental Management Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ideas and reasoning students use to make a collaborative environmental management decision. Compares students' discussions with scientists' guidelines for making environmental management decisions. Finds that whereas across groups students touched on all of the themes that scientists consider to be important for making environmental

Hogan, Kathleen

2002-01-01

99

Information Discovery in Ecological Systems by Artificial Neural Networks: Algal Blooms at Gippsland Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to discuss two aspects of working with large ecological data sets; analysis and modelling of ecological data sets, and subdivision of data into smaller subsets for the purpose of analysis and modelling. Different approaches to the information discovery in ecological systems based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are considered ANNs are powerful modelling tools. Their strength is

N. Khanna; J. Smith; M. Lech

2005-01-01

100

Learning and teaching for an ecological sense of place: Toward environmental/science education praxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a teaching model designed to enable learners to construct a highly developed ecological perspective and sense of place. The contextually-based research process draws upon scientific and indigenous knowledge from multiple data sources including: autobiographical experiences, environmental literature, science and environmental education research, historical approaches to environmental education, and phenomenological accounts from research participants. Data were analyzed using the theoretical frameworks of qualitative research, hermeneutic phenomenology, heuristics, and constructivism. The resulting model synthesizes and incorporates key educational philosophies and practices from: nature study, resident outdoor education, organized camping, conservation education, environmental education, earth education, outdoor recreation, sustainability, bio-regionalism, deep ecology, ecological and environmental literacy, science and technology in society, and adventure/challenge/experiential education. The model's four components--environmental knowledge, practicing responsible environmental behaviors, community-focused involvement, and direct experience in outdoor settings--contribute in a synergistic way to the development of ecological perspective and a sense of place. The model was honed through experiential use in an environmental science methods course for elementary and secondary prospective science teachers. The instructor/researcher employed individualized instruction, community-based learning, service learning, and the modeling of reflective teaching principles in pursuit of the model's goals. The resulting pedagogical knowledge extends the model's usefulness to such formal and non-formal educational contexts as: elementary/secondary classrooms, nature centers, museums, youth groups, and community organizations. This research has implications for the fields of education, geography, recreation/leisure studies, science teaching, and environmental education. Several aspects of this work make it novel. First, autobiographical and literature-based stories anchor the representations of ecological perspective and sense of place. Second, the dissertation text visually differentiates between story narrative, researcher narrative, and meta-narrative in order to convey the positionality of the researcher's distinct voices. Finally, icons are used throughout the text to visually link the model's multi-dimensional intersections. Oh, and by the way, I hope you read it.

Hug, J. William

1998-09-01

101

Using Wetlands to Teach Ecology & Environmental Awareness in General Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents advantages of using wetlands educationally and their relevance to local, national, and global environmental issues. Discusses field trips to mangrove forests and freshwater marshes. (Author/MKR)

O'Neal, Lyman H.

1995-01-01

102

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

103

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems.  

PubMed

Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic-community partnership and (2) developing a place-specific strategy grounded in the cultural-experiential model of risk. We propose that practitioners need to consider a community's ecology and social context of risk as it pertains to wicked problems. These factors will determine how a diverse community interprets and responds to environmental communication and capacity-building efforts. PMID:20686630

Caron, Rosemary M; Serrell, Nancy

2009-07-01

104

Social Desirability, Environmental Attitudes, and General Ecological Behaviour in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socially desirable responses have been widely discussed as potentially biasing self-reported measures of environmental attitude and behaviour assessment. The direct and moderating effect of social desirability on children has not been analysed before. By applying a Lie scale together with a two-factor environmental attitude set measure and a scale…

Oerke, Britta; Bogner, Franz X.

2013-01-01

105

Framework for ecological risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical

D. Rodier; S. Norton; John H. Gentile; William H. van der Schalie; William P. Wood; Michael W. Slimak

1992-01-01

106

The value of metals bioavailability and speciation information for ecological risk assessment in arid soils.  

PubMed

When evaluating the risk chemicals may pose to mammals and birds in ecological risk assessments (ERAs), it is common practice to conservatively assume that all (100%) of a chemical in an environmental medium is bioavailable to receptors. This assumption often leads to overestimating ecological risk and may ultimately result in costly and unnecessary risk management actions. While effects of bioavailability and speciation of metals such as arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) have been considered in human health risk assessment, these effects are rarely taken into consideration when assessing risks to mammals and birds. An ERA was conducted at the former Col-Tex refinery site in Colorado City, Texas, USA, to characterize risks to select wildlife species from exposure to chromium (Cr) and Pb found in soils. The focus on these metals was based on results of a screening-level ERA that found that Cr and Pb were posing ecological risks at the site. Soils were analyzed for total Cr and Pb, trivalent Cr (CrIII), hexavalent Cr (CrVI), organic Pb, and the bioavailability and speciation of Pb. Results for Pb and Cr indicated that >94% of the Cr was present as the less toxic and immobile Cr(III) and that >99% of the Pb in soils was present as inorganic Pb. Lead bioaccessibility measured by in vitro testing ranged from 8% to 77.8%, depending on location of individual soil samples. Results demonstrated that Pb and Cr bioavailability and speciation information can raise soil cleanup concentrations while being protective of ecological receptors. The costs of performing the ERA were de minimus compared to the reduction in remediation costs at the site. The refined hazard estimates allowed informed decision making in the management and segregation of soils, allowing for effective risk management at the site. PMID:17069177

Suedel, Burton C; Nicholson, Andrew; Day, Christopher H; Spicer, James

2006-10-01

107

Environmental remediation and waste management information systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

1993-12-31

108

Pathogen survival trajectories: an eco-environmental approach to the modeling of human campylobacteriosis ecology.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacteriosis, like many human diseases, has its own ecology in which the propagation of human infection and disease depends on pathogen survival and finding new hosts in order to replicate and sustain the pathogen population. The complexity of this process, a process common to other enteric pathogens, has hampered control efforts. Many unknowns remain, resulting in a poorly understood disease ecology. To provide structure to these unknowns and help direct further research and intervention, we propose an eco-environmental modeling approach for campylobacteriosis. This modeling approach follows the pathogen population as it moves through the environments that define the physical structure of its ecology. In this paper, we term the ecologic processes and environments through which these populations move "pathogen survival trajectories." Although such a modeling approach could have veterinary applications, our emphasis is on human campylobacteriosis and focuses on human exposures to Campylobacter through feces, food, and aquatic environments. The pathogen survival trajectories that lead to human exposure include ecologic filters that limit population size, e.g., cooking food to kill Campylobacter. Environmental factors that influence the size of the pathogen reservoirs include temperature, nutrient availability, and moisture availability during the period of time the pathogen population is moving through the environment between infected and susceptible hosts. We anticipate that the modeling approach proposed here will work symbiotically with traditional epidemiologic and microbiologic research to help guide and evaluate the acquisition of new knowledge about the ecology, eventual intervention, and control of campylobacteriosis.

Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

2003-01-01

109

The Ecological Classroom: Environmental Education Activities K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides interdisciplinary ideas to accompany environmental education activities for kindergarten through grade 12. Topics of the activities include water pollution, soil erosion, and salmon homing instincts. Interdisciplinary areas include fine arts, language arts, and social studies. (DDR)

Gillam, David A.; And Others

1995-01-01

110

Molecular Ecology of Bacterial Populations in Environmental Hazardous Chemical Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic research was conducted to develop and explore the use of modern molecular biology techniques in understanding the dynamics of microbial populations engaged in biodegradation of environmental pollutants. The research focused on (1) the use of environ...

G. S. Sayler

1991-01-01

111

APPLICATION OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY RESEARCH TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Authors describe the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research program in biotechnology risk assessment to study fate and effects of nonindigenous microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. nformation from the studies can be used by industries and regulatory agen...

112

Ecology on Campus: Service Learning in Introductory Environmental Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a service learning project in the environmental sciences in which students learn about global sustainability through exploring issues such as energy and its effects on their everyday lives. (YDS)

Bixby, Julie A.; Carpenter, John R.; Jerman, Patricia L.; Coull, Bruce C.

2003-01-01

113

Effects of critical information saliency on task performance: Application of ecological information augmentation in a cockpit display of traffic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports the examination, implementation, and evaluation of a case study in Ecological Information Augmentation (EIA). EIA is a heuristic encompassing the method and practice of enhancing the perceptual\\/cognitive salience of task-critical display information. Three experiments were conducted in which the EIA heuristic was used to identify task-specific, pertinent information in a visual display, augment that information, and compare

William Robert Knecht

2001-01-01

114

Ecology, ethics, and professional environmental practice: The Yucca Mountain, Nevada, project as a case study  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a geologic repository for disposing of high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this commentary, the ecology program for the DOE`s Yucca Mountain Project is discussed from the perspective of state-of-the-art ecosystem analysis, environmental ethics, and standards of professional practice. Specifically at issue is the need by the Yucca Mountain ecology program to adopt an ecosystem approach that encompasses the current strategy based on population biology and community ecology alone. The premise here is that an ecosystem approach is essential for assessing the long-term potential environmental impacts at Yucca Mountain in light of the thermal effects expected to be associated with heat from radioactive decay.

Malone, C.R. [Nuclear Waste Project Office, Carson City, NV (United States)

1995-09-01

115

Acute ecological toxicity and environmental persistence of simulants  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of these studies are to establish the comparative environmental behavior and chemical fate of chemical simulants. Laboratory studies were undertaken to establish: (1) deposition efficiency (deposition velocities, Vd) for receptor surfaces including plant foliage and soils; (2) dose/response relationships for important environmental components including plants and soil microflora; and (3) the environmental persistence of the simulants. Chemical agent simulants are employed for a range of testing and training activities where use of chemical agents is less than suitable from a safety and environmental standpoint. A variety of chemical simulant materials are used to simulate either nerve agents or blister agents. The following research describes the environmental effects and persistence of four simulants. These are the nerve agent stimulants diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphonate (BIS), and the mustard stimulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The vapor pressures for DIMP, DFP, and CEES are relatively high, reported to be 0.17, 0.58 and 3.4 mm Hg, respectively; while that of BIS is substantially less at 5.8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ mm Hg at 25/degree/C. The chemical characteristics of DFP and CEES are very similar to G/VX-agents and mustard, respectively, and are employed for materials evaluation under controlled conditions. However, their toxicity precludes their use in the environment. DIMP and BIS are currently used for testing in the open air. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

1988-06-01

116

The Interest of Consumers in Ecological Product Information Is Growing – Evidence From Two German Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a German survey from 1989, consumers showed less interest in information about ecologically relevant product attributes than could be expected after several years of vivacious discussion in the mass media about ecological problems associated with consumer products and consumer behaviour. However, a replication of the study in 1998 showed a considerable increase of consumer interest in such information. In

Heiner Imkamp

2000-01-01

117

Ecological Society of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1915, the Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists that is dedicated to several primary goals related to the promotion of ecological science, raising the public's level of awareness of the importance of ecological science, and increasing the resources available for the conduct of ecological science. The website is an indispensable source of material about ecological science and the society's various activities, including the annual meeting, career opportunities, membership information, and publications. The publications section is particularly useful, as visitors can learn about society journals (such as _Ecology_), monographs, and the popular Issues in Ecology series. Visitors have complete access to the Issues in Ecology series (in English and Spanish). Journalists and the general public will want to look at the Public Affairs Office area which features news releases and the bi-weekly Policy News update, which summarizes major environmental and science policy news from the previous two weeks.

118

The Farm--Its Function and Future. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, designed for use in the primary grades (K-3), focuses on the farm and its functions. The various aspects of farming are discussed from an ecological and environmental point of view through such topics as soil, plants, animals, machinery, production of food, job opportunities, and the future of the farm. There is also a comparison of the…

Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

119

What are indicators? On the definition of indicators in ecology and environmental planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “indicator” is frequently used at the interface between science and policy. Although there is a great demand for clear definitions of technical terms in science and policy, the meaning of indicator is still ambiguous. In this contribution, we analyze different meanings of the term in ecology and environmental planning, suggest a general definition, and make recommendations for its

Ulrich Heink; Ingo Kowarik

2010-01-01

120

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic-community…

Caron, Rosemary M.; Serrell, Nancy

2009-01-01

121

Towards an ecological systems approach in public research for environmental regulation of transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of current research shows insufficient monitoring and testing have been conducted to reliably assess the degree of environmental risks posed by transgenic crops. The major risks include increased resistance to particular pesticides, gene flow into related plant species, and negative effects on non-target organisms. Significant gaps in knowledge, often stemming from missing markets for ecological services, warrant a

David E. Ervin; Rick Welsh; Sandra S. Batie; Chantal Line Carpentier

2003-01-01

122

The Effect of Environmental Education on the Ecological Literacy of First-Year College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the viability of a value-attitude-behavior hierarchy within the context of four environmentally responsible behavior types of first-year college students. The research also studies the effect of knowledge on attitude and behavior, and discusses the implications of the results for understanding the ecological literacy of…

Bruyere, Brett L.

2008-01-01

123

Environmental and Ontogenetic Effects on Intraspecific Trait Variation of a Macrophyte Species across Five Ecological Scales  

PubMed Central

Although functional trait variability is increasingly used in community ecology, the scale- and size-dependent aspects of trait variation are usually disregarded. Here we quantified the spatial structure of shoot height, branch length, root/shoot ratio and leaf number in a macrophyte species Potamogeton maackianus, and then disentangled the environmental and ontogenetic effects on these traits. Using a hierarchical nested design, we measured the four traits from 681 individuals across five ecological scales: lake, transect, depth stratus, quadrat and individual. A notable high trait variation (coefficient variation: 48–112%) was observed within species. These traits differed in the spatial structure, depending on environmental factors of different scales. Shoot height and branch length were most responsive to lake, transect and depth stratus scales, while root/shoot ratio and leaf number to quadrat and individual scales. The trait variations caused by environment are nearly three times higher than that caused by ontogeny, with ontogenetic variance ranging from 21% (leaf number) to 33% (branch length) of total variance. Remarkably, these traits showed non-negligible ontogenetic variation (0–60%) in each ecological scale, and significant shifts in allometric trajectories at lake and depth stratus scales. Our results highlight that environmental filtering processes can sort individuals within species with traits values adaptive to environmental changes and ontogenetic variation of functional traits was non-negligible across the five ecological scales.

Zhong, Jiayou; Cao, Te; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

2013-01-01

124

Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

2008-01-01

125

Swallowed: Political Ecology and Environmentalism in the Spanish American "Novela de la Selva"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I begin with the identification of a moment of intertextuality between "Un viejo que leia novelas de amor" (1989) by Chilean Luis Sepulveda and "La voragine" (1924) by Colombian Jose Eustasio Rivera as an analytical motif for a reevaluation of the environmentalism and political ecologies in the Spanish American "novela de la selva"…

DeVries, Scott

2010-01-01

126

Environmental Education for Social-Ecological System Resilience: A Perspective from Activity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we attempt to integrate environmental education, with a focus on building capacity at the level of the individual, with frameworks for resilience, with a focus on adaptive capacity at the level of the social-ecological system. Whereas previous work has focused on enhancing system-level capacity through building adaptive capacity in…

Krasny, Marianne E.; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2010-01-01

127

New insights on ecological footprinting as environmental indicator for production processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological footprint (EF) has reached worldwide popularity in the last decade as an interesting environmental indicator, and its applications have been extended to different fields. However, shortcomings of the methodology behind the EF calculations have been reported and the need for further improvements has been remarked, especially when this indicator is applied to measure the sustainability of production processes.

Marta Herva; Carlos García-Diéguez; Amaya Franco-Uría; Enrique Roca

128

Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

Rice, James

2007-01-01

129

THE LEARNING BARGE: ENVIRONMENTAL + CULTURAL ECOLOGIES ON THE ELIZABETH RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

A University of Virginia interdisciplinary student team will design and fabricate the Learning Barge—a floating environmental education field station powered solely by site-based solar and wind energy systems. The 32’x120’ barge will support a contained be...

130

Ecological Democracy: An Environmental Approach to Citizenship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic educators strive to develop the kinds of citizens who can identify and address the significant challenges of life in society. A case can be made that we have failed in this fundamental task. In spite of our efforts, contemporary societies seem ill-equipped to cope with the enormous social and environmental issues of our age. The problem is…

Houser, Neil O.

2009-01-01

131

Environmental agency providing policy relevant information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental protection agencies are the major providers of comprehensive environmental information to the policy-makers and politician. Information designed for policy-makers should be integrated, carefully selected and aggregated, accompanied with appropriate interpretation. During the process of aggregating the purpose of such aggregation should be kept in focus. Meteorological, climatological and hydrological information should be regarded as part of the integral environmental information. In order to enable high compatibility of environmental information with other kind of information GIS approach was introduced as an efficient and easy tool to present various combinations of data. GIS based Environmental atlas with above 100 layers available is an example of such application. EIONET and SEIS are powerful tools to implement reporting obligations and information providing to policy-makers, general and scientific community. Benefits and priorities for SEIS will be outlined. Some examples including implementation of the INSPIRE directive at the national level, environmental report, environmental indicators and country report to the EU, EEA, OECD, EUROSTAT, UNEP and UNFCCC will be presented.

Urban?i?, J.; Cegnar, T.

2009-09-01

132

Information Sharing and Environmental Policies  

PubMed Central

Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

Antoniou, Fabio; Koundouri, Phoebe; Tsakiris, Nikos

2010-01-01

133

Social Ecology of Children's Vulnerability to Environmental Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Background The outcomes of exposure to neurotoxic chemicals early in life depend on the properties of both the chemical and the host’s environment. When our questions focus on the toxicant, the environmental properties tend to be regarded as marginal and designated as covariates or confounders. Such approaches blur the reality of how the early environment establishes enduring biologic substrates. Objectives In this commentary, we describe another perspective, based on decades of biopsychological research on animals, that shows how the early, even prenatal, environment creates permanent changes in brain structure and chemistry and behavior. Aspects of the early environment—encompassing enrichment, deprivation, and maternal and neonatal stress—all help determine the functional responses later in life that derive from the biologic substrate imparted by that environment. Their effects then become biologically embedded. Human data, particularly those connected to economically disadvantaged populations, yield equivalent conclusions. Discussion In this commentary, we argue that treating such environmental conditions as confounders is equivalent to defining genetic differences as confounders, a tactic that laboratory research, such as that based on transgenic manipulations, clearly rejects. The implications extend from laboratory experiments that, implicitly, assume that the early environment can be standardized to risk assessments based on epidemiologic investigations. Conclusions The biologic properties implanted by the early social environment should be regarded as crucial elements of the translation from laboratory research to human health and, in fact, should be incorporated into human health research. The methods for doing so are not clearly defined and present many challenges to investigators.

Weiss, Bernard; Bellinger, David C.

2006-01-01

134

Informal Environmental Education in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-formal environmental education involves all educational processes conducted outside of school. It is directed to all age groups, especially mature people who have finished their studies. This paper presents the goals and forms of non-formal education in Poland. Studies on the effects of non-formal education are also presented: this form of…

Wojcik, Anna Maria

2004-01-01

135

Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the

H. E. Jr

1982-01-01

136

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel.

Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

1982-06-01

137

Applying Ecological Risk Assessment to Environmental Accidents: Harlequin Ducks and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the October 2007 issue of BioScience examines the use of biological risk assessments to determine cause-effect relationships. Ecological risk assessment is a systematic way to evaluate the likelihood that an environmental accident has caused significant ecological consequences. I apply this framework retrospectively to evaluate a scenario linking the Exxon Valdez oil spill to population effects on harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) through hydrocarbon contamination of mussels in spill-affected shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska. By evaluating the plausibility of each step of this scenario in turn, it becomes apparent that it is highly unlikely the oil spill is having continuing effects on harlequins through this pathway. This case study shows how ecological risk assessment can help clarify potential causeeffect relationships in an emotionally and socially charged situation.

John Wiens (The Nature Conservancy;)

2007-10-01

138

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950... § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). ESIC is...addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center, National...

2010-01-01

139

15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950... § 950.6 Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). ESIC is...addressed to: Environmental Science Information Center, National...

2009-01-01

140

New ecological information on Scytalina cerdale (Pisces: Scytalinidae) from a central California rocky intertidal zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information regarding the ecology ofScytalina cerdale was obtained over a four year period as a consequence of a long-term marine ecological study at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), San Luis Obispo County, California. Twenty intertidal fish surveys were conducted at approximately quarterly intervals, between March 1979 and June 1983, at three separate rocky shore locations (stations). During each

Aaron Carr Setran; David W. Behrens

1990-01-01

141

FISHER INFORMATION AND DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystems often exhibit transitions between dynamic regimes (or steady states), such as the conversion of oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions and associated aquatic ecological communities, due to natural (or increasingly) anthropogenic disturbances. As ecosystems experience per...

142

Effects of environmental change on zoonotic disease risk: an ecological primer.  

PubMed

Impacts of environmental changes on zoonotic disease risk are the subject of speculation, but lack a coherent framework for understanding environmental drivers of pathogen transmission from animal hosts to humans. We review how environmental factors affect the distributions of zoonotic agents and their transmission to humans, exploring the roles they play in zoonotic systems. We demonstrate the importance of capturing the distributional ecology of any species involved in pathogen transmission, defining the environmental conditions required, and the projection of that niche onto geography. We further review how environmental changes may alter the dispersal behaviour of populations of any component of zoonotic disease systems. Such changes can modify relative importance of different host species for pathogens, modifying contact rates with humans. PMID:24636356

Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ostfeld, Richard S; Peterson, A Townsend; Poulin, Robert; de la Fuente, José

2014-04-01

143

Developing an integrated ecological resource management and monitoring plan as part of an environmental management system  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in defining the appropriate content of an Environmental Management System (EMS) as specified by ISO 14001 prompted a study to determine how ecological concerns should be integrated into an EMS and subsequently implemented. This paper describes an approach for developing objectives, targets, and processes for ecological resource management at those Department of Energy (DOE) facilities where an ecological resource management approach that goes beyond simple regulatory compliance is warranted. A major goal of this approach is to position DOE facilities so that they can proactively address ecological concerns, rather than being forced to respond retroactively to damage claims, restoration requirements, and/or bad publicity. Although DOE is not requiring ISO 14001 implementation at its facilities, it is recommending ISO 14001 as a voluntary approach to encourage good environmental practices, such as pollution prevention and sustainable development, by adopting an integrated systems approach. The DOE position is that existing DOE orders and policy statements are consistent with, and have elements of, the ISO 14001 EMS approach.

Michael, D.; Hooten, M. [Neptune and Co., Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Roy-Harrison, W. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-04-01

144

Unequal exposure to ecological hazards: environmental injustices in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the social and geographic distribution of ecological hazards across 368 communities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Combining census data with a variety of environmental data, we tested for and identified both income-based and racially based biases to the geographic distribution of 17 different types of environmentally hazardous sites and industrial facilities. We also developed a composite measure of cumulative exposure to compare the relative overall risks characteristic of each community. To the best of our knowledge, this point system makes this the first environmental justice study to develop a means for measuring and ranking cumulative exposure for communities. The study also controls for the intensity of hazards in each community by accounting for the area across which hazards are distributed. The findings indicate that ecologically hazardous sites and facilities are disproportionately located and concentrated in communities of color and working-class communities. The implication of this research for policymakers and citizen advocates is that cumulative exposure of residents to environmentally hazardous facilities and sites should receive greater consideration regarding community demographics and environmental health indicators. We conclude that the provision of additional resources for environmental monitoring and ranking, as well as yearly progress reports, is necessary for communities and state agencies to achieve equal access to clean and healthy environments for all residents.

Faber, Daniel R; Krieg, Eric J

2002-01-01

145

Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center index  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the environmental intensities to which energy materials in transit may be exposed, a Data Center of technical environmental information has been established by Sandia National Laboratories, Division 5523, for the DOE Office of Transportation Fuel Storage. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest. Access to the information held is not limited to Sandia personnel. The purpose of the Transportation Technical Environmental Information Center is to collect, analyze, store, and make available descriptions of the environment of transportation expressed in engineering terms. The data stored in the Center are expected to be useful in a variety of transportation related analyses. Formulations of environmental criteria for shipment of cargo, risk assessments, and detailed structural analyses of shipping containers are examples where these data have been applied. For purposes of indexing and data retrieval, the data are catalogued under two major headings: Normal and Abnormal Environments.

Davidson, C. A.; Foley, J. T.

1980-10-01

146

Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Environmental Factors Affecting Necrotizing Enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ?32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula) and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61%) two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3%) 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively) and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.

Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Sharma, Renu; Hudak, Mark Lawrence; Neu, Josef; Mai, Volker

2013-01-01

147

Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

148

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS) FACT SHEET  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the fact sheet is to provide information about the US EPA Office of Research and Developments Environmental Information Management System. The fact sheet indicates the type of records that are in EIMS, systems that are integrated with EIMS as well as some highligh...

149

Generalized bibliographic format as used by the Ecological Sciences Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)\\/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information

L. J. Allison; H. A. Pfuderer; B. N. Collier

1979-01-01

150

Community Ecology and Capacity: Keys to Progressing the Environmental Communication of Wicked Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wicked problems are multifactorial in nature and possess no clear resolution due to numerous community stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate childhood lead poisoning as a wicked problem and illustrate how understanding a community's ecology can build community capacity to affect local environmental management by (1) forming an academic–community partnership and (2) developing a place-specific strategy grounded in the cultural–experiential model of

Rosemary M. Caron; Nancy Serrell

2009-01-01

151

Ecological Thresholds: The Key to Successful Environmental Management or an Important Concept with No Practical Application?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological threshold is the point at which there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or\\u000a where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Analysis of thresholds is complicated\\u000a by nonlinear dynamics and by multiple factor controls that operate at diverse spatial and temporal scales. These complexities\\u000a have challenged the

Peter M. Groffman; Jill S. Baron; Tamara Blett; Arthur J. Gold; Iris Goodman; Lance H. Gunderson; Barbara M. Levinson; Margaret A. Palmer; Hans W. Paerl; Garry D. Peterson; N. LeRoy Poff; David W. Rejeski; James F. Reynolds; Monica G. Turner; Kathleen C. Weathers; John Wiens

2006-01-01

152

Maximum entropy production in environmental and ecological systems  

PubMed Central

The coupled biosphere–atmosphere system entails a vast range of processes at different scales, from ecosystem exchange fluxes of energy, water and carbon to the processes that drive global biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric composition and, ultimately, the planetary energy balance. These processes are generally complex with numerous interactions and feedbacks, and they are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), based on statistical mechanics and information theory, states that thermodynamic processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium will adapt to steady states at which they dissipate energy and produce entropy at the maximum possible rate. This issue focuses on the latest development of applications of MEP to the biosphere–atmosphere system including aspects of the atmospheric circulation, the role of clouds, hydrology, vegetation effects, ecosystem exchange of energy and mass, biogeochemical interactions and the Gaia hypothesis. The examples shown in this special issue demonstrate the potential of MEP to contribute to improved understanding and modelling of the biosphere and the wider Earth system, and also explore limitations and constraints to the application of the MEP principle.

Kleidon, Axel; Malhi, Yadvinder; Cox, Peter M.

2010-01-01

153

A rhetorical approach to environmental information sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`Faceted search' has recently been widely adopted as a powerful information discovery framework, enabling users to navigate a complex landscape of information by successive refinement along key dimensions. The compelling user experience that results has seen adoption of faceted search by online retailers, media outlets, and encyclopedic publishers. A key challenge with faceted browse is the choice of suitable search dimensions, or facets. Conventional facet analysis adopts principles of exclusivity and exhaustiveness; identifying facets on their relevance to the subject and discrimination ability (Spiteri, 1998). The rhetoricians of ancient Greece defined seven dimensions (`circumstances') of analytical enquiry: who, what, when, where, why, in what way, by what means. These provide a broadly applicable framework that may be seen in Ranganathan's classic (`PMEST') scheme for facet analysis. The utility of the `Five Ws' is also manifest through their adoption in daily discourse and pedagogical frameworks. If we apply the `Five Ws' to environmental information, we arrive at a model very close to the `O&M' (ISO 19156) conceptual model for standardised exchange of environmental observation and measurements data: * who: metadata * what: observed property * when: time of observation * where: feature of interest * why: metadata * how: procedure Thus, we adopt an approach for distributed environmental information sharing which factors the architecture into components aligned with the `Five Ws' (or O&M). We give an overview of this architecture and its information classes, components, interfaces and standards. We also describe how it extends the classic SDI architecture to provide additional specific benefit for environmental information. Finally, we offer a perspective on the architecture which may be seen as a `brokering' overlay to environmental information resources, enabling an O&M-conformant view. The approach to be presented is being adopted by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as the basis for a National Environmental Information Infrastructure.

Woolf, Andrew

2014-05-01

154

The relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science: a survey of ecological scientists' attitudes.  

PubMed

This article reports the results ofa survey of 1215 nonstudent Ecological Society of America (ESA) members. The results pertain to three series of questions designed to assess ecologists' engagement in various advocacy activities, as well as attitudes on the relationship between environmental advocacy, values, and science. We also analyzed the effects of age, gender, and employment categories on responses. While many findings are reported, we highlight six here. First, ecologists in our sample do not report particularly high levels of engagement in advocacy activities. Second, ecologists are not an ideologically unified group. Indeed, there are cases of significant disagreement among ecologists regarding advocacy, values, and science. Third, despite some disagreement, ecologists generally believe that values consistent with environmental advocacy are more consonant with ecological pursuits than values based on environmental skepticism. Fourth, compared to males, female ecologists tend to be more supportive of advocacy and less convinced that environmentally oriented values perturb the pursuit of science. Fifth, somewhat paradoxically, ecologists in higher age brackets indicate higher engagement in advocacy activities as well as a higher desire for scientific objectivity. Sixth, compared to ecologists in other employment categories, those in government prefer a greater separation between science and the influences of environmental advocacy and values. PMID:23967588

Reiners, Derek S; Reiners, William A; Lockwood, Jeffrey A

2013-07-01

155

Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.  

PubMed

Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity. PMID:24849380

Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

2014-06-01

156

Integrating information for better environmental decisions.  

SciTech Connect

As more is learned about the complex nature and extent of environmental impacts from progressive human disturbance, scientists, policy analysts, decision makers, educators, and communicators are increasingly joining forces to develop strategies for preserving and protecting the environment. The Eco-Informa Foundation is an educational scientific organization dedicated to promoting the collaborative development and sharing of scientific information. The Foundation participated in a recent international conference on environmental informatics through a special symposium on integrating information for better environmental decisions. Presentations focused on four general themes: (1) remote sensing and data interpretation, including through new knowledge management tools; (2) risk assessment and communication, including for radioactively contaminated facilities, introduced biological hazards, and food safety; (3) community involvement in cleanup projects; and (4) environmental education. The general context for related issues, methods and applications, and results and recommendations from those discussions are highlighted here.

MacDonell, M.; Morgan, K.; Newland, L.; Environmental Assessment; Texas Christian Univ.

2002-01-01

157

Do Interactions Between Gut Ecology and Environmental Chemicals Contribute to Obesity and Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Background: Gut microbiota are important factors in obesity and diabetes, yet little is known about their role in the toxicodynamics of environmental chemicals, including those recently found to be obesogenic and diabetogenic. Objectives: We integrated evidence that independently links gut ecology and environmental chemicals to obesity and diabetes, providing a framework for suggesting how these environmental factors may interact with these diseases, and identified future research needs. Methods: We examined studies with germ-free or antibiotic-treated laboratory animals, and human studies that evaluated how dietary influences and microbial changes affected obesity and diabetes. Strengths and weaknesses of studies evaluating how environmental chemical exposures may affect obesity and diabetes were summarized, and research gaps on how gut ecology may affect the disposition of environmental chemicals were identified. Results: Mounting evidence indicates that gut microbiota composition affects obesity and diabetes, as does exposure to environmental chemicals. The toxicology and pharmacology literature also suggests that interindividual variations in gut microbiota may affect chemical metabolism via direct activation of chemicals, depletion of metabolites needed for biotransformation, alteration of host biotransformation enzyme activities, changes in enterohepatic circulation, altered bioavailability of environmental chemicals and/or antioxidants from food, and alterations in gut motility and barrier function. Conclusions: Variations in gut microbiota are likely to affect human toxicodynamics and increase individual exposure to obesogenic and diabetogenic chemicals. Combating the global obesity and diabetes epidemics requires a multifaceted approach that should include greater emphasis on understanding and controlling the impact of interindividual gut microbe variability on the disposition of environmental chemicals in humans.

Snedeker, Suzanne M.

2011-01-01

158

Where the Wild Things Are: Informal Experience and Ecological Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Category-based induction requires selective use of different relations to guide inferences; this article examines the development of inferences based on ecological relations among living things. Three hundred and forty-six 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children from rural, suburban, and urban communities projected novel "diseases" or "insides" from one…

Coley, John D.

2012-01-01

159

Taking Ecology Overseas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines programs conducted by the Smithsonian Institution and the Peace Corps utilizing college graduates in environmental projects of developing countries. Requests are primarily for personnel in projects concerned with natural resource conservation and ecological research. General information for applicants is given, together with environmental

Jenkins, Dale W.; Poole, Robert K.

1971-01-01

160

EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the World Resources Institute (WRI) with assistance from several sponsors, EarthTrends is an environmental information portal, offering searchable databases, data tables, country profiles, maps, and feature articles in ten topical sections. These include Coastal and Marine Ecosystems, Climate and Atmosphere, Agriculture and Food, and Forests and Grasslands, among others. The databases may be searched by country, region, variable, and year. Data tables and country profiles are provided in .pdf format. This slick-looking and fast-loading site is an excellent source of authoritative environmental information for teachers, students, and interested users.

161

31 CFR 26.5 - Upgrades and additional environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Upgrades and additional environmental information. 26.5 Section 26...Office of the Secretary of the Treasury ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS BY MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT... § 26.5 Upgrades and additional environmental information. (a)...

2013-07-01

162

Environmental information systems based on enterprise resource planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the consequences of the integration of environmental information within enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The state-of-the art of dedicated environmental information systems is briefly discussed. Essentials and peculiarities of environmental information are highlighted. The role of environmental management systems and their relationship with other dedicated management systems is positioned within this field. The need for information following

A. J. D. Lambert; M. H. Jansen; M. A. M. Splinter

2000-01-01

163

Photosynthesis, environmental change, and plant adaptation: Research topics in plant molecular ecology. Summary report of a workshop  

SciTech Connect

As we approach the 21st Century, it is becoming increasingly clear that human activities, primarily related to energy extraction and use, will lead to marked environmental changes at the local, regional, and global levels. The realized and the potential photosynthetic performance of plants is determined by a combination of intrinsic genetic information and extrinsic environmental factors, especially climate. It is essential that the effects of environmental changes on the photosynthetic competence of individual species, communities, and ecosystems be accurately assessed. From October 24 to 26, 1993, a group of scientists specializing in various aspects of plant science met to discuss how our predictive capabilities could be improved by developing a more rational, mechanistic approach to relating photosynthetic processes to environmental factors. A consensus emerged that achieving this goal requires multidisciplinary research efforts that combine tools and techniques of genetics, molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology to understand the principles, mechanisms, and limitations of evolutional adaptation and physiological acclimation of photosynthetic processes. Many of these basic tools and techniques, often developed in other fields of science, already are available but have not been applied in a coherent, coordinated fashion to ecological research. The efforts of this research program are related to the broader efforts to develop more realistic prognostic models to forecast climate change that include photosynthetic responses and feedbacks at the regional and ecosystem levels.

NONE

1995-07-01

164

Ecological performance of electrical consumer products: the influence of automation and information-based measures.  

PubMed

Being concerned with the environmental impact of electrical consumer products, this article examines possibilities of influencing ecological user performance through design features. Furthermore, it looks at the relationship of user characteristics and ecological performance. The impact of level of automation and type of control labelling on ecological user performance was examined in a lab-based experimental scenario with 36 users. In addition to performance indicators, a range of user variables (e.g., self-reported domestic behaviour, environmental knowledge and attitude) was measured to assess their influence on user behaviour. The results showed that low-level automation improved ecological performance whereas no such positive effect was observed for enhanced display-control labelling. Furthermore, the results suggested that the user's mental model of ecological performance was rather limited. No relationship was found between environmental knowledge, attitude and performance. The findings pointed at the strong prevalence of habits in the domestic domain. The implications of the results for designers of consumer products are discussed. PMID:14985139

Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

2004-01-01

165

PRESENTATION ON EPAS ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Information Management System (EIMS), which integrates descriptive information (metadata) and data, is a system to capture, store, manage, and distribute information about environmental resources collected, developed, and used by EPA and its state and regional p...

166

Translating Ecological Risk to Ecosystem Service Loss  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous site management in the US includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), while restoration and compensation decisions are informed by th...

167

Evaluating Course Impact on Student Environmental Values in Undergraduate Ecology with a Novel Survey Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors of this TIEE Research Paper investigated the effect their teaching had on the environmental attitudes and values of undergraduate students. Specifically, they wanted to know if student-active teaching approaches had an effect on attitude changes and whether or not those attitude changes were accompanied by a change in understanding of the underlying ecological principles. They used two survey instruments to assess student attitudes at the beginning and at the completion of a course. They coupled an established survey instrument (New Ecological Paradigm: NEP) with one they developed specifically for the study (Environmental Conflict Overview: ECO) to determine if attitude changes were consistent and to assess specific dimensions of attitude changes. The ECO survey asks students to respond to stakeholder perspectives in specific environmental issues. This study was done at two quite different institutions, which allowed the authors to examine responses of a wide range of students. Results showed consistent changes in attitude with both survey instruments at both schools. The ECO instrument also provided valuable insight into specific aspects of student attitudes that changed most. Results showed a significant reduction in studentsÃÂ anthropocentrism and a reduced emphasis on economic valuation in resolving stakeholder conflicts. Students also demonstrated increased understanding of underlying ecological principles. Quantitative results on the impact of specific student-active teaching methods were equivocal, though free-responses did reveal preference for course topics captured in such activities. The authors suggest that that the combined surveys provide an effective method for assessing changes in student attitudes and therefore can be used as a powerful teaching tool.

Humston, Robert

2010-02-16

168

Environmental control and spatial structure in ecological communities: an example using oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently proposed to use partial canonical ordinations to partition the variation of species abundance data into four additive components: environmental at a local scale, the spatial component of the environmental influence, pure spatial, and an undetermined fraction. By means of an example, we show how to use the information contained in these fractions to provide better insight into

Daniel Borcard; Pierre Legendre

1994-01-01

169

Case Study: Calculating the Ecological Footprint of the 2004 Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) Biennial Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event tourism is accompanied by social, economic and environmental benefits and costs. The assessment of this form of tourism has however largely focused on the social and economic perspectives, while environmental assessments have been bound to a destination-based approach. The application of the Ecological Footprint methodology allows for these…

Rickard, Andrew

2006-01-01

170

Development of a Metric To Test Group Differences in Ecological Knowledge as One Component of Environmental Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that to change an individual's behavior, knowledge about the environment must be associated with environmental sensitivity, personal beliefs, and decision-making and problem solving. Presents a tested, valid survey instrument to measure ecological knowledge, one component of environmental literacy and provides an example of how this…

Morrone, Michele; Mancl, Karen; Carr, Kathleen

2001-01-01

171

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document - Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document (EID) compiles information on the existing environment, or environmental baseline, for SNUNM. Much of the information is drawn from existing reports and databases supplemented by new research and data. The SNL/NM EID, together with the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document, provide a basis for assessing the environment, safety, and health aspects of operating selected facilities at SNL/NM. The environmental baseline provides a record of the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment at SNL/NLM prior to being altered (beneficially or adversely) by proposed programs or projects. More specifically, the EID provides information on the following topics: Geology; Land Use; Hydrology and Water Resources; Air Quality and Meteorology; Ecology; Noise and Vibration; Cultural Resources; Visual Resources; Socioeconomic and Community Services; Transportation; Material Management; Waste Management; and Regulatory Requirements.

BAYLISS, LINDA S.; GUERRERO, JOSEPH V.; JOHNS, WILLIAM H.; KUZIO, KENNETH A.; BAILEY-WHITE, BRENDA E.

1999-09-01

172

Geography of non-melanoma skin cancer and ecological associations with environmental risk factors in England  

PubMed Central

Background: This study investigates the geography of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in England, and ecological associations with three widespread environmental hazards: radon, arsenic and ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Methods: Age-/sex-standardised registration rates of NMSC were mapped for local authority (LA) areas (n=326), along with geographical data on bright sunshine, household radon and arsenic. Associations between NMSC and environmental variables, adjusted for socio-economic confounders, were investigated. Results: There was a substantial geographical variation in NMSC rates across English local authorities and between cancer registration regions. Forty percent of variance in rates was at registry region level and 60% at LA level. No association was observed between environmental arsenic and NMSC rates. Rates were associated with area-mean bright sunshine hours. An association with area-mean radon concentration was suggested, although the strength of statistical evidence was sensitive to model specification. Conclusion: The significant geographical variation across England in NMSC registration rate is likely to be partly, but not wholly, explained by registry differences. Findings tentatively support suggestions that environmental radon may be a risk factor for NMSC. Although NMSC is rarely fatal, it has significant implications for individuals and health services, and further research into NMSC geographical and environmental risk factors is warranted.

Wheeler, B W; Kothencz, G; Pollard, A S

2013-01-01

173

NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatory’s construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20 ecoclimatic Domains. Data will be collected from strategically selected sites within each Domain and synthesized into information products that can be used to describe changes in the nation’s ecosystem through space and time. Sites are arrayed across different land-use types in order to understand large-scale environmental drivers affect biodiversity, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, and disease ecology across the US continent. NEON is an instrument that listens to the pulse of the US continental ecosystem: infrastructure deployed at these sites will collect an average of over 500 primary measurements at each site, including annual high-resolution airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data. These primary measurements will be transformed by a state-of-the-art cyberinfrastruture into over 100 higher-order data products. All measurements, data products, algorithms used to compute the data products, and protocols used to collect the primary measurements will be freely available to the public and assessable over the internet. The information products, including selected socio-economic datasets from cooperating Federal agencies, will be served in standard formats, grid-sizes, and geographical projections. This type of information is anticipated to have a wide range of uses, including ecological forecasting, education, public engagement, socio-economic analyses, decision support for climate-change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, and environmental risk management. Open data, interoperability, an open and integrated observation infrastructure, public engagement, and a deliberate approach to making sure that research data can be repurposed for operational purposes are the cornerstones of the NEON strategy: they facilitate the repurposing of credible, reliable data and information for multiple purposes. Often, the same data is useful in an undergraduate course on correlations as it is for public discourse on the effects of increased precipitation on stream water quality. This suggests a strategy for evolving an ecosystem of institutions whose primary responsibility is contributing to an open information commons that creates and curates credible sources of data and information products with clearly documented provenance, quality protocols, uncertainty estimates, and other qualitative descriptors. This information commons is deliberately designed to be tapped by another ecosystem of institutions whose individual missions revolve around some combination of discovery (e.g. research, forecasting, innovation), learning (e.g. public engagement, informal and formal learning, education research), and solutions (e.g. science and technology policy). This talk explores how the NEON information commons is envisioned to interact with this other community of institutions, and how the cornerstone principles enable that community to better focus their creative capabilities around their respective core missions.

Wee, B.

2010-12-01

174

A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology.\\u000a An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is\\u000a currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to\\u000a the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Miriya Samarakoon; John S. Rowan

2008-01-01

175

Environmental Economy and Special Ecology as Subjects of a Philosophical 'Aufhebung' on an 'Economy of Nature'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is an approach towards the phenomenon of ecology. The almost inexhaustible transport capacity for so-called 'alternative' topics has made 'ecology' a concept of integration of a social movement. According to the author ecology contains the mean...

D. Hassenpflug

1980-01-01

176

Developing standards for environmental toxicants: the need to consider abiotic environmental factors and microbe-mediated ecologic processes.  

PubMed Central

This article suggests and discusses two novel aspects for the formulation of standards for environmental toxicants. First, uniform national standards for each pollutant will be underprotective for some ecosystems and overprotective for others, inasmuch as the toxicity of a pollutant to the indigenous biota is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the recipient environment. As the number of chemicals that need regulation is immense and as microbes appear to respond similarly to pollutant-abiotic factor interactions as do plants and animals, it is suggested that microbial assays be used initially to identify those abiotic factors that most influence the toxicity of specific pollutants. Thereafter, additional studies using plants and animals can focus on these pollutant-abiotic factor interactions, and more meaningful standards can then be formulated more rapidly and inexpensively. Second, it is suggested that the response to pollutants of microbe-mediated ecologic processes be used to quantitate the sensitivity of different ecosystems to various toxicants. Such a quantification, expressed in terms of an "ecological dose 50%" (EcD50), could be easily incorporated into the methodologies currently used to set water quality criteria and would also be applicable to setting criteria for terrestrial ecosystems.

Babich, H; Stotzky, G

1983-01-01

177

Upscaling as ecological information transfer: a simple framework with application to Arctic ecosystem carbon exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferring ecological information across scale often involves spatial aggregation, which alters information content and\\u000a may bias estimates if the scaling process is nonlinear. Here, a potential solution, the preservation of the information content\\u000a of fine-scale measurements, is highlighted using modeled net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of an Arctic tundra landscape as an\\u000a example. The variance of aggregated normalized difference vegetation index

Paul C. Stoy; Mathew Williams; Mathias Disney; Ana Prieto-Blanco; Brian Huntley; Robert Baxter; Philip Lewis

2009-01-01

178

A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Tradeoff on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks Part II: Ecological Networks  

PubMed Central

In ecological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations, as well as environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances, so that the phenotype stability of ecological networks can be maintained, thus guaranteeing phenotype robustness. However, it is difficult to analyze the network robustness of ecological systems because they are complex nonlinear partial differential stochastic systems. This paper develops a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance sensitivity in ecological networks. We found that the phenotype robustness criterion for ecological networks is that if intrinsic robustness + environmental robustness ? network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations and environmental disturbances. These results in robust ecological networks are similar to that in robust gene regulatory networks and evolutionary networks even they have different spatial-time scales.

Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

2013-01-01

179

ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

An international symposium on ecological indicators was developed to explore both the potential of ecological indicators and the issues surrounding their development and implementation. his symposium presented state-of-the-science information on the identification, application re...

180

Towards global environmental information and data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Belmont Forum, a coalition of national science agencies from 13 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to implement a 'Knowledge Hub' community-building and strategy development program as a first step to coordinate and streamline international efforts on community governance, interoperability and system architectures so that environmental data and information can be exchanged internationally and across subject domains easily and efficiently. This initiative represents a first step to build collaboratively an international capacity and e-infrastructure framework to address societally relevant global environmental change challenges. The project will deliver a community-owned strategy and implementation plan, which will prioritize international funding opportunities for Belmont Forum members to build pilots and exemplars in order to accelerate delivery of end-to end global change decision support systems. In 2012, the Belmont Forum held a series of public town hall meetings, and a two-day scoping meeting of scientists and program officers, which concluded that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. Pooling Belmont Forum members' resources to bring communities together for further integration, cooperation, and leveraging of existing initiatives and resources has the potential to develop the e-infrastructure framework necessary to solve pressing environmental problems, and to support the aims of many international data sharing initiatives. The plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum calls for proposals for e-Infrastructures and Data Management. The Belmont Forum is uniquely able to align resources of major national funders to support global environmental change research on specific technical and governance challenges, and the development of focused pilot systems that could be complementary to other initiatives such as GEOSS, ICSU World Data System, and Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of this Belmont Forum Knowledge Hub represents an extraordinary effort to bring together international leaders in interoperability, governance and other fields pertinent to decision-support systems in global environmental change research. It is also addressing related issues such as ensuring a cohort of environmental scientists who can use up-to-date computing techniques for data and information management, and investigating which legal issues need common international attention.

Gurney, Robert; Allison, Lee; Cesar, Roberto; Cossu, Roberto; Dietz, Volkmar; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Koike, Toshio; Mokrane, Mustapha; Peters, Dale; Thaller-Honold, Svetlana; Treloar, Andrew; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Waldmann, Christoph

2014-05-01

181

Hydrogeology and groundwater ecology: Does each inform the other?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The known, perceived and potential relationships between hydrogeology and groundwater ecology are explored, along with the spatial and temporal scale of these relations, the limit of knowledge and areas in need of research. Issues concerned with the subterranean part of the water cycle are considered from the perspective of the biology of those invertebrate animals that live, of necessity, in groundwater and the microbiological milieu essential for their survival. Groundwater ecosystems are placed in a hydrogeological context including the groundwater evolution along a flowpath, the significance of the biodiversity and of the ecosystem services potentially provided. This is considered against a background of three major components essential to the functioning of groundwater ecosystems, each of which can be affected by activities over which hydrogeologists often have control, and each, in turn, may have implications for groundwater management; these are, a place to live, oxygen and food (energy). New techniques and increasing awareness amongst hydrogeologists of the diversity and broad distribution of groundwater ecosystems offer new opportunities to develop cross disciplinary work between hydrogeologists and groundwater ecologists, already demonstrated to be a field for collaboration with broad benefits.

Humphreys, W. F.

2009-02-01

182

Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei  

PubMed Central

Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%–80% of their tissues’ ?13C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei’s food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%–42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2–4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species’ derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

Macho, Gabriele A.

2014-01-01

183

Design and development of ecological and water quality information extraction system based on multi-source image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecology and water quality information monitoring has an important meaning to water and surrounding area. Compared with the traditional monitoring methods, getting water quality and ecological parameters, using remote sensing technology, can not only from the space and time scale extend the monitoring scope, but also greatly reduces the cost of monitoring. This paper mainly studies the design and development of multi-source image ecology and water quality information extraction system. This development method which using C#, Arc Engine and ENVI/IDL mixed model overcome the operation repeatability and calculating complexity, improve the efficiency of the system and provide information support for water environment evaluating and ecological monitoring.

Li, Qing; Pang, Zhiguo; Cao, Daling

184

Advancing an Information Model for Environmental Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational data are fundamental to hydrology and water resources, and the way they are organized, described, and shared either enables or inhibits the analyses that can be performed using the data. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is developing cyberinfrastructure to support hydrologic science by enabling better access to hydrologic data. HIS is composed of three major components. HydroServer is a software stack for publishing time series of hydrologic observations on the Internet as well as geospatial data using standards-based web feature, map, and coverage services. HydroCatalog is a centralized facility that catalogs the data contents of individual HydroServers and enables search across them. HydroDesktop is a client application that interacts with both HydroServer and HydroCatalog to discover, download, visualize, and analyze hydrologic observations published on one or more HydroServers. All three components of HIS are founded upon an information model for hydrologic observations at stationary points that specifies the entities, relationships, constraints, rules, and semantics of the observational data and that supports its data services. Within this information model, observations are described with ancillary information (metadata) about the observations to allow them to be unambiguously interpreted and used, and to provide traceable heritage from raw measurements to useable information. Physical implementations of this information model include the Observations Data Model (ODM) for storing hydrologic observations, Water Markup Language (WaterML) for encoding observations for transmittal over the Internet, the HydroCatalog metadata catalog database, and the HydroDesktop data cache database. The CUAHSI HIS and this information model have now been in use for several years, and have been deployed across many different academic institutions as well as across several national agency data repositories. Additionally, components of the HIS have been modified to support data management for the Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). This paper will present limitations of the existing information model used by the CUAHSI HIS that have been uncovered through its deployment and use, as well as new advances to the information model, including: better representation of both in situ observations from field sensors and observations derived from environmental samples, extensibility in attributes used to describe observations, and observation provenance. These advances have been developed by the HIS team and the broader scientific community and will enable the information model to accommodate and better describe wider classes of environmental observations and to better meet the needs of the hydrologic science and CZO communities.

Horsburgh, J. S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Schreuders, K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.

2011-12-01

185

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public.

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

186

Maximizing colonial waterbirds' breeding events using identified ecological thresholds and environmental flow management.  

PubMed

Global wetland biodiversity loss continues unabated, driven by increased demand for freshwater. A key strategy for conservation management of freshwater systems is to maintain the quantity and quality of the natural water regimes, including the frequency and timing of flows. Formalizing an ecological model depicting the key ecological components and the underlying processes of cause and effect is required for successful conservation management. Models linking hydrology with ecological responses can prove to be an invaluable tool for robust decision-making of environmental flows. Here, we explored alternative water management strategies and identified maximal strategies for successful long-term management of colonial waterbirds in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia. We modeled fluctuations in breeding abundances of 10 colonial waterbird species over the past quarter century (1986-2010). Clear relationships existed between flows and breeding, both in frequencies and total abundances, with a strong linear relationship for flows > 200 GL. Thresholds emerged for triggering breeding events in all 10 species, but these varied among species. Three species displayed a sharp threshold response between 100 GL and 250 GL. These had a breeding probability of 0.5 when flows were > 180 GL and a 0.9 probability of breeding with flows > 350 GL. The remaining species had a probability greater than 0.5 of breeding with flows > 400 GL. Using developed models, we examined the effects of five environmental flow management strategies on the variability of flows and subsequent likelihood of breeding. Management to different target volumes of environmental flows affected overall and specific breeding probabilities. The likelihood of breeding for all 10 colonial waterbirds increased from a regulated historical mean (+/-SD) of 0.36 +/- 0.09 to 0.53 +/- 0.14, an improvement of 47.5% +/- 18.7%. Management of complex ecosystems depends on good understanding of the responses of organisms to the main drivers of change. Considerable opportunity exists for implementing similar frameworks for other ecosystem attributes, following understanding of their responses to the flow regime, achieving a more complete model of the entire ecosystem. PMID:24640540

Bino, Gilad; Steinfeld, Celine; Kingsford, Richard T

2014-01-01

187

Environmental effects of increased coal utilization: ecological effects of gaseous emissions from coal combustion.  

PubMed Central

This report is limited to an evaluation of the ecological and environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of various types which result from coal combustion. It deals with NOx, SOx, fine particulate, photochemical oxidant and acid precipitation as these pollutants affect natural and managed resources and ecosystems. Also, synergistic effects involving two or more pollutants are evaluated as well as ecosystem level effects of gaseous pollutants. There is a brief summary of the effects on materials and atmospheric visibility of increased coal combustion. The economic implications of ecological effects are identified to the extent they can be determined within acceptable limits. Aquatic and terrestrial effects are distinguished where the pollutants in question are clearly problems in both media. At present, acid precipitation is most abundant in the north central and northeastern states. Total SOx and NOx emissions are projected to remain high in these regions while increasing relatively more in the western than in the eastern regions of the country. A variety of ecological processes are affected and altered by air pollution. Such processes include community succession and retrogression, nutrient biogeochemical cycling, photosynthetic activity, primary and secondary productivity, species diversity and community stability. Estimates of the non health-related cost of air pollutants range from several hundred million dollars to $1.7 billion dollars per year. In general, these estimates include only those relatively easily measured considerations such as the known losses to cultivate crops from acute air pollution episodes or the cost of frequent repainting required as a result of air pollution. No substantial nationwide estimates of losses to forest productivity, natural ecosystem productivity which is tapped by domestic grazing animals and wildlife, and other significant dollar losses are available.

Glass, N R

1979-01-01

188

An approach for the application of the Ecological Footprint as environmental indicator in the textile sector.  

PubMed

The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a recent concept which has widely been used as an indicator of environmental sustainability applied to individual lifestyles, regions, nations or even the world. Recently, its application to enterprises has been proposed. In the present study, a textile tailoring plant has been analysed. The overall purpose of this study was to develop a tool useful for evaluating the environmental impact evolution due to the performance of the plant, as well as for comparing the environmental behaviour of different tailoring processes. Therefore, the selected data were those from the manufacturing work. Data were divided in three main categories: energy, resources and waste. The principal contribution to the final EF (expressed in hectares of land) was the resources category, mainly due to the high value associated to the cloth. The consumed energy was the second contributor, while the waste category remained in third place. The final outcomes were divided by the production rates to obtain a comparable relative index, easy to be interpreted by the different stakeholders. This is of special importance for a Company involved in Corporate Social Responsibility and thus meant to have a general communication strategy. PMID:18280032

Herva, M; Franco, A; Ferreiro, S; Alvarez, A; Roca, E

2008-08-15

189

Ecology Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Center for Environmental Studies at Arizona State University was developed as part of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER), but can be used by any classrooms interested in exploring urban ecosystems that surround them. Students and teachers learn about the scientific method and several data collection protocols that they can use right in their schoolyard. The site is attractive and easy to navigate; information is explained clearly and logically. A number of lesson plans for a variety of K-12 age groups will help teachers incorporate activities from this Web site into their classroom.

190

Conflict on the Coast: Using Geographic Information Systems to Map Potential Environmental Disputes in Matagorda Bay, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable management of coastal natural resources inevitably involves identifying stakeholder conflicts and developing planning processes that prevent these conflicts from becoming intractable disputes. This study links environmental conflict to specific areas within a large ecological system. Specifically, we use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map potentially competing stakeholder values associated with establishing protected areas in Matagorda Bay, Texas. By

Samuel D. Brody; Wes Highfield; Sudha Arlikatti; David H. Bierling; Roubabah M. Ismailova; Lai Lee; Rachel Butzler

2004-01-01

191

What Genomic Sequence Information Has Revealed About Vibrio Ecology in the Ocean—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the genomes of eight Vibrio strains representing six species and three human pathogens have been fully sequenced and reported. This review compares genomic\\u000a information revealed from these sequencing efforts and what we can infer about Vibrio biology and ecology from this and related genomic information. The focus of the review is on those attributes that allow\\u000a the Vibrios

Darrell Jay Grimes; Crystal N. Johnson; Kevin S. Dillon; Adrienne R. Flowers; Nicholas F. Noriea; Tracy Berutti

2009-01-01

192

Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) user's manual  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is used to store, manipulate, and retrieve the data that are gathered from many types of samples taken at the Hanford Site. The HEIS provides forms-based data entry, menu-driven user access software, data browsing facilities, and ad hoc querying. A multiwindowing computing environment is supported on the engineering workstation where a geographic information system (GIS) resides. A Sequent S27 UNIX-based multiprocessor computer and ORACLE are used for the central HEIS database. An integrated database, a GIS that allows data to be displayed on a map, and a support graphics capability allow users to generate spatially related visualizations and to perform data extractions for a complete picture of the pertinent data. In addition, the HEIS data can be moved to other software environments for further analysis and assessment. The purpose of the HEIS User's Manual is to describe and explain how to use the HEIS. The manual is intended to meet the needs of two types of user: The manager, engineer, or scientist who used the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning and the operational user, who is responsible for data processing, scheduling, data collection, and quality assurance. 23 refs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

193

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTEIN PROFILE TECHNOLOGY TO EVALUATE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS USING A SMALL FISH MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Hemmer, Michael J., Robert T. Hudson and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Development of Protein Profile Technology to Evaluate Ecological Effects of Environmental Chemicals Using a Small Fish Model (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosyste...

194

Education, Globalization and Sustainable Futures: Struggles Over Educational Aims and Purposes in a Period of Environmental and Ecological Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the advocacy of education for sustainability in a contemporary world driven by the powerful forces of globalization and development. A brief overview of the current ecological crisis in the world is presented, and concerns about environmental degradation, social injustice, and social inequalities are discussed. The vision of…

Farrell, R. V.; Papagiannis, George

195

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

Joanna Burger

2008-01-01

196

Comparison of Two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Species Sensitivity Distribution Methods for Calculating Ecological Risk Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major methods used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to calculate ecological risk criteria using “species sensitivity distributions” (SSD) are compared using identical datasets. One method is the current USEPA Office of Water method for deriving acute numeric water quality criteria (EPA-FAV method). The 95% protection level generated by this method is the Final Acute Value (FAV).

Daniel J. Fisher; Dennis T. Burton

2003-01-01

197

A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

2012-01-01

198

Drivers and Dynamics of Ecological Responses to Abrupt Environmental Change on the Early Miocene Oregon Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We know that the biosphere responds to abrupt climate change, but know less about the dynamics of those changes and their proximal drivers. Studies of well-preserved fossil time-series spanning past climate events that utilize multiple environmental proxies and examine multiple taxonomic groups can provide critical insight into (a) the specific environmental factors to which the biota respond, (b) the rate and tempo of those responses, and (c) whether taxonomic groups respond similarly or differently to the same stresses. I examine the drivers and dynamics of ecological changes in continental shelf benthic foraminifera and molluscs from the Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation in Oregon (20.3-16.3 mya), which spans a time of global warming leading into the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. Stable isotope (?18O) data from three species of benthic foraminifera from the Astoria sediments indicate that the region abruptly warmed by 2-4°C approximately 19 mya. In addition, ?13C values from epifaunal and infaunal foraminifera indicate an increase in productivity and organic carbon flux over time. Further, an increase in ?15N from bulk sediment and an increase in sedimentary laminations suggest oxygen levels declined. Multivariate analyses demonstrate a strong correlation between foraminiferal community metrics and ?15N suggesting that the foraminiferal community is tracking oxygenation levels while correlations to productivity changes appear indirect. Molluscan community metrics also have an approximately linear relationship to ?15N. Temperature itself had little direct influence on community composition. Changes in community composition and structure of both the foraminifera and the molluscs are abrupt relative to the duration of community states, but each group responds differently to the climate change. The foraminiferal community increases in the number of species and the evenness of species abundances while the molluscan community decreases in diversity, evenness, and body size suggesting the molluscs experienced greater stress. This difference in response may be explained by the shorter life cycles of benthic foraminifera and their ability to respond to seasonal changes in upwelling or oxygen stress. On the Oregon shelf in the last decade, low-oxygen conditions have increased in occurrence due to intensified wind-driven upwelling tied to modern warming. Faunal patterns from the Newport Member suggest that the benthic faunas may change in response to oxygenation and be less directly affected by productivity and temperature changes. Taxonomic groups may also to respond differently to the same environmental stresses due to physiological and ecological dissimilarities.

Belanger, C. L.

2012-12-01

199

Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the environment, or to diagnose the cause of an environmental problem. Ideally the suite of indicators should represent key information about structure, function, and composition of the ecological system. Three concerns hamper the use of ecological indicators as a

Virginia H. Dale; Suzanne C. Beyeler

2001-01-01

200

Ecology and the future  

SciTech Connect

Ecologist Eugene P. Odum asserts that public education is an extremely important tool for conveying information on environmental matters. Public participation efforts such as Earth Day are needed to form an environmental ethic in this society. Incentives are needed for promoting land use planning policies and for encouraging energy conservation. The current energy crisis will actually speed the application of ecological principles and the strengthening of ethics. (1 photo)

Not Available

1980-04-01

201

Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

2000-01-01

202

Research on ecological function zoning information system based on WebGIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of information technology, application of WebGIS will make it possible to realize digitization and intellectualization in issuing and managing information of ecological function zoning. Firstly, this paper introduces the fundamental principles, basic methods and current situation of development and various support techniques about WebGIS. Secondly, the paper not only compares and analyzes the above methods but also discusses their applied prospect and feasibility in Web management. Finally, exemplified by Jiaozuo City, the paper puts forward an idea of design and a project of realization about the information system. In this research, the digital map and establishment of map database have been finished by MapInfo. Combining with some technical data of ecological environment of Jiaozuo City, the information of ecological environment resources is collected, stored, analyzed, calculated and displayed in the form of pictures and graphs on the WebGIS platform, which makes use of secondary development flat-MapXtreme for Java and some tools such as Java, JSP and JavaScript. Serve mode is adopted in the system which has realized the operating, inquiring of basic map and working out thematic map. By the finished system, it brings some references.

Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Gang

2007-08-01

203

Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.  

PubMed

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level. PMID:22190169

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-01

204

Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

2012-02-01

205

Ecological assessment of the environmental impacts of the kerosene burning in jet turbines and its improvement assessment.  

PubMed

The burning of kerosene in jet turbines is investigated for two reference flights with a Boeing 747-400 and an Airbus A320-200, representing the typical Lufthansa planes for long and middle distance. The ecological evaluation is performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Formation of condensation trails, which is a specific environmental impact caused by air traffic, has to be considered in addition to established LCA impact categories. Based on the ecological assessment, an improvement assessment is performed. Environmental performance of diesel fuel during the combustion in car engines is analysed based on available publications. The relevant parameters for the environmental impact of the combustion of diesel (aromatics content, reduction of sulphur content, the reduction of the density and raising of the cetane number) are discussed with regard to improvements of the exhaust qualities of kerosene. A reduction of the aromatics content promises to improve the emission of soot which should be further investigated. PMID:19009417

Geldermann, J; Gabriel, R; Rentz, O

1999-01-01

206

Model Predictive Control for Automobile Ecological Driving Using Traffic Signal Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents development of a control system for ecological driving of an automobile. Prediction using traffic signal information is considered to improve the fuel economy. It is assumed that the automobile receives traffic signal information from Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Model predictive control is used to calculate optimal vehicle control inputs using traffic signal information. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed through computer simulation results. It was observed that fuel economy was improved compared with driving of a typical human driving model.

Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kamal, M. A. S.; Mukai, Masakazu; Kawabe, Taketoshi

207

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2013-10-01

208

Office of Environmental Information Should Strengthen Controls Over Mobile Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) received a hotline complaint regarding misuse of mobile devices within the Office of Environmental Information (OEI). We reviewed the effectiveness of OEIs internal controls ...

A. Mariscal A. Sellers-Hansen E. Barnes-Weaver P. Gilbride

2012-01-01

209

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2011-10-01

210

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2010-10-01

211

45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any person who organizes a non-governmental expedition to Antarctica and who does business in the United States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations...

2012-10-01

212

41 CFR 51-7.5 - Environmental information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01...2013-07-01 false Environmental information. 51-7...Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... 7-PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS §...

2013-07-01

213

Diatoms: Powerful Indicators of Environmental Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diatoms are being used increasingly to assess short- and long-term environmental change, because they are informative, versatile, flexible, and powerful ecological indicators. Diatoms respond rapidly to changes in many ecological characteristics. Assembla...

S. S. Dixit J. P. Smol J. C. Kingston D. F. Charles

1992-01-01

214

DIATOMS: POWERFUL INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are being used increasingly to assess short- and long-term environmental change, because they are informative, versatile, flexible, and powerful ecological indicators. iatoms respond rapidly to changes in many ecological characteristics. ssemblages are usually diverse and...

215

National Environmental Change Information System Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference developed by the interagency DIWG. The case study "lessons learned" and "key findings" offer guidelines and considerations to the DMWG for the development and implementation of a NECIS that would support the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level.

Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

2001-01-01

216

Mapping the Information Landscape: Discerning Peaks and Valleys for Ecological Monitoring  

PubMed Central

We investigate previously unreported phenomena that have a potentially significant impact on the design of surveillance monitoring programs for ecological systems. Ecological monitoring practitioners have long recognized that different species are differentially informative of a system’s dynamics, as codified in the well-known concepts of indicator or keystone species. Using a novel combination of analysis techniques from nonlinear dynamics, we describe marked variation among spatial sites in information content with respect to system dynamics in the entire region. We first observed these phenomena in a spatially extended predator–prey model, but we observed strikingly similar features in verified water-level data from a NOAA/NOS Great Lakes monitoring program. We suggest that these features may be widespread and the design of surveillance monitoring programs should reflect knowledge of their existence.

Nichols, J. D.; Nichols, J. M.

2008-01-01

217

Asymmetric information and contract design for payments for environmental services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contractual relationships involving payments for environmental services, conservation buyers know less than landowners know about the costs of contractual compliance. Landowners in such circumstances use their private information as a source of market power to extract informational rents from conservation agents. Reducing informational rents is an important task for buyers of environmental services who wish to maximize the services

Paul J. Ferraro

2008-01-01

218

Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecological Dynamics and Its Association with Freshwater Ecosystems and Aquatic Communities: Results from a 12-Month Environmental Survey in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) is the agent responsible for Buruli Ulcer (BU), an emerging skin disease with dramatic socioeconomic and health outcomes, especially in rural settings. BU emergence and distribution is linked to aquatic ecosystems in tropical and subtropical countries, especially to swampy and flooded areas. Aquatic animal organisms are likely to play a role either as host reservoirs or vectors of the bacilli. However, information on MU ecological dynamics, both in space and time, is dramatically lacking. As a result, the ecology of the disease agent, and consequently its mode of transmission, remains largely unknown, which jeopardizes public health attempts for its control. The objective of this study was to gain insight on MU environmental distribution and colonization of aquatic organisms through time. Methodology/Principal Findings Longitudinal sampling of 32 communities of aquatic macro-invertebrates and vertebrates was conducted from different environments in two BU endemic regions in Cameroon during 12 months. As a result, 238,496 individuals were classified and MU presence was assessed by qPCR in 3,084 sample-pools containing these aquatic organisms. Our study showed a broad distribution of MU in all ecosystems and taxonomic groups, with important regional differences in its occurrence. Colonization dynamics fluctuated along the year, with the highest peaks in August and October. The large variations observed in the colonization dynamics of different taxonomic groups and aquatic ecosystems suggest that the trends shown here are the result of complex ecological processes that need further investigation. Conclusion/Perspectives This is the largest field study on MU ecology to date, providing the first detailed description of its spatio-temporal dynamics in different aquatic ecosystems within BU endemic regions. We argue that coupling this data with fine-scale epidemiological data through statistical and mathematical models will provide a major step forward in the understanding of MU ecology and mode of transmission.

Garchitorena, Andres; Roche, Benjamin; Kamgang, Roger; Ossomba, Joachim; Babonneau, Jeremie; Landier, Jordi; Fontanet, Arnaud; Flahault, Antoine

2014-01-01

219

Effects of critical information saliency on task performance: Application of ecological information augmentation in a cockpit display of traffic information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports the examination, implementation, and evaluation of a case study in Ecological Information Augmentation (EIA). EIA is a heuristic encompassing the method and practice of enhancing the perceptual/cognitive salience of task-critical display information. Three experiments were conducted in which the EIA heuristic was used to identify task-specific, pertinent information in a visual display, augment that information, and compare operator performance before augmentation with performance after augmentation. Specifically a self-navigation task was given to commercial airline pilots. This task involved flying through simulated traffic conflict situations in a flight simulator equipped with two variants of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). One variant contained enhanced time-to-contact information, the other did not. The control variant merely presented simple map views of simulated air traffic surrounding the pilot's own aircraft. The experimental variant was identical except for displaying aircraft traffic symbols color-coded according to their estimated time-to-contact with the pilot's own ship. Experiment One was a between-Ss study designed to facilitate familiarity with the experimental equipment and allow refinement of the research design and data analysis techniques. Multiple measures of aircraft proximity and response time were compared across the two display conditions. Two dependent measures were developed specifically for these studies. Results of Experiment One indicated trends toward superior performance with the augmented CDTL Experiment Two incorporated several research design refinements motivated by the need for increased experimental power. Results of Experiment Two indicated statistically significant superiority for the augmented CDTI in both speed and accuracy based measures. Experiment Three replicated Experiment Two but with non-pilots. This was to check the generalizability of results to non-expert population. Results of Experiment Three indicated that information augmentation had no discernable effect as far as non-expert operators were concerned. Taken together these three experiments provided clear support for the effectiveness of EIA as a human factors heuristic in the design of visual information displays meant for use by expert operators.

Knecht, William Robert

2001-12-01

220

ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical ecological, natural resource, or environmental policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively ...

221

Environmental databases and other computerized information tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing environmental legislation has brought about the development of many new environmental databases and software application packages to aid in the quest for environmental compliance. These databases and software packages are useful tools and applicable to a wide range of environmental areas from atmospheric modeling to materials replacement technology. The great abundance of such products and services can be very overwhelming when trying to identify the tools which best meet specific needs. This paper will discuss the types of environmental databases and software packages available. This discussion will also encompass the affected environmental areas of concern, product capabilities, and hardware requirements for product utilization.

Clark-Ingram, Marceia

1995-01-01

222

Ecological information and water mass properties in the Mediterranean recorded by stable isotope ratios in Pinna nobilis shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sclerochronologic and stable isotope records in Pinna nobilis shells potentially record ecological and oceanographic information. P. nobilis is a subtidal bivalve adapted to live in a variety of environments in the Mediterranean. We hypothesized that stable isotope ratios (?18O and ?13C) and growth increment patterns from individuals living in different environments serve as ecological indicators. Using a new methodology for calcite sampling, we (1) identified annual growth features (nacre tongues) and (2) compared monthly resolved variations in ?18O and ?13C values and calcification temperatures recorded in animals located above and below the thermocline (16 and 30 m depth). The specimens from 16 m showed more negative ?18O values than the specimen from 30 m, likely reflecting differences in salinity. The specimens from 30 m recorded ?13C values less positive than the specimens from 16 m, which we interpreted as an ontogenetic effect observed in previous studies. Estimated calcification temperatures were offset relative to measured water temperature by ˜6.1°C (˜1.4‰). This finding is evident in earlier proxy studies of P. nobilis, although it was not discussed in those studies. Using the seasonal pattern of ?18O and ?13C values, we demonstrated that nacre tongues are deposited annually and that their formation is independent of temperature. Food availability rather than temperature may control nacre tongue formation. An alternative explanation for nacre tongue formation is gonad maturation during spring. Our findings support the idea that sclerochronology in P. nobilis can be used to reconstruct environmental, ecological, and climate archives of the Mediterranean.

GarcíA-March, Jose Rafael; Surge, Donna; Lees, Jonathan M.; Kersting, Diego K.

2011-06-01

223

Environmental flow assessment for improvement of ecological integrity in the Haihe River Basin, China.  

PubMed

The Haihe River Basin is a semiarid water resources area of China. River ecosystem was degraded for high population density and intensive water resources development activities. To assist in the improvement of the ecological integrity of this river ecosystem, an environmental flow assessment model was developed that consider both spatial structure and dominant eco-function parameters. River ecosystem was divided into three sub-ecosystems which including river reach, wetland and estuary based on the spatial structure of river ecosystem. River reach was divided into three types which including habitat restoration type (HR), water quality restoration type (WQR) and vegetation restoration substitute water quantity restoration type (VRSWQR) according to their dominant eco-function. The spatio-temporal distribution of environmental flow (EF) for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin was assessed based on the model. The results indicate that the EF for the river reach, wetland, and estuary are 2.267, 1.532, and 0.972 billion m(3), respectively. The EF for HR type of river reach, the WQR type of river reach and VRSWQR type of river reach are 1.140, 1.138, and 0.154 billion m(3), which are equal to 4.320, 4.312, and 0.584 % of the average annual flow of 26.39 billion m(3), respectively. EF for river ecosystem in wet period (June-September), normal period (October-January) and dry period (February-May) are 2.999, 0.951, and 0.821 billion m(3), respectively. Annual EF for river ecosystem of the Basin are 4.771 billion m(3), which accounts for 18 % of the average annual flows of 26.39 billion m(3). PMID:24648030

Yang, Tao; Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi

2014-05-01

224

Nitrogen isotopic ecology in southern Africa: Implications for environmental and dietary tracing  

SciTech Connect

In order to establish baseline nitrogen isotope data for certain African ecosystems, they have measured the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N of some 300 marine and terrestrial organisms. The majority of these specimens come from the southwestern Cape, and were chosen to represent a cross-section of the foods important in prehistoric diets in the region. {delta}{sup 15}N analyses of 78 Holocene human skeletons from the same area are interpreted in the light of these results. Additional terrestrial animal samples were collected from the northern and eastern Cape and from Botswana and Malawi. They represent a wide range of climatic and environmental zones, from semi-desert to sub-tropical swamps. The patterning in the values for marine organisms is consistent with previously published data; that for terrestrial organisms, however, is more complex than recent studies have indicated. Their data confirm the proposal that animal {delta}{sup 15}N values vary with rainfall: high {delta}{sup 15}N values for herbivores occur in areas receiving less than 400 mm of rain per annum. They critically examine a recently proposed model explaining this phenomenon, and suggest some additional mechanisms which should be considered. In such arid areas, nitrogen isotope ratios cannot be used as marine/terrestrial indicators, but may provide some indication of the trophic level of the food consumed. Dietary studies on human populations can only be undertaken with a thorough appreciation of the isotopic ecology of the relevant foodweb.

Sealy, J.C.; Van Der Merwe, N.J.; Thorp, J.A.L.; Lanham, J.L. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa))

1987-10-01

225

Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements, and Future Outlook  

PubMed Central

Background In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (Fish Toxicogenomics—Moving into Regulation and Monitoring, held 21–23 April 2008 at the Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada). Objectives The consortium from government agencies, academia, and industry addressed three topics: progress in ecotoxicogenomics, regulatory perspectives on roadblocks for practical implementation of toxicogenomics into risk assessment, and dealing with variability in data sets. Discussion Participants noted that examples of successful application of omic technologies have been identified, but critical studies are needed to relate molecular changes to ecological adverse outcome. Participants made recommendations for the management of technical and biological variation. They also stressed the need for enhanced interdisciplinary training and communication as well as considerable investment into the generation and curation of appropriate reference omic data. Conclusions The participants concluded that, although there are hurdles to pass on the road to regulatory acceptance, omics technologies are already useful for elucidating modes of action of toxicants and can contribute to the risk assessment process as part of a weight-of-evidence approach.

Van Aggelen, Graham; Ankley, Gerald T.; Baldwin, William S.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Benson, William H.; Chipman, J. Kevin; Collette, Tim W.; Craft, John A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Embry, Michael R.; Falciani, Francesco; George, Stephen G.; Helbing, Caren C.; Hoekstra, Paul F.; Iguchi, Taisen; Kagami, Yoshi; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kille, Peter; Liu, Li; Lord, Peter G.; McIntyre, Terry; O'Neill, Anne; Osachoff, Heather; Perkins, Ed J.; Santos, Eduarda M.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Snape, Jason R.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Don; Viant, Mark R.; Volz, David C.; Williams, Tim D.; Yu, Lorraine

2010-01-01

226

INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information.

Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

1994-06-01

227

Adding Value to Ecological Risk Assessment with Population Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current measures used to estimate the risks of toxic chemicals are not relevant to the goals of the environmental protection process, and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA) is not used as extensively as it should be as a basis for cost-effective management of environmental resources. Appropriate population models can provide a powerful basis for expressing ecological risks that better inform

Valery E. Forbes; Peter Calow; Volker Grimm; Takehiko I. Hayashi; Tjalling Jager; Agnete Katholm; Annemette Palmqvist; Rob Pastorok; Dan Salvito; Richard Sibly; Julann Spromberg; John Stark; Richard A. Stillman

2011-01-01

228

Geographic information analysis: An ecological approach for the management of wildlife on the forest landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a summary of the project funded by NAGw-1460 as part of the Earth Observation Commericalization/Applications Program (EOCAP) directed by NASA's Earth Science and Applications Division. The goal was to work with several agencies to focus on forest structure and landscape characterizations for wildlife habitat applications. New analysis techniques were used in remote sensing and landscape ecology with geographic information systems (GIS). The development of GIS and the emergence of the discipline of landscape ecology provided us with an opportunity to study forest and wildlife habitat resources from a new perspective. New techniques were developed to measure forest structure across scales from the canopy to the regional level. This paper describes the project team, technical advances, and technology adoption process that was used. Reprints of related refereed journal articles are in the Appendix.

Ripple, William J.

1995-01-01

229

Ecological assessment of the environmental impacts of the kerosene burning in jet turbines and its improvement assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning of kerosene in jet turbines is investigated for two reference flights with a Boeing 747-400 and an Airbus A320-200,\\u000a representing the typical Lufthansa planes for long and middle distance. The ecological evaluation is performed by Life Cycle\\u000a Assessment (LCA). Formation of condensation trails, which is a specific environmental impact caused by air traffic, has to\\u000a be considered in

Jutta Geldermann; Robert Gabriel; Otto Rentz

1999-01-01

230

FACILITATING ACCESS TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE USEPA  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents an approach for the development of an inventory of environmental information for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This approach was developed by the Agencys National Center for Environmental Assessment within the Office of Research and Development...

231

European Metadatabase on Environmental and Health Information Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue presents selected papers from a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) consultation (Munich, West Germany, May 8-10, 1989) which explored the creation of a metadatabase for European environmental health information systems (EEHIS). Topics discussed include environmental monitoring programs, environmental

Information Services and Use, 1990

1990-01-01

232

Campus Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

Federation, National W.

233

Estimating Environmental Drivers for Broad-Scale Ecological Models: Comparing Performance of Modeled Stream Flow and Meteorological Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisheries ecologists are charged with assessing the impact of climate and land use changes on wild fish populations. Their ecological population models require estimates of environmental drivers, stream flow and stream temperature, across broad spatial scales. Observation data is frequently not available at that scale, especially for smaller streams and headwaters that are the habitat for target species. As estimates at a coarse temporal resolution are sufficient for many ecological population models, it is possible to develop regionalized models across the broad spatial scale required with the limited observations available. It may also be possible to use measures of air temperature and precipitation, for which meteorological observations are more readily available, as proxy metrics for stream flow and stream temperature. Since additional sources of model uncertainty are avoided by using the proxy measures, it is important to evaluate whether modeled stream flow provides enough improvement to the ecological models to justify this introduction of uncertainty. We employ wild brook trout occupancy models to evaluate these different environmental inputs. We present a regionalized model for estimating stream flow at the seasonal time-step, and a model of summary statistics. Performance of fish occupancy models using each of these estimates is then compared to the performance of a fish occupancy model using meteorological measures as the environmental driver.

Rosner, A.; Letcher, B. H.; Kanno, Y.

2013-12-01

234

Eco-semiotics: A new field of competence for ecology to overcome the frontier between environmental complexity and human culture in the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean region shows unique environmental and ecological characters. The observed ecological complexity is the result of a long-lasting and intense co- evolutionary process between human and non-human organisms. Most of valuable landscapes at present time are under serious threats from agricultural intensification, land abandonment and forestation, urban sprawl and mass tourism. The urgency of conservation clashes against permanent land

ALMO FARINA; RICCARDO SANTOLINI; GIACOMO PAGLIARO; SILVIA SCOZZAFAVA; ILEANA SCHIPANI

2005-01-01

235

A Daphnia magna feeding bioassay as a cost effective and ecological relevant sublethal toxicity test for Environmental Risk Assessment of toxic effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical products and effluents within EC countries require the use of cost effective standardized toxicity tests that in most cases are restricted to acute responses to high doses. Thus, subtle ecological effects are underestimated. Here we propose a short-term one day Daphnia magna feeding inhibition test as a cost effective and ecological relevant sublethal bioassay. The

C. Barata; P. Alañon; S. Gutierrez-Alonso; M. C. Riva; C. Fernández; J. V. Tarazona

2008-01-01

236

Environmental information for total catchment management: incorporating local knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Catchment Management (TCM) has been implemented in New South Wales to provide a more integrated, participatory' approach to natural resource management. This change in direction poses significant challenges for obtaining and integrating environmental information. This paper examines the adequacy of environmental information in terms of both the participatory turn in government policy and the management imperatives of the integrated,

Peter Martin; Stewart Lockie

1993-01-01

237

APPROACHES OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AUDIT IN ANNUAL REPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accountants and auditors have traditionally not been associated with theconservation or environmental movement. However, as providers of information,reports, and assurance on which business and government decision are frequentlybased, they have increasingly been drawn into the environmental arena. The influenceof accountants and auditors comes from their access to financial and performanceinformation. They analyze report and communicate information on which decisionsare based

Leontina Betianu; Iuliana Georgescu

2008-01-01

238

Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia  

PubMed Central

This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region.

Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

2008-01-01

239

Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was observed. We identified several natural sources of mineral fibers in the study area, including clay-like white soils containing tremolite-actinolite, fibrous antigorite deposits, and veins of chrysotile in peridotite massifs, in addition to multiple serpentinite quarries predominantly containing antigorite. Statistical analyses revealed that the use of serpentinite to pave roads was the greatest risk factor for MM (OR=495.0, 95%CI:46.2-4679.7; multivariate IRR=13.0, 95%CI:10.2-16.6). Other MM risk factors in order of importance were the presence of antigorite, proximity to serpentinite quarries, proximity to peridotite massifs, and presence of chrysotile. Dense vegetation and land slope were protective factors. Whitewash use was not related to MM incidence. Many natural fibrous minerals are not commercially used as asbestos and are therefore not regulated. However, our study demonstrated that non-regulated antigorite fibers are related to cancer, and that soils containing these minerals pose an environmental risk to the population when the fibers are released into the air by weathering or by human activities. Regulation of additional fibrous minerals is therefore suggested.

Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

2013-05-01

240

AQUATOX (Release 2) Modeling Environmental Fate and Ecological Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems. Volume 3: User's Manual for the Basins (Version 3.1) Extension to AQUATOX Release 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AQUATOX is a time-variable ecological risk assessment model that stimulates the fate and effects of various environmental stressors in aquatic ecosystems. It simulates the fate and transfer of pollutants from loads to the water, sediments, and biotic comp...

2004-01-01

241

Environmental effects on mineral accumulation in rice grains and identification of ecological specific QTLs.  

PubMed

Optimizing the beneficial mineral elements in rice grains is of interest for rice breeders. To study the environmental effects on mineral accumulation in rice grains, we grew a double-haploid (DH) population derived from the cross between cultivars Chunjiang 06 (CJ06, a japonica rice) and TN1 (an indica rice) under two different ecological environments (Lingshui and Hangzhou, China) and determined the content of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn in brown rice. These contents show transgressive variation among the DH lines. Subsequently, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mineral accumulation in rice grain were mapped on the chromosomes using CJ06/TN1 population. For the 7 mineral elements investigated, 23 and 9 QTLs were identified for Lingshui and Hangzhou, respectively. Of these, 24 QTLs were reported for the first time in this study and 8 QTLs are consistent with previous reports. Only 2 QTLs for Mg accumulation have been detected in both environments, indicating that mineral accumulation QTLs in rice grains are largely environment dependent. Additionally, co-localizations of QTLs for Mn and Zn, Mg and P, and Mg and Mn accumulation have been observed, implying that these loci might be involved in the accumulation of different elements. Furthermore, the QTLs for the accumulation of Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn were mapped to a region close to each other on chromosomes 8 and 9, suggesting that clusters of genes exist on chromosomes 8 and 9. Further characterization of these QTLs will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for mineral accumulation in rice grains. PMID:22760687

Du, Juan; Zeng, Dali; Wang, Biao; Qian, Qian; Zheng, Shusong; Ling, Hong-Qing

2013-04-01

242

Method and apparatus for environmental setting and information for environmental setting  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A space is set substantially in a tropical rain forest type environment to activate a human's essential brain region and realize an environment suitable for the human's brain by arranging a device for setting the tropical rain forest type environment based on characteristics of activating human's essential brain region responsive to tropical rain forest type environment information, in a space such as an urban space, a housing space or other living space. The tropical rain forest type environmental information has higher density and higher complexity than those of urban space type environmental information, and includes at least one of auditory information, visual information, and super perceptual information of aerial vibration. The tropical rain forest type environmental information is comfortable for the human with no excessive stress, and is environmental information for effecting prevention and treatment of diseases due to stress by realizing the environment comfortable for the human's brain.

2013-05-07

243

Race and Environmental Justice in Buffalo, NY: A ZIP Code and Historical Analysis of Ecological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of toxic release inventories (TRI) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-regulated facilities in Buffalo, NY, fails to show evidence of environmental racism. Environmental racism is the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color communities (Bryant 1995, 6). The data do indicate some evidence of environmental classism, the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on lower income populations.

ERIC J. KRIEG

2005-01-01

244

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

GIS has become a common tool in environmental management and enforcement. Only in the last few years, however, has the technology come into use directly by litigators working on environmental cases. This presentation explores how GIS is being used in law firms to manage and sup...

245

Ecologically informed engineering reduces loss of intertidal biodiversity on artificial shorelines.  

PubMed

Worldwide responses to urbanization, expanding populations and climatic change mean biodiverse habitats are replaced with expensive, but necessary infrastructure. Coastal cities support vast expanses of buildings and roads along the coast or on "reclaimed" land, leading to "armouring" of shorelines with walls, revetments and offshore structures to reduce erosion and flooding. Currently infrastructure is designed to meet engineering and financial criteria, without considering its value as habitat, despite artificial shorelines causing loss of intertidal species and altering ecological natural processes that sustain natural biodiversity. Most research on ameliorating these impacts focus on soft-sediment habitats and larger flora (e.g., restoring marshes, encouraging plants to grow on walls). In response to needs for greater collaboration between ecologists and engineers to create infrastructure to better support biodiversity, we show how such collaborations lead to small-scale and inexpensive ecologically informed engineering which reduces loss of species of algae and animals from rocky shores replaced by walls. Adding experimental novel habitats to walls mimicking rock-pools (e.g., cavities, attaching flowerpots) increased numbers of species by 110% within months, in particular mobile animals most affected by replacing natural shores with walls. These advances provide new insights about melding engineering and ecological knowledge to sustain biodiversity in cities. PMID:21875080

Browne, Mark A; Chapman, M Gee

2011-10-01

246

SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

2014-01-01

247

ASTM standards help corporate real estate executives manage environmental information  

SciTech Connect

The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM; Philadelphia) new environmental due diligence standards assist executives in supporting environmental risk management procedures. ASTM standards help clarify environmental due diligence procedures for real estate transactions. These standards are being accepted by firms nationwide. The transaction screen and the Phase I environmental site assessment comprise the ASTM standards, and incorporate reviews of government environmental databases. The transaction screen, often called a pre-Phase I or Phase Zero, is an information-gathering process consisting of a questionnaire completed by a knowledgeable party, a nontechnical site inspection and a review of government environmental records. A limited historical investigation of fire insurance maps or contact with the local fire marshal, who typically maintains records of leaking USTs, is included. Emphasis on information review helps corporate real estate executives maintain organized information gathering an analysis systems.

Bennett, M.J.; McCarter, B.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CO (United States))

1993-09-01

248

Research and Development for an Operational Information Ecology: The User-System Interface Agent Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The User System Interface Agent (USIA) is a special type of software agent which acts as the "middle man" between a human user and an information processing environment. USIA consists of a group of cooperating agents which are responsible for assisting users in obtaining information processing services intuitively and efficiently. Some of the main features of USIA include: (1) multiple interaction modes and (2) user-specific and stereotype modeling and adaptation. This prototype system provides us with a development platform towards the realization of an operational information ecology. In the first phase of this project we focus on the design and implementation of prototype system of the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). The second face of USIA allows user interaction via a restricted query language as well as through a taxonomy of windows. In third phase the USIA system architecture was revised.

Srivastava, Sadanand; deLamadrid, James

1998-01-01

249

Discovered by chance: The role of incidental information acquisition in an ecological model of information use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of information which is incidentally or accidentally acquired has been neglected in the study of information-seeking behavior. The study reported in this article focused on “incidental information acquisition” as a key concept and investigated the information-seeking behavior of 202 older adults, aged 60 and over, from both metropolitan Melbourne and rural areas in the Australian state of Victoria.

Kirsty Williamson

1998-01-01

250

Environmental Characteristics and Geographic Information System Applications for the Development of Nutrient Thresholds in Oklahoma Streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency has developed nutrient criteria using ecoregions to manage and protect rivers and streams in the United States. Individual states and tribes are encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to modify or improve upon the ecoregion approach. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board uses a dichotomous process that stratifies streams using environmental characteristics such as stream order and stream slope. This process is called the Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter15. The Use Support Assessment Protocols can be used to identify streams threatened by excessive amounts of nutrients, dependant upon a beneficial use designation for each stream. The Use Support Assessment Protocols, subchapter 15 uses nutrient and environmental characteristic thresholds developed from a study conducted in the Netherlands, but the Oklahoma Water Resources Board wants to modify the thresholds to reflect hydrologic and ecological conditions relevant to Oklahoma streams and rivers. Environmental characteristics thought to affect impairment from nutrient concentrations in Oklahoma streams and rivers were determined for 798 water-quality sites in Oklahoma. Nutrient, chlorophyll, water-properties, and location data were retrieved from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STORET database including data from the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, and Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Drainage-basin area, stream order, stream slope, and land-use proportions were determined for each site using a Geographic Information System. The methods, procedures, and data sets used to determine the environmental characteristics are described.

Masoner, Jason R.; Haggard, Brian E.; Rea, Alan

2002-01-01

251

Aquatox (Release 2) Modeling Environmental Fate and Ecological Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems. Volume 2: Technical Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New approaches and tools, including appropriate technical guidance documents, are needed to facilitate ecosystem analyses of watersheds as required by the Clean Water Act. In particular, there is a pressing need for refinement and release of an ecological...

2004-01-01

252

AQUATOX (Release 2) Modeling Environmental Fate and Ecological Effects in Aquatic Ecosystems. Volume 1: User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New approaches and tools, including appropriate technical guidance documents, are needed to facilitate ecosystem analyses of watersheds as required by the Clean Water Act. In particular, there is a pressing need for refinement and release of an ecological...

R. A. Park J. S. Clough M. C. Wellman

2004-01-01

253

Modelling the Ecological Vulnerability to Forest Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems Using Geographic Information Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires represent a major driver of change at the ecosystem and landscape levels in the Mediterranean region. Environmental features and vegetation are key factors to estimate the ecological vulnerability to fire; defined as the degree to which an ecosystem is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of fire (provided a fire occurs). Given the predicted climatic changes for the region, it is urgent to validate spatially explicit tools for assessing this vulnerability in order to support the design of new fire prevention and restoration strategies. This work presents an innovative GIS-based modelling approach to evaluate the ecological vulnerability to fire of an ecosystem, considering its main components (soil and vegetation) and different time scales. The evaluation was structured in three stages: short-term (focussed on soil degradation risk), medium-term (focussed on changes in vegetation), and coupling of the short- and medium-term vulnerabilities. The model was implemented in two regions: Aragón (inland North-eastern Spain) and Valencia (eastern Spain). Maps of the ecological vulnerability to fire were produced at a regional scale. We partially validated the model in a study site combining two complementary approaches that focused on testing the adequacy of model's predictions in three ecosystems, all very common in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Spain: two shrublands and a pine forest. Both approaches were based on the comparison of model's predictions with values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which is considered a good proxy for green biomass. Both methods showed that the model's performance is satisfactory when applied to the three selected vegetation types.

Duguy, Beatriz; Alloza, José Antonio; Baeza, M. Jaime; De la Riva, Juan; Echeverría, Maite; Ibarra, Paloma; Llovet, Juan; Cabello, Fernando Pérez; Rovira, Pere; Vallejo, Ramon V.

2012-12-01

254

Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses  

PubMed Central

Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation strategies relies on understanding the natural cycle of pathogen transmission. This requires consideration of, for example, invertebrate and vertebrate ecology and biology, climatology, land use and habitat change. Collectively, these can be referred to as medical entomology and medical ecology. This article reviews the importance for inclusion of such disciplines when assessing the public health risk from vector-borne zoonoses and summarizes the possible future challenges and driving forces for changes in vector status and vector-borne zoonoses emergence, with a particular focus on a UK and European context.

Medlock, JM; Jameson, LJ

2010-01-01

255

Environmental and Ecology Branch Progress Report, 1974 through 1976. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all projects at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) are evaluated for their potential for causing adverse environmental impact. Environmental studies for other U.S. Army installations include baseli...

A. P. Adams G. L. Choules G. T. Crane F. Faulkner M. Garbett

1978-01-01

256

Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability facilitates the integration of data from multiple credible sources of data, and enables the repurposing of data for use at different geographical scales. Metadata that captures the transformation of data into value-added products ("provenance") lends reproducability and transparency to the entire process. This way, the datasets and model code used to create any product can be examined by other parties. This talk outlines a pathway for transforming environmental data into value-added products by various stakeholders to better inform sustainable agriculture using data from environmental observatories including NEON and LTAR.;

Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

2012-12-01

257

Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies  

PubMed Central

Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease.

Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

2004-01-01

258

30 CFR 783.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General environmental resources information. 783.12 Section 783.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-07-01

259

30 CFR 779.12 - General environmental resources information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General environmental resources information. 779.12 Section 779.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-07-01

260

Molecular ecology meets remote sensing: environmental drivers to population structure of humpback dolphins in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Genetic analyses of population structure can be placed in explicit environmental contexts if appropriate environmental data are available. Here, we use high-coverage and high-resolution oceanographic and genetic sequence data to assess population structure patterns and their potential environmental influences for humpback dolphins in the Western Indian Ocean. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA data from 94 dolphins from the coasts of South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania and Oman, employing frequency-based and maximum-likelihood algorithms to assess population structure and migration patterns. The genetic data were combined with 13 years of remote sensing oceanographic data of variables known to influence cetacean dispersal and population structure. Our analyses show strong and highly significant genetic structure between all putative populations, except for those in South Africa and Mozambique. Interestingly, the oceanographic data display marked environmental heterogeneity between all sampling areas and a degree of overlap between South Africa and Mozambique. Our combined analyses therefore suggest the occurrence of genetically isolated populations of humpback dolphins in areas that are environmentally distinct. This study highlights the utility of molecular tools in combination with high-resolution and high-coverage environmental data to address questions not only pertaining to genetic population structure, but also to relevant ecological processes in marine species.

Mendez, M; Subramaniam, A; Collins, T; Minton, G; Baldwin, R; Berggren, P; Sarnblad, A; Amir, O A; Peddemors, V M; Karczmarski, L; Guissamulo, A; Rosenbaum, H C

2011-01-01

261

Warfare Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho;); Thor Hanson (University of Idaho;)

2008-09-01

262

Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

2014-06-01

263

Environmental audit: III. Improving the management of environmental information for toxic substances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental programs have been commonly driven by a preoccupation with the collection of data in the mistaken belief that data is synonymous with information. The distinction between data (that is, the quantified and qualitative attributes of a particular environment) and information (specifically, data processed so as to focus upon a particular environmental problem) will become far more important to environmental managers. They will increasingly manage their information through use of what has become known as information resource management (IRM) and the attendant use of critical success factors methodology. Environmental managers will thereby move away from concerns about data and specific EDP hardware and applications toward managing information as a valuable agency resource. In applying IRM, they will find it helpful to include a number of planning elements and to resolve early a number of issues critical to its successful use.

Sokolik, Stanley L.; Schaeffer, David J.

1986-05-01

264

Using Bogner and Wiseman's Model of Ecological Values to Measure the Impact of an Earth Education Programme on Children's Environmental Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating the effects of educational programmes on children's environmental perceptions has been hampered by the lack of good theoretical models and valid instruments. In the present study, Bogner and Wiseman's Model of Ecological Values provided a well-developed theoretical model. A validated instrument based on Bogner's Environmental

Johnson, Bruce; Manoli, Constantinos C.

2008-01-01

265

Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues involving regional extrapolations and parameterizations of dynamic land processes within simulation models.

Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

1993-01-01

266

Ecology, Diversity, and Sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book synthesizes existing information on the ecology, diversity, human uses, and research needs of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico. Divided into nine chapters, the volume begins with reviews of the environmental history and human cultures i...

D. M. Finch J. A. Tainter

1995-01-01

267

Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

Noran, Ovidiu

268

The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode assemblages constitute a potential instrument for assessing the quality of submersed, temporarily submersed, and terrestrial soils and for the development of an ecological typology and biomonitoring system. Interpretation of physical or pollution-induced disturbances has hitherto mainly been based on changes in diversity, dominance patterns or percentage of dorylaimids (Adenophorea). The maturity index, based on the nematode fauna, is proposed

Tom Bongers

1990-01-01

269

Energy Policy and Environmental Possibilities: Biofuels and Key Protagonists of Ecological Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While a growing body of research indicates the severe ecological and social costs of biofuel production worldwide, the U.S. government continues to promote the expansion of this fuel sector. Recent congressional testimony regarding the promotion of biofuels via the renewable fuel standard (RFS) offers a strategic research site for sociological…

Holleman, Hannah

2012-01-01

270

WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN TRAJECTORIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGE: A PLANNING ATLAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pacific Northwest Ecosystem Research Consortium, consisting of scientists at EPA-WED, Oregon State University, and the University of Oregon, completed a planning atlas for the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. The atlas describes ecological conditions and human activ...

271

Strategies for enhancing the learning of ecological research methods and statistics by tertiary environmental science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

To undertake rigorous research in biology and ecology, students must be able to pose testable hypotheses, design decisive studies, and analyse results using suitable statistics. Yet, few biology students excel in topics involving statistics and most attempt to evade optional courses in research methods. Over the last few years, we have developed a tertiary-level unit to create a positive, inquiry-based,

D L Panizzon; A J Boulton

2004-01-01

272

Ascribing value to ecological processes: an economic view of environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisions made by individual landowners and public land managers can have a significant impact on the rates of ecological change. Interdisciplinary cooperation is desirable if economists and ecologists are to correctly interpret the impacts of individual choices for landscape management. This paper reports results from two studies of the residents of North Carolina which contrast individual preferences for utilitarian forest

Rex H. Schaberg; Thomas P. Hohnesb; Karen J. Lee; Robert C. Abt

1999-01-01

273

Taoism and Deep Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

1988-01-01

274

An Empirical Examination of the Role of Environmental Accounting Information in Environmental Investment Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment is used to investigate two important factors associated with environmental investment decision-making by managers:\\u000a the regulatory regime in which the firm operates and the nature of environmental information used as a decision aid. Two regulatory\\u000a regimes are examined, a command and control regulatory regime and a voluntary self-regulatory regime. Two accounting systems\\u000a are contrasted, environmental management accounting and

Tapan K. Sarker; Roger L. Burritt

275

U.S. EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM - AN ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. his ...

276

Historical Development of Environmentalism and Recorded Environmental Information in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the history and current status of environmental information (EI) and a bibliography of sources pertaining to the historical development of environmentalism in the United States. Discusses federal government and nongovernmental initiatives, print literature, on-line databases, CD-ROM databases, access to and availability of EI sources. (92…

Ronald, Karen; Nicholls, Paul

1992-01-01

277

Environmental Education in K-12 Curricula. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Information Bulletin No. 2, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1987 the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education (ERIC/SMEAC) conducted a survey of the state education agencies, asking respondents to summarize their perceptions as to how schools include environmental topics in their curricula by responding to a questionnaire. Also requested was information concerning…

Disinger, John F.

278

Strategic plan for Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Information Management  

SciTech Connect

This strategic plan addresses information management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Hanford Site. This Program leads the cleanup of the Hanford Site`s soil, groundwater, buried waste, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities. The vision that drives this strategic plan is to ensure that quality information is available to the people who need it, when they need it, at a convenient location, in a usable form, and at an acceptable cost. Although investments are being made in managing the vast amounts of information, which include data, records and documents associated with the Hanford Site`s production history and new cleanup mission, it is widely recognized that efforts to date have not accomplished the vision. Effective information management involves more than the compilation of massive amounts of electronic and non-electronic information. It also involves integrating information management into business processes that support user`s needs and decisionmaking. Only then can information management complement and enable environmental restoration priorities and practices, help identify environmental restoration requirements, and enable communication within the Environmental Restoration Program and between the Program and its stakeholders. Successfully accomplishing the Hanford Site mission requires an integrated approach to information management that crosses organizational boundaries, streamlines existing systems, and builds new systems that support the needs of the future. This plan outlines that approach.

Cowley, P.J.; Beck, J.E.; Gephart, R.E. [and others

1994-06-01

279

Toxicology information resources at the Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article presents toxicology information resources available to the public from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This includes digital information directly usable or downloadable from their web site, or referrals as to where the resource can be obtained. Contents include advice on effective search strategies, a ‘guided tour’ of the web site and its main categories, and concludes with

Linda Miller Poore; Geffry King; Karen Stefanik

2001-01-01

280

40 CFR 2.310 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information obtained under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...amended. 2.310 Section 2.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION...

2013-07-01

281

Environmental Organisations in New Forms of Political Participation: Ecological Modernisation and the Making of Voluntary Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental organisations have been active since the early 1960s in putting environmental issues on the political agenda and in strengthening the environmental consciousness of the public. The struggle has been successful in the sense that there is now a strong demand for practical solutions among all kinds of actors. It is, however, difficult for states and political actors to manage

Magnus Bostrom

2003-01-01

282

The question concerning ecology: Heidegger's appropriation of Aristotle on the way to an environmental ethic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Martin Heidegger never formulates an explicit environmental ethic, his critique of modern technology and its reduction of nature to a perpetually available resource has attracted the attention of a number of environmental ethicists, most of whom fall into the category of deep ecologists. Acknowledging Heidegger's potential (if implicit) environmentalism, I argue that Heidegger's thought does not lead to an

Craig Anthony Condella

2005-01-01

283

UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: Introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent expansion of the Oil and Gas Industry in to the deep waters of the UK Atlantic Frontier prompted the industry and its regulator to reappraise the needs and means of environmental monitoring. In concert, deep-sea academics, specialist contractors, the regulator and the Industry, through the Atlantic Frontier Environmental Network (AFEN), devised and implemented a large-scale environmental survey of

Brian J. Bett

2001-01-01

284

Campus Ecology: A Guide to Assessing Environmental Quality and Creating Strategies for Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to take the environmental issues and principles currently being studied in the classroom and move them outside the classroom doors into the campus community and the larger world. By making environmental knowledge part and parcel of campus environmental practice, students, faculty, and administrators have an extraordinary…

Smith, April A.; And Others

285

Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins  

SciTech Connect

This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

1987-03-01

286

A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating the Domains of Applicability of Ecological Models and its Implementation in the Ecological Production Function Library - International Society for Ecological Modelling Conference  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of computational ecological models to inform environmental management and policy has proliferated in the past 25 years. These models have become essential tools as linkages and feedbacks between human actions and ecological responses can be complex, and as funds for sampl...

287

DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK AND INFORMATION EXCHANGE (DENIX)  

EPA Science Inventory

DENIX serves as a central platform for the dissemination of environment, safety and occupational health (ESOH) news, policy, and guidance within Department of Defense (DoD) activities worldwide, in support of the national defense mission. DENIX informs ESOH professionals of salie...

288

National Environmental Change Information System Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG) now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Re...

S. J. Goodman R. Ritschard M. G. Estes U. Hatch

2001-01-01

289

THE POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF THE COLONIAS ON THE U.S.- MEXICO BORDER: HUMAN-ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND COMMUNITY RESPONSES IN SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development and population growth along the U.S.-Mexico border have been determined by the natural resources available for the physical and social transformations in this region. A critical political ecology of the U.S.-Mexico border links environmental hazards with the socioeconomic and political aspects that have generated colonia population settlements as locales within the border region's spatialized hierarchies. The political ecological

GUILLERMINA G. NÚÑEZ-MCHIRI

290

Environmental monitoring and ecological risk assessment for pesticide contamination and effects in Lake Pamvotis, northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pesticide residues in water and sediments was conducted as a basis for subsequent ecotoxicological risk assessment for the shallow eutrophic Lake Pamvotis, northwestern Greece. During a one-year study period, atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), simazine, diazinon, malathion, oxamyl, carbofuran, and ethion were detected in water and atrazine, desethylatrazine, diazinon, and s-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) in sediments, all at ppb concentration level. Temporal variation in pesticide concentrations was observed. Highest residue levels for most pesticides in both water and sediment matrices occurred in the May to July period with the exception of atrazine and DEA, which show highest levels in water during the September to November period. The ecological risk associated with pesticide contamination was assessed using two different methods: The toxic unit method, which provides a first indication of the relative contribution of detected pesticides to the total toxicity and a probabilistic approach, and the inverse method of Van Straalen and Denneman, which is used to quantify the ecological risk. The maximum percentage of the ecological risk was 10.3 and 51.8% for water and 17.2 and 70.6% for sediment, based on acute and chronic level, respectively. These results show that pesticides exert a significant pressure on the aquatic system of Lake Pamvotis, especially for the chronic-effect level. Simple quotient methods should be coupled with higher-tier risk assessment, especially if restoration activities on lake ecosystems are to be undertaken for sustainable development. PMID:16117136

Hela, Dimitra G; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Konstantinou, Ioannis K; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

2005-06-01

291

Ecological adaptation as an important factor in environmental flow assessments based on an integrated multi-objective method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multi-objective method for environmental flow assessments was developed that considered adaptation as a pivotal factor affecting how ecosystems respond to hydrological alterations. Responses of habitat area, and the magnitude of those responses as a result of fluctuations in river discharge, were established. The requirements of typical migrated species during pivotal life-stage seasons (e.g. reproduction and juvenile growth) were integrated into the flow-needs assessment. Critical environmental flows for a typical species were defined based on two primary objectives: (1) high level of habitat area and (2) low variability. After integrating the water requirements for various species with the maximum acceptable discharge boundary, appropriate temporal limits of environmental flows for ecosystems were recommended. The method was applied in the Yellow River Estuary in Eastern Shandong province, China. Our data show that, while recommended environmental flows established with ecological adaptation in mind may not necessarily benefit short-term survival of a typical resident organism on a limited temporal or spatial scale, they may encourage long-term, stable biodiversity and ecosystem health. Thus, short-term ecosystem losses are compensated by significant long-term gains.

Sun, T.; Xu, J.; Yang, Z. F.

2012-05-01

292

Environmental mercury release special education rates and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The association between environmentally released mercury, special education and autism rates in Texas was investigated using data,from,the Texas Education,Department,and,the United States Environmental,Protection Agency. A Poisson regression analysis adjusted for school district population size, economic and demographic factors was used. There was a significant increase in the rates of special education,students and,autism,rates associated with increases in environmentally released mercury. On

Raymond F. Palmer; Steven Blanchard; Zachary Stein; David Mandell; Claudia Miller

293

Twenty-five years of ecological recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: review of environmental problems and remedial actions.  

PubMed

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects. PMID:21384273

Loar, James M; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

2011-06-01

294

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

2011-06-01

295

Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody s biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

296

Invasion Ecology (Teacher's Guide)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strange intruders are invading our part of the world, threatening our environment and our economy. These newcomers and their impact on our ecological balance are the focus of Invasion Ecology, a new book that teaches students to investigate the behaviors of nonnative and native species. Studying real-life invaders such as purple loosestrife and Phragmites, students will learn about the links between biology and ecology -- and explore how scientists are fighting these aggressors with biological controls. The Teacher's Edition explains how to guide highly sophisticated inquiry and conduct interactive research. Materials are classroom-ready and include detailed background information as well as sample assessment tasks and rubrics.The companion Student Edition has three sections: � Background on the science of ecology and its place in the control of invasive species � Protocols for practicing methods that scientists use in monitoring invasive species, such as early detection surveys, plot sampling, transect surveys, and decomposition studies � A series of helpful worksheets to guide students through their own interactive research Invasion Ecology is the second volume in the four-part Environmental Inquiry curriculum series, designed to show students how to apply scientific knowledge to solving real-life problems.

Krasny, Marianne E.; Team, The E.

2003-01-01

297

Semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration: an event-related potential study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we aimed to study the semantic association of ecologically unrelated synchronous audio-visual information in cognitive integration. A moving particle, which speed varied, was taken as a visual stimulus, while a simple tone, which frequency varied, was used as an auditory stimulus, both were synchronously presented to subjects in the form of a video. Behavioral results confirmed our

B. Liu; G. Wu; Z. Wang; X. Meng; Q. Wang

2011-01-01

298

An Cloud Approach to Managing Environmental Information (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Environment Research Council in the UK has a long history of managing environmental information. It has had a comprehensive set of data centres for over twenty years, with several with much longer histories. However, users usually want information, and that information involves not only data but also models and interpretation tools. Cloud services allow data, models and tools to be served, potentially seamlessly. A pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory allowed the approach to be tested for several exemplars in hydrology and soils. This approach is now being expanded across the whole environmental domain. This approach is to develop a set of exemplars across the environmental sciences, which will give an understanding of the maturity of different areas of environmental science to adopt this technology. In parallel, a private cloud will be developed to host the exemplars and to test cloud architectures and tools. This will also contain cloud burst capability to a large public cloud to allow for periods of high demand. There is also a shortage of skilled practitioners of these technologies across environmental sciences, so there will be short course training and similar activities. Further, these services must be seamless, and also interoperate internationally, and so a programme on issues of governance and interoperability will be developed through the Belmont Forum, a group of international funding agencies. Exchange of ideas and concepts in the programme will be facilitated via a Knowledge Hub. In the longer term, operational and commercial services using this approach will be developed.

Gurney, R. J.; Jackman, S.; Sharpe, A.

2013-12-01

299

Geographic information system applied to measuring benthic environmental impact with chemical measures on mariculture at Penghu Islet in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is currently grown by marine aquaculture in Taiwan, particularly on Penghu Islet. Although the effect of marine aquaculture on the environment has been the subject of many studies, an understanding of its environmental impact has yet to be attained, and the continuing expansion of cage farming has caused noticeable ecological declines. Nevertheless, useful tools to measure this environmental degradation are scant. The results of this study suggest that the combination of a geographic information system (GIS) with redox potential and sulfide measurements can be used to definitively assess the condition of the benthic environment near cobia aquaculture sites and to help develop environmental monitoring programs. These applications could easily be adopted to assess multiple marine environmental conditions. PMID:19144393

Shih, Yi-Che; Chou, Chiu L; Chiau, Wen-Yan

2009-03-01

300

Virtual Intergovernmental Linkage Through the Environmental Information Exchange Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states have partnered in developing a web-based information sharing initiative that provides state environmental agencies easy access to federal environmental monitoring data and to the environmental data of other states, and gives the EPA access to data from state sources. The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) has established basic data exchange nodes in each of the states. Using multiple regression analysis we investigate the factors that account for the number and development stage of the data exchanges in which the states participate as of 2009. Overall, we find that administrative factors, especially the EPA's grant program, are more important than political or environmental conditions. Participation in the exchanges is important not only as a way to reduce costs for data reporting and communication, but also as a precursor to greater eventual interstate environmental collaboration. Though clear evidence of a transition to collaboration is not yet seen here, there are some indications it may emerge in time.

Mahler, Julianne; Regan, Priscilla M.

2012-01-01

301

Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between environmentally released mercury, special education and autism rates in Texas was investigated using data from the Texas Education Department and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A Poisson regression analysis adjusted for school district population size, economic and demographic factors was used. There was a significant increase in the rates of special education students and autism rates

Raymond F. Palmer; Steven Blanchard; Zachary Stein; David Mandell; Claudia Miller

2006-01-01

302

EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: AN ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the nation's near coastal waters, forests, wetlands, agroecosystems, surface waters, ans arid lands. he program is also intended t...

303

EPA ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: AN ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the nation's near coastal waters, forests, wetlands, agroecosystems, surface waters, and arid lands. he program is also intended t...

304

Integrated Risk Assessment for WFD Ecological Status classification applied to Llobregat river basin (Spain). Part II - Evaluation process applied to five environmental Lines of Evidence.  

PubMed

Many indicators and indices related to a variety of biological, physico-chemical, chemical, and hydromorphological water conditions have been recently developed or adapted by scientists in order to support water managers in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. In this context, the achievement of a comprehensive and reliable Ecological Status classification of water bodies across Europe is hampered by the lack of harmonised procedures for selecting an appropriate set of indicators and integrating heterogeneous information in a flexible way. To this purpose, an Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA)(2) methodology was developed based on the Weight of Evidence approach. This method analyses and combines a set of environmental indicators grouped into five Lines of Evidence (LoE), i.e. Biology, Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology. The whole IRA methodology has been implemented as a specific module into a freeware GIS (Geographic Information System)-based Decision Support System, named MODELKEY DSS. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the four supporting LoE (i.e. Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology), and includes a procedure for a comparison of each indicator with proper thresholds and a subsequent integration process to combine the obtained output with the LoE Biology results in order to provide a single score expressing the Ecological Status classification. The approach supports the identification of the most prominent stressors, which are responsible for the observed alterations in the river basin under investigation. The results provided by the preliminary testing of the IRA methodology through application of the MODELKEY DSS to the Llobregat case study are finally reported and discussed. PMID:21906780

Gottardo, S; Semenzin, E; Giove, S; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; de Zwart, D; Ginebreda, A; von der Ohe, P C; Marcomini, A

2011-10-15

305

Information system for monitoring environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  European legislation stipulates that genetically modified organisms (GMO) have to be monitored to identify potential adverse\\u000a environmental effects. A wealth of different types of monitoring data from various sources including existing environmental\\u000a monitoring programmes is expected to accumulate. This requires an information system to efficiently structure, process and\\u000a evaluate the monitoring data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A structure for an Information

Hauke Reuter; Ulrike Middelhoff; Frieder Graef; Richard Verhoeven; Thomas Batz; Martin Weis; Gunther Schmidt; Winfried Schröder; Broder Breckling

2010-01-01

306

38 CFR 26.9 - Information on and public participation in VA environmental process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Information on and public participation in VA environmental process. 26.9 Section 26.9...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...Information on and public participation in VA environmental process. (a) During the...

2013-07-01

307

Environmental and ecological impacts of water supplement schemes in a heavily polluted estuary.  

PubMed

Water supplement has been used to improve water quality in a heavily polluted river with small base flow. However, its adverse impacts particularly on nearby sensitive ecosystems have not been fully investigated in previous studies. In this paper, using the Shenzhen River estuary in China as a case study, the impacts of two potential water supplement schemes (reclaimed water scheme and seawater scheme) on water quality improvement and salinity alteration of the estuary are studied. The influences of salinity alteration on the dominant mangrove species (Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia candel, and Avicennia marina) are further evaluated by comparing the alteration with the historical salinity data and the optimum salinity range for mangrove growth. The results obtained indicate that the targets of water quality improvement can be achieved by implementing the water supplement schemes with roughly the same flow rates. The salinity under the reclaimed water scheme lies in the range of historical salinity variation, and its average value is close to the optimum salinity for mangrove growth. Under the seawater scheme, however, the salinity in the estuary exceeds the range of historical salinity variation and approaches to the upper bound of the survival salinity of the mangrove species which have a relatively low salt tolerance (e.g. A. corniculatum). Therefore, the seawater scheme has negative ecological consequences, while the reclaimed water scheme has less ecological impact and is recommended in this study. PMID:24333992

Su, Qiong; Qin, Huapeng; Fu, Guangtao

2014-02-15

308

Stable isotopes, ecological integration and environmental change: wolves record atmospheric carbon isotope trend better than tree rings.  

PubMed

Large-scale patterns of isotope ratios are detectable in the tissues of organisms, but the variability in these patterns often obscures detection of environmental trends. We show that plants and animals at lower trophic levels are relatively poor indicators of the temporal trend in atmospheric carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) when compared with animals at higher trophic levels. First, we tested how differences in atmospheric delta13C values were transferred across three trophic levels. Second, we compared contemporary delta13C trends (1961-2004) in atmospheric CO2 to delta13C patterns in a tree species (jack pine, Pinus banksiana), large herbivore (moose, Alces alces) and large carnivore (grey wolf, Canis lupus) from North America. Third, we compared palaeontological (approx. 30000 to 12000 14C years before present) atmospheric CO2 trends to delta13C patterns in a tree species (Pinus flexilis, Juniperus sp.), a megaherbivore (bison, Bison antiquus) and a large carnivore (dire wolf, Canis dirus) from the La Brea tar pits (southern California, USA) and Great Basin (western USA). Contrary to previous expectations, we found that the environmental isotope pattern is better represented with increasing trophic level. Our results indicate that museum specimens of large carnivores would best reflect large-scale spatial and temporal patterns of carbon isotopes in the palaeontological record because top predators can act as ecological integrators of environmental change. PMID:17686730

Bump, Joseph K; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Bada, Jeffrey L; Koch, Paul L; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

2007-10-01

309

An ecological perspective on medical care: environmental, occupational, and public health impacts of medical supply and pharmaceutical chains.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations are increasingly examining the impacts of their facilities and operations on the natural environment, their workers, and the broader community, but the ecological impacts of specific healthcare services provided within these institutions have not been assessed. This paper provides a qualitative assessment of healthcare practices that takes into account the life-cycle impacts of a variety of materials used in typical medical care. We conducted an ethnographic study of three medical inpatient units: a conventional cancer ward, palliative care unit, and a hospice center. Participant observations (73 participants) of healthcare and support staff including physicians, nurses, housekeepers, and administrators were made to inventory materials and document practices used in patient care. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into common practices. We identified three major domains that highlight the cumulative environmental, occupational health, and public health impacts of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals used at our research sites: (1) medical supply procurement; (2) generation, handling, and disposal of medical waste; and (3) pharmaceutical handling and disposal. Impacts discovered through ethnographic inquiry included occupational exposures to chemotherapy and infectious waste, and public health exposures to pharmaceutical waste. This study provides new insight into the environmental, occupational, and public health impacts resulting from medical practices. In many cases, the lack of clear guidance and regulations regarding environmental impacts contributed to elevated harms to the natural environment, workers, and the broader community. PMID:23842665

Vatovec, Christine; Senier, Laura; Bell, Michael

2013-09-01

310

Spatiotemporal information systems in soil and environmental sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with spatiotemporal information systems and their application in soil and environmental sciences. Issues investigated in this work include developments in the space\\/time modelling of natural variations, composite spatiotemporal mapping, and the incorporation of various sources of information into space\\/time analysis. Theoretical models, simulation examples, as well as real-world case studies are discussed. The models can process

George Christakos

1998-01-01

311

Human Ecology and the Metropolitan Environment: Environmental Hazards in Los Angeles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph portrays the social nature of environmental hazards in an American metropolis. It is concerned with air pollution in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The hazard is compared with airplane noise, brush fires, floods, and slides; to indicate th...

M. D. Van Arsdol F. Alexander G. Sabagh

1966-01-01

312

Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example  

EPA Science Inventory

Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

313

Teaching Environmental and Ecological Sciences to Business Students. Exploring Approaches through Student Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two environmental sciences courses for business students, observations were made of student reactions to concept presentation and instructional organization. Most trainees successfully learned to apply two of three knowledge types (theoretical, procedural, practical) to primary concepts. (SK)

Maubrey, Regis

2003-01-01

314

Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.  

PubMed Central

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources.

Maantay, Juliana

2002-01-01

315

Geographic information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research.  

PubMed Central

Advances in geographic information system (GIS) technology, developed by geographers, provide new opportunities for environmental epidemiologists to study associations between environmental exposures and the spatial distribution of disease. A GIS is a powerful computer mapping and analysis technology capable of integrating large quantities of geographic (spatial) data as well as linking geographic with nongeographic data (e.g., demographic information, environmental exposure levels). In this paper we provide an overview of some of the capabilities and limitations of GIS technology; we illustrate, through practical examples, the use of several functions of a GIS including automated address matching, distance functions, buffer analysis, spatial query, and polygon overlay; we discuss methods and limitations of address geocoding, often central to the use of a GIS in environmental epidemiologic research; and we suggest ways to facilitate its use in future studies. Collaborative efforts between epidemiologists, biostatisticians, environmental scientists, GIS specialists, and medical geographers are needed to realize the full potential of GIS technology in environmental health research and may lead to innovative solutions to complex questions. Images p598-a Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E

Vine, M F; Degnan, D; Hanchette, C

1997-01-01

316

Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China  

SciTech Connect

Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

He Jia [State Key Laboratory on Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Bao Cunkuan, E-mail: baock@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shu Tingfei [Kangqiao Industrial Zone Administrative Committee, Pudong, Shanghai 201315 (China); Yun Xiaoxue [State Key Laboratory on Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang Dahe [UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, Shanghai 200092 (China); Brwon, Lex [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University (Australia)

2011-11-15

317

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) Enhancements - 13109  

SciTech Connect

Significant cleanup has been accomplished on the Oak Ridge (OR) site since it was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989, and a final evaluation of Zone 1 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1988 (CERCLA) has been initiated. The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) is the database for storing OR site environmental characterization and monitoring data. Consideration of a final decision under CERCLA prompted several enhancements to OREIS that were designed to provide future users a clear picture of remediation progression across the OR site. The enhancements to OREIS are ongoing and fall into four categories: Geographic Information System Interface; Document Association; Remediation Status; Geo-spatial Data (authors)

Halsey, Patricia J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Salpas, Peter A. [Salpas Consulting, Inc., 106 Claymore Ln, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [Salpas Consulting, Inc., 106 Claymore Ln, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Clark, Phillip A.; Lewis, Larry [Restoration Services, Inc., P.O. Box 5177, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [Restoration Services, Inc., P.O. Box 5177, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tharpe, Deidre

2013-07-01

318

Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)  

SciTech Connect

In the process of performing environmental restoration at the 560-square mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling taking place all over the Site. This paper provides an overview of the lessons we have learned in designing, implementing, and putting into operation a computerized system named the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), which is being used to manage the Site`s environmental characterization sampling data. Topics discussed in this paper include helping the Site adapt to a data management culture, the advantages of electronic data over paper data, issues of data validation and defensibility, being a resource to the user community (including the regulatory community), managing and tracking data changes, integrating data from multiple programs, providing configuration control for data and software, getting priorities for software development, and developing a baseline for on-going funding to maintain the infrastructure for the information system.

Cowley, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwab, M.R.; Fox, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01

319

Perceiving environmental properties from motion information: Minimal conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of motion as a minimal information source for perceiving the environmental properties of surface segregation, three-dimensional (3-D) form, displacement, and dynamics is discussed. The selection of these particular properties was motivated by a desire to present research on perceiving properties that span the range of dimensional complexity.

Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

1989-01-01

320

The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification  

SciTech Connect

We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

2010-10-15

321

INFORMATION INTEGRATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual federal and state investments in the collection, storage, and maintenance of resource and environmental data are enormous (estimated in the range of a few to tens of billions of dollars). espite these investments, the use of information from these databases for societal en...

322

Distributed Information System for Heterogeneous Environmental Data Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the use of a distributed system on an Internet\\/Intranet environment - DISI2E. This system is being applied to environmental data at the Pantanal area in Brazil, as a tool for accessing several different thematic maps, dealing with different scales, gathering information from multiple sources, and enabling the decision process at municipal and regional level to be interactively

Oscar Luiz; Monteiro de Farias; D. Sc; Margareth Simões; Penello Meirelles

323

Motor entropy in response to task demands and environmental information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment tested the hypothesis that human motor adaptation can be represented as the conservation of entropy across the task, organism, and environment. Healthy young individuals generated a submaximal isometric force with the index finger of their dominant hand. Subjects performed this task under different task demands (error tolerance) and environmental information (feedback frequency) conditions. In order to extend previous

S. Lee Hong; Karl M. Newell

2008-01-01

324

Diary of a Dabbler: Ecological Influences on an EFL Teacher's Efforts to Study Japanese Informally  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this diary study, the author draws from journals written over the course of 8 years working as an English instructor at a Japanese university, with the aim of documenting the influences on her desire to invest effort in the self-study of Japanese (what she refers to as the "ecology of effort"). An ecological perspective reveals the…

Casanave, Christine Pearson

2012-01-01

325

Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and potentially beyond. The many different scales involved provide serious challenges to information fusion which need to be researched. Heterogeneity - Natural systems are heterogeneous, that is a system consisting of multiple components each of which may have considerable internal variation. Modelling Earth Systems requires recognition of the inherent complexity. Uncertainty - Understanding the uncertainties within a single information source can be difficult. Understanding the uncertainties across a system of linked models, each drawn from multiple information resources, represents a considerable challenge that must be addressed. The challenges to overcome appear insurmountable to individual research groups; but the potential rewards, in terms of a fuller scientific understanding of Earth Systems, are significant. A major international effort must be mounted to tackle these barriers and enable routine information fusion.

Giles, J. R.

2010-12-01

326

Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated risk assessment that could assist in the EM prioritization efforts. (authors)

Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

2013-07-01

327

The 2-MEV Scale in the United States: A Measure of Children's Environmental Attitudes Based on the Theory of Ecological Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental (2-MEV) Scale questionnaire was developed in Europe to measure adolescents' attitudes and gauge the effectiveness of educational programs. It also formed the basis for the Theory of Ecological Attitudes. In the present four-year study, the 2-MEV Scale was modified for use with 9-12-year-old children in the United States. Initial…

Johnson, Bruce; Manoli, Constantinos C.

2011-01-01

328

Ecological comparison of cellular stress responses among populations - normalizing RT-qPCR values to investigate differential environmental adaptations  

PubMed Central

Background Rising temperatures and other environmental factors influenced by global climate change can cause increased physiological stress for many species and lead to range shifts or regional population extinctions. To advance the understanding of species’ response to change and establish links between individual and ecosystem adaptations, physiological reactions have to be compared between populations living in different environments. Although changes in expression of stress genes are relatively easy to quantify, methods for reliable comparison of the data remain a contentious issue. Using normalization algorithms and further methodological considerations, we compare cellular stress response gene expression levels measured by RT-qPCR after air exposure experiments among different subpopulations of three species of the intertidal limpet Nacella. Results Reference gene assessment algorithms reveal that stable reference genes can differ among investigated populations and / or treatment groups. Normalized expression values point to differential defense strategies to air exposure in the investigated populations, which either employ a pronounced cellular stress response in the inducible Hsp70 forms, or exhibit a comparatively high constitutive expression of Hsps (heat shock proteins) while showing only little response in terms of Hsp induction. Conclusions This study serves as a case study to explore the methodological prerequisites of physiological stress response comparisons among ecologically and phylogenetically different organisms. To improve the reliability of gene expression data and compare the stress responses of subpopulations under potential genetic divergence, reference gene stability algorithms are valuable and necessary tools. As the Hsp70 isoforms have been shown to play different roles in the acute stress responses and increased constitutive defenses of populations in their different habitats, these comparative studies can yield insight into physiological strategies of adaptation to environmental stress and provide hints for the prudent use of the cellular stress response as a biomarker to study environmental stress and stress adaptation of populations under changing environmental conditions.

2013-01-01

329

Phytoplankton Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

330

Governance through information: environmental monitoring from a citizen-consumer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of environmental monitoring and information in governing the environment has changed considerably in recent times. Traditionally, environmental monitoring was geared towards governments and producers; it provided them with the information required to formulate environmental policies and environmental management strategies. More recently, environmental monitoring has come to serve an additional and different function. In line with the increasing popularity

Burg van den S. W. K

2006-01-01

331

Ecology and Pedagogy: On the Educational Implications of Postwar Environmental Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmentalism, an ethical imperative to preserve and protect nature, has become in the last decade a central ethical, political and pedagogic theme. Against this background, this article focuses on the postwar philosophy of the German-Jewish scholar Hans Jonas (1903-93). It points to Jonas's radical theory of pedagogic responsibility, and to…

Hotam, Yotam

2010-01-01

332

USING SOCIAL ECOLOGY TO MEET THE PRODUCTIVE HARMONY INTENT OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the concept of productive harmony, contained in Section 101 of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)1, showing how the term can be conceived and operationalized in ways not available when NEPA was passed in 1970. We make the case that Section 101 contains the policy intent of the law that has been ignored or under-

Kevin Preister; James A. Kent

333

A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for

Andrea Gazzinelli; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Guo-Jing Yang; Boakye A. Boatin; Helmut Kloos

2012-01-01

334

Ecological Condition of the Estuaries of Oregon and Washington: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall quality of estuaries in Oregon and Washington is described in this report using data collected as part of the Western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). In EPA Region 10, Western EMAP is a cooperative effort between the En...

G. Hayslip, H. Lee, L. Edmond, V. Partridge, W. Nelson

2006-01-01

335

Indicators for Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of risk to public health or environmental resources requires competent characterization of stressors and corresponding effects. Because of the complexity of most stressor-response relationships, it is impossible to completely characterize all the variables, so a select set of measurements is made to reflect the most critical components. Such measurements, or indicators, are included in monitoring programs to estimate trend,

William S. Fisher; Laura E. Jackson; Glenn W. Suter; Paul Bertram

2001-01-01

336

Ecology Hall of Fame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site honors the heroes of the environmental movement, the individuals who have had the greatest positive impact. The Ecology Hall of Fame includes people under three categories, General, Living Legends, and Martyrs. Essays, reprints, biographies, and bibliographies are included for the honorees. The Ecology Hall of Fame is a project of EcoTopia/USA (United Services Agency), a California non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting ecological thinking and ecological behavior, especially in Santa Cruz County.

337

Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of practical management solutions.

Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael Cohrs

2014-01-01

338

Fire Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest fires have become a regular summertime occurrence in North America, sparking debate about the proper role of fire on the land. The following websites examine fires and fire ecology in different ecosystems, regions, and time periods. The first site (1), from the USGS-Western Ecological Research Center shares information about fire ecology research in the California shrublands, Sierra Nevada forests, and Mohave and Sonoran deserts. The second site (2) features the Fire Ecology Center at Texas Tech University. The Fire Ecology Center focuses on the role of fire in grassland ecosystems and their website contains information on current research, publications, managing pastures, managing problem plants, and more. The third site (3), from the USGS-Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center contains "an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review." Hosted by Yellowstone National Park, the fourth site (4) addresses wildland fires in Yellowstone. The Park website presents brief sections on Fire Ecology, Fire Monitoring, Prescribed Fire, and Fire Effects -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site, from the Canadian Forest Service, provides information about forest fires in Canada including weekly fire statistics, fire research, daily fire maps, a fire database, and more. Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, the sixth site (6) offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies. The seventh site (7), from DiscoverySchool.com, contains a lesson plan on forest fire ecology for grade levels 9-12. The lesson spans two class periods and the site provides objectives, materials needed, discussion questions, academic standards, and more. The final (8) website, from the Why Files, "examines the role of fire in natural systems, and the role of science in understanding wildfires." The eleven-page website follows a kid-friendly narrative format and includes a bibliography and glossary.

339

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

1993-02-01

340

DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK: OTHER  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1577 Petersen*, D., Barber, L., Dilworth, G, Fiebelkorn, T., McCaffrey, M., Murphy, S., Rudkin, C., Scott, D., and Waterman, J. Delivering Timely Environmental Information to your Community: The Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network. EPA/625/C-01/010. The Te...

341

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2011-10-01

342

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2012-10-01

343

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2010-10-01

344

Environmental exposure to gasoline and leukemia in children and young adults–an ecology study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults, especially acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). A few studies have\\u000a indicated that exposure to gasoline is a cause of childhood leukemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate if environmental\\u000a exposure to benzene from gasoline and car exhaust was associated with leukemia in children and young adults. The exposure\\u000a to gasoline

R. Nordlinder; Bengt Järvholm

1997-01-01

345

Organic Agriculture and Food Production: Ecological, Environmental, Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional agricultural systems should not only produce much greater amounts of food, feed, fibre and energy to meet the\\u000a global needs, but also challenge problems to improve health and social well-being of man, reduce dependence on fossil fuels,\\u000a adapt to climate change and extreme weather, reduce environmental degradation and decline in the quality of soil, water, air\\u000a and land resources

Reza Ghorbani; Alireza Koocheki; Kirsten Brandt; Stephen Wilcockson; Carlo Leifert

346

Environmental patterns and ecological correlates of range size among bromeliad communities of Andean Forests in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic, historical, and autecological factors determining the range sizes of tropical plant species and the distribution\\u000a of endemism are still poorly understood. In this study, the variation of range-size rarity was analyzed among the bromeliad\\u000a communities of 74 forest sites in the Bolivian Andes and adjacent lowlands with respect to 14 environmental factors reflecting\\u000a mostly climatic conditions and to

Michael Kessler; Untere Karspiile

2002-01-01

347

Technical procedures for ecology: Environmental field program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including walkover surveys for threatened, endangered, or candidate species; vegetation classification and mapping; reclamation planning; wetland and floodplain determination and characterization of playas; wildlife habitat mapping methods; mammal sampling; bird survey methods; reptile and amphibian survey methods; preexisting environmental; stress and disturbance studies methods; voucher specimens for plants; and voucher specimens to wildlife. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1987-08-01

348

USING FISHER INFORMATION TO ASSESS THE RISK OF DYNAMIC REGIME CHANGES IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sustainable nature of particular dynamic regimes of ecosystems is an increasingly integral aspect of many ecological, economic, and social decisions. As ecosystems experience perturbations of varying regularity and intensity, they may either remain within the state space neig...

349

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced...

A. F. Meinhold S. Holtzman M. P. DePhillips

1996-01-01

350

Multivariate analyses in microbial ecology  

PubMed Central

Environmental microbiology is undergoing a dramatic revolution due to the increasing accumulation of biological information and contextual environmental parameters. This will not only enable a better identification of diversity patterns, but will also shed more light on the associated environmental conditions, spatial locations, and seasonal fluctuations, which could explain such patterns. Complex ecological questions may now be addressed using multivariate statistical analyses, which represent a vast potential of techniques that are still underexploited. Here, well-established exploratory and hypothesis-driven approaches are reviewed, so as to foster their addition to the microbial ecologist toolbox. Because such tools aim at reducing data set complexity, at identifying major patterns and putative causal factors, they will certainly find many applications in microbial ecology.

Ramette, Alban

2007-01-01

351

Connecting Urban Youth with their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-10-01

352

Experienced and Novice Investors: Does Environmental Information Influence Investment Allocation Decisions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of environmental information on investment decisions. The results are based on an experiment in which groups of investors (varied by experience) were asked to make short- and long-term investment allocation decisions based on financial information and on supplementary environmental information (varied between cases). The results suggest that environmental information disclosure influences investment allocation decisions. The

Claus Holm; Pall Rikhardsson

2008-01-01

353

LaGESI: Laboratory for Global Environmental Science Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Laboratory for Global Environmental Science Information (LaGESI) was launched in conjunction with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory "to increase the use of Earth science data sets to improve our understanding of global and regional environmental science issues." The LaGESI Website offers access to a huge collection of Earth science data (via WWW and FTP), simulations of earth science processes, free desktop visualization software including WebWinds, earth science education activities and modules, and support information (alerts and technical assistance). Online data vary in accessibility, scope, and detail, but include atmosphere (AVIRIS, ATMOS, GENESIS, GCMD), land (AIRSAR, AVIRIS, MASTER, GCMD), and ocean data (AIRSAR, AIRSEA, AVIRIS, MASTRER, NSCAT, PO-DAAC, TOPEX, and GCMD). For any researcher seeking earth science data from the regional to global geographic scale, this is a phenomenal resource and reference tool.

354

Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

Siegel, S. M.

1973-01-01

355

Informational factors in identifying environmental sounds in natural auditory scenes.  

PubMed

In a non-linguistic analog of the "cocktail-party" scenario, informational and contextual factors were found to affect the recognition of everyday environmental sounds embedded in naturalistic auditory scenes. Short environmental sound targets were presented in a dichotic background scene composed of either a single stereo background scene or a composite background scene created by playing different background scenes to the different ears. The side of presentation, time of onset, and number of target sounds were varied across trials to increase the uncertainty for the participant. Half the sounds were contextually congruent with the background sound (i.e., consistent with the meaningful real-world sound environment represented in the auditory scene) and half were incongruent. The presence of a single competing background scene decreased identification accuracy, suggesting an informational masking effect. In tandem, there was a contextual pop-out effect, with contextually incongruent sounds identified more accurately. However, when targets were incongruent with the real-world context of the background scene, informational masking was reduced. Acoustic analyses suggested that this contextual pop-out effect was driven by a mixture of perceptual differences between the target and background, as well as by higher-level cognitive factors. These findings indicate that identification of environmental sounds in naturalistic backgrounds is an active process that requires integrating perceptual, attentional, and cognitive resources. PMID:20000928

Leech, Robert; Gygi, Brian; Aydelott, Jennifer; Dick, Frederic

2009-12-01

356

A Critical Reading of Ecocentrism and Its Meta-Scientific Use of Ecology: Instrumental versus Emancipatory Approaches in Environmental Education and Ecology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the paper is to make a critical reading of ecocentrism and its meta-scientific use of ecology. First, basic assumptions of ecocentrism will be examined, which involve nature's intrinsic value, postmodern and modern positions in ecocentrism, and the subject-object dichotomy under the lenses of ecocentrism. Then, we will discuss…

Hovardas, Tasos

2013-01-01

357

HARMONIZATION OF HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF BAYESIAN UPDATING TECHNIQUES TO INCORPORATE MECHANISTIC INFORMATION ACROSS SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bayesian statistical techniques have proven useful in clinical and environmental epidemiological applications to evaluate and integrate available information, and in regulatory applications such as the National Ambient Air Quality Assessment for Nitrogen Oxides. A recent special...

358

Coral–algal phase shifts on coral reefs: Ecological and environmental aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews coral–algal phase shifts on coral reefs, with particular regard to summarizing the exogenous and endogenous factors in support of a proposed conceptual model, and to identifying critical information gaps. A phase shift occurs on a coral reef when the cover of a substrate by scleractinian corals is reduced in favor of macroalgal dominance, and resilience of

John W. McManus; Johanna F. Polsenberg

2004-01-01

359

Subconscious Environmental Information Perceiving Behavior and its Attenuation in Information-Based Evacuation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evacuation was studied from a classroom by means of experiment and simulation. In the experiments, evacuation with and without visibility was mimicked by requiring the evacuees to wear eye masks or not. The distribution of evacuees' egress times against initial positions and the flow rate at exits were studied. It was found that when masks were used, evacuees' egress strategies were highly dependent on their pre-perceived environmental information in subconsciousness which might affect the egress process. Thus we call this phenomenon the "subconscious environmental information perceiving behavior." In the simulation, a cellular automata model considering the influence of sound information and the subconscious behavior was used to simulate the experiments. Both the experimental and the simulation results show that the sound information plays a more important role in evacuation without visibility than in normal condition, and the pre-perceived environmental information is also very important when people have poor visibility because of the subconscious environmental information perceiving behavior. The simulation results consist with the experimental results well. This study is useful for understanding the human behaviors during emergency evacuation with poor visibility under the guide of sound signal.

Yang, Lizhong; Liu, Shaobo; Rao, Ping; Zhu, Kongjin

2012-07-01

360

Ecological-site based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing management of accelerated soil erosion in rangelands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work explores how soil erosion assessments can be structured in the context of ecological sites and site dynamics to inform systems for managing accelerated soil erosion. We evaluated wind and water erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Our results show that wind and water erosion can be highly variable within and among ecological sites. Plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated states were consistently susceptible to both wind and water erosion. However, grassland plots and plots with a grass-succulent mix had a high indicated susceptibility to wind and water erosion respectively. Vegetation thresholds for controlling erosion are identified that transcend the ecological sites and their respective states. The thresholds define vegetation cover levels at which rapid (exponential) increases in erosion rates begin to occur, suggesting that erosion in the study ecosystem can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is <20% of a site or total ground cover is >50%. Similarly, our results show that erosion can be controlled when the cover of canopy interspaces >50 cm in length reaches ~50%, the cover of canopy interspaces >100 cm in length reaches ~35% or the cover of canopy interspaces >150 cm in length reaches ~20%. This process-based understanding can be applied, along with knowledge of the differential sensitivity of vegetation states, to improve erosion management systems. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of sites to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the natural variability of sites should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds and natural variability of ecological sites will enable improved identification of where and when accelerated soil erosion occurs and the development of practical management solutions.

Webb, N.; Herrick, J.; Duniway, M.

2013-12-01

361

30 CFR 250.1910 - What safety and environmental information is required?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1910 What safety and environmental information is required?...

2013-07-01

362

Combining a Fuzzy Matter-Element Model with a Geographic Information System in Eco-Environmental Sensitivity and Distribution of Land Use Planning  

PubMed Central

Sustainable ecological and environmental development is the basis of regional development. The sensitivity classification of the ecological environment is the premise of its spatial distribution for land use planning. In this paper, a fuzzy matter-element model and factor-overlay method were employed to analyze the ecological sensitivity in Yicheng City. Four ecological indicators, including soil condition,, water condition,, atmospheric conditions and biodiversity were used to classify the ecological sensitivity. The results were categorized into five ranks: insensitive, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive and extremely sensitive zones. The spatial distribution map of environmental sensitivity for land use planning was obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques. The results illustrated that the extremely sensitive and highly sensitive areas accounted for 14.40% and 30.12% of the total area, respectively, while the moderately sensitive and slightly sensitive areas are 25.99% and 29.49%, respectively. The results provide the theoretical foundation for land use planning by categorizing all kinds of land types in Yicheng City.

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xinming; Zhu, Wenjuan

2011-01-01

363

Environmental Education Resource Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for the use of elementary and secondary school teachers, this catalog is designed to provide information about environmental education materials which will aid in classroom presentations and in curriculum development. Subject areas cover conservation and natural resources, ecology and ecosystems, environmental action and survival,…

Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

364

Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice  

PubMed Central

We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents.

Emmett, Edward A.; Desai, Chintan

2011-01-01

365

USER-CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING AND DECISION SUPPORT USING NASA WORLD WIND AND DOE GENIE PRO SOFTWARE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective environmental stewardship requires timely geospatial information about ecology and environment for informed environmental decision support. Unprecedented public access to high resolution imagery from earth-looking sensors via online virtual earth browsers ...

366

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

1992-01-01

367

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

1992-09-01

368

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

369

Designing low-complexity electrical consumer products for ecological use.  

PubMed

This study examined the environmental impact of low-complexity electrical consumer products during their use in a domestic context. In the experimental scenario, 48 users were asked to use a kettle under different conditions. On-product information (OPI), task instruction, and kettle design were employed as independent variables in a mixed multi-factorial design to examine their effects on different parameters of ecological performance (e.g., water and electricity consumption). Measures of user variables (environmental concern, knowledge, domestic habits, environmental control beliefs) were also taken to examine their relationship with performance parameters. The results revealed main effects of ecological task instruction, OPI and (partly) kettle design on ecological user behaviour. Habits, environmental concern and control beliefs were found to be related to performance parameters whereas knowledge was not. The implications of the results for product design are discussed against the background of a strong prevalence of habits and low ecological user motivation. PMID:14559411

Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

2003-11-01

370

Prediction of the environmental fate and aquatic ecological impact of nitrobenzene in the Songhua River using the modified AQUATOX model.  

PubMed

An accidental discharge of nitrobenzene happened in November 2005 in the Songhua River, China. The AQUATOX model was modified and adapted to simulate the time-dependent nitrobenzene distribution in this multimedia aquatic system and its potential ecological impacts. Nitrobenzene concentrations in flowing water, sediment, and biota were predicted. Based on the initial concentrations of nitrobenzene observed in the field during the accidental discharge, that is, 0.167-1.47 mg/L at different river segments, the predicted water concentrations of nitrobenzene would be lower than 0.02 and 0.002 mg/L after twenty days and one month, respectively. Both model prediction and field observation were in good agreement. The predicted nitrobenzene concentrations in sediments and aquatic organisms would be lower than 0.025 and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively, after two months. Among the environmental factors affecting nitrobenzene concentrations in water, inflow water dilution, water temperature, and initial concentration were the most important, by sensitivity analysis. Comparing the perturbed simulation and control simulation, the biomass changes for diatoms and mussel were significantly affected, whereas, no influence on other organisms could be predicted. Therefore the results indicated that nitrobenzene pollution in the Songhua River should have a limited impact on the benthos community. PMID:18814570

Lei, Bingli; Huang, Shengbiao; Qiao, Min; Li, Tianyun; Wang, Zijian

2008-01-01

371

MetaPathways: a modular pipeline for constructing pathway/genome databases from environmental sequence information  

PubMed Central

Background A central challenge to understanding the ecological and biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in natural and human engineered ecosystems is the reconstruction of metabolic interaction networks from environmental sequence information. The dominant paradigm in metabolic reconstruction is to assign functional annotations using BLAST. Functional annotations are then projected onto symbolic representations of metabolism in the form of KEGG pathways or SEED subsystems. Results Here we present MetaPathways, an open source pipeline for pathway inference that uses the PathoLogic algorithm to map functional annotations onto the MetaCyc collection of reactions and pathways, and construct environmental Pathway/Genome Databases (ePGDBs) compatible with the editing and navigation features of Pathway Tools. The pipeline accepts assembled or unassembled nucleotide sequences, performs quality assessment and control, predicts and annotates noncoding genes and open reading frames, and produces inputs to PathoLogic. In addition to constructing ePGDBs, MetaPathways uses MLTreeMap to build phylogenetic trees for selected taxonomic anchor and functional gene markers, converts General Feature Format (GFF) files into concatenated GenBank files for ePGDB construction based on third-party annotations, and generates useful file formats including Sequin files for direct GenBank submission and gene feature tables summarizing annotations, MLTreeMap trees, and ePGDB pathway coverage summaries for statistical comparisons. Conclusions MetaPathways provides users with a modular annotation and analysis pipeline for predicting metabolic interaction networks from environmental sequence information using an alternative to KEGG pathways and SEED subsystems mapping. It is extensible to genomic and transcriptomic datasets from a wide range of sequencing platforms, and generates useful data products for microbial community structure and function analysis. The MetaPathways software package, installation instructions, and example data can be obtained from http://hallam.microbiology.ubc.ca/MetaPathways.

2013-01-01

372

Industrial ecology.  

PubMed

Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

Patel, C K

1992-02-01

373

The impacts of different management strategies and environmental forcing in ecological communities  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effects of population management on the community a target species belongs to is of key importance for successful management. It is known that the removal or extinction of a single species in a community may lead to extinctions of other community members. In our study, we assess the impacts of population management on competitive communities, studying the response of both locally stable and unstable communities of varying size (between four and 10 species) to three different management strategies; harvesting of a target species, harvesting with non-targeted catch, and stocking of the target species. We also studied the consequences of selecting target species with different relative abundances, as well as the effects of varying environmental conditions. We show here how the effects of management in competitive communities extend far beyond the target population. A crucial role is played by the underlying stability properties of the community under management. In general, locally unstable communities are more vulnerable to perturbation through management. Furthermore, the community response is shown to be sensitive to the relative density of the target species. Of considerable interest is the result that even a small (2.5%) increase in the population size of the target species through stocking may lead to extinction of other community members. These results emphasize the importance of considering and understanding multi-species interactions in population management.

Enberg, Katja; Fowler, Mike S; Ranta, Esa

2006-01-01

374

Coastal environmental assessment and management by ecological simulation in Yeoja Bay, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eco-hydrodynamic model was used to estimate the carrying capacity of pollutant loads and response of water quality to environmental change in Yeoja Bay, Korea. An energy-system model also was used to simulate the fluctuation in nutrients and organic matter in the bordering wetland. Most water quality factors showed a pulsed pattern, and the concentrations of nutrients and organic matter of seawater increased when input loads of nutrients increased due to freshwater discharge. The well-developed tidal zones and wetlands in the northern area of the bay were highly sensitive to input loads. Residence times of water, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the bay were estimated to be about 16 days, 43.2 days, and 50.2 days, respectively. Water quality reacted more sensitively to the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus input than to COD. A plan to reduce the present levels of COD and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) by 20-30% and DIN by at least 50% in pollutant loads is needed for satisfying the target water quality criteria. The natural removal rate of nutrients in wetlands by reeds was assessed to be approximately 10%.

Lee, Dae-In; Choi, Jeong-Min; Lee, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Moon-Ock; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Jong-Kyu

2008-12-01

375

Ecology versus Issue Interpretation: The Analysis of Two Different Messages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,500 students in grades 4 through 6 attended two half-day interpretive programs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; one focused on ecological information, the other on environmental issues associated with the site. Each program significantly increased students' knowledge but had little impact on students' environmental attitudes or…

Barrie, Elizabeth; Knapp, Doug

1998-01-01

376

A GIS APPLICATION AND RESOURCE TOOL FOR USE ON STUDIES OF THE LAKE TEXOMA ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations are underway at Lake Texoma to develop tools and information needed to evaluate the transport and attenuation of contaminants and stressors in a lake ecosystem, and link them to observable ecological effects. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), ...

377

Soil infiltration capacity categorisation based on a geo-information synthesis of the valuated soil-ecological units data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After destructive floods that hit the Czech Republic in 1997 and 2002, water resources managers become more interested in the spatial distribution of hydrological, hydrogeological and environmental indicators, among which the soil infiltration capacity is one of the most important. The poster summarises a methodology for interpretation of the Valuated Soil-Ecological Units (BPEJ) data in terms of the infiltration capacity of agricultural soils, in order to delineate areas within which the soil infiltration capacity is homogeneous. The methodology was developed as a partial result within a broader project in which the process of infiltration and various ways of soil infiltration capacity estimation are studied. The task is accomplished with the help of ARC/INFO 8.0.2 geographic information system. The starting point is a vectorised layer of BPEJ polygons the attributes of which are BPEJ codes. The BPEJ code is a five-digit number which contains information about the climatic zone, the main soil unit (HPJ), the soil depth, the content of stones and the terrain slope and exposition. However, the terrain slope information is not accurate enough. It was therefore derived from a digital elevation model, generated from contour lines of a digital map 1:25 000 (DMÚ-25). Each partial criterion derivable from the BPEJ codes (HPJ, depth, stoneness, slope, exposition) was categorised into six classes according to their assumed influence on the soil infiltration capacity. Appropriate weights (from 0 to 5, where 0 denotes non-agricultural lands, 1 means the highest soil infiltration capacity and 5 the lowest) were assigned to each class. Then the coverages defined by particular criteria were overlaid. The output is an ARC/INFO coverage defining relatively homogeneous spatial units. The polygon attribute table of these units contains information about the soil infiltration capacity. The infiltration capacity itself was calculated from the weights assigned to partial criteria. The relative relevance of partial criteria was estimated from a questionnaire answered by several soil scientists. The main soil unit (HPJ) appears to be the most important criterion that decides about the soil infiltration capacity. The method was tested for the Zelivka river basin upstream of the of drinking water supply reservoir Švihov, in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland. The basin is underlain by weathered acid crystalline rocks. The results were compared with outcomes of several other methods of infiltration capacity categorisation, including the use of the Comprehensive Soil Survey maps, hygrogeological maps and surveys, a geostatistical evaluation of soil temperature and soil moisture measurement campaigns, direct infiltration tests and aerial photos in the infra-red, thermal and panchromatic modes. According to this comparison, the method based on the BPEJ data is most suitable and generally applicable because the BPEJ data have already been completely vectorised. However, the method is not applicable in very small catchments where the resolution of both the BPEJ data and the readily available digital elevation models becomes insufficient.

Janglova, R.; Kvitek, T.

2003-04-01

378

An Ecosystem Paradigm for Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of a workshop on the nature of ecosystem ecology as a science. The growing political importance of ecology reflects increasing public interest in environmental values and life support systems. Ecologists are expected to assume int...

P. L. Johnson

1977-01-01

379

A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating the Domains of Applicability of Ecological Models and its Implementation in the Ecological Production Function Library  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of computational ecological models to inform environmental management and policy has proliferated in the past 25 years. These models have become essential tools as linkages and feedbacks between human actions and ecological responses can be complex, and as funds for sampl...

380

Managing environmental information in the age of outsourcing.  

SciTech Connect

As more data gathering, analysis, and tracking tasks are outsourced the need for multiple contractors and military personnel to input, update, access, store, and track Mormation is becoming critical to efficient functioning and managing of environmental projects and programs at military installations. This paper presents two case studies detailing the way two organizations--the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Colorado, and the 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) in Alaska--are managing complex data using web-based technology. RMA is involved in one of the largest environmental cleanup programs in the Department of Defense. As such, large volumes of environmental data and documents must be generates stored, and tracked. Often these documents are prepared by multiple contractors and are reviewed by several parties or groups. To manage environmental information and to ensure that it meets compliance requirements more efficiently, RMA has developed an electronic document tracking and distribution system. This system allows access to up-to-date information, including a detailed review of all pertinent regulatory and other requirements at RMA. The dynamic system includes milestones, review deadlines, submission deadlines, and other requirements for managing the environmental program. The 611 ASG manages more than 30 remote installations in Alaska, many of which are operated by contractor personnel. These installations contain hundreds of buildings that are constantly being modified because of exposure to harsh arctic climates; some of them have been determined to be eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet regulatory requirements for cultural resources management as well as engineering requirements for upkeep of buildings, a database was developed to store and analyze building data. The database has a web-based interface that allows anyone with the correct access codes to input new data, modify existing data, or query the database using a number of standard reports. This system allows the 611 ASG to centrally manage its building information while also permitting installation contractors to update and use data through the Internet from their remote locations.

Perkins, S.; Smith, K.; Whorton, M.; Williams, G.

1999-03-08

381

Ecology of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Albert, Western Uganda: snail distributions, infection with schistosomes and temporal associations with environmental dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lake Albert, an ecological study was conducted, between June 2000 and May 2003, which assessed snail population dynamics,\\u000a parasite infection patterns and interplay of environmental factors upon Biomphalaria. Monthly sampling surveys were conducted at 29 sites monitoring populations of Biomphalaria stanleyi and Biomphalaria sudanica. Altogether, a total of 21,715 B. stanleyi and 8452 B. sudanica were collected during the period. Both species

F. Kazibwe; B. Makanga; C. Rubaire-Akiiki; J. Ouma; C. Kariuki; N. B. Kabatereine; M. Booth; B. J. Vennervald; R. F. Sturrock; J. R. Stothard

2006-01-01

382

Longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages in a large tropical river in southeastern Brazil: evaluating environmental influences and some concepts in river ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate environmental influences on fish distribution and to assess the extent to which concepts in river\\u000a ecology accommodate levels of spatio-temporal heterogeneity of fish assemblages in a 1,080-km long tropical river. A total\\u000a of 25 sites were sampled between November 2002 and March 2003 in two seasons (summer\\/wet versus winter\\/dry). A thermal gradient\\u000a separating the upper

Francisco Gerson Araújo; Benjamin Carvalho Teixeira Pinto; Tatiana Pires Teixeira

2009-01-01

383

Environmental Justice and Information Technologies: Overcoming the Information-Access Paradox in Urban Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies suggest that urban residents in low-income and minority communities are subject to an unequal amount of environmental pollution and inequitable enforcement practices. Projects such as Sustainable Cleveland show that key components of implementing policies are access to Internet-based information and participation community-based…

Kellogg, Wendy A.; Mathur, Anjali

2003-01-01

384

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

385

Ecology, Microbial  

SciTech Connect

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-03-19

386

Ecology, Microbial  

SciTech Connect

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-05-15

387

Ecological recovery after reclamation of toxic spoils left by coal surface mining: Phase 2, An assessment of environmental changes following intensive remedial treatments  

SciTech Connect

This study involves a selected watershed in which surface mining and unsuccessful reclamation efforts in the early 1970's resulted in adverse environmental impacts. Work on the east Tennessee problem mine sought to correct reclamation deficiencies by applying land stabilization treatments and then to evaluate their effectiveness by measuring the degree of recovery of the affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Conditions documented during the mining and reclamation, and those following restorative treatments, provide a measure of ecological recovery. Evaluations on environmental effects cover vegetation, soils, water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, fish, small mammals, birds, and sedimentation.

Zarger, T.G.; Scanlon, D.H.; Nicholson, C.P.; Brown, S.R.; Starnes, L.B.; Harned, W.D.

1987-01-01

388

A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

Wyner, Yael

2013-01-01

389

Environmental Education & Ecology in a Life Science Course for Preservice K-8 Teachers Using Project Wildlife in Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During laboratory sessions devoted to ecology, 182 preservice K-8 teachers participated in a Project Wildlife in Learning Design (WILD) workshop. Participants rated the workshop highly, indicated they would use more inquiry-based activities, and were more interested in teaching ecology following the workshop. Post-test scores indicated an…

Nelson, Allan

2010-01-01

390

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2  

SciTech Connect

The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

1993-02-01

391

The NASA John C. Stennis Environmental Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) presentation, we will present two live demonstrations of a portion of the work being performed in support of environmental operations onsite and NASA-wide. These live demonstrations will showcase the NASA EGIS database through working versions of two software packages available from Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI, Inc.): ArcIMS 3.0 and either ArcView 3.2a or ArcGIS 8.0.2. Using a standard web browser, the ArcIMS demo will allow users to access a project file containing several data layers found in the EGIS database. ArcIMS is configured so that a single computer can be used as the data server and as the user interface, which allows for maximum Internet security because the computer being used will not actually be connected to the World Wide Web. Further, being independent of the Internet, the demo will run at an increased speed. This demo will include several data layers that are specific to Stennis Space Center. The EGIS database demo is a representative portion of the entire EGIS project sent to NASA Headquarters last year. This demo contains data files that are readily available at various government agency Web sites for download. Although these files contain roads, rails, and other infrastructure details, they are generalized and at a small enough scale that they provide only a general idea of each NASA center's surroundings rather than specific details of the area.

Cohan, Tyrus; Grant, Kerry

2002-01-01

392

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

1996-06-01

393

Crossroads of Public Art, Nature and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores how environmental education through ecological art can help students develop creativity, critical thinking, and an arts-informed notion of being a citizen of the world. In illustrating the importance of uncovering the relationship between environmental education and ecological art, the paper examines how this may be used to…

Song, Young Imm Kang

2012-01-01

394

Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by the exchange value of points for grades; and not as legitimate actions of scientifically literate community members motivated by the environmental benefits of a solution. Formative research findings illuminated obstacles for students applying spatial information approaches to solve environmental and land use problems; and identified means to better situate and facilitate students' application of scientific proficiencies in the roles of citizens or practitioners.

Olsen, Timothy Paul

395

Historical Ecology as a Tool for Assessing Landscape Change and Informing Wetland Restoration Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast resources are devoted annually to watershed management and wetland restoration. Historical wetland losses are often cited\\u000a as a motivation for prioritizing ambitious wetland restoration efforts. However, analysis of historical conditions is often\\u000a underutilized in the planning process. In this paper we demonstrate historical ecological analysis of the San Gabriel River\\u000a watershed in southern California. We integrate multiple disparate data

Eric D. Stein; Shawna Dark; Travis Longcore; Robin Grossinger; Nicholas Hall; Michael Beland

2010-01-01

396

Using information theory as a substitute for stepwise regression in ecology and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ecological and behavioral research, drawing reliable conclusions from statistical models with multiple predictors is usually\\u000a difficult if all predictors are simultaneously in the model. The traditional way of handling multiple predictors has been\\u000a the use of threshold-based removal-introduction algorithms, that is, stepwise regression, which currently receives considerable\\u000a criticism. A more recent and increasingly propagated modelling method for multiple predictors

Gergely Hegyi; László Zsolt Garamszegi

2011-01-01

397

The Charles River, Eastern Massachusetts: Scientific Information in Support of Environmental Restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activity has profoundly altered the Charles River and its watershed over the past 375 years. Restoration of environmental quality in the watershed has become a high priority for private- and public-sector organizations across the region. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs worked together to coordinate the efforts of the various organizations. One result of this initiative has been a series of scientific studies that provide critical information concerning some of the major hydrologic and ecological concerns in the watershed. These studies have focused upon: * Streamflows - Limited aquifer storage, growing water demands, and the spread of impervious surfaces are some of the factors exacerbating low summer streamflows in headwater areas of the watershed. Coordinated management of withdrawals, wastewater returns, and stormwater runoff could substantially increase low streamflows in the summer. Innovative approaches to flood control, including preservation of upstream wetland storage capacity and construction of a specially designed dam at the river mouth, have greatly reduced flooding in the lower part of the watershed in recent decades. * Water quality - Since the mid-1990s, the bacterial quality of the Charles River has improved markedly, because discharges from combined sewer overflows and the number of illicit sewer connections to municipal storm drains have been reduced. Improved management of stormwater runoff will likely be required, however, for full attainment of State and Federal water-quality standards. Phosphorus inputs from a variety of sources remain an important water-quality problem. * Fish communities and habitat quality - The Charles River watershed supports a varied fish community of about 20 resident and migratory species. Habitat conditions for fish and other aquatic species have improved in many parts of the river system in recent years. However, serious challenges remain, including the control of nutrients, algae, and invasive plants, mitigation of dam impacts, addressing remaining sources of bacteria to the river, and remediation of contaminated bottom habitat and the nontidal salt wedge in the lower river.

Weiskel, Peter K.

2007-01-01

398

NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: A large-scale study of environmental change in Western North America and its implications for ecological systems and society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in high northern latitudes is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth, resulting in widespread changes in landscape structure and ecosystem function in the Arctic-Boreal Region (ABR). Recognizing its sensitivity, vulnerability and global importance, national- and international-level scientific efforts are now advancing our ability to observe, understand and model the complex, multi-scale processes that drive the ABR's natural and social systems. Long at the edge of our mental map of the world, environmental change in the ABR is increasingly becoming the focus of numerous policy discussions at the highest levels of decision-making. To improve our understanding of environmental change and its impacts in the ABR, the Terrestrial Ecology Program of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning its next major field campaign for Western Canada and Alaska. The field campaign will be based on the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) concept as described in the Revised Executive Summary from the ABoVE Scoping Study Report. The original Scoping Study Report provided the proof-of-concept demonstration of scientific importance and feasibility for this large-scale study. In early 2013, NASA announced the selection of the ABoVE Science Definition Team, which is charged with developing the Concise Experiment Plan for the campaign. Here, we outline the conceptual basis for ABoVE and present the compelling rationale explaining the scientific and societal importance of the study. We present the current status of the planning process, which includes development of the science questions to drive ABoVE research; the study design for the field campaign to address them; and the interagency and international collaborations necessary for implementation. The ABoVE study will focus on 1) developing a fuller understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the ABR, and 2) providing the scientific information required to develop options for societal responses to the impacts of these changes. The field campaign will emphasize research that integrates data collected by airborne and spaceborne sensors with information obtained from field studies and ground-based observations. Other key components of ABoVE research include the process-level analyses, scientific syntheses, and modeling needed for understanding ecosystem responses and societal implications.

Kasischke, E. S.; Hayes, D. J.; Griffith, P. C.; Larson, E. K.; Wickland, D. E.

2013-12-01

399

Critical Issues in the Development of Health Information Systems in Supporting Environmental Health: A Case Study of Ciguatera  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging environmental pressures resulting from climate change and globalization challenge the capacity of health information systems (HIS) in the Pacific to inform future policy and public health interventions. Ciguatera, a globally common marine food-borne illness, is used here to illustrate specific HIS challenges in the Pacific and how these might be overcome proactively to meet the changing surveillance needs resulting from environmental change. Objectives We review and highlight inefficiencies in the reactive nature of existing HIS in the Pacific to collect, collate, and communicate ciguatera fish poisoning data currently used to inform public health intervention. Further, we review the capacity of existing HIS to respond to new data needs associated with shifts in ciguatera disease burden likely to result from coral reef habitat disruption. Discussion Improved knowledge on the ecological drivers of ciguatera prevalence at local and regional levels is needed, combined with enhanced surveillance techniques and data management systems, to capture environmental drivers as well as health outcomes data. Conclusions The capacity of public HIS to detect and prevent future outbreaks is largely dependent on the future development of governance strategies that promote proactive surveillance and health action. Accordingly, we present an innovative framework from which to stimulate scientific debate on how this might be achieved by using existing larger scale data sets and multidisciplinary collaborations.

Goater, Sarah; Derne, Bonnie; Weinstein, Philip

2011-01-01

400

Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication, information, and…

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2010-01-01

401

TENSAS ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

An ecological assessment in the Tensas River Basin, Louisiana, has been completed by the U.S. EPA in partnership with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality and other stakeholder groups. This assessment, conducted using landscape ecology and water quality methods, can...

402

Translational ecology for hydrogeology.  

PubMed

Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. PMID:23837514

Schlesinger, William H

2013-01-01

403

Terrestrial Ecology Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

404

School Yard Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents nine activities for using the school yard to integrate science and environmental studies into curriculum, including observation and collection, as well as construction of nature trails and bird feeders. Activities suggested grew out of Institute of Ecological Studies in SYEFEST (School Yard Ecology for Elementary School Teachers) program.…

Grimes, Katherine

1995-01-01

405

CAREERS IN ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Many non-scientists treat "ecology" and "environmentalism" as roughly interchangeable words, thus the word "ecologist" commonly has come to signify a particular part of the political spectrum. As used in the scientific community and in this presentation, however, ecology is loos...

406

[Ecological footprint and available ecological capacity in Chongqing region].  

PubMed

Based on the statistical data of Chongqing, the ecological footprint of Chongqing was calculated in this paper. The results showed that the per capita ecological footprint was 1.653566 hm2, per capita ecological capacity was 0.280393 hm2, and ecological surplus of deficit was 1.373173 hm2. The per capita ecological footprint was 0.5335 hm2 (47.64%) higher but the per capita ecological capacity was 0.5196 hm2 (64.95%) lower, and the ecological surplus of deficit was about 3.43 times of the average national level. These results showed that the ecological footprint of Chongqing was beyond the available ecological capacity, and its social and economic development was not sustainable. The strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region, such as reducing ecosystem population, increasing public finance income, and controlling environmental pollution, were also put forward. PMID:16252886

Sun, Fan; Mong, Linbing

2005-07-01

407

The Environmental Perceptions and Information Sources of Some Welsh Primary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires were distributed to primary schools across Wales in order to determine sources of environmental information and to consider how year 6 children perceive environmental issues. Television and school were the most commonly used sources of environmental information while the internet was used very little. (Author/SAH)

Moakes, J.; Bond, A. J.

2001-01-01

408

Value Analysis of the Ecological-Economic System in Resource-Dependent Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological-economic system of resource-dependent cities is compound system composed by the ecological system and economic system through certain technical means, environmental media and the process of human labor. It includes energy, material and information transmission. In order to maximize the value of the entire system and achieve the sustainable development of ecological-economic systems, the paper explained the meaning of

Wang Xipo

2010-01-01

409

BETWEEN INSPIRE AND SEIS INITIATIVES: THE FIRST STEPS TOWARD AN INTEROPERABLE ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian Environmental Information and Monitoring System (SINA) is a nationwide cooperating network among the main environmental institutions involved in data collection and management processes. Since 2001, the network has involved all the environmental authorities from local to national level to ensure mandatory environmental data provisions and reporting as expected by European directives. Resembling the EEA\\/EIOnet model, SINAnet is composed

C. Maricchiolo; M. Munafò; G. Turco; G. Amadore; E. Sarzotti; A. Navarretta

410

The development of land reclamation and ecological restoration information system in mine area -a case study of pingshuo opencast mine area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the research of large-scale opencast coal mine land reclamation and ecological restoration, the processed data has many types, and the amount of information is huge, while the data attribute and topology relationship are complicated, and the information with large temporal and spatial changes is involved with lots of structural and nonstructural problems. Taking PingShuo opencast mine area as a

Huading Shi; Su Li; Zhongke Bai

2005-01-01

411

The Soil Degradation Subsystem of the Hungarian Environmental Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regular data collection on the state of agricultural soils has not been in operation in Hungary for more than two decades. In the meantime, mainly thanks to the Hungarian Soil Strategy and the planned Soil Framework Directive, the demand for the information on state of Hungarian soils and the follow up of the harmful changes in their conditions and functioning has greatly increased. In 2010 the establishment of a new national soil monitoring system was supported by the Environment and Energy Operational Programme for Informatics Development. The aim of the project was to collect, manage, analyse and publish soil data related to the state of soils and the environmental stresses attributed to the pressures due to agriculture; setting up an appropriate information system in order to fulfil the directives of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. Further objective was the web-based publication of soil data as well as information to support the related public service mission and to inform publicity. The developed information system operates as the Soil Degradation Subsystem of the National Environmental Information System being compatible with its other elements. A suitable representative sampling method was elaborated. The representativity is meant for soil associations, landuse, agricultural practices and typical degradation processes. Soil data were collected on county levels led by regional representatives but altogether they are representative for the whole territory of Hungary. During the project, about 700,000 elementary data were generated, close to 2,000 parcels of 285 farms were surveyed resulting more than 9,000 analysis, 7,000 samples and 28,000 pictures. The overall number of the recorded parcels is 4500, with a total area of about 250,000 hectares. The effect of agricultural land use on soils manifests in rapid changes -related to natural processes- in qualitative and quantitative soil parameters. In intensively used agricultural areas, particularly because of inappropriate land use and agricultural practice soil degradation occurs. To detect the soil degradation processes, and determine their type and degree, soil condition indicators were defined, which are based on analysis of the different soil state variables. In addition to state, also load indicators were defined based on the recorded data, for the determination of the type and level of loads in connection with the agro-technical elements of the agricultural cultivation. The indication models for determining the load indicators were quantified based on the relationship of the collected load parameters. The indication models as analytical queries were built into the TERRADEGRA system. Thus with the expansion and temporal repetition of the load- and status data an increasingly accurate picture of the environmental status of our soils can be drawn. Based on the built-in queries pilot data analysis were performed, whose results are available through a public web query-graphic surface (http://okir-tdr.helion.hu/). The web publication visualizes the load indicators related to agro-technical elements, the physical, chemical and biological degradation indicators of the identified human induced soil degradation processes as well as the load-state relationships using photos, thematic maps, diagrams and textual explanations.

Szabó, József; Pirkó, Béla; Szabóné Kele, Gabriella; Dombos, Miklós; László, Péter; Koós, Sándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Laborczi, Annamária; Pásztor, László

2013-04-01

412

Spatial distribution of ecological security status assessment of West-Liaohe River based on geographic information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eco-security assessment is a hot research area in resource and environmental science, which involves data with much spatial,\\u000a non-linear, and random features. Geographic information system (GIS), as a useful tool to analyze and manage spatial information,\\u000a has a superior advantage in this field. A case study in the western part of the Liaohe River featuring a method of eco-security\\u000a spatial

Geng Wang; Wei Wu

2007-01-01

413

Center for Applied Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Kentucky, the Center for Applied Ecology at Northern Kentucky University provides professional environmental services to University and local community, as well as courses. Read about the staff and their responsibilities.

Ecology, Center F.

414

Environmental and ecological conditions surrounding the production of large year classes of walleye (Sander vitreus) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Saginaw Bay walleye population (Sander vitreus) has not fully recovered from a collapse that began in the 1940s and has been dependent on stocking with only limited natural reproduction. Beginning in 2003, and through at least 2005, reproductive success of walleye surged to unprecedented levels. The increase was concurrent with ecological changes in Lake Huron and we sought to quantitatively model which factors most influenced this new dynamic. We developed Ricker stock-recruitment models for both wild and stock fish and evaluated them with second-order Akaike's information criterion to find the best model. Independent variables included adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, spring water temperatures, chlorophyll a levels and total phosphorus levels. In all, 14 models were evaluated for production of wild age-0 walleyes and eight models for stocked age-0 walleyes. For wild walleyes, adult alewife abundance was the dominant factor, accounting for 58% of the variability in age-0 abundance. Production of wild age-0 fish increased when adult alewives were scarce. The only other plausible factor was spring water temperature. Predictably, alewife abundance was not important to stocked fish; instead temperature and adult walleye abundance were more significant variables. The surge in reproductive success for walleyes during 2003-2005 was most likely due to large declines in adult alewives in Lake Huron. While relatively strong year classes (age-1 and up) have been produced as a result of increased age-0 production during 2003-2005, the overall magnitude has not been as great as the initial age-0 abundance originally suggested. It appears that over-winter mortality is higher than in the past and may stem from higher predation or slower growth (lower condition for enduring winter thermal stress). From this it appears that low alewife abundance does not assure strong walleye year classes in Saginaw Bay but may be a prerequisite for them.

Fielder, D. G.; Schaeffer, J. S.; Thomas, M. V.

2007-01-01

415

45 CFR 641.20 - Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN ANTARCTICA § 641.20 Notification of the availability of environmental documents and other information. The...

2013-10-01

416

Geomagnetic disturbances may be environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis: an ecological study of 111 locations in 24 countries  

PubMed Central

Background We noticed that a hypothesis based on the effect of geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) has the ability to explain special features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Areas around geomagnetic 60 degree latitude (GM60L) experience the greatest amount of GMD. The easiest way to evaluate our hypothesis was to test the association of MS prevalence (MSP) with angular distance to geomagnetic 60 degree latitude (AMAG60) and compare it with the known association of MS with geographical latitude (GL). We did the same with angular distance to geographic 60 degree latitude (AGRAPH60) as a control. Methods English written papers with MSP keywords, done in Europe (EUR), North America (NA) or Australasia (AUS) were retrieved from the PubMed. Geomagnetic coordinates were determined for each location and AMAG60 was calculated as absolute value of numerical difference between its geomagnetic latitude from GM60L. By an ecological study with using meta-regression analyses, the relationship of MSP with GL, AMAG60 and AGRAPH60 were evaluated separately. MSP data were weighted by square root of number of prevalent cases. Models were compared by their adjusted R square (AR2) and standard error of estimate (SEE). Results 111 MSP data were entered in the study. In each continent, AMAG60 had the best correlation with MSP, the largest AR2 (0.47, 0.42 and 0.84 for EUR, NA and AUS, respectively) and the least SEE. Merging both hemispheres data, AMAG60 explained 56% of MSP variations with the least SEE (R?=?0.75, AR2?=?0.56, SEE?=?57), while GL explained 17% (R?=?0.41, AR2?=?0.17, SEE?=?78.5) and AGRAPH60 explained 12% of that variations with the highest SEE (R?=?0.35, AR2?=?0.12, SEE?=?80.5). Conclusions Our results confirmed that AMAG60 is the best describer of MSP variations and has the strongest association with MSP distribution. They clarified that the well-known latitudinal gradient of MSP may be actually a gradient related to GM60L. Moreover, the location of GM60L can elucidate why MSP has parabolic and linear gradient in the north and south hemisphere, respectively. This preliminary evaluation supported that GMD can be the mysterious environmental risk factor for MS. We believe that this hypothesis deserves to be considered for further validation studies.

2012-01-01

417

Characterizing a scientific elite: the social characteristics of the most highly cited scientists in environmental science and ecology.  

PubMed

In science, a relatively small pool of researchers garners a disproportionally large number of citations. Still, very little is known about the social characteristics of highly cited scientists. This is unfortunate as these researchers wield a disproportional impact on their fields, and the study of highly cited scientists can enhance our understanding of the conditions which foster highly cited work, the systematic social inequalities which exist in science, and scientific careers more generally. This study provides information on this understudied subject by examining the social characteristics and opinions of the 0.1% most cited environmental scientists and ecologists. Overall, the social characteristics of these researchers tend to reflect broader patterns of inequality in the global scientific community. However, while the social characteristics of these researchers mirror those of other scientific elites in important ways, they differ in others, revealing findings which are both novel and surprising, perhaps indicating multiple pathways to becoming highly cited. PMID:20927183

Parker, John N; Lortie, Christopher; Allesina, Stefano

2010-10-01

418

Informational Energy Flow as an Aspect of the Ecological Efficiency of Marine Ciliates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives were to measure, model, and test experimentally information flow in one-step laboratory food chains and to compare the information processing abilities of two herbivorous organisms from the same habitat eating the same food. Two ciliates, Euplo...

H. A. Rubin J. J. Lee

1975-01-01

419

The Information Needs of Environmental Health Professionals in a Large Industrial Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a unified information handling program to meet the needs of the rapidly growing environmental health staff of the Research and Environmental Health Division of the Medical Department of Exxon Corporation was achieved by using systems analysis techniques to evaluate both information needs and existing information services. The…

Lawrence, Barbara; And Others

420

Addressing Barriers to Ecological Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capra defines ecological literacy as "understanding the basic principles of ecology and being able to embody them in daily life." Roth describes ecological literacy as "the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and to take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems." It…

Monaghan, Kim; Curthoys, Lesley

2008-01-01

421

Clinical Ecology--A Critical Appraisal  

PubMed Central

In 1981 the California Medical Association (CMA) adopted the position that clinical ecology does not constitute a valid medical discipline and that scientific and clinical evidence to support the diagnosis of “environmental illness” and “cerebral allergy” or the concept of massive environmental allergy is lacking. As a result of requests from clinical ecologists for an opportunity to present to CMA evidence justifying their diagnostic and treatment methods, the chair of the CMA Scientific Board, Allen W. Mathies, Jr, MD, appointed a task force in 1984 to review clinical ecology. The task force conducted an extensive literature review and held a hearing. Clinical ecology is based on two main hypotheses: first, that the total load of low-dose environmental stressors is important in the induction of illness; and, second, that changes in the frequency of and intervals between exposures to specific substances can mask the clinical manifestations of or alter the degree of sensitivity to those substances. Treatment methods used by clinical ecologists include avoidance, symptom-neutralizing doses of diluted extract of the offending agents, rotation diets and an ecologically sound workplace and home. The task force recognizes that certain environmental chemicals and allergens produce well-defined syndromes in humans and that some patients suffer from illnesses that are not readily diagnosed and for which only supportive therapy exists. The conclusions of the task force are • There is no convincing evidence that supports the hypotheses on which clinical ecology is based. • Clinical ecologists have not identified specific, recognizable diseases caused by exposure to low level-environmental stressors. • Methods to diagnose and treat such undefined conditions have not been shown to be effective. • The practice of clinical ecology can be considered experimental only when its practitioners adhere to scientifically sound research protocols and inform their patients about the experimental nature of their practice.

1986-01-01

422

Ecology-centered experiences among children and adolescents: A qualitative and quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research involved two studies that considered ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the opportunity to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences. To do this, I carried out a yearlong ethnographic study at an urban community garden located in a large city in the Southeastern United States. Through participant observations and informal interviews of community garden staff and participants, I found children had opportunities to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences (e.g., interaction with animals) along with other experiences (e.g., playing games, reading books). In light of previous research that shows urban children have diminished ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---because of their lack of ecology-centered experiences (Coley, 2012), the present study may have implications for urban children to learn about ecology. As an extension of Study 1, I carried out a second study (Study 2) to investigate how ecology-centered experiences contribute to adolescents' environmental attitudes and behaviors in light of other contextual factors, namely environmental responsibility support, ecological thought, age and gender. Study 2 addressed three research questions. First, does ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---predict environmental attitudes and behaviors (EAB)? Results showed ecological thought did not predict EAB, an important finding considering the latent assumptions of previous research about the relationship between these two factors (e.g., Brugger, Kaiser, & Roczen, 2011). Second, do two types of contextual support, ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) and environmental responsibility support (i.e., support through the availability of environmentally responsible models) predict EAB? As predicted, results showed that ecology-centered experiences predicted EAB; yet, when environmental responsibility support was taken into consideration, ecology-centered experiences no longer predicted EAB. These findings suggested environmental responsibility support was a stronger predictor than ecology-centered experiences. Finally, do age and gender predict EAB? Consistent with previous research (e.g., Alp, Ertepiner, Tekkaya, & Yilmaz, 2006), age and gender significantly predicted EAB.

Orton, Judy

423

Ecological niche of Legionella pneumophila  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the ecological niches, relationships and controls of Legionella derived from environmental sources. Only as clinical cases and studies relate directly to the ecological understanding of the bacterium will they be discussed. This review seeks to separate the ecological parameters associated with Legionella that are often incorporated into the medical literature as well as to highlight specific ecological studies. A series of ecological studies demonstrates the niches of Legionella, the ecological parameters that allow the bacterium to survive, grow and to be disseminated. Relationships among given habitats are explored along with biological relationships within a given habitat.

Fliermans, C.B.

1983-01-01

424

Fire Ecology Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website provides information gathered by the Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) about the importance of wildfires to ecosystem processes in the Pacific Southwest. Details are provided about fire history and ecology in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Nevada forests, California shrub lands, and Mojave and Sonoran deserts. Topics include the ecological impacts of fire suppression, livestock grazing, invasive species, timber harvests, and changes in climate.

425

GATHERING INFORMATION FOR WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF TEN WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document outlines and reviews the various types of information used in 10 different watershed assessments. Data tables that describe the data types, sources of data, data reliability, and study contacts as well as other information used in each of the 10 assessments are incl...

426

GATHERING INFORMATION FOR WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF TEN WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document outlines and reviews the various types of information used in 10 different watershed assessments. Data tables that describe the data types, sources of data, data reliability, and study contacts as well as other information used in each of the 10 assessments are inc...

427

Water Environmental Capacity Calculation Based on Unascertained Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic system is an unascertained system. For design discharge calculation according to design criterion , different results are likely to be gained if using different methods or different samples . Design water environmental capacity of river reach also has unascertained characteristics. On the basis of unascertained characteristics of water environmental capacity, a new calculation method for water environmental capacity of

Xiu-ling Sun; Bao-quan Wang

2010-01-01

428

An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

There is growing concern with the increasing prevalence of obesity in industrialised countries, a trend that is more apparent in the poor than in the rich. In an ecological study, the relationship between an area measure of socioeconomic status (SES) and the density of fast-food outlets was examined as one possible explanation for the phenomenon.

429

Prediction of the environmental fate and aquatic ecological impact of nitrobenzene in the Songhua River using the modified AQUATOX model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental discharge of nitrobenzene happened in November 2005 in the Songhua River, China. The AQUATOX model was modified and adapted to simulate the time-dependent nitrobenzene distribution in this multimedia aquatic system and its potential ecological impacts. Nitrobenzene concentrations in flowing water, sediment, and biota were predicted. Based on the initial concentrations of nitrobenzene observed in the field during the

Bingli LEI; Shengbiao HUANG; Min QIAO; Tianyun LI; Zijian WANG

2008-01-01

430

Ecology and geography of human monkeypox case occurrences across Africa.  

PubMed

As ecologic niche modeling (ENM) evolves as a tool in spatial epidemiology and public health, selection of the most appropriate and informative environmental data sets becomes increasingly important. Here, we build on a previous ENM analysis of the potential distribution of human monkeypox in Africa by refining georeferencing criteria and using more-diverse environmental data to identify environmental parameters contributing to monkeypox distributional ecology. Significant environmental variables include annual precipitation, several temperature-related variables, primary productivity, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and pH. The potential distribution identified with this set of variables was broader than that identified in previous analyses but does not include areas recently found to hold monkeypox in southern Sudan. Our results emphasize the importance of selecting the most appropriate and informative environmental data sets for ENM analyses in pathogen transmission mapping. PMID:22493109

Ellis, Christine K; Carroll, Darin S; Lash, Ryan R; Peterson, A Townsend; Damon, Inger K; Malekani, Jean; Formenty, Pierre

2012-04-01

431

Understanding the Ecology of Blue Elderberry to Inform Landscape Restoration in Semiarid River Corridors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems <5.0 cm in diameter were rare, suggesting a lack of recruitment. A complex suite of vegetation was associated with blue elderberry, including several invasive species which are potentially outcompeting seedlings for light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation.

Vaghti, Mehrey G.; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Greco, Steven E.

2009-01-01

432

Understanding the ecology of blue elderberry to inform landscape restoration in semiarid river corridors.  

PubMed

Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems <5.0 cm in diameter were rare, suggesting a lack of recruitment. A complex suite of vegetation was associated with blue elderberry, including several invasive species which are potentially outcompeting seedlings for light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation. PMID:19034562

Vaghti, Mehrey G; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S; Fremier, Alexander K; Greco, Steven E

2009-01-01

433

Ecological Schoolyards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

Danks, Sharon Gamson

2000-01-01

434

Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources  

SciTech Connect

This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

435

Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) functional system design document  

SciTech Connect

The OREIS Functional System Design document provides a detailed functional description of the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS). It expands the system requirements defined in the OREIS Phase 1-System Definition Document (ES/ER/TM-34). Documentation of OREIS development is based on the Automated Data Processing System Development Methodology, a Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., procedure written to assist in developing scientific and technical computer systems. This document focuses on the development of the functional design of the user interface, which includes the integration of commercial applications software. The data model and data dictionary are summarized briefly; however, the Data Management Plan for OREIS (ES/ER/TM-39), a companion document to the Functional System Design document, provides the complete data dictionary and detailed descriptions of the requirements for the data base structure. The OREIS system will provide the following functions, which are executed from a Menu Manager: (1) preferences, (2) view manager, (3) macro manager, (4) data analysis (assisted analysis and unassisted analysis), and (5) spatial analysis/map generation (assisted ARC/INFO and unassisted ARC/INFO). Additional functionality includes interprocess communications, which handle background operations of OREIS.

Birchfield, T.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States). Computing and Telecommunications Services; Brown, M.O.; Coleman, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computing Applications Div.] [and others

1994-03-01

436

A study of the environmental information acquisition system based on smart phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it proposed a new environmental information acquisition system based on smart phones (Smartphone / Pocket PC) which combined with Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), wireless communication technology in allusion to the current actual situation of environmental protection information acquisition in city environmental protection department. System architecture and working principle is analyzed, and it designs the main modules of the software and hardware. In addition, transport protocols and application of the implementation method have been discussed. Experiments show that the environmental information acquisition system has high precision, easy to use, information transfer with high efficiency and reliability. Not only have that, the paper also discusses the effective strategies of network transmission of data encryption and the image transmission rate improvement. In brief, it can effectively enhance the work efficiency of the city environmental protection department when they collect relevant information.

Xu, Lingyan; Chen, Feixiang; Ni, Shaoliang; Wang, Ling; Wei, Chao; Gong, Bowen

2010-08-01

437

The ecology of the molluscs of Thalassia communities, Jamaica, West Indies. II. Molluscan population variability along an environmental stress gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along a composite onshore-offshore gradient, 4 homogeneous areas within beds of the marine angiosperm Thalassia were studied in detail. Eleven environmental variables, and molluscan and echinoderm abundance were sampled at monthly intervals for 1 year. Environmental conditions were generally more extreme, and their variance greatest, nearshore; they decreased significantly with distance from shore. Environmental predictability and cumulative diversity (H) increased

J. B. C. Jackson

1972-01-01

438

76 FR 11751 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...associated with environmental monitoring. DATES: We will consider...3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118, Riverdale...information on environmental monitoring, contact Dr. Robert...APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 150, Riverdale...Title: Environmental Monitoring Form. OMB...

2011-03-03

439

Migration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-15

440

Marine Microbial Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich website from the Australian Antarctic Division's Biology program describes its research in marine microbial ecology. It includes an introduction of microbial ecology and microbial processes, followed by information about the research project. Field sampling, microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis, flourometry, HPLC, culturing, feeding experiments, and the research staff are each discussed using vivid imagery. Links are provided to related websites.

Division, Australian A.