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Sample records for ecompagt integrates mtdna

  1. Integrating phylogeographic patterns of microsatellite and mtDNA divergence to infer the evolutionary history of chamois (genus Rupicapra)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    the subspecies ornata as an extremely low diversity. Conclusions The phylogeographic patterns for mtDNA and microsatellites suggest an evolutionary history with limited range contractions and expansions during the Quaternary period and reflect a major effect of the Alpine barrier on west-east differentiation. The contrasting phylogenies for mtDNA and microsatellites indicate events of hybridization among highly divergent lineages in the central area of distribution. Our study points to the importance of reticulate evolution, with periods of isolation and reduction of population size followed by expansions and hybridizations, in the diversification at the level of close species or subspecies. PMID:20649956

  2. Development of a control region-based mtDNA SNaPshot™ selection tool, integrated into a mini amplicon sequencing method.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Natalie E C; de Vries, Gerda; Sijen, Titia

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis is regularly applied to forensic DNA samples with limited amounts of nuclear DNA (nDNA), such as hair shafts and bones. Generally, this mtDNA analysis involves examination of the hypervariable control region by Sanger sequencing of amplified products. When samples are severely degraded, small-sized amplicons can be applied and an earlier described mini-mtDNA method by Eichmann et al. [1] that accommodates ten mini amplicons in two multiplexes is found to be a very robust approach. However, in cases with large numbers of samples, like when searching for hairs with an mtDNA profile deviant from that of the victim, the method is time (and cost) consuming. Previously, Chemale et al. [2] described a SNaPshot™-based screening tool for a Brazilian population that uses standard-size amplicons for HVS-I and HVS-II. Here, we describe a similar tool adapted to the full control region and compatible with mini-mtDNA amplicons. Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on their relative frequencies in a European population. They showed a high discriminatory power in a Dutch population (97.2%). The 18 SNPs are assessed in two SNaPshot™ multiplexes that pair to the two mini-mtDNA amplification multiplexes. Degenerate bases are included to limit allele dropout due to SNPs at primer binding site positions. Three SNPs provide haplogroup information. Reliability testing showed no differences with Sanger sequencing results. Since mini-mtSNaPshot screening uses only a small portion of the same PCR products used for Sanger sequencing, no additional DNA extract is consumed, which is forensically advantageous. PMID:26976467

  3. Melanesian mtDNA Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Hodgson, Jason A.; Stoltz, Matthew; Koki, George; Horvat, Gisele; Zhadanov, Sergey; Schurr, Theodore G.; Merriwether, D. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2) from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups). Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at ∼30–50,000 years before present (YBP), and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval ∼3,500–8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal) Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved. PMID:17327912

  4. Forensic mass screening using mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Szibor, Reinhard; Plate, Ines; Schmitter, Herrmann; Wittig, Holger; Krause, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    At the forensic autopsy of a sexual murder victim, some trace hairs, possibly belonging to the perpetrator, were saved. Initially, the analysis of a pubic hair shaft only revealed the presence of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotype profile consisting of the (CA)(6) allele and the complete hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) sequence. Later, typing of some further telogene trace hairs, which had been stored for several years, yielded a nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) profile. We used both the mtDNA haplotype and the STR profile to start a DNA mass screening project involving 2,335 male citizens of the relevant communities. MtDNA screening was carried out by using the CA repeat amplification in combination with an SNP typing procedure based on the restriction site analysis of amplified d-loop sequences. The aim of our paper is to put mass screening with mtDNA up for discussion. PMID:16583247

  5. Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Thomas J.; Zsurka, Gábor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Schöler, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J.; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5′ ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

  6. Keeping mtDNA in Shape between Generations

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing. PMID:25299061

  7. Expanding Our Understanding of mtDNA Deletions.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; Vincent, Amy E; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-07-12

    Clonal expansion of mtDNA deletions compromises mitochondrial function in human disease and aging, but how deleterious mtDNA genomes propagate has remained unclear. In this issue (Gitschlag et al., 2016) and in a recent Nature publication, C. elegans studies implicate the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) and offer mechanistic insights into this process. PMID:27411002

  8. Developmental genetics of deleted mtDNA in mitochondrial oculomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Marzuki, S; Berkovic, S F; Saifuddin Noer, A; Kapsa, R M; Kalnins, R M; Byrne, E; Sasmono, T; Sudoyo, H

    1997-02-12

    Heteroplasmic populations of mtDNA, consisting of normal mtDNA and mtDNA with large deletions, are found in the skeletal muscle and other tissues of certain patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies, particularly in those with the CPEO (chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia) phenotype. To study the developmental genetics of this mitochondrial disorder, the distribution of the deleted mtDNA in a wide range of tissues of different embryonic origins (total 34 samples from 27 tissues obtained at autopsy) was investigated in a patient with the CPEO syndrome. Three species of partially deleted mtDNA were observed, with deletions of 2.3 kb, 5.0 kb and 6.4 kb. Their tissue distribution suggests that the mtDNA deletions have occurred very early during embryonic development, prior to the differentiation events that lead to the formation of the three primary embryonic germ layers, and that the partially deleted mtDNA species were segregated during development mainly to the skeletal muscle and to tissues of the central nervous system. PMID:9094043

  9. Intracellular evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the tragedy of the cytoplasmic commons.

    PubMed

    Haig, David

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of essential services mitochondria provide to their hosts. Bottlenecks of mitochondrial numbers in female germlines increase the homogeneity of mtDNAs within cells and allow intraorganismal selection to eliminate cells with low quality mitochondria. Mechanisms of intracellular "quality control" allow direct selection on the competence of individual mtDNAs. These processes maintain the integrity of mtDNAs within the germline but are inadequate to indefinitely maintain mitochondrial function in somatic cells. PMID:27062292

  10. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  11. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  12. The inheritance of mtDNA in lager brewing strains.

    PubMed

    Rainieri, Sandra; Kodama, Yukiko; Nakao, Yoshihiro; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-01

    In this work, we compared the mtDNA of a number of interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces bayanus) to the mtDNA of 22 lager brewing strains that are thought to be the result of a natural hybridization between S. cerevisiae and another Saccharomyces yeast, possibly belonging to the species S. bayanus. We detected that in hybrids constructed in vitro, the mtDNA could be inherited from either parental strain. Conversely, in the lager strains tested, the mtDNA was never of the S. cerevisiae type. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of lager brewing strains COXII gene was identical to S. bayanus strain NBRC 1948 COXII gene. MtDNA restriction analysis carried out with three enzymes confirmed this finding. However, restriction analysis with a fourth enzyme (AvaI) provided restriction patterns for lager strains that differed from those of S. bayanus strain NBRC 1948. Our results raise the hypothesis that the human-driven selection carried out on existing lager yeasts has favored only those bearing optimal fermentation characteristics at low temperatures, which harbor the mtDNA of S. bayanus. PMID:18318709

  13. The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Silva, Juliana; da Silva Santos, Magda; Guimarães, Pedro E. M.; Ferreira, Alessandro C. S.; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Prado, Vania Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed 247 Brazilian mtDNAs for hypervariable segment (HVS)–I and selected restriction fragment-length–polymorphism sites, to assess their ancestry in different continents. The total sample showed nearly equal amounts of Native American, African, and European matrilineal genetic contribution but with regional differences within Brazil. The mtDNA pool of present-day Brazilians clearly reflects the imprints of the early Portuguese colonization process (involving directional mating), as well as the recent immigrant waves (from Europe) of the last century. The subset of 99 mtDNAs from the southeastern region encompasses nearly all mtDNA haplogroups observed in the total Brazilian sample; for this regional subset, HVS-II was analyzed, providing, in particular, some novel details of the African mtDNA phylogeny. PMID:10873790

  14. Indian-Asian Relationship: mtDNA Reveals More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabas, S.; Joshi, B.; Suresh, C. G.

    Recent studies on human mtDNA have identified continent-specific restriction enzyme sites and resultant haplogroups among populations from different regions of the world. Such studies have helped in elaborating the models for human migrations. We have studied Indian mtDNAs to identify the recognized world ethnic elements present in it. The results presented here are based on the study of DdeI 10394 site along with the associated Asian-specific AluI 10397 site in the mtDNA sequences of the Indian samples. On examining all the related haplogroups, this study suggests that the apparent affinities of Indians and East Asians (comprising Chinese, Japanese, Southeast Asians etc.) could be due to a proto-Asiatic element present in Indians.

  15. The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; De la Fe, Tomás; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Ángel

    2002-01-01

    Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000–4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with ∼44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, ∼21% from either West or Central Africa, ∼30% from East Africa, and ∼5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since. PMID:12395296

  16. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA in leucocytes harbouring the 3243A→G mtDNA mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Angela; Taylor, Robert W; Durham, Steve E; Deschauer, Marcus; Schaefer, Andrew M; Samuels, David C; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2007-01-01

    Background The 3243A→G MTTL1 mutation is the most common heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation associated with disease. Previous studies have shown that the percentage of mutated mtDNA decreases in blood as patients get older, but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. Objectives and method To understand the dynamics of the process and the underlying mechanisms, an accurate fluorescent assay was established for 3243A→G heteroplasmy and the amount of mtDNA in blood with real‐time polymerase chain reaction was determined. The amount of mutated and wild‐type mtDNA was measured at two time points in 11 subjects. Results The percentage of mutated mtDNA decreases exponentially during life, and peripheral blood leucocytes in patients harbouring 3243A→G are profoundly depleted of mtDNA. Conclusions A similar decrease in mtDNA has been seen in other mitochondrial disorders, and in 3243A→G cell lines in culture, indicating that depletion of mtDNA may be a common secondary phenomenon in several mitochondrial diseases. Depletion of mtDNA is not always due to mutation of a nuclear gene involved in mtDNA maintenance. PMID:16950816

  17. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria. PMID:27418514

  18. Single-cell analysis of intercellular heteroplasmy of mtDNA in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Sharpe, H.; Brown, N.

    1994-07-01

    The authors have investigated the distribution of mutant mtDNA molecules in single cells from a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by a sudden-onset bilateral loss of central vision, which typically occurs in early adulthood. More than 50% of all LHON patients carry an mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. This nucleotide change converts a highly conserved arginine residue to histidine at codon 340 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene of mtDNA. In the present study, the authors used PCR amplification of mtDNA from lymphocytes to investigate mtDNA heteroplasmy at the single-cell level in a LHON patient. They found that most cells were either homoplasmic normal or homoplasmic mutant at nucleotide position 11778. Some (16%) cells contained both mutant and normal mtDNA.

  19. A method for mutagenesis of mouse mtDNA and a resource of mouse mtDNA mutations for modeling human pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fayzulin, Rafik Z.; Perez, Michael; Kozhukhar, Natalia; Spadafora, Domenico; Wilson, Glenn L.; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause mitochondrial disease and have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, diabetes and aging. Yet our progress toward delineating the precise contributions of mtDNA mutations to these conditions is impeded by the limited availability of faithful transmitochondrial animal models. Here, we report a method for the isolation of mutations in mouse mtDNA and its implementation for the generation of a collection of over 150 cell lines suitable for the production of transmitochondrial mice. This method is based on the limited mutagenesis of mtDNA by proofreading-deficient DNA-polymerase γ followed by segregation of the resulting highly heteroplasmic mtDNA population by means of intracellular cloning. Among generated cell lines, we identify nine which carry mutations affecting the same amino acid or nucleotide positions as in human disease, including a mutation in the ND4 gene responsible for 70% of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathies (LHON). Similar to their human counterparts, cybrids carrying the homoplasmic mouse LHON mutation demonstrated reduced respiration, reduced ATP content and elevated production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). The generated resource of mouse mtDNA mutants will be useful both in modeling human mitochondrial disease and in understanding the mechanisms of ROS production mediated by mutations in mtDNA. PMID:25820427

  20. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

  1. How few whales were there after whaling? Inference from contemporary mtDNA diversity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J A; Patenaude, N J; Carroll, E L; Baker, C Scott

    2008-01-01

    Reconstructing the history of exploited populations of whales requires fitting a trajectory through at least three points in time: (i) prior to exploitation, when abundance is assumed to be at the maximum allowed by environmental carrying capacity; (ii) the point of minimum abundance or 'bottleneck', usually near the time of protection or the abandonment of the hunt; and (iii) near the present, when protected populations are assumed to have undergone some recovery. As historical abundance is usually unknown, this trajectory must be extrapolated according to a population dynamic model using catch records, an assumed rate of increase and an estimate of current abundance, all of which have received considerable attention by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Relatively little attention has been given to estimating minimum abundance (N(min)), although it is clear that genetic and demographic forces at this point are critical to the potential for recovery or extinction of a local population. We present a general analytical framework to improve estimates of N(min) using the number of mtDNA haplotypes (maternal lineages) surviving in a contemporary population of whales or other exploited species. We demonstrate the informative potential of this parameter as an a posteriori constraint on Bayesian logistic population dynamic models based on the IWC Comprehensive Assessment of the intensively exploited southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) and published surveys of mtDNA diversity for this species. Estimated historical trajectories from all demographic scenarios suggested a substantial loss of mtDNA haplotype richness as a result of 19th century commercial whaling and 20th century illegal whaling by the Soviet Union. However, the relatively high rates of population increase used by the IWC assessment predicted a bottleneck that was implausibly narrow (median, 67 mature females), given our corrected estimates of N(min). Further, high levels of remnant sequence

  2. Ethidium bromide as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Anna Maria; Fusi, Paola; Pastori, Valentina; Amicarelli, Giulia; Pozzi, Chiara; Adlerstein, Daniel; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in tumor cells was found to play an important role in maintaining the malignant phenotype. Using laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) in a recent work, we reported a variable fluorescence intensity of ethidium bromide (EB) in mitochondria nucleoids of living carcinoma cells. Since when EB is bound to nucleic acids its fluorescence is intensified; a higher EB fluorescence intensity could reflect a higher DNA accessibility to EB, suggesting a higher mtDNA replication activity. To prove this hypothesis, in the present work we studied, by LSCFM, the EB fluorescence in mitochondria nucleoids of living neuroblastoma cells, a model system in which differentiation affects the level of mtDNA replication. A drastic decrease of fluorescence was observed after differentiation. To correlate EB fluorescence intensity to the mtDNA replication state, we evaluated the mtDNA nascent strands content by ligation-mediated real-time PCR, and we found a halved amount of replicating mtDNA molecules in differentiating cells. A similar result was obtained by BrdU incorporation. These results indicate that the low EB fluorescence of nucleoids in differentiated cells is correlated to a low content of replicating mtDNA, suggesting that EB may be used as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells.

  3. Hypervariable Region Polymorphism of mtDNA of Recurrent Oral Ulceration in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-Ying; Wu, Dan; Wang, Guo-Xia; Wu, Yuanming

    2012-01-01

    Background MtDNA haplogroups could have important implication for understanding of the relationship between the mutations of the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Distribution of a variety of diseases among these haplogroups showed that some of the mitochondrial haplogroups are predisposed to disease. To examine the susceptibility of mtDNA haplogroups to ROU, we sequenced the mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 in Chinese ROU. Methodology/Principal Findings MtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in the 249 cases of ROU patients and the 237 cases of healthy controls respectively by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing. Haplogroups G1 and H were found significantly more abundant in ROU patients than in healthy persons, while haplogroups D5 and R showed a trend toward a higher frequency in control as compared to those in patients. The distribution of C-stretch sequences polymorphism in mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 regions was found in diversity. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, the relationship of mtDNA haplogroups and ROU in Chinese was investigated. Our results indicated that mtDNA haplogroups G1 and H might constitute a risk factor for ROU, which possibly increasing the susceptibility of ROU. Meanwhile, haplogroups D5 and R were indicated as protective factors for ROU. The polymorphisms of C-stretch sequences might being unstable and influence the mtDNA replication fidelity. PMID:23028959

  4. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Biogenesis: Visualization and Duel Incorporation of BrdU and EdU Into Newly Synthesized mtDNA In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Stephen I.; Edwards, James L.; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L.; Haines, Kristine M.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse–chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:207–218, 2010) PMID:19875847

  5. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis: visualization and duel incorporation of BrdU and EdU into newly synthesized mtDNA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Stephen I; Edwards, James L; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L; Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L

    2010-02-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse-chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19875847

  6. The Use of Mitochondria-Targeted Endonucleases to Manipulate mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Bacman, Sandra R.; Williams, Sion L.; Pinto, Milena; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, mitochondria-targeted nucleases have been used to promote double-strand breaks in the mitochondrial genome. This was done in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) homoplasmic systems, where all mtDNA molecules can be affected, to create models of mitochondrial deficiencies. Alternatively, they were also used in a heteroplasmic model, where only a subset of the mtDNA molecules were substrates for cleavage. The latter approach showed that mitochondrial-targeted nucleases can reduce mtDNA haplotype loads in affected tissues, with clear implications for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial diseases. In the last few years, designer nucleases, such as ZFN and TALEN, have been adapted to cleave mtDNA, greatly expanding the potential therapeutic use. This chapter describes the techniques and approaches used to test these designer enzymes. PMID:25416366

  7. Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Mtdna Variation in Natural Drosophila Simulans Populations

    PubMed Central

    Turelli, M.; Hoffmann, A. A.; McKechnie, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Drosophila simulans a cytoplasmically transmitted microorganism causes reduced egg hatch when infected males mate with uninfected females. The infection is rapidly spreading northward in California. Data on a specific mtDNA restriction site length polymorphism show that changes in the frequency of mtDNA variants are associated with this spread. All infected flies possess the same mtDNA allele, whereas the uninfected flies are polymorphic. Given that both paternal inheritance of the infection and imperfect maternal transmission have been demonstrated, one might expect instead that both infected and uninfected flies would possess both mtDNA variants. Our data suggest that imperfect female transmission of the infection (and/or the loss of the infection among progeny) is more common in nature than paternal transmission. A simple model of intrapopulation dynamics, with empirically supported parameter values, adequately describes the joint frequencies of the mtDNA variants and incompatibility types. PMID:1468627

  8. Mitochondrial ROS Induces Cardiac Inflammation via a Pathway through mtDNA Damage in a Pneumonia-Related Sepsis Model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiao; Carlson, Deborah; Sun, Yuxiao; Ma, Lisha; Wolf, Steven E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Zang, Qun S.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (Mito-Vit-E), a mtROS specific antioxidant, improves cardiac performance and attenuates inflammation in a pneumonia-related sepsis model. In this study, we applied the same approaches to decipher the signaling pathway(s) of mtROS-dependent cardiac inflammation after sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intratracheal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mito-Vit-E, vitamin E or vehicle was administered 30 minutes later. In myocardium 24 hours post-inoculation, Mito-Vit-E, but not vitamin E, significantly protected mtDNA integrity and decreased mtDNA damage. Mito-Vit-E alleviated sepsis-induced reduction in mitochondria-localized DNA repair enzymes including DNA polymerase γ, AP endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mito-Vit-E dramatically improved metabolism and membrane integrity in mitochondria, suppressed leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm, inhibited up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway factors MYD88 and RAGE, and limited RAGE interaction with its ligand TFAM in septic hearts. Mito-Vit-E also deactivated NF-κB and caspase 1, reduced expression of the essential inflammasome component ASC, and decreased inflammatory cytokine IL–1β. In vitro, both Mito-Vit-E and TLR9 inhibitor OND-I suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation in MYD88, RAGE, ASC, active caspase 1, and IL–1β in cardiomyocytes. Since free mtDNA escaped from damaged mitochondria function as a type of DAMPs to stimulate inflammation through TLR9, these data together suggest that sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation is mediated, at least partially, through mtDNA-TLR9-RAGE. At last, Mito-Vit-E reduced the circulation of myocardial injury marker troponin-I, diminished apoptosis and amended morphology in septic hearts, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are a potential cardioprotective approach for sepsis. PMID:26448624

  9. Mitochondrial ROS Induces Cardiac Inflammation via a Pathway through mtDNA Damage in a Pneumonia-Related Sepsis Model.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiao; Carlson, Deborah; Sun, Yuxiao; Ma, Lisha; Wolf, Steven E; Minei, Joseph P; Zang, Qun S

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (Mito-Vit-E), a mtROS specific antioxidant, improves cardiac performance and attenuates inflammation in a pneumonia-related sepsis model. In this study, we applied the same approaches to decipher the signaling pathway(s) of mtROS-dependent cardiac inflammation after sepsis. Sepsis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intratracheal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mito-Vit-E, vitamin E or vehicle was administered 30 minutes later. In myocardium 24 hours post-inoculation, Mito-Vit-E, but not vitamin E, significantly protected mtDNA integrity and decreased mtDNA damage. Mito-Vit-E alleviated sepsis-induced reduction in mitochondria-localized DNA repair enzymes including DNA polymerase γ, AP endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mito-Vit-E dramatically improved metabolism and membrane integrity in mitochondria, suppressed leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm, inhibited up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway factors MYD88 and RAGE, and limited RAGE interaction with its ligand TFAM in septic hearts. Mito-Vit-E also deactivated NF-κB and caspase 1, reduced expression of the essential inflammasome component ASC, and decreased inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. In vitro, both Mito-Vit-E and TLR9 inhibitor OND-I suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation in MYD88, RAGE, ASC, active caspase 1, and IL-1β in cardiomyocytes. Since free mtDNA escaped from damaged mitochondria function as a type of DAMPs to stimulate inflammation through TLR9, these data together suggest that sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation is mediated, at least partially, through mtDNA-TLR9-RAGE. At last, Mito-Vit-E reduced the circulation of myocardial injury marker troponin-I, diminished apoptosis and amended morphology in septic hearts, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are a potential cardioprotective approach for sepsis. PMID:26448624

  10. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. PMID:27053724

  11. Distilling Artificial Recombinants from Large Sets of Complete mtDNA Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qing-Peng; Salas, Antonio; Sun, Chang; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Zhong, Li; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background Large-scale genome sequencing poses enormous problems to the logistics of laboratory work and data handling. When numerous fragments of different genomes are PCR amplified and sequenced in a laboratory, there is a high immanent risk of sample confusion. For genetic markers, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are free of natural recombination, single instances of sample mix-up involving different branches of the mtDNA phylogeny would give rise to reticulate patterns and should therefore be detectable. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a strategy for comparing new complete mtDNA genomes, one by one, to a current skeleton of the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny. The mutations distinguishing the reference sequence from a putative recombinant sequence can then be allocated to two or more different branches of this phylogenetic skeleton. Thus, one would search for two (or three) near-matches in the total mtDNA database that together best explain the variation seen in the recombinants. The evolutionary pathway from the mtDNA tree connecting this pair together with the recombinant then generate a grid-like median network, from which one can read off the exchanged segments. Conclusions We have applied this procedure to a large collection of complete human mtDNA sequences, where several recombinants could be distilled by our method. All these recombinant sequences were subsequently corrected by de novo experiments – fully concordant with the predictions from our data-analytical approach. PMID:18714389

  12. Somatic mtDNA variation is an important component of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Coxhead, Jonathan; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Hussain, Rafiqul; Pyle, Angela; Chinnery, Patrick; Hudson, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction, mediated either through inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation or mitochondrial proteomic deficit, to Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet, despite this, the role of somatic mtDNA point mutations and specifically point-mutational burden in PD is poorly understood. Here, we take advantage of recent technical and methodological advances to examine the role of age-related and acquired mtDNA mutation in the largest study of mtDNA in postmortem PD tissue to date. Our data show that PD patients suffer an increase in mtDNA mutational burden in, but no limited to, the substantia nigra pars compacta when compared to matched controls. This mutational burden appears increased in genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase, supportive of previous protein studies of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. Accepting experimental limitations, our study confirms the important role of age-related mtDNA point mutation in the etiology of PD, moreover, by analyzing 2 distinct brain regions, we are able to show that PD patient brains are more vulnerable to mtDNA mutation overall. PMID:26639157

  13. mtDNA Mutations and Their Role in Aging, Diseases and Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zapico, Sara C.; Ubelaker, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are independent organelles with their own DNA. As a primary function, mitochondria produce the energy for the cell through Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). One of the toxic products of this process is Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can induce oxidative damage in macromolecules like lipids, proteins and DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is less protected and has fewer reparation mechanisms than nuclear DNA (nDNA), and as such is more exposed to oxidative, mutation-inducing damage. This review analyzes the causes and consequences of mtDNA mutations and their relationship with the aging process. Neurodegenerative diseases, related with the aging, are consequences of mtDNA mutations resulting in a decrease in mitochondrial function. Also described are “mitochondrial diseases”, pathologies produced by mtDNA mutations and whose symptoms are related with mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, mtDNA haplogroups are defined in this review; these groups are important for determination of geographical origin of an individual. Additionally, different haplogroups exhibit variably longevity and risk of certain diseases. mtDNA mutations in aging and haplogroups are of special interest to forensic science research. Therefore this review will help to clarify the key role of mtDNA mutations in these processes and support further research in this area. PMID:24307969

  14. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  15. Digital PCR methods improve detection sensitivity and measurement precision of low abundance mtDNA deletions

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Frances R.; Martin, James L.; Frescura, Kristin; Damas, Joana; Pereira, Filipe; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Kaufman, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are a common cause of primary mitochondrial disorders, and have also been implicated in a broad collection of conditions, including aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Prevalent among these pathogenic variants are mtDNA deletions, which show a strong bias for the loss of sequence in the major arc between, but not including, the heavy and light strand origins of replication. Because individual mtDNA deletions can accumulate focally, occur with multiple mixed breakpoints, and in the presence of normal mtDNA sequences, methods that detect broad-spectrum mutations with enhanced sensitivity and limited costs have both research and clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated semi-quantitative and digital PCR-based methods of mtDNA deletion detection using double-stranded reference templates or biological samples. Our aim was to describe key experimental assay parameters that will enable the analysis of low levels or small differences in mtDNA deletion load during disease progression, with limited false-positive detection. We determined that the digital PCR method significantly improved mtDNA deletion detection sensitivity through absolute quantitation, improved precision and reduced assay standard error. PMID:27122135

  16. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Maria D S; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strict maternal inheritance is considered a hallmark of animal mtDNA. Although recent reports suggest that paternal leakage occurs in a broad range of species, it is still considered an exceptionally rare event. To evaluate the impact of paternal leakage on the evolution of mtDNA, it is essential to reliably estimate the frequency of paternal leakage in natural populations. Using allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we show that heteroplasmy is common in natural populations with at least 14% of the individuals carrying multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. However, the average frequency of the minor mtDNA haplotype is low (0.8%), which suggests that this pervasive heteroplasmy has not been noticed before due to a lack of power in sequencing surveys. Based on the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the offspring of heteroplasmic mothers, we found no evidence for strong selection against one of the haplotypes. We estimated that the rate of paternal leakage is 6% and that at least 100 generations are required for complete sorting of mtDNA haplotypes. Despite the high proportion of heteroplasmic individuals in natural populations, we found no evidence for recombination between mtDNA molecules, suggesting that either recombination is rare or recombinant haplotypes are counter-selected. Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. PMID:23452233

  17. The search of 'novel' mtDNA mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: MITOMAPping as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Yao, Yong-Gang; Salas, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    MITOMAP is by far the most frequently cited Web resource that is referred to in substantiating novelty of an mtDNA mutation. This database, as is now known, has quite an incomplete coverage of the mtDNA mutations from the literature. This circumstance has seduced many scholars of medical genetics in the past to claim novelty of rather 'worn-out' mtDNA mutations. What is, however, really novel in the field is that researchers take advantage of this situation and deliberately suppress information from other sources, as it appears to have occurred in two recently published cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17482693

  18. African human mtDNA phylogeography at-a-glance.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alexandra; Brehem, António

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic system has long proven to be useful for studying the demographic history of our species, since their proposed Southeast/East African origin 200 kya. Despite the weak archaeological and anthropologic records, which render a difficult understanding of early intra- continental migrations, the phylogenetic L0-L1'6 split at about 140-160 kya is thought to represent also an early sub-structuring of small and isolated communities in South and East Africa. Regional variation accumulated over the following millennia, with L2 and L3 lineages arising in Central and East Africa 100-75 kya. Their sub-Saharan dispersal not later than 60 kya, largely overwhelmed the L0'1 distribution, nowadays limited to South African Khoisan and Central African Pygmies. Cyclic expansions and retractions of the equatorial forest between 40 kya and the "Last Glacial Aridity Maximum" were able to reduce the genetic diversity of modern humans. Surviving regional-specific lineages have emerged from the Sahelian refuge areas, repopulating the region and contributing to the overall West African genetic similarity. Particular L1- L3 lineages mirror the substantial population growth made possible by moister and warmer conditions of the Sahara's Wet Phase and the adoption of agriculture and iron smelting techniques. The diffusion of the farming expertise from a Central African source towards South Africa was mediated by the Bantu people 3 kya. The strong impact of their gene flow almost erased the pre-existent maternal pool. Non-L mtDNAs testify for Eurasian lineages that have enriched the African maternal pool at different timeframes: i) Near and Middle Eastern influences in Upper Palaeolithic, probably link to the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages; ii) particular lineages from West Eurasia around or after the glacial period; iii) post-glacial mtDNA signatures from the Franco-Cantabrian refugia, that have crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and iv) Eurasian lineages

  19. A p.R369G POLG2 mutation associated with adPEO and multiple mtDNA deletions causes decreased affinity between polymerase γ subunits

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Kate; Young, Matthew J.; Blakely, Emma L.; Longley, Matthew J.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Copeland, William C.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (pol γ) is the sole enzyme required to replicate and maintain the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. It comprises two subunits, a catalytic p140 subunit and a smaller p55 accessory subunit encoded by the POLG2 gene. We describe the molecular characterization of a potential dominant POLG2 mutation (p.R369G) in a patient with adPEO and multiple mtDNA deletions. Biochemical studies of the recombinant mutant p55 protein showed a reduced affinity to the pol γ p140 subunit, leading to impaired processivity of the holoenzyme complex but did not show sensitivity to N-ethylmalaimide (NEM) inhibition, inferring a novel disease mechanism. PMID:22155748

  20. Stable heteroplasmy at the single-cell level is facilitated by intercellular exchange of mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, Anitha D.; Benson, Erica K.; Gone, Swapna; Liang, Raymond; Shim, Jaehee; Lambertini, Luca; Toloue, Masoud M.; Wigler, Mike; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Sachidanandam, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells carry two genomes, nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA), which are ostensibly decoupled in their replication, segregation and inheritance. It is increasingly appreciated that heteroplasmy, the occurrence of multiple mtDNA haplotypes in a cell, plays an important biological role, but its features are not well understood. Accurately determining the diversity of mtDNA has been difficult, due to the relatively small amount of mtDNA in each cell (<1% of the total DNA), the intercellular variability of mtDNA content and mtDNA pseudogenes (Numts) in nDNA. To understand the nature of heteroplasmy, we developed Mseek, a novel technique to purify and sequence mtDNA. Mseek yields high purity (>90%) mtDNA and its ability to detect rare variants is limited only by sequencing depth, providing unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Using Mseek, we confirmed the ubiquity of heteroplasmy by analyzing mtDNA from a diverse set of cell lines and human samples. Applying Mseek to colonies derived from single cells, we find heteroplasmy is stably maintained in individual daughter cells over multiple cell divisions. We hypothesized that the stability of heteroplasmy could be facilitated by intercellular exchange of mtDNA. We explicitly demonstrate this exchange by co-culturing cell lines with distinct mtDNA haplotypes. Our results shed new light on the maintenance of heteroplasmy and provide a novel platform to investigate features of heteroplasmy in normal and diseased states. PMID:25653158

  1. Geographical structuring in the mtDNA of Italians.

    PubMed Central

    Barbujani, G; Bertorelle, G; Capitani, G; Scozzari, R

    1995-01-01

    Geographical patterns of mtDNA variation were studied in 12 Italian samples (1072 individuals) by two different spatial autocorrelation methods. Separate analyses of the frequencies of 12 restriction morphs show North-South clines, differences between Sardinia and the mainland populations, and the effects of isolation by distance. A recently developed autocorrelation statistic summarizing molecular similarity at all sites (AIDA; autocorrelation index for DNA analysis) confirms the presence of a clinical pattern; differences between random pairs of haplotypes tend to increase with their geographical distance. The partition of gene diversity, however, reveals that most variability occurs within populations, whereas differences between populations are minor (GST = 0.057). When the data from the 12 samples are pooled, two descriptors of genetic variability (number of polymorphic sites and average sequence difference between pairs of individuals) do not behave as expected under neutrality. The presence of clinal patterns, Tajima's tests, and a simulation experiment agree in suggesting that population sizes increased rapidly in Italy and Sicily but not necessarily so in Sardinia. The distribution of pairwise sequence differences in the Italian peninsula (excluding Sardinia) permits a tentative location of the demographic increase between 8000 and 20,500 years ago. These dates are consistent with archaeological estimates of two distinct expansion processes, occurring, respectively, in the Neolithic and after the last glacial maximum in the Paleolithic. Conversely, there is no genetic evidence that such processes have had a major impact on the Sardinian population. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7568095

  2. Origin and Diffusion of mtDNA Haplogroup X

    PubMed Central

    Reidla, Maere; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Kaldma, Katrin; Tambets, Kristiina; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Parik, Jüri; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bermisheva, Marina; Zhadanov, Sergey; Pennarun, Erwan; Gubina, Marina; Golubenko, Maria; Damba, Larisa; Fedorova, Sardana; Gusar, Vladislava; Grechanina, Elena; Mikerezi, Ilia; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Chaventré, André; Khusnutdinova, Elsa; Osipova, Ludmila; Stepanov, Vadim; Voevoda, Mikhail; Achilli, Alessandro; Rengo, Chiara; Rickards, Olga; De Stefano, Gian Franco; Papiha, Surinder; Beckman, Lars; Janicijevic, Branka; Rudan, Pavao; Anagnou, Nicholas; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel; Koziel, Slawomir; Usanga, Esien; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Herrnstadt, Corinna; Howell, Neil; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A maximum parsimony tree of 21 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences belonging to haplogroup X and the survey of the haplogroup-associated polymorphisms in 13,589 mtDNAs from Eurasia and Africa revealed that haplogroup X is subdivided into two major branches, here defined as “X1” and “X2.” The first is restricted to the populations of North and East Africa and the Near East, whereas X2 encompasses all X mtDNAs from Europe, western and Central Asia, Siberia, and the great majority of the Near East, as well as some North African samples. Subhaplogroup X1 diversity indicates an early coalescence time, whereas X2 has apparently undergone a more recent population expansion in Eurasia, most likely around or after the last glacial maximum. It is notable that X2 includes the two complete Native American X sequences that constitute the distinctive X2a clade, a clade that lacks close relatives in the entire Old World, including Siberia. The position of X2a in the phylogenetic tree suggests an early split from the other X2 clades, likely at the very beginning of their expansion and spread from the Near East. PMID:14574647

  3. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.

    2013-01-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

  4. Evaluation of gastrointestinal mtDNA depletion in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE).

    PubMed

    Giordano, Carla; d'Amati, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare disease characterized by severe gastro-intestinal (GI) dysmotility caused by mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is involved in the control of the pyrimidine nucleoside pool of the cell. Reduced TP activity induces nucleotide pool imbalances that in turn affect both the rate and fidelity of mtDNA replication, leading to multiple deletions and depletion of mtDNA. By using laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction technique, we showed that depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most prominent molecular defect in the gut wall of MNGIE patients. Depletion affects severely the smooth muscle cells of muscularis propria and the skeletal muscle component of the upper esophagus, while ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus show only a milder mtDNA reduction. PMID:21761307

  5. Porcine oocyte mtDNA copy number is high or low depending on the donor.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Callesen, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Oocyte capacity is relevant in understanding decreasing female fertility and in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in human and farm animals. Mitochondria are important to the development of a functionally good oocyte and the oocyte mtDNA copy number has been introduced as a useful parameter for prediction of oocyte competence. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) if the oocyte donor has an influence on its oocyte's mtDNA copy number; and (ii) the relation between oocyte size and mtDNA copy number using pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from individual donor pigs. The oocytes were allocated into different size-groups, snap-frozen and single-oocyte mtDNA copy number was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR using the genes ND1 and COX1. Results showed that mean mtDNA copy number in oocytes from any individual donor could be categorized as either 'high' (≥100,000) or 'low' (<100,000) with no difference in threshold between pre- and postpubertal oocytes. No linear correlation was detected between oocyte size and mtDNA copy number within pre- and postpubertal oocytes. This study demonstrates the importance of the oocyte donor in relation to oocyte mtDNA copy number, irrespectively of the donor's puberty status and the oocyte's growth stage. Observations from this study facilitate both further investigations of the importance of mtDNA copy number and the unravelling of relations between different mitochondrial parameters and oocyte competence. PMID:26679989

  6. Genetic Control over mtDNA and Its Relationship to Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Na; Li, Yihan; Chang, Simon; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Chongyun; Zhang, Xiufei; Liang, Lu; Hu, Jingchu; Chan, Wharton; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Malinauskas, Tomas; Huang, Guo-Jen; Li, Qibin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Control over the number of mtDNA molecules per cell appears to be tightly regulated, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Reversible alterations in the amount of mtDNA occur in response to stress suggesting that control over the amount of mtDNA is involved in stress-related diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). Using low-coverage sequence data from 10,442 Chinese women to compute the normalized numbers of reads mapping to the mitochondrial genome as a proxy for the amount of mtDNA, we identified two loci that contribute to mtDNA levels: one within the TFAM gene on chromosome 10 (rs11006126, p value = 8.73 × 10−28, variance explained = 1.90%) and one over the CDK6 gene on chromosome 7 (rs445, p value = 6.03 × 10−16, variance explained = 0.50%). Both loci replicated in an independent cohort. CDK6 is thus a new molecule involved in the control of mtDNA. We identify increased rates of heteroplasmy in women with MDD, and show from an experimental paradigm using mice that the increase is likely due to stress. Furthermore, at least one heteroplasmic variant is significantly associated with changes in the amount of mtDNA (position 513, p value = 3.27 × 10−9, variance explained = 0.48%) suggesting site-specific heteroplasmy as a possible link between stress and increase in amount of mtDNA. These findings indicate the involvement of mitochondrial genome copy number and sequence in an organism’s response to stress. PMID:26687620

  7. Genetic Control over mtDNA and Its Relationship to Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Li, Yihan; Chang, Simon; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Chongyun; Zhang, Xiufei; Liang, Lu; Hu, Jingchu; Chan, Wharton; Kendler, Kenneth S; Malinauskas, Tomas; Huang, Guo-Jen; Li, Qibin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-12-21

    Control over the number of mtDNA molecules per cell appears to be tightly regulated, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Reversible alterations in the amount of mtDNA occur in response to stress suggesting that control over the amount of mtDNA is involved in stress-related diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). Using low-coverage sequence data from 10,442 Chinese women to compute the normalized numbers of reads mapping to the mitochondrial genome as a proxy for the amount of mtDNA, we identified two loci that contribute to mtDNA levels: one within the TFAM gene on chromosome 10 (rs11006126, p value = 8.73 × 10(-28), variance explained = 1.90%) and one over the CDK6 gene on chromosome 7 (rs445, p value = 6.03 × 10(-16), variance explained = 0.50%). Both loci replicated in an independent cohort. CDK6 is thus a new molecule involved in the control of mtDNA. We identify increased rates of heteroplasmy in women with MDD, and show from an experimental paradigm using mice that the increase is likely due to stress. Furthermore, at least one heteroplasmic variant is significantly associated with changes in the amount of mtDNA (position 513, p value = 3.27 × 10(-9), variance explained = 0.48%) suggesting site-specific heteroplasmy as a possible link between stress and increase in amount of mtDNA. These findings indicate the involvement of mitochondrial genome copy number and sequence in an organism's response to stress. PMID:26687620

  8. Contrasting patterns of nuclear and mtDNA diversity in Native American populations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning Ning; Mazières, Stephane; Bravi, Claudio; Ray, Nicolas; Wang, Sijia; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V; Molina, Julio A; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M; Petzl-Erler, Maria L; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Labuda, Damian; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Excoffier, Laurent; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2010-11-01

    We report an integrated analysis of nuclear (autosomal, X- and Y-chromosome) short tandem repeat (STR) data and mtDNA D-loop sequences obtained in the same set of 22 Native populations from across the Americas. A north to south gradient of decreasing population diversity was observed, in agreement with a settlement of the Americas from the extreme northwest of the continent. This correlation is stronger with "least cost distances," which consider the coasts as facilitators of migration. Continent-wide estimates of population structure are highest for the Y-chromosome and lowest for the autosomes, consistent with the effective size of the different marker systems examined. Population differentiation is highest in East South America and lowest in Meso America and the Andean region. Regional analyses suggest a deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium consistent with population expansion in Meso America and the Andes and population contraction in Northwest and East South America. These data hint at an early divergence of Andean and non-Andean South Americans and at a contrasting demographic history for populations from these regions. PMID:20887376

  9. Molecular phylogeny and diversity of Myanmar and Bhutan mithun based on mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Hayato; Dorji, Tashi; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Maeda, Yoshizane; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Namikawa, Takao

    2011-02-01

    The mithun (Bos frontalis), synonymous with mithan and gayal, is considered to be a domesticated form of gaur (B. gaurus). However, there has been a controversy concerning its origin. In an effort to address this issue, the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) genes of 20 mithun from Myanmar and 13 from Bhutan were sequenced to trace its maternal origin. Seven cytb haplotypes were found in the 33 mithun, and the phylogenetic tree for these haplotypes clearly showed three embranchments involving five gaur types, a B. indicus type, and a B. taurus type. Sixteen Myanmar and 12 Bhutan mithun had gaur haplotypes, while a B. indicus haplotype was found in three Myanmar and one Bhutan mithun. The B. taurus haplotype was detected in a single Myanmar animal. These results demonstrated that the principal maternal origin of mithun was gaur and suggested that it was directly domesticated from gaur. However, some introgression of domestic cattle existed in current mithun populations. The presence of cattle mtDNA raised the question of how many cattle nuclear genes might have been integrated into the gene pool of mithun. PMID:21269359

  10. Random mtDNA mutations modulate proliferation capacity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kukat, Alexandra; Edgar, Daniel; Bratic, Ivana; Maiti, Priyanka; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Increased mtDNA mutations in MEFs lead to high level of spontaneous immortalization. {yields} This process is independent of endogenous ROS production. {yields} Aerobic glycolysis significantly contributes to spontaneous immortalization of MEFs. -- Abstract: An increase in mtDNA mutation load leads to a loss of critical cells in different tissues thereby contributing to the physiological process of organismal ageing. Additionally, the accumulation of senescent cells that display changes in metabolic function might act in an active way to further disrupt the normal tissue function. We believe that this could be the important link missing in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of premature ageing in the mtDNA mutator mice. We tested proliferation capacity of mtDNA mutator cells in vitro. When cultured in physiological levels of oxygen (3%) their proliferation capacity is somewhat lower than wild-type cells. Surprisingly, in conditions of increased oxidative stress (20% O{sub 2}) mtDNA mutator mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit continuous proliferation due to spontaneous immortalization, whereas the same conditions promote senescence in wild-type cells. We believe that an increase in aerobic glycolysis observed in mtDNA mutator mice is a major mechanism behind this process. We propose that glycolysis promotes proliferation and allows a fast turnover of metabolites, but also leads to energy crisis due to lower ATP production rate. This could lead to compromised replication and/or repair and therefore, in rare cases, might lead to mutations in tumor suppressor genes and spontaneous immortalization.

  11. Concomitant replacement of language and mtDNA in South Caspian populations of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasidze, Ivan; Quinque, Dominique; Rahmani, Manijeh; Alemohamad, Seyed Ali; Stoneking, Mark

    2006-04-01

    The Gilaki and Mazandarani occupy the South Caspian region of Iran and speak languages belonging to the North-Western branch of Iranian languages . It has been suggested that their ancestors came from the Caucasus region, perhaps displacing an earlier group in the South Caspian . Linguistic evidence supports this scenario, in that the Gilaki and Mazandarani languages (but not other Iranian languages) share certain typological features with Caucasian languages . We analyzed patterns of mtDNA and Y chromosome variation in the Gilaki and Mazandarani. Based on mtDNA HV1 sequences, the Gilaki and Mazandarani most closely resemble their geographic and linguistic neighbors, namely other Iranian groups. However, their Y chromosome types most closely resemble those found in groups from the South Caucasus. A scenario that explains these differences is a south Caucasian origin for the ancestors of the Gilaki and Mazandarani, followed by introgression of women (but not men) from local Iranian groups, possibly because of patrilocality. Given that both mtDNA and language are maternally transmitted, the incorporation of local Iranian women would have resulted in the concomitant replacement of the ancestral Caucasian language and mtDNA types of the Gilaki and Mazandarani with their current Iranian language and mtDNA types. Concomitant replacement of language and mtDNA may be a more general phenomenon than previously recognized. PMID:16581511

  12. Nonrandom Wolbachia Infection Status of Drosophila melanogaster Strains with Different mtDNA Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Maria D. S.; Nolte, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria, which typically spread in the host population by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia is quite common but CI is variable, with most of the studies reporting low levels of CI. Surveying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and infection status in a worldwide D. melanogaster collection, we found that the Wolbachia infection was not randomly distributed among flies with different mtDNA haplotypes. This preferential infection of some mtDNA haplotypes could be caused by a recent spread of mtDNA haplotypes associated with the infection. The comparison of contemporary D. melanogaster samples with lines collected more than 50 years ago shows that indeed one haplotype with a high incidence of Wolbachia infection has increased in frequency. Consistent with this observation, we found that the acquisition of a Wolbachia infection in a population from Crete was accompanied with an almost complete mtDNA replacement, with the Wolbachia-associated haplotype becoming abundant. Although it is difficult to identify the evolutionary forces causing the global increase of wMel, the parallel sweep of Wolbachia and an mtDNA haplotype suggests a fitness advantage of the Wolbachia infection. PMID:18780877

  13. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M

    2016-06-21

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537-542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the "Out of Africa" model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  14. Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Endicott, Phillip; Westaway, Michael Carrington; Huynen, Leon; Parson, Walther; Millar, Craig D.; Willerslev, Eske; Lambert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The publication in 2001 by Adcock et al. [Adcock GJ, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(2):537–542] in PNAS reported the recovery of short mtDNA sequences from ancient Australians, including the 42,000-y-old Mungo Man [Willandra Lakes Hominid (WLH3)]. This landmark study in human ancient DNA suggested that an early modern human mitochondrial lineage emerged in Asia and that the theory of modern human origins could no longer be considered solely through the lens of the “Out of Africa” model. To evaluate these claims, we used second generation DNA sequencing and capture methods as well as PCR-based and single-primer extension (SPEX) approaches to reexamine the same four Willandra Lakes and Kow Swamp 8 (KS8) remains studied in the work by Adcock et al. Two of the remains sampled contained no identifiable human DNA (WLH15 and WLH55), whereas the Mungo Man (WLH3) sample contained no Aboriginal Australian DNA. KS8 reveals human mitochondrial sequences that differ from the previously inferred sequence. Instead, we recover a total of five modern European contaminants from Mungo Man (WLH3). We show that the remaining sample (WLH4) contains ∼1.4% human DNA, from which we assembled two complete mitochondrial genomes. One of these was a previously unidentified Aboriginal Australian haplotype belonging to haplogroup S2 that we sequenced to a high coverage. The other was a contaminating modern European mitochondrial haplotype. Although none of the sequences that we recovered matched those reported by Adcock et al., except a contaminant, these findings show the feasibility of obtaining important information from ancient Aboriginal Australian remains. PMID:27274055

  15. Mitochondrial transcription terminator family members mTTF and mTerf5 have opposing roles in coordination of mtDNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jõers, Priit; Lewis, Samantha C; Fukuoh, Atsushi; Parhiala, Mikael; Ellilä, Simo; Holt, Ian J; Jacobs, Howard T

    2013-01-01

    All genomes require a system for avoidance or handling of collisions between the machineries of DNA replication and transcription. We have investigated the roles in this process of the mTERF (mitochondrial transcription termination factor) family members mTTF and mTerf5 in Drosophila melanogaster. The two mTTF binding sites in Drosophila mtDNA, which also bind mTerf5, were found to coincide with major sites of replication pausing. RNAi-mediated knockdown of either factor resulted in mtDNA depletion and developmental arrest. mTTF knockdown decreased site-specific replication pausing, but led to an increase in replication stalling and fork regression in broad zones around each mTTF binding site. Lagging-strand DNA synthesis was impaired, with extended RNA/DNA hybrid segments seen in replication intermediates. This was accompanied by the accumulation of recombination intermediates and nicked/broken mtDNA species. Conversely, mTerf5 knockdown led to enhanced replication pausing at mTTF binding sites, a decrease in fragile replication intermediates containing single-stranded segments, and the disappearance of species containing segments of RNA/DNA hybrid. These findings indicate an essential and previously undescribed role for proteins of the mTERF family in the integration of transcription and DNA replication, preventing unregulated collisions and facilitating productive interactions between the two machineries that are inferred to be essential for completion of lagging-strand DNA synthesis. PMID:24068965

  16. mtDNA G10398A variation provides risk to type 2 diabetes in population group from the Jammu region of India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Varun; Sharma, Indu; Singh, Vishav Pratap; Verma, Sonali; Pandita, Anil; Singh, Vinod; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrion plays an integral role in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Mitochondrial electron-transport chain (ETC) is involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation and ATP mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. β-cell dysfunction is a critical component in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mtDNA G10398A variation (amino acid change: Alanine → Threonine) within the NADH dehydrogenase (ND3) subunit of complex I of mtDNA ETC, has emerged as a variation of clinical significance in various disorders including T2D. This variation is supposed to result in altered complex I function, leading to an increased rate of electron leakage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which might cause β-cell damage and impaired insulin secretion. The aim of the study was to explore the association of mtDNA G10398A variation with T2D in a total of 439 samples (196 T2D cases and 243 healthy controls) belonging to the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). The candidate gene association analyses showed significant association of mtDNA G10398A variant with T2D and the estimated odds ratio (OR) was 2.83 (1.64–4.90 at 95% CI) in the studied population group. The extent of genetic heterogeneity in T2D and diversity of the Indian population groups, make such replication studies pertinent to understand the etiology of T2D in these population groups. PMID:25606409

  17. POLRMT regulates the switch between replication primer formation and gene expression of mammalian mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Inge; Miranda, Maria; Posse, Viktor; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Mourier, Arnaud; Siira, Stefan J.; Bonekamp, Nina A.; Neumann, Ulla; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are vital in providing cellular energy via their oxidative phosphorylation system, which requires the coordinated expression of genes encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Transcription of the circular mammalian mtDNA depends on a single mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT). Although the transcription initiation process is well understood, it is debated whether POLRMT also serves as the primase for the initiation of mtDNA replication. In the nucleus, the RNA polymerases needed for gene expression have no such role. Conditional knockout of Polrmt in the heart results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction causing dilated cardiomyopathy in young mice. We further studied the molecular consequences of different expression levels of POLRMT and found that POLRMT is essential for primer synthesis to initiate mtDNA replication in vivo. Furthermore, transcription initiation for primer formation has priority over gene expression. Surprisingly, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) exists in an mtDNA-free pool in the Polrmt knockout mice. TFAM levels remain unchanged despite strong mtDNA depletion, and TFAM is thus protected from degradation of the AAA+ Lon protease in the absence of POLRMT. Last, we report that mitochondrial transcription elongation factor may compensate for a partial depletion of POLRMT in heterozygous Polrmt knockout mice, indicating a direct regulatory role of this factor in transcription. In conclusion, we present in vivo evidence that POLRMT has a key regulatory role in the replication of mammalian mtDNA and is part of a transcriptional mechanism that provides a switch between primer formation for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:27532055

  18. LOX-1, mtDNA damage, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages: implications in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zufeng; Liu, Shijie; Wang, Xianwei; Dai, Yao; Khaidakov, Magomed; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Xiang, David; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Lectin-like ox-LDL scavenger receptor-1 (LOX-1) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage play a key role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and inflammation. We posited that damaged mtDNA could trigger autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and LOX-1 may play a critical role in this process. Methods and results In order to examine this hypothesis, cultured human THP-1 macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were applied to study the link between LOX-1, mtDNA damage, autophagy, and NLRP3 inflammasome expression. Our data showed that LPS markedly induced LOX-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, autophagy, mtDNA damage, and NLRP3 inflammasome. LOX-1 inhibition with a binding antibody or siRNA inhibited ROS generation, autophagy and mtDNA damage, and a decreased expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. To study the LOX-1–NLRP3 inflammasome signalling, we performed studies using ROS inhibitors and an autophagy inducer, and found that both decreased the expression of NLRP3. On the other hand, autophagy inhibitor enhanced the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. Knockdown of DNase II inhibited autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome, providing further support for our hypothesis. Finally, we confirmed the relationship between LOX-1, ROS, mtDNA damage, autophagy, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in primary macrophages. Conclusions This study based on THP-1 macrophages and primary macrophages indicates that LOX-1-mediated autophagy and mtDNA damage play an essential role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in inflammatory disease states. PMID:24776598

  19. POLRMT regulates the switch between replication primer formation and gene expression of mammalian mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Inge; Miranda, Maria; Posse, Viktor; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Mourier, Arnaud; Siira, Stefan J; Bonekamp, Nina A; Neumann, Ulla; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Gustafsson, Claes M; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are vital in providing cellular energy via their oxidative phosphorylation system, which requires the coordinated expression of genes encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Transcription of the circular mammalian mtDNA depends on a single mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT). Although the transcription initiation process is well understood, it is debated whether POLRMT also serves as the primase for the initiation of mtDNA replication. In the nucleus, the RNA polymerases needed for gene expression have no such role. Conditional knockout of Polrmt in the heart results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction causing dilated cardiomyopathy in young mice. We further studied the molecular consequences of different expression levels of POLRMT and found that POLRMT is essential for primer synthesis to initiate mtDNA replication in vivo. Furthermore, transcription initiation for primer formation has priority over gene expression. Surprisingly, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) exists in an mtDNA-free pool in the Polrmt knockout mice. TFAM levels remain unchanged despite strong mtDNA depletion, and TFAM is thus protected from degradation of the AAA(+) Lon protease in the absence of POLRMT. Last, we report that mitochondrial transcription elongation factor may compensate for a partial depletion of POLRMT in heterozygous Polrmt knockout mice, indicating a direct regulatory role of this factor in transcription. In conclusion, we present in vivo evidence that POLRMT has a key regulatory role in the replication of mammalian mtDNA and is part of a transcriptional mechanism that provides a switch between primer formation for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:27532055

  20. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    PubMed

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals. PMID:22576954

  1. Heteroplasmy of Mouse mtDNA Is Genetically Unstable and Results in Altered Behavior and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; McManus, Meagan; Crimi, Marco; Waymire, Katrina; Lin, Chun Shi; Masubuchi, Satoru; Friend, Nicole; Koike, Maya; Chalkia, Dimitra; MacGregor, Grant; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Maternal inheritance of mtDNA is the rule in most animals, but the reasons for this pattern remain unclear. To investigate the consequence of overriding uniparental inheritance, we generated mice containing an admixture (heteroplasmy) of NZB and 129S6 mtDNAs in the presence of a congenic C57BL/6J nuclear background. Analysis of the segregation of the two mtDNAs across subsequent maternal generations revealed that proportion of NZB mtDNA was preferentially reduced. Ultimately, this segregation process produced NZB-129 heteroplasmic mice and their NZB or 129 mtDNA homo-plasmic counterparts. Phenotypic comparison of these three mtDNA lines demonstrated that the NZB-129 heteroplasmic mice, but neither homoplasmic counterpart, had reduced activity, food intake, respiratory exchange ratio; accentuated stress response; and cognitive impairment. Therefore, admixture of two normal but different mouse mtDNAs can be genetically unstable and can produce adverse physiological effects, factors that may explain the advantage of uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. PMID:23063123

  2. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A.; Coble, Michael D.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  3. Dog mitochondrial genome sequencing to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2014-09-01

    A Belgian dog population sample and several population studies worldwide have confirmed that only a limited number of mtDNA control region haplotypes is observed in the majority of dogs. The high population frequency of these haplotypes negatively impacts both the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis and the evidential value of a match with one of these haplotypes in casework. Variation within the mtDNA coding region was explored to improve the discrimination power of dog mtDNA analysis. In the current study, the entire mitochondrial genome of 161 dogs was sequenced applying a quality assured strategy and resulted in a total of 119 different mitochondrial genome sequences. Our research was focused on those dogs with the six most common control region haplotypes from a previous Belgian population study. We identified 33 informative SNPs that successfully divide the six most common control region haplotypes into 32 clusters of mitochondrial genome sequences. Determining the identity of these 33 polymorphic sites in addition to control region sequencing in case of a match with one of these 6 control region haplotypes could augment the exclusion probability of forensic dog mtDNA analysis from 92.5% to 97.5%. PMID:24905334

  4. Minifish mtDNA has abundance of repeat sequences and inefficient replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Peng, L-Y; You, C-P; Li, Q-L; Wen, M; Liu, S-J; Hong, Y-H

    2014-01-01

    Paedocypris is a newly described minifish genus endemic to Southeast Asia. Besides a tiny adult size of ~8 mm in length, minifish feature fragmentary habitats of acidic peat blackwater swamps, an unusual reproduction mode, truncated development and one of the smallest known genomes. A complete sequence is absent for the minifish mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence and its unusual feature in the minifish P. progenetica (Pp). We show that the Pp mtDNA is a circular molecule of 17,382 bp in length and has the same number of similarly oriented genes as in other vertebrates. Specifically, it comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 D-loop. Surprisingly, the D-loop is elusive for amplification by standard PCR conditions. The D-loop possesses a 28-bp dinucleotide TA repeat and more intriguingly, up to 25 copies of a 34-bp tandem repeat sequence. These tandem repeats predict the formation of paired regions. Hence, besides a generally conserved mtDNA with other vertebrates, the Pp mtDNA features an unusual D-loop and compromised DNA replication in vitro. PMID:25470288

  5. No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution. PMID:15024415

  6. High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D.; Li, Mingkun; Bauchet, Marc; Finstermeier, Knut; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Because of the time and cost associated with Sanger sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes, practically all evolutionary studies have screened samples first to define haplogroups and then either selected a few samples from each haplogroup, or many samples from a particular haplogroup of interest, for complete mtDNA genome sequencing. Such biased sampling precludes many analyses of interest. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing platforms to generate, rapidly and inexpensively, 109 complete mtDNA genome sequences from random samples of individuals from three Filipino groups, including one Negrito group, the Mamanwa. We obtained on average ∼55-fold coverage per sequence, with <1% missing data per sequence. Various analyses attest to the accuracy of the sequences, including comparison to sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the control region generated by Sanger sequencing; patterns of nucleotide substitution and the distribution of polymorphic sites across the genome; and the observed haplogroups. Bayesian skyline plots of population size change through time indicate similar patterns for all three Filipino groups, but sharply contrast with such plots previously constructed from biased sampling of complete mtDNA genomes, as well as with an artificially constructed sample of sequences that mimics the biased sampling. Our results clearly demonstrate that the high-throughput sequencing platforms are the methodology of choice for generating complete mtDNA genome sequences. PMID:21147912

  7. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A; Coble, Michael D; Parson, Walther

    2011-03-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  8. Deep sympatric mtDNA divergence in the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata)

    PubMed Central

    Kvie, Kjersti S; Hogner, Silje; Aarvik, Leif; Lifjeld, Jan T; Johnsen, Arild

    2013-01-01

    Deep sympatric intraspecific divergence in mtDNA may reflect cryptic species or formerly distinct lineages in the process of remerging. Preliminary results from DNA barcoding of Scandinavian butterflies and moths showed high intraspecific sequence variation in the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata. In this study, specimens from different localities in Norway and some samples from Finland and Scotland, with two congeneric species as outgroups, were sequenced with mitochondrial and nuclear markers to resolve the discrepancy found between mtDNA divergence and present species-level taxonomy. We found five COI sub-clades within the E. autumnata complex, most of which were sympatric and with little geographic structure. Nuclear markers (ITS2 and Wingless) showed little variation and gave no indications that E. autumnata comprises more than one species. The samples were screened with primers for Wolbachia outer surface gene (wsp) and 12% of the samples tested positive. Two Wolbachia strains were associated with different mtDNA sub-clades within E. autumnata, which may indicate indirect selection/selective sweeps on haplotypes. Our results demonstrate that deep mtDNA divergences are not synonymous with cryptic speciation and this has important implications for the use of mtDNA in species delimitation, like in DNA barcoding. PMID:23404314

  9. Presequence-Independent Mitochondrial Import of DNA Ligase Facilitates Establishment of Cell Lines with Reduced mtDNA Copy Number

    PubMed Central

    Spadafora, Domenico; Kozhukhar, Natalia; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the essential role played by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cellular physiology and bioenergetics, methods for establishing cell lines with altered mtDNA content are of considerable interest. Here, we report evidence for the existence in mammalian cells of a novel, low- efficiency, presequence-independent pathway for mitochondrial protein import, which facilitates mitochondrial uptake of such proteins as Chlorella virus ligase (ChVlig) and Escherichia coli LigA. Mouse cells engineered to depend on this pathway for mitochondrial import of the LigA protein for mtDNA maintenance had severely (up to >90%) reduced mtDNA content. These observations were used to establish a method for the generation of mouse cell lines with reduced mtDNA copy number by, first, transducing them with a retrovirus encoding LigA, and then inactivating in these transductants endogenous Lig3 with CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion to an average level of one copy per cell proceeds faster in cells engineered to maintain mtDNA at low copy number. This makes a low-mtDNA copy number phenotype resulting from dependence on mitochondrial import of DNA ligase through presequence-independent pathway potentially useful for rapidly shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy through partial mtDNA depletion. PMID:27031233

  10. Variation in germ line mtDNA heteroplasmy is determined prenatally but modified during subsequent transmission

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Christoph; Cree, Lynsey M.; Mourier, Arnaud; Stewart, James B.; Koolmeister, Camilla; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Wai, Timothy; Floros, Vasileios I.; Hagström, Erik; Chatzidaki, Emmanouella E.; Wiesner, Rudolph J.; Samuels, David C; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    A genetic bottleneck explains the marked changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy observed during the transmission of pathogenic mutations, but the precise timing remains controversial, and it is not clear whether selection plays a role. These issues are critically important for the genetic counseling of prospective mothers, and developing treatments aimed at disease prevention. By studying mice transmitting a heteroplasmic single base-pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNAMet gene, we show that mammalian mtDNA heteroplasmy levels are principally determined prenatally within the developing female germ line. Although we saw no evidence of mtDNA selection prenatally, skewed heteroplasmy levels were observed in the offspring of the next generation, consistent with purifying selection. High percentage levels of the tRNAMet mutation were linked to a compensatory increase in overall mitochondrial RNAs, ameliorating the biochemical phenotype, and explaining why fecundity is not compromised. PMID:23042113

  11. Contribution of non-reference alleles in mtDNA of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Spazzafumo, Liana; Balietti, Marta; Giorgetti, Belinda; Giuli, Cinzia; Postacchini, Demetrio; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2014-04-01

    Many observations suggest that mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could be responsible for the neurodegenerative changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we examined the signal intensity of the four alleles of each mtDNA nucleotide position (np) in whole blood of AD patients and age-matched controls using MitoChip v2.0 array. Our analysis identified 270 significantly different nps which, with one exception, showed an increased contribution of non-reference alleles in AD patients. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis showed that five of these nps could discriminate AD from control subjects with 80% of cases correctly classified. Our data support the hypothesis of mtDNA alterations as an important factor in the etiology of AD. PMID:25590040

  12. mtDNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in four Native American populations from southern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Chen, Yu.S.; Lott, M.T.; Wallace, D.C. ); Semino, O.; Santachiara-Beneceretti, A.S. ); Scott, C.R. ); Winter, M. )

    1994-02-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 60 Native Americans (Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe) from southern Mexico by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. Four groups of mtDNA haplotypes (haplogroups A,B,C, and D) characterize Amerind populations. The comparison of their mtDNA variation with that observed in other populations from Mexico and Central America permits a clear distinction among the different Middle American tribes and raises questions about some of their linguistic affiliations. The males of these population samples were also analyzed for Y-chromosome RFLPs with the probes 49a, 49f, and 12f2. This analysis suggests that certain Y-chromosome haplotypes were brought from Asia during the colonization of the Americas, and a differential gene flow was introduced into Native American populations from European males and females. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Mitochondrial fusion provides an 'initial metabolic complementation' controlled by mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Long, Qi; Liu, Jinglei; Tang, Haite; Li, Yuxing; Bao, Feixiang; Qin, Dajiang; Pei, Duanqing; Liu, Xingguo

    2015-07-01

    Heteroplasmic cells, harboring both mutant and normal mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs), must accumulate mutations to a threshold level before respiratory activity is affected. This phenomenon has led to the hypothesis of mtDNA complementation by inter-mitochondrial content mixing. The precise mechanisms of heteroplasmic complementation are unknown, but it depends both on the mtDNA nucleoid dynamics among mitochondria as well as the mitochondrial dynamics as influenced by mtDNA. We tracked nucleoids among the mitochondria in real time to show that they are shared after complete fusion but not 'kiss-and-run'. Employing a cell hybrid model, we further show that mtDNA-less mitochondria, which have little ATP production and extensive Opa1 proteolytic cleavage, exhibit weak fusion activity among themselves, yet remain competent in fusing with healthy mitochondria in a mitofusin- and OPA1-dependent manner, resulting in restoration of metabolic function. Depletion of mtDNA by overexpression of the matrix-targeted nuclease UL12.5 resulted in heterogeneous mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at the organelle level in mitofusin-null cells but not in wild type. In this system, overexpression of mitofusins or application of the fusion-promoting drug M1 could partially rescue the metabolic damage caused by UL12.5. Interestingly, mtDNA transcription/translation is not required for normal mitochondria to restore metabolic function to mtDNA-less mitochondria by fusion. Thus, interplay between mtDNA and fusion capacity governs a novel 'initial metabolic complementation'. PMID:25708700

  14. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang . E-mail: ygyaozh@yahoo.com; Zhang Yaping

    2006-09-22

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL.

  15. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Caporali, Leonardo; Carelli, Valerio; Zanna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia-deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E) are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however, mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is regulated and

  16. High leukocyte mtDNA content contributes to poor prognosis through ROS-mediated immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Xingchun; Chen, Yibing; Guo, Xu; Li, Jibin; Huang, Qichao; Yang, Yefa; Lyu, Zhuomin; Zhang, Hongxin; Xing, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Compelling epidemiological evidences indicate a significant association between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and incidence risk of several malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether leukocyte mtDNA content affect prognosis of HCC patients and underlying mechanism has never been explored. In our study, leukocyte mtDNA content was measured in 618 HCC patients and its prognostic value was analyzed. Moreover, we detected the immunophenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma concentrations of several cytokines in 40 HCC patients and assessed the modulating effects of mtDNA content on immunosuppression in cell models. Our results showed that HCC patients with high leukocyte mtDNA content exhibited a significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with low leukocyte mtDNA content. Leukocyte mtDNA content and TNM stage exhibited a notable joint effect in prognosis prediction. Furthermore, we found that patients with high leukocyte mtDNA content exhibited a higher frequency of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and lower frequency of NK cells in PBMCs and had higher TGF-β1 and lower TNF-α and IFN-γ plasma concentration when compared with those with low leukocyte mtDNA content, which suggests an immunosuppressive status. High leukocyte mtDNA content significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated secretion of TGF-β1, which accounted for higher Treg and lower NK frequency in PBMCs. In a conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that leukocyte mtDNA content is an independent prognostic marker complementing TNM stage and associated with an ROS-mediated immunosuppressive phenotype in HCC patients. PMID:26985767

  17. Multiple mtDNA deletions features in autosomal dominant and recessive diseases suggest distinct pathogeneses.

    PubMed

    Carrozzo, R; Hirano, M; Fromenty, B; Casali, C; Santorelli, F M; Bonilla, E; DiMauro, S; Schon, E A; Miranda, A F

    1998-01-01

    Multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions have been described in patients with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (AD-PEO) and in autosomal recessive disorders including mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) and autosomal recessive cardiomyopathy ophthalmoplegia (ARCO). The pathogenic bases of these disorders are unknown. We studied three patients with AD-PEO and three patients with autosomal recessive (AR)-PEO (two patients with MNGIE and one patient with ARCO). Histochemistry and Southern blot analyses of DNA were performed in skeletal muscle from the patients. Muscle mtDNA was used to characterize the pattern and amounts of the multiple mtDNA rearrangements; PCR analysis was performed to obtain finer maps of the deleted regions in both conditions. The patients with AD-PEO had myopathic features; the patients with AR-PEO had multisystem disorders. The percentage of ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers tended to be higher in muscle from the patients with AD-PEO (19% +/- 13.9, 29.7 +/- 26.3) than in muscle from the patients with AR-PEO (1.4% +/- 1.4, 3.3% +/- 3.2; p < 0.10). The sizes of the multiple mtDNA deletions ranged from approximately 4.0 to 10.0 kilobases in muscle from both groups of patients, and in both groups, we identified only deleted and no duplicated mtDNA molecules. Patients with AD-PEO harbored a greater proportion of deleted mtDNA species in muscle (31% +/- 5.3) than did patients with AR-PEO (9.7% +/- 9.1; p < 0.05). In the patients with AD-PEO, we identified a deletion that included the mtDNA heavy strand promoter (HSP) region, which had been previously described as the HSP deletion. The HSP deletion was not present in the patients with AR-PEO. Our findings show the clinical, histologic, and molecular genetic heterogeneity of these complex disorders. In particular, the proportions of multiple mtDNA deletions were higher in muscle samples from patients with AD-PEO than in those from

  18. Age-related decrease in mtDNA content as a consequence of mtDNA 4977 bp deletion.

    PubMed

    Zabihi Diba, Leila; Mohaddes Ardebili, Seyed Mojtaba; Gharesouran, Jalal; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    As one of the most frequent somatic mutations accumulated during aging in human mitochondrial DNA, the 4977 bp deletion has intrigued scientific interest in recent years. Although many studies have shown a significant increase in the amount of 4977 bp deletion, the findings with respect to an age-dependent escalate of ΔmtDNA4977 bp in blood are still disputatious. Therefore, we investigated the presence of common deletion and mtDNA deletion level in whole blood samples of 100 old individuals (60-90 years). We detected the accumulation of common deletion in 46 old individuals. Consequently, there was statistically significant difference between the aged and young individuals in mitochondrial content (p = 0.01) and deletion levels ranged from 2% to 17% of the total mtDNA (mean: 10% ± 0.02%). We conclude that common deletion has decreased the mtDNA content; however, it is not clearly detectable in the blood as one of the fast replicating tissues comparing with tissues with low mitotic activity. PMID:26152346

  19. Tissue-specific mtDNA abundance from exome data and its correlation with mitochondrial transcription, mass and respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Atlante, Anna; Gadaleta, Gemma; Pavesi, Giulio; Chiara, Matteo; De Virgilio, Caterina; Manzari, Caterina; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Prazzoli, Gian Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; Gissi, Carmela; Horner, David; Reyes, Aurelio; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain a population of mitochondria, variable in number and shape, which in turn contain multiple copies of a tiny compact genome (mtDNA) whose expression and function is strictly coordinated with the nuclear one. mtDNA copy number varies between different cell or tissues types, both in response to overall metabolic and bioenergetics demands and as a consequence or cause of specific pathological conditions. Here we present a novel and reliable methodology to assess the effective mtDNA copy number per diploid genome by investigating off-target reads obtained by whole-exome sequencing (WES) experiments. We also investigate whether and how mtDNA copy number correlates with mitochondrial mass, respiratory activity and expression levels. Analyzing six different tissues from three age- and sex-matched human individuals, we found a highly significant linear correlation between mtDNA copy number estimated by qPCR and the frequency of mtDNA off target WES reads. Furthermore, mtDNA copy number showed highly significant correlation with mitochondrial gene expression levels as measured by RNA-Seq as well as with mitochondrial mass and respiratory activity. Our methodology makes thus feasible, at a large scale, the investigation of mtDNA copy number in diverse cell-types, tissues and pathological conditions or in response to specific treatments. PMID:25446395

  20. Stochastic modelling, Bayesian inference, and new in vivo measurements elucidate the debated mtDNA bottleneck mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Iain G; Burgstaller, Joerg P; Havlicek, Vitezslav; Kolbe, Thomas; Rülicke, Thomas; Brem, Gottfried; Poulton, Jo; Jones, Nick S

    2015-01-01

    Dangerous damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be ameliorated during mammalian development through a highly debated mechanism called the mtDNA bottleneck. Uncertainty surrounding this process limits our ability to address inherited mtDNA diseases. We produce a new, physically motivated, generalisable theoretical model for mtDNA populations during development, allowing the first statistical comparison of proposed bottleneck mechanisms. Using approximate Bayesian computation and mouse data, we find most statistical support for a combination of binomial partitioning of mtDNAs at cell divisions and random mtDNA turnover, meaning that the debated exact magnitude of mtDNA copy number depletion is flexible. New experimental measurements from a wild-derived mtDNA pairing in mice confirm the theoretical predictions of this model. We analytically solve a mathematical description of this mechanism, computing probabilities of mtDNA disease onset, efficacy of clinical sampling strategies, and effects of potential dynamic interventions, thus developing a quantitative and experimentally-supported stochastic theory of the bottleneck. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07464.001 PMID:26035426

  1. Differences in Strength and Timing of the mtDNA Bottleneck between Zebrafish Germline and Non-germline Cells.

    PubMed

    Otten, Auke B C; Theunissen, Tom E J; Derhaag, Josien G; Lambrichs, Ellen H; Boesten, Iris B W; Winandy, Marie; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Raz, Erez; Gerards, Mike; Vanoevelen, Jo M; van den Bosch, Bianca J C; Muller, Marc; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2016-07-19

    We studied the mtDNA bottleneck in zebrafish to elucidate size, timing, and variation in germline and non-germline cells. Mature zebrafish oocytes contain, on average, 19.0 × 10(6) mtDNA molecules with high variation between oocytes. During embryogenesis, the mtDNA copy number decreases to ∼170 mtDNA molecules per primordial germ cell (PGC), a number similar to that in mammals, and to ∼50 per non-PGC. These occur at the same developmental stage, implying considerable variation in mtDNA copy number in (non-)PGCs of the same female, dictated by variation in the mature oocyte. The presence of oocytes with low mtDNA numbers, if similar in humans, could explain how (de novo) mutations can reach high mutation loads within a single generation. High mtDNA copy numbers in mature oocytes are established by mtDNA replication during oocyte development. Bottleneck differences between germline and non-germline cells, due to early differentiation of PGCs, may account for different distribution patterns of familial mutations. PMID:27373161

  2. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3) we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB), while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB) are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM) analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene), while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene). This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr), which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these two closely related

  3. HAPLOFIND: a new method for high-throughput mtDNA haplogroup assignment.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Dario; Sevini, Federica; Castellani, Gastone; Lomartire, Laura; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Deep sequencing technologies are completely revolutionizing the approach to DNA analysis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies entered in the "postgenomic era": the burst in sequenced samples observed in nuclear genomics is expected also in mitochondria, a trend that can already be detected checking complete mtDNA sequences database submission rate. Tools for the analysis of these data are available, but they fail in throughput or in easiness of use. We present here a new pipeline based on previous algorithms, inherited from the "nuclear genomic toolbox," combined with a newly developed algorithm capable of efficiently and easily classify new mtDNA sequences according to PhyloTree nomenclature. Detected mutations are also annotated using data collected from publicly available databases. Thanks to the analysis of all freely available sequences with known haplogroup obtained from GenBank, we were able to produce a PhyloTree-based weighted tree, taking into account each haplogroup pattern conservation. The combination of a highly efficient aligner, coupled with our algorithm and massive usage of asynchronous parallel processing, allowed us to build a high-throughput pipeline for the analysis of mtDNA sequences that can be quickly updated to follow the ever-changing nomenclature. HaploFind is freely accessible at the following Web address: https://haplofind.unibo.it. PMID:23696374

  4. Forensic and phylogeographic characterization of mtDNA lineages from northern Thailand (Chiang Mai).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Bodner, Martin; Amory, Sylvain; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander; Horst, David; Horst, Basil; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Parson, Walther; Brandstätter, Anita

    2009-11-01

    The immigration of diverse ethnic groups over the past centuries from surrounding countries into Thailand left footprints in the genetic composition of Thai mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The entire mtDNA control region (1,122 bp) was typed in 190 unrelated male volunteers from the northern Thailand province of Chiang Mai following highest quality standards. For a more precise haplogroup classification, selected single nucleotide polymorphisms from the mtDNA coding region were genotyped. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages. Quasi-median networks were constructed for visualisation of character conflicts. The data were put into population-genetic relationships with other Southeast Asian populations. Although the frequencies of the Thai haplogroups were characteristic for Southeast Asia in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, the Thai population was significantly different from other Southeast Asian populations. This necessitates establishing regional databases, especially for forensic applications. The population data have been submitted to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org) and will be available on publication. PMID:19727793

  5. Insertion of a self-splicing intron into the mtDNA of atriploblastic animal

    SciTech Connect

    Valles, Y.; Halanych, K.; Boore, J.L.

    2006-04-14

    Nephtys longosetosa is a carnivorous polychaete worm that lives in the intertidal and subtidal zones with worldwide distribution (pleijel&rouse2001). Its mitochondrial genome has the characteristics typical of most metazoans: 37 genes; circular molecule; almost no intergenic sequence; and no significant gene rearrangements when compared to other annelid mtDNAs (booremoritz19981995). Ubiquitous features as small intergenic regions and lack of introns suggested that metazoan mtDNAs are under strong selective pressures to reduce their genome size allowing for faster replication requirements (booremoritz19981995Lynch2005). Yet, in 1996 two type I introns were found in the mtDNA of the basal metazoan Metridium senile (FigureX). Breaking a long-standing rule (absence of introns in metazoan mtDNA), this finding was later supported by the further presence of group I introns in other cnidarians. Interestingly, only the class Anthozoa within cnidarians seems to harbor such introns. Although several hundreds of triploblastic metazoan mtDNAs have been sequenced, this study is the first evidence of mitochondrial introns in triploblastic metazoans. The cox1 gene of N. longosetosa has an intron of almost 2 kbs in length. This finding represents as well the first instance of a group II intron (anthozoans harbor group I introns) in all metazoan lineages. Opposite trends are observed within plants, fungi and protist mtDNAs, where introns (both group I and II) and other non-coding sequences are widespread. Plant, fungal and protist mtDNA structure and organization differ enormously from that of metazoan mtDNA. Both, plant and fungal mtDNA are dynamic molecules that undergo high rates of recombination, contain long intergenic spacer regions and harbor both group I and group II introns. However, as metazoans they have a conserved gene content. Protists, on the other hand have a striking variation of gene content and introns that account for the genome size variation. In contrast to

  6. Range-wide mtDNA phylogeography yields insights into the origins of Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Vidya, T N C; Sukumar, Raman; Melnick, Don J

    2009-03-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies of the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) reveal two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, an elucidation of which is central to understanding the species's evolution. Previous explanations for the divergent clades include introgression of mtDNA haplotypes between ancestral species, allopatric divergence of the clades between Sri Lanka or the Sunda region and the mainland, historical trade of elephants, and retention of divergent lineages due to large population sizes. However, these studies lacked data from India and Myanmar, which host approximately 70 per cent of all extant Asian elephants. In this paper, we analyse mtDNA sequence data from 534 Asian elephants across the species's range to explain the current distribution of the two divergent clades. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions, estimates of times of origin of clades, probable ancestral areas of origin inferred from dispersal-vicariance analyses and the available fossil record, we believe both clades originated from Elephas hysudricus. This probably occurred allopatrically in different glacial refugia, the alpha clade in the Myanmar region and the beta clade possibly in southern India-Sri Lanka, 1.6-2.1Myr ago. Results from nested clade and dispersal-vicariance analyses indicate a subsequent isolation and independent diversification of the beta clade in both Sri Lanka and the Sunda region, followed by northward expansion of the clade. We also find more recent population expansions in both clades based on mismatch distributions. We therefore suggest a contraction-expansion scenario during severe climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, with range expansions from different refugia during warmer interglacials leading to the varying geographical overlaps of the two mtDNA clades. We also demonstrate that trade in Asian elephants has not substantially altered the species's mtDNA population genetic structure. PMID:19019786

  7. Second generation sequencing allows for mtDNA mixture deconvolution and high resolution detection of heteroplasmy

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Mitchell M.; McQuillan, Megan R.; O’Hanlon, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To use parallel array pyrosequencing to deconvolute mixtures of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and provide high resolution analysis of mtDNA heteroplasmy. Methods The hypervariable segment 1 (HV1) of the mtDNA control region was analyzed from 30 individuals using the 454 GS Junior instrument. Mock mixtures were used to evaluate the system’s ability to deconvolute mixtures and to reliably detect heteroplasmy, including heteroplasmic differences between 5 family members of the same maternal lineage. Amplicon sequencing was performed on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated with primers that included multiplex identifiers (MID) and adaptors for pyrosequencing. Data analysis was performed using NextGENe® software. The analysis of an autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) locus (D18S51) and a Y-STR locus (DYS389 I/II) was performed simultaneously with a portion of HV1 to illustrate that multiplexing can encompass different markers of forensic interest. Results Mixtures, including heteroplasmic variants, can be detected routinely down to a component ratio of 1:250 (20 minor variant copies with a coverage rate of 5000 sequences) and can be readily detected down to 1:1000 (0.1%) with expanded coverage. Amplicon sequences from D18S51, DYS389 I/II, and the second half of HV1 were successfully partitioned and analyzed. Conclusions The ability to routinely deconvolute mtDNA mixtures down to a level of 1:250 allows for high resolution analysis of mtDNA heteroplasmy, and for differentiation of individuals from the same maternal lineage. The pyrosequencing approach results in poor resolution of homopolymeric sequences, and PCR/sequencing artifacts require a filtering mechanism similar to that for STR stutter and spectral bleed through. In addition, chimeric sequences from jumping PCR must be addressed to make the method operational. PMID:21674826

  8. Extracellular mtDNA activates NF-κB via toll-like receptor 9 and induces cell death in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Bliksøen, Marte; Mariero, Lars Henrik; Torp, May Kristin; Baysa, Anton; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Haugen, Fred; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Vaage, Jarle; Valen, Guro; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causes sterile inflammation, which exacerbates tissue injury. Elevated levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with AMI. We hypothesized that mtDNA triggers an innate immune response via TLR9 and NF-κB activation, causing cardiomyocyte injury. Murine cardiomyocytes express TLR9 mRNA and protein and were able to internalize fluorescently labeled mouse mtDNA. Incubation of human embryonic kidney cells with serum from AMI patients containing naturally elevated levels of mtDNA induced TLR9-dependent NF-κB activity. This effect was mimicked by isolated mtDNA. mtDNA activated NF-κB in reporter mice both in vivo and in isolated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, incubation of isolated cardiomyocytes with mtDNA induced cell death after 4 and 24 h. Laser confocal microscopy showed that incubation of cardiomyocytes with mtDNA accelerated mitochondrial depolarization induced by reactive oxygen species. In contrast to mtDNA, isolated total DNA did not activate NF-κB nor induce cell death. In conclusion, mtDNA can induce TLR9-dependent NF-κB activation in reporter cells and activate NF-κB in cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, mtDNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and death. Endogenous mtDNA in the extracellular space is a danger signal with direct detrimental effects on cardiomyocytes. PMID:27164906

  9. Integrity of the yeast mitochondrial genome, but not its distribution and inheritance, relies on mitochondrial fission and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Christof; Noriega, Thomas R.; Okreglak, Voytek; Fung, Jennifer C.; Walter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for mitochondrial and cellular function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mtDNA is organized in nucleoprotein structures termed nucleoids, which are distributed throughout the mitochondrial network and are faithfully inherited during the cell cycle. How the cell distributes and inherits mtDNA is incompletely understood although an involvement of mitochondrial fission and fusion has been suggested. We developed a LacO-LacI system to noninvasively image mtDNA dynamics in living cells. Using this system, we found that nucleoids are nonrandomly spaced within the mitochondrial network and observed the spatiotemporal events involved in mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, cells deficient in mitochondrial fusion and fission distributed and inherited mtDNA normally, pointing to alternative pathways involved in these processes. We identified such a mechanism, where we observed fission-independent, but F-actin–dependent, tip generation that was linked to the positioning of mtDNA to the newly generated tip. Although mitochondrial fusion and fission were dispensable for mtDNA distribution and inheritance, we show through a combination of genetics and next-generation sequencing that their absence leads to an accumulation of mitochondrial genomes harboring deleterious structural variations that cluster at the origins of mtDNA replication, thus revealing crucial roles for mitochondrial fusion and fission in maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25730886

  10. Cryptic diversity in the mtDNA of the ornamental fish Carnegiella strigata.

    PubMed

    Schneider, C H; Gross, M C; Terencio, M L; Porto, J I R

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) sequences of the marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, an ornamental fish exported from the Negro River, was examined to determine its genetic diversity and population structure in blackwater rivers (Negro and Uatumã Rivers) in the central Amazon. Analyses of a 646 bp fragment of the ATPase 6/8 mtDNA gene revealed two monophyletic lineages of C. strigata with considerable genetic distance between them (10-12%), suggesting that these lineages should not be considered a single stock. Furthermore, there were strong differences in the geographical distribution of the lineages. These results indicate a past association between drainages of the Negro and Uatumã Rivers. They also suggest that, in the Negro River, its main tributary, the Branco River, may act as a geographical barrier and potentially an ecological barrier between populations of the middle and lower portions of the river. PMID:22957865

  11. Investigation of mtDNA control region sequences in an Egyptian population sample.

    PubMed

    Elmadawy, Mostafa Ali; Nagai, Atsushi; Gomaa, Ghada M; Hegazy, Hanaa M R; Shaaban, Fawzy Eid; Bunai, Yasuo

    2013-11-01

    The sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were investigated in 101 unrelated individuals living in the northern region of Nile delta (Gharbia, N=55 and Kafrelsheikh, N=46). DNA was extracted from blood stained filter papers or buccal swabs. HV1, HV2 and HV3 were PCR amplified and sequenced; the resulted sequences were aligned and compared with revised Cambridge sequence (rCRS). The results revealed presence of total 93 different haplotypes, 86 of them are unique and 7 are shared haplotypes, the most common haplotype, was observed with a frequency, 2.97% of population sample. High mtDNA diversity was observed with genetic diversity and power of discrimination, 0.9982 and 0.9883, respectively. In this dataset the west Eurasian haplogroups predominated over the African haplogroups. The results would be useful for forensic examinations and human genetic studies. PMID:23910099

  12. Intraspecific phylogeography of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus: RFLP analysis of amplified mtDNA segments.

    PubMed

    Osentoski, M F; Lamb, T

    1995-12-01

    The slow rate of mtDNA evolution in turtles poses a limitation on the levels of intraspecific variation detectable by conventional restriction fragment surveys. We examined mtDNA variation in the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) using an alternative restriction assay, one in which PCR-amplified segments of the mitochondrial genome were digested with tetranucleotide-site endonucleases. Restriction fragment polymorphisms representing four amplified regions were analysed to evaluate population genetic structure among 112 tortoises throughout the species' range. Thirty-six haplotypes were identified, and three major geographical assemblages (Eastern, Western, and Mid-Florida) were resolved by UPGMA and parsimony analyses. Eastern and Western assemblages abut near the Apalachicola drainage, whereas the Mid-Florida assemblage appears restricted to the Brooksville Ridge. The Eastern/Western assemblage boundary is remarkably congruent with phylogeographic profiles for eight additional species from the south-eastern U.S., representing both freshwater and terrestrial realms. PMID:8564009

  13. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Michiko; MURAKAMI, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin. PMID:24317269

  14. Non-randomized mtDNA damage after ionizing radiation via charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xinguo; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Rong; He, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Although it is well known that there are mutation hot spots in mtDNA, whether there are damage hot spots remain elusive. In this study, the regional DNA damage of mitochondrial genome after ionizing radiation was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The mtDNA damage level was found to be dose-dependent and regional unequal. The control region was the most susceptible region to oxidative damage. GGG, as an typical hole trap during charge transport, was found to be disproportionally enriched in the control region. A total of 107 vertebrate mitochondrial genomes were then analyzed to testify whether the GGG enrichment in control region was evolutionary conserved. Surprisingly, the triple G enrichment can be observed in most of the homeothermal animals, while the majority of heterothermic animals showed no triple G enrichment. These results indicated that the triple G enrichment in control region was related to the mitochondrial metabolism during evolution.

  15. Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Hickey, Eileen; Vega, Emilce; Sykes, Bryan; Guida, Valentina; Rengo, Chiara; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Thomas, Mark; Rychkov, Serge; Rychkov, Oksana; Rychkov, Yuri; Gölge, Mukaddes; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Hill, Emmeline; Bradley, Dan; Romano, Valentino; Calì, Francesco; Vona, Giuseppe; Demaine, Andrew; Papiha, Surinder; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Hatina, Jiři; Belledi, Michele; Di Rienzo, Anna; Oppenheim, Ariella; Nørby, Søren; Al-Zaheri, Nadia; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana; Scozzari, Rosaria; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    Founder analysis is a method for analysis of nonrecombining DNA sequence data, with the aim of identification and dating of migrations into new territory. The method picks out founder sequence types in potential source populations and dates lineage clusters deriving from them in the settlement zone of interest. Here, using mtDNA, we apply the approach to the colonization of Europe, to estimate the proportion of modern lineages whose ancestors arrived during each major phase of settlement. To estimate the Palaeolithic and Neolithic contributions to European mtDNA diversity more accurately than was previously achievable, we have now extended the Near Eastern, European, and northern-Caucasus databases to 1,234, 2,804, and 208 samples, respectively. Both back-migration into the source population and recurrent mutation in the source and derived populations represent major obstacles to this approach. We have developed phylogenetic criteria to take account of both these factors, and we suggest a way to account for multiple dispersals of common sequence types. We conclude that (i) there has been substantial back-migration into the Near East, (ii) the majority of extant mtDNA lineages entered Europe in several waves during the Upper Palaeolithic, (iii) there was a founder effect or bottleneck associated with the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,000 years ago, from which derives the largest fraction of surviving lineages, and (iv) the immigrant Neolithic component is likely to comprise less than one-quarter of the mtDNA pool of modern Europeans. PMID:11032788

  16. Distribution of sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Native North Americans.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, J G; Smith, D G

    1997-12-01

    The distributions of mtDNA diversity within and/or among North American haplogroups, language groups, and tribes were used to characterize the process of tribalization that followed the colonization of the New World. Approximately 400 bp from the mtDNA control region of 1 Na-Dene and 33 Amerind individuals representing a wide variety of languages and geographic origins were sequenced. With the inclusion of data from previous studies, 225 native North American (284 bp) sequences representing 85 distinct mtDNA lineages were analyzed. Mean pairwise sequence differences between (and within) tribes and language groups were primarily due to differences in the distribution of three of the four major haplogroups that evolved before settlement of the New World. Pairwise sequence differences within each of these three haplogroups were more similar than previous studies based on restriction enzyme analysis have indicated. The mean of pairwise sequence differences between Amerind members of haplogroup A, the most common of the four haplogroups in North America, was only slightly higher than that for the Eskimo, providing no evidence of separate ancestry, but was about two-thirds higher than that for the Na-Dene. However, analysis of pairwise sequence divergence between only tribal-specific lineages, unweighted for sample size, suggests that random evolutionary processes have reduced sequence diversity within the Na-Dene and that members of all three language groups possess approximately equally diverse mtDNA lineages. Comparisons of diversity within and between specific ethnic groups with the largest sample size were also consistent with this outcome. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that the New World was settled by more than a single migration. Because lineages tended not to cluster by tribe and because lineage sharing among linguistically unrelated groups was restricted to geographically proximate groups, the tribalization process probably did not occur

  17. Bridging near and remote Oceania: mtDNA and NRY variation in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Delfin, Frederick; Myles, Sean; Choi, Ying; Hughes, David; Illek, Robert; van Oven, Mannis; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Although genetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the colonization of Near and Remote Oceania, important gaps still exist. One such gap is the Solomon Islands, which extend between Bougainville and Vanuatu, thereby bridging Near and Remote Oceania, and include both Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups. Here, we describe patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in over 700 individuals from 18 populations in the Solomons, including 11 Austronesian-speaking groups, 3 Papuan-speaking groups, and 4 Polynesian Outliers (descended via back migration from Polynesia). We find evidence for ancient (pre-Lapita) colonization of the Solomons in old NRY paragroups as well as from M2-M353, which probably arose in the Solomons ∼9,200 years ago and is the most frequent NRY haplogroup there. There are no consistent genetic differences between Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups, suggesting extensive genetic contact between them. Santa Cruz, which is located in Remote Oceania, shows unusually low frequencies of mtDNA and NRY haplogroups of recent Asian ancestry. This is in apparent contradiction with expectations based on archaeological and linguistic evidence for an early (∼3,200 years ago), direct colonization of Santa Cruz by Lapita people from the Bismarck Archipelago, via a migration that "leapfrogged" over the rest of the Solomons. Polynesian Outliers show dramatic island-specific founder events involving various NRY haplogroups. We also find that NRY, but not mtDNA, genetic distance is correlated with the geographic distance between Solomons groups and that historically attested spheres of cultural interaction are associated with the recent genetic structure of Solomons groups, as revealed by mtDNA HV1 sequence and Y-STR haplotype diversity. Our results fill an important lacuna in human genetic studies of Oceania and aid in understanding the colonization and genetic history of

  18. Mitochondrial comparative genomics and phylogenetic signal assessment of mtDNA among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Maryam; Daubois, Laurence; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genes, such as cytochrome C oxidase genes (cox), have been widely used for barcoding in many groups of organisms, although this approach has been less powerful in the fungal kingdom due to the rapid evolution of their mt genomes. The use of mt genes in phylogenetic studies of Dikarya has been met with success, while early diverging fungal lineages remain less studied, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Advances in next-generation sequencing have substantially increased the number of publically available mtDNA sequences for the Glomeromycota. As a result, comparison of mtDNA across key AMF taxa can now be applied to assess the phylogenetic signal of individual mt coding genes, as well as concatenated subsets of coding genes. Here we show comparative analyses of publically available mt genomes of Glomeromycota, augmented with two mtDNA genomes that were newly sequenced for this study (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM240159 and Glomus aggregatum DAOM240163), resulting in 16 complete mtDNA datasets. R. irregularis isolate DAOM240159 and G. aggregatum isolate DAOM240163 showed mt genomes measuring 72,293bp and 69,505bp with G+C contents of 37.1% and 37.3%, respectively. We assessed the phylogenies inferred from single mt genes and complete sets of coding genes, which are referred to as "supergenes" (16 concatenated coding genes), using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests, in order to identify genes that best described AMF phylogeny. We found that rnl, nad5, cox1, and nad2 genes, as well as concatenated subset of these genes, provided phylogenies that were similar to the supergene set. This mitochondrial genomic analysis was also combined with principal coordinate and partitioning analyses, which helped to unravel certain evolutionary relationships in the Rhizophagus genus and for G. aggregatum within the Glomeromycota. We showed evidence to support the position of G. aggregatum within the R. irregularis 'species complex'. PMID:26868331

  19. Complete mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi and an approach to anopheline divergence time

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) of members of the northern and southern genotypes of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi were used for comparative studies to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for modern anophelines, to evaluate differentiation within this taxon, and to seek evidence of incipient speciation. Methods The mtDNAs were sequenced from mosquitoes from Belize and Brazil and comparative analyses of structure and base composition, among others, were performed. A maximum likelihood approach linked with phylogenetic information was employed to detect evidence of selection and a Bayesian approach was used to date the split between the subgenus Nyssorhynchus and other Anopheles subgenera. Results The comparison of mtDNA sequences within the Anopheles darlingi taxon does not provide sufficient resolution to establish different units of speciation within the species. In addition, no evidence of positive selection in any protein-coding gene of the mtDNA was detected, and purifying selection likely is the basis for this lack of diversity. Bayesian analysis supports the conclusion that the most recent ancestor of Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles+Cellia was extant ~94 million years ago. Conclusion Analyses of mtDNA genomes of Anopheles darlingi do not provide support for speciation in the taxon. The dates estimated for divergence among the anopheline groups tested is in agreement with the geological split of western Gondwana (95 mya), and provides additional support for explaining the absence of Cellia in the New World, and Nyssorhynchus in the Afro-Eurasian continents. PMID:20470395

  20. Coding region SNP analysis to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The high population frequencies of three control region haplotypes contribute to the low discrimination power of the dog mtDNA control region. It also diminishes the evidential power of a match with one of these haplotypes in forensic casework. A mitochondrial genome study of 214 Belgian dogs suggested 26 polymorphic coding region sites that successfully resolved dogs with the three most frequent control region haplotypes. In this study, three SNP assays were developed to determine the identity of the 26 informative sites. The control region of 132 newly sampled dogs was sequenced and added to the study of 214 dogs. The assays were applied to 58 dogs of the haplotypes of interest, which confirmed their suitability for enhancing dog mtDNA discrimination power. In the Belgian population study of 346 dogs, the set of 26 sites divided the dogs into 25 clusters of mtGenome sequences with substantially lower population frequency estimates than their control region sequences. In case of a match with one of the three control region haplotypes, using these three SNP assays in conjunction with control region sequencing would augment the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis from 92.9% to 97.0%. PMID:25299153

  1. mtDNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in four Native American populations from southern Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A.; Chen, Y. S.; Semino, O.; Santachiara-Beneceretti, A. S.; Scott, C. R.; Lott, M. T.; Winter, M.; Wallace, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 60 Native Americans (Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe) from southern Mexico by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. Four groups of mtDNA haplotypes (haplogroups A, B, C, and D) characterize Amerind populations, but only three (haplogroups A, B, and C) were observed in these Mexican populations. The comparison of their mtDNA variation with that observed in other populations from Mexico and Central America permits a clear distinction among the different Middle American tribes and raises questions about some of their linguistic affiliations. The males of these population samples were also analyzed for Y-chromosome RFLPs with the probes 49a, 49f, and 12f2. This analysis suggests that certain Y-chromosome haplotypes were brought from Asia during the colonization of the Americas, and a differential gene flow was introduced into Native American populations from European males and females. Images Figure 4 PMID:8304347

  2. Polynesian genetic affinities with southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNA analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, T.; Redd, A.J.; Stoneking. M.

    1995-08-01

    Polynesian genetic affinities to populations of Asia were studied using mtDNA markers. A total of 1,037 individuals from 12 populations were screened for a 9-bp deletion in the intergenic region between the COII and tRNA{sup Lys}genes that approaches fixation in Polynesians. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes that identify specific mtDNA control region nucleotide substitutions were used to describe variation in individuals with the 9-bp deletion. The 9-bp deletion was not observed in northern Indians, Bangladeshis, or Pakistanis but was seen at low to moderate frequencies in the nine other Southeast Asian populations. Three substitutions in the control region at positions 16217, 16247 and 16261 have previously been observed at high frequency in Polynesian mtDNAs; this {open_quotes}Polynesian motif{close_quotes} was observed in 20% of east Indonesians with the 9-bp deletion but was observed in only one additional individual. mtDNA types related to the Polynesian motif are highest in frequency in the corridor from Taiwan south through the Philippines and east Indonesia, and the highest diversity for these types is in Taiwan. These results are consistent with linguistic evidence of a Taiwanese origin for the proto-Polynesian expansion, which spread throughout Oceania by way of Indonesia. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A new mtDNA mutation showing accumulation with time and restriction to skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, K.; Wilson, J.N.; Taylor, L.

    1997-02-01

    We have identified a new mutation in mtDNA, involving tRNA{sup Leu(CUN)} in a patient manifesting an isolated skeletal myopathy. This heteroplasmic A{r_arrow}G transition at position 12320 affects the T{Psi}C loop at a conserved site and was not found in 120 controls. Analysis of cultured fibroblasts, white blood cells/platelets, and skeletal muscle showed that only skeletal muscle contained the mutation and that only this tissue demonstrated a biochemical defect of respiratory-chain activity. In a series of four muscle-biopsy specimens taken over a 12-year period, there was a gradual increase, from 70% to 90%, in the overall level of mutation, as well as a marked clinical deterioration. Single-fiber PCR confirmed that the proportion of mutant mtDNA was highest in cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. This study, which reports a mutation involving tRNA{sup Leu(CUN)}, demonstrates clearly that mtDNA point mutations can accumulate over time and may be restricted in their tissue distribution. Furthermore, clinical deterioration seemed to follow the increase in the level of mutation, although, interestingly, the appearance of fibers deficient in respiratory-chain activity showed a lag period. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Mass spectrometric base composition profiling: Implications for forensic mtDNA databasing☆

    PubMed Central

    Eduardoff, Mayra; Huber, Gabriela; Bayer, Birgit; Schmid, Dagmar; Anslinger, Katja; Göbel, Tanja; Zimmermann, Bettina; Schneider, Peter M.; Röck, Alexander W.; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    In forensic genetics mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is usually analyzed by direct Sanger-type sequencing (STS). This method is known to be laborious and sometimes prone to human error. Alternative methods have been proposed that lead to faster results. Among these are methods that involve mass-spectrometry resulting in base composition profiles that are, by definition, less informative than the full nucleotide sequence. Here, we applied a highly automated electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) system (PLEX-ID) to an mtDNA population study to compare its performance with respect to throughput and concordance to STS. We found that the loss of information power was relatively low compared to the gain in speed and analytical standardization. The detection of point and length heteroplasmy turned out to be roughly comparable between the technologies with some individual differences related to the processes. We confirm that ESI-MS provides a valuable platform for analyzing mtDNA variation that can also be applied in the forensic context. PMID:24054029

  5. Polynesian genetic affinities with Southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Melton, T; Peterson, R; Redd, A J; Saha, N; Sofro, A S; Martinson, J; Stoneking, M

    1995-01-01

    Polynesian genetic affinities to populations of Asia were studied using mtDNA markers. A total of 1,037 individuals from 12 populations were screened for a 9-bp deletion in the intergenic region between the COII and tRNA(Lys) genes that approaches fixation in Polynesians. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes that identify specific mtDNA control region nucleotide substitutions were used to describe variation in individuals with the 9-bp deletion. The 9-bp deletion was not observed in northern Indians, Bangladeshis, or Pakistanis but was seen at low to moderate frequencies in the nine other Southeast Asian populations. Three substitutions in the control region at positions 16217, 16247, and 16261 have previously been observed at high frequency in Polynesian mtDNAs; this "Polynesian motif" was observed in 20% of east Indonesians with the 9-bp deletion but was observed in only one additional individual. mtDNA types related to the Polynesian motif are highest in frequency in the corridor from Taiwan south through the Philippines and east Indonesia, and the highest diversity for these types is in Taiwan. These results are consistent with linguistic evidence of a Taiwanese origin for the proto-Polynesian expansion, which spread throughout Oceania by way of Indonesia. PMID:7668267

  6. Biological relationship between Central and South American Chibchan speaking populations: evidence from mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Melton, Phillip E; Briceño, I; Gómez, A; Devor, E J; Bernal, J E; Crawford, M H

    2007-05-01

    We examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and haplotype diversity in 188 individuals from three Chibchan (Kogi, Arsario, and Ijka) populations and one Arawak (Wayuú) group from northeast Colombia to determine the biological relationship between lower Central American and northern South American Chibchan speakers. mtDNA haplogroups were obtained for all individuals and mtDNA HVS-I sequence data were obtained for 110 samples. Resulting sequence data were compared to 16 other Caribbean, South, and Central American populations using diversity measures, neutrality test statistics, sudden and spatial mismatch models, intermatch distributions, phylogenetic networks, and a multidimensional scaling plot. Our results demonstrate the existence of a shared maternal genetic structure between Central American Chibchan, Mayan populations and northern South American Chibchan-speakers. Additionally, these results suggest an expansion of Chibchan-speakers into South America associated with a shift in subsistence strategies because of changing ecological conditions that occurred in the region between 10,000-14,000 years before present. PMID:17340631

  7. Detection of age-related duplications in mtDNA from human muscles and bones.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Marie; Thèves, Catherine; Keyser, Christine; Farrugia, Audrey; Baraybar, Jose-Pablo; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the age-related accumulation of duplications in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracted from skeletal muscle. This kind of mutation had not yet been studied in bone. The detection of age-related mutations in bone tissue could help to estimate age at death within the context of legal medicine or/and anthropological identification procedures, when traditional osteological markers studied are absent or inefficient. As we detected an accumulation of a point mutation in mtDNA from an older individual's bones in a previous study, we tried here to identify if three reported duplications (150, 190, 260 bp) accumulate in this type of tissue. We developed a sensitive method which consists in the use of back-to-back primers during amplification followed by an electrophoresis capillary analysis. The aim of this study was to confirm that at least one duplication appears systematically in muscle tissue after the age of 20 and to evaluate the duplication age appearance in bones extracted from the same individuals. We found that the number of duplications increase from 38 years and that at least one duplicated fragment is present in 50% of cases after 70 years in this tissue. These results confirm that several age-related mutations can be detected in the D-loop of mtDNA and open the way for the use of molecular markers for age estimation in forensic and/or anthropological identification. PMID:20358214

  8. The origin of Eastern European Jews revealed by autosomal, sex chromosomal and mtDNA polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to establish the likely origin of EEJ (Eastern European Jews) by genetic distance analysis of autosomal markers and haplogroups on the X and Y chromosomes and mtDNA. Results According to the autosomal polymorphisms the investigated Jewish populations do not share a common origin, and EEJ are closer to Italians in particular and to Europeans in general than to the other Jewish populations. The similarity of EEJ to Italians and Europeans is also supported by the X chromosomal haplogroups. In contrast according to the Y-chromosomal haplogroups EEJ are closest to the non-Jewish populations of the Eastern Mediterranean. MtDNA shows a mixed pattern, but overall EEJ are more distant from most populations and hold a marginal rather than a central position. The autosomal genetic distance matrix has a very high correlation (0.789) with geography, whereas the X-chromosomal, Y-chromosomal and mtDNA matrices have a lower correlation (0.540, 0.395 and 0.641 respectively). Conclusions The close genetic resemblance to Italians accords with the historical presumption that Ashkenazi Jews started their migrations across Europe in Italy and with historical evidence that conversion to Judaism was common in ancient Rome. The reasons for the discrepancy between the biparental markers and the uniparental markers are discussed. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Damian Labuda (nominated by Jerzy Jurka), Kateryna Makova and Qasim Ayub (nominated by Dan Graur). PMID:20925954

  9. Differential mtDNA damage patterns in a transgenic mouse model of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Amanda; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Silva, Francisca; Maciel, Patrícia; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Duarte-Silva, Sara; Santos, Cristina; Lima, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with late onset neurodegenerative disorders, among which is Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3). In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of MJD, we reported a decrease in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and an accumulation of the 3876-bp deletion with age and with phenotype development. We extended this study by analyzing the pattern of mtDNA depletion and the accumulation of the 3876-bp deletion in 12 older transgenic (TG) and 4 wild-type (wt) animals, and by investigating the accumulation of somatic mutations in the D-loop region in 76 mice (42 TG and 34 wt). mtDNA damage was studied in TG and wt mice at different ages and tissues (blood, pontine nuclei, and hippocampus). Results for older mice demonstrate an accumulation of the mtDNA 3867-bp deletion with age, which was more pronounced in TG animals. Furthermore, the tendency for mtDNA copy number decrease with age, in all analyzed tissues of TG and wt animals, was also confirmed. No point mutations were detected in the D-loop, neither in TG nor wt animals, in any of the tissues analyzed. Due to the absence of mtDNA somatic mutations, we can suggest that mtDNA point mutation accumulation cannot be used to monitor the development and progression of the phenotype in this mouse model and likely in any MJD mice model. The present results further confirm not only the association between mtDNA alterations (copy number and deletions) and age, but also between such alterations and the expression of the mutant ataxin-3 in TG mice. PMID:25001003

  10. Population variation of human mtDNA control region sequences detected by enzymatic amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed Central

    Stoneking, M; Hedgecock, D; Higuchi, R G; Vigilant, L; Erlich, H A

    1991-01-01

    A method for detecting sequence variation of hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region was developed. The technique uses hybridization of sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes to DNA sequences that have been amplified by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region from 52 individuals were determined; these sequences were then used to define nine regions suitable for SSO typing. A total of 23 SSO probes were used to detect sequence variants at these nine regions in 525 individuals from five ethnic groups (African, Asian, Caucasian, Japanese, and Mexican). The SSO typing revealed an enormous amount of variability, with 274 mtDNA types observed among these 525 individuals and with diversity values, for each population, exceeding .95. For each of the nine mtDNA regions significant differences in the frequencies of sequence variants were observed between these five populations. The mtDNA SSO-typing system was successfully applied to a case involving individual identification of skeletal remains; the probability of a random match was approximately 0.7%. The potential useful applications of this mtDNA SSO-typing system thus include the analysis of individual identity as well as population genetic studies. Images Figure 3 PMID:1990843

  11. Loss-of-function mutations in MGME1 impair mtDNA replication and cause multi-systemic mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Kornblum, Cornelia; Nicholls, Thomas J; Haack, Tobias B.; Schöler, Susanne; Peeva, Viktoriya; Danhauser, Katharina; Hallmann, Kerstin; Zsurka, Gábor; Rorbach, Joanna; Iuso, Arcangela; Wieland, Thomas; Sciacco, Monica; Ronchi, Dario; Comi, Giacomo P.; Moggio, Maurizio; Quinzii, Catarina M.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Calvo, Sarah E.; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Klopstock, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Minczuk, Michal; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Prokisch, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Known disease mechanisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance disorders alter either the mitochondrial replication machinery (POLG1, POLG22 and C10orf23) or the biosynthesis pathways of deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates for mtDNA synthesis4–11. However, in many of these disorders, the underlying genetic defect has not yet been discovered. Here, we identified homozygous nonsense and missense mutations in the orphan gene C20orf72 in three families with a mitochondrial syndrome characterized by external ophthalmoplegia, emaciation, and respiratory failure. Muscle biopsies showed mtDNA depletion and multiple mtDNA deletions. C20orf72, hereafter MGME1 (mitochondrial genome maintenance exonuclease 1), encodes a mitochondrial RecB-type exonuclease belonging to the PD-(D/E)XK nuclease superfamily. We demonstrate that MGME1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and processes DNA flap substrates. Upon chemically induced mtDNA depletion, patient fibroblasts fail to repopulate. They also accumulate intermediates of stalled replication and show increased levels of 7S DNA, as do MGME1-depleted cells. Hence, we show that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for mitochondrial genome maintenance. PMID:23313956

  12. mtDNA haplogroup and single nucleotide polymorphisms structure human microbiome communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although our microbial community and genomes (the human microbiome) outnumber our genome by several orders of magnitude, to what extent the human host genetic complement informs the microbiota composition is not clear. The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Consortium established a unique population-scale framework with which to characterize the relationship of microbial community structure with their human hosts. A wide variety of taxa and metabolic pathways have been shown to be differentially distributed by virtue of race/ethnicity in the HMP. Given that mtDNA haplogroups are the maternally derived ancestral genomic markers and mitochondria’s role as the generator for cellular ATP, characterizing the relationship between human mtDNA genomic variants and microbiome profiles becomes of potential marked biologic and clinical interest. Results We leveraged sequencing data from the HMP to investigate the association between microbiome community structures with its own host mtDNA variants. 15 haplogroups and 631 mtDNA nucleotide polymorphisms (mean sequencing depth of 280X on the mitochondria genome) from 89 individuals participating in the HMP were accurately identified. 16S rRNA (V3-V5 region) sequencing generated microbiome taxonomy profiles and whole genome shotgun sequencing generated metabolic profiles from various body sites were treated as traits to conduct association analysis between haplogroups and host clinical metadata through linear regression. The mtSNPs of individuals with European haplogroups were associated with microbiome profiles using PLINK quantitative trait associations with permutation and adjusted for multiple comparisons. We observe that among 139 stool and 59 vaginal posterior fornix samples, several haplogroups show significant association with specific microbiota (q-value < 0.05) as well as their aggregate community structure (Chi-square with Monte Carlo, p < 0.005), which confirmed and expanded previous research on the

  13. Mitochondrial nucleoid clusters protect newly synthesized mtDNA during Doxorubicin- and Ethidium Bromide-induced mitochondrial stress.

    PubMed

    Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Pajuelo Reguera, David; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is compacted in ribonucleoprotein complexes called nucleoids, which can divide or move within the mitochondrial network. Mitochondrial nucleoids are able to aggregate into clusters upon reaction with intercalators such as the mtDNA depletion agent Ethidium Bromide (EB) or anticancer drug Doxorobicin (DXR). However, the exact mechanism of nucleoid clusters formation remains unknown. Resolving these processes may help to elucidate the mechanisms of DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we addressed the role of two key nucleoid proteins; mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB); in the formation of mitochondrial nucleoid clusters during the action of intercalators. We found that both intercalators cause numerous aberrations due to perturbing their native status. By blocking mtDNA replication, both agents also prevented mtDNA association with TFAM, consequently causing nucleoid aggregation into large nucleoid clusters enriched with TFAM, co-existing with the normal nucleoid population. In the later stages of intercalation (>48h), TFAM levels were reduced to 25%. In contrast, mtSSB was released from mtDNA and freely distributed within the mitochondrial network. Nucleoid clusters mostly contained nucleoids with newly replicated mtDNA, however the nucleoid population which was not in replication mode remained outside the clusters. Moreover, the nucleoid clusters were enriched with p53, an anti-oncogenic gatekeeper. We suggest that mitochondrial nucleoid clustering is a mechanism for protecting nucleoids with newly replicated DNA against intercalators mediating genotoxic stress. These results provide new insight into the common mitochondrial response to mtDNA stress and can be implied also on DXR-induced mitochondrial cytotoxicity. PMID:27102948

  14. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Ana M; Cook, James M

    2009-01-01

    Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306) of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may reflect a bottleneck during

  15. Thymidine kinase and mtDNA depletion in human cardiomyopathy: epigenetic and translational evidence for energy starvation

    PubMed Central

    Koczor, Christopher A.; Torres, Rebecca A.; Fields, Earl J.; Boyd, Amy; He, Stanley; Patel, Nilamkumar; Lee, Eva K.; Samarel, Allen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses how depletion of human cardiac left ventricle (LV) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and epigenetic nuclear DNA methylation promote cardiac dysfunction in human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) through regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide kinases. Samples of DCM LV and right ventricle (n = 18) were obtained fresh at heart transplant surgery. Parallel samples from nonfailing (NF) controls (n = 12) were from donor hearts found unsuitable for clinical use. We analyzed abundance of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) using qPCR. LV mtDNA was depleted in DCM (50%, P < 0.05 each) compared with NF. No detectable change in RV mtDNA abundance occurred. DNA methylation and gene expression were determined using microarray analysis (GEO accession number: GSE43435). Fifty-seven gene promoters exhibited DNA hypermethylation or hypomethylation in DCM LVs. Among those, cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) was hypermethylated. Expression arrays revealed decreased abundance of the TK1 mRNA transcript with no change in transcripts for other relevant thymidine metabolism enzymes. Quantitative immunoblots confirmed decreased TK1 polypeptide steady state abundance. TK1 activity remained unchanged in DCM samples while mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) activity was significantly reduced. Compensatory TK activity was found in cardiac myocytes in the DCM LV. Diminished TK2 activity is mechanistically important to reduced mtDNA abundance and identified in DCM LV samples here. Epigenetic and genetic changes result in changes in mtDNA and in nucleotide substrates for mtDNA replication and underpin energy starvation in DCM. PMID:23695887

  16. Homopolymeric tract heteroplasmy in mtDNA from tissues and single oocytes: Support for a genetic bottleneck

    SciTech Connect

    Marchington, D.R.; Hartshorne, G.M.; Barlow, D.; Poulton, J.

    1997-02-01

    While mtDNA polymorphisms at single base positions are common, the overwhelming majority of the mitochondrial genomes within a single individual are usually identical. When there is a point-mutation difference between a mother and her offspring, there may be a complete switching of mtDNA type within a single generation. It is generally assumed that there is a genetic bottleneck whereby a single or small number of founder mtDNA(s) populate the organism, but it is not known at which stages the restriction/amplification of mtDNA subtype(s) occur, and this uncertainty impedes antenatal diagnosis for mtDNA disorders. Length polymorphisms in homopolymeric tracts have been demonstrated in the large noncoding region of mtDNA. We have developed a new method, T-PCR (trimmed PCR), to quantitate heteroplasmy for two of these tracts (D310 and D16189). D310 variation is sufficient to indicate clonal origins of tissues and single oocytes. Tissues from normal individuals often possessed more than one length variant (heteroplasmy). However, there was no difference in the pattern of the length variants between somatic tissues in any control individual when bulk samples were taken. Oocytes from normal women undergoing in vitro fertilization were frequently heteroplasmic for length variants, and in two cases the modal length of the D310 tract differed in individual oocytes from the same woman. These data suggest that a restriction/amplification event, which we attribute to clonal expansion of founder mtDNA(s), has occurred by the time oocytes are mature, although further segregation may occur at a later stage. In contrast to controls, the length distribution of the D310 tract varied between tissues in a patient with heteroplasmic mtDNA rearrangements, suggesting that these mutants influence segregation. These findings have important implications for the genetic counselling of patients with pathogenic mtDNA mutations. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Age-Related and Heteroplasmy-Related Variation in Human mtDNA Copy Number

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingkun; Madea, Burkhard; Stoneking, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome is present in many copies in human cells, and intra-individual variation in mtDNA sequences is known as heteroplasmy. Recent studies found that heteroplasmies are highly tissue-specific, site-specific, and allele-specific, however the functional implications have not been explored. This study investigates variation in mtDNA copy numbers (mtCN) in 12 different tissues obtained at autopsy from 152 individuals (ranging in age from 3 days to 96 years). Three different methods to estimate mtCN were compared: shotgun sequencing (in 4 tissues), capture-enriched sequencing (in 12 tissues) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR, in 2 tissues). The highest precision in mtCN estimation was achieved using shotgun sequencing data. However, capture-enrichment data provide reliable estimates of relative (albeit not absolute) mtCNs. Comparisons of mtCN from different tissues of the same individual revealed that mtCNs in different tissues are, with few exceptions, uncorrelated. Hence, each tissue of an individual seems to regulate mtCN in a tissue-related rather than an individual-dependent manner. Skeletal muscle (SM) samples showed an age-related decrease in mtCN that was especially pronounced in males, while there was an age-related increase in mtCN for liver (LIV) samples. MtCN in SM samples was significantly negatively correlated with both the total number of heteroplasmic sites and with minor allele frequency (MAF) at two heteroplasmic sites, 408 and 16327. Heteroplasmies at both sites are highly specific for SM, accumulate with aging and are part of functional elements that regulate mtDNA replication. These data support the hypothesis that selection acting on these heteroplasmic sites is reducing mtCN in SM of older individuals. PMID:26978189

  19. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R; Martin, Joanne; Cook, James M

    2006-01-01

    Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for ca 90 million years. They have radiated together, but do not show strict cospeciation. In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps speciate. Results We studied variation in 71 fig-pollinating wasps from across the large geographic range of Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. All wasps sampled belong to one morphological species (Pleistodontes imperialis), but we found four deep mtDNA clades that differed from each other by 9–17% nucleotides. As these genetic distances exceed those normally found within species and overlap those (10–26%) found between morphologically distinct Pleistodontes species, they strongly suggest cryptic fig wasp species. mtDNA clade diversity declines from all four present in Northern Queensland to just one in Sydney, near the southern range limit. However, at most sites multiple clades coexist and can be found in the same tree or even the same fig fruit and there is no evidence for parallel sub-division of the host fig species. Both mtDNA data and sequences from two nuclear genes support the monophyly of the "P. imperialis complex" relative to other Pleistodontes species, suggesting that fig wasp divergence has occurred without any host plant shift. Wasps in clade 3 were infected by a single strain (W1) of Wolbachia bacteria, while those in other clades carried a double infection (W2+W3) of two other strains. Conclusion Our study indicates that cryptic fig-pollinating wasp species have developed on a single host plant species, without the involvement of host plant shifts, or parallel host plant divergence. Despite extensive evidence for coevolution between figs and fig wasps, wasp speciation may not always be linked strongly with fig speciation. PMID:17040562

  20. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10(-8)). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10(-4)). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  1. Autosomal microsatellite and mtDNA genetic analysis in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Romano, V; Calì, F; Ragalmuto, A; D'Anna, R P; Flugy, A; De Leo, G; Giambalvo, O; Lisa, A; Fiorani, O; Di Gaetano, C; Salerno, A; Tamouza, R; Charron, D; Zei, G; Matullo, G; Piazza, A

    2003-01-01

    DNA samples from 465 blood donors living in 7 towns of Sicily, the largest island of Italy, have been collected according to well defined criteria, and their genetic heterogeneity tested on the basis of 9 autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms for a total of 85 microsatellite allele and 10 mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. A preliminary account of the results shows that: a) the samples are genetically heterogeneous; b) the first principal coordinates of the samples are correlated more with their longitude than with their latitude, and this result is even more remarkable when one outlier sample (Butera) is not considered; c) distances among samples calculated from allele and haplogroup frequencies and from the isonymy matrix are weakly correlated (r = 0.43, P = 0.06) but such correlation disappears (r = 0.16) if the mtDNA haplogroups alone are taken into account; d) mtDNA haplogroups and microsatellite distances suggest settlements of people occurred at different times: divergence times inferred from microsatellite data seem to describe a genetic composition of the town of Sciacca mainly derived from settlements after the Roman conquest of Sicily (First Punic war, 246 BC), while all other divergence times take root from the second to the first millennium BC, and therefore seem to backdate to the pre-Hellenistic period. A more reliable association of these diachronic genetic strata to different historical populations (e.g. Sicani, Elymi, Siculi), if possible, must be postponed to the analysis of more samples and hopefully more informative uniparental DNA markers such as the recently available DHPLC-SNP polymorphisms of the Y chromosome. PMID:12556234

  2. Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in Southern Arabia from the perspective of human mtDNA variation.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Abdulrahim; Podgorná, Eliška; Rose, Jeffrey I; Pereira, Luísa; Mulligan, Connie J; Silva, Nuno M; Bayoumi, Riad; Soares, Pedro; Cerný, Viktor

    2012-10-01

    It is now known that several population movements have taken place at different times throughout southern Arabian prehistory. One of the principal questions under debate is if the Early Holocene peopling of southern Arabia was mainly due to input from the Levant during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, to the expansion of an autochthonous population, or some combination of these demographic processes. Since previous genetic studies have not been able to include all parts of southern Arabia, we have helped fill this lacuna by collecting new population datasets from Oman (Dhofar) and Yemen (Al-Mahra and Bab el-Mandab). We identified several new haplotypes belonging to haplogroup R2 and generated its whole genome mtDNA tree with age estimates undertaken by different methods. R2, together with other considerably frequent southern Arabian mtDNA haplogroups (R0a, HV1, summing up more than 20% of the South Arabian gene pool) were used to infer the past effective population size through Bayesian skyline plots. These data indicate that the southern Arabian population underwent a large expansion already some 12 ka. A founder analysis of these haplogroups shows that this expansion is largely attributed to demographic input from the Near East. These results support thus the spread of a population coming from the north, but at a significantly earlier date than presently considered by archaeologists. Our data suggest that some of the mtDNA lineages found in southern Arabia have persisted in the region since the end of the Last Ice Age. PMID:22927010

  3. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  4. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10−8). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10−4). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  5. Complete genome sequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Costelli, Cristina; Malavasi, Veronica; Cusano, Roberto; Concas, Alessandro; Angius, Andrea; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain (SAG 111-8 k) is presented in this work. Within the Chlorella genus, it represents the second species with a complete sequenced and annotated mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KM241869). The genome consists of circular chromosomes of 52,528 bp and encodes a total of 31 protein coding genes, 3 rRNAs and 26 tRNAs. The overall AT contents of the C. sorokiniana mtDNA is 70.89%, while the coding sequence is of 97.4%. PMID:25186028

  6. RFLP analysis of mtDNA from six platyrrhine genera: phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, M; Alvarez, D

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the phylogenetic relationships of 10 species of platyrrhine primates using RFLP analysis of mtDNA. Three restriction enzymes were used to determine the restriction site haplotypes for a total of 276 individuals. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony was employed to construct phylogenetic trees. We found close phylogenetic relationships between Alouatta, Lagothrix and Ateles. We also found a close relationship between Cebus and Aotus, with Saimiri clustering with the atelines. Haplotype diversity was found in four of the species studied, in Cebus albifrons, Saimiri sciureus, Lagothrix lagotricha and Ateles fusciceps. These data provide additional information concerning the phylogenetic relationships between these platyrrhine genera and species. PMID:12759493

  7. [Variability of the mtDNA Control Region in Goose Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769].

    PubMed

    Volkovsky, D V; Fisenko, P V; Gerasimov, Yu N; Zhuravlev, Yu N

    2016-03-01

    Sequence variation of the mtDNA (D loop) control region was examined in greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons Scopoli, 1769 individuals (n = 71). The obtained sequences were compared with those from the NCBI GenBank database. The high level of similarity of the sample from Primorye (A. albifrons) with the sample from Japan (A. a. frontalis) at the level of molecular variation, genetic distance, phylogenetic reconstruction, and haplotype network was demonstrated. A hypothesis on the ways of spring goose migration in the Far East was made. It was confirmed that white-fronted geese wintering in Japan fly to their breeding grounds through Kamchatka. PMID:27281856

  8. About the {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes}-specific 9-bp deletion of mtDNA...

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Petrozzi, M.; Santolamazza, P.

    1995-08-01

    The 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA{sup Lys} genes is due to the lack of one of two adjacent copies of a 9-bp sequence usually present in human mtDNA. This mutation is very common in Asians and populations of Asian ancestry (e.g., Polynesians and Amerinds) and often has been considered and ethnic-specific polymorphism for these populations. We now report the detection of the COII-tRNA{sup Lys} 9-bp deletion in an individual of Italian descent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the 9-bp deletion has been observed in Europeans. 19 refs.

  9. Cross-strand binding of TFAM to a single mtDNA molecule forms the mitochondrial nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Kukat, Christian; Davies, Karen M.; Wurm, Christian A.; Spåhr, Henrik; Bonekamp, Nina A.; Kühl, Inge; Joos, Friederike; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Park, Chan Bae; Posse, Viktor; Falkenberg, Maria; Jakobs, Stefan; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged by mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) into mitochondrial nucleoids that are of key importance in controlling the transmission and expression of mtDNA. Nucleoid ultrastructure is poorly defined, and therefore we used a combination of biochemistry, superresolution microscopy, and electron microscopy to show that mitochondrial nucleoids have an irregular ellipsoidal shape and typically contain a single copy of mtDNA. Rotary shadowing electron microscopy revealed that nucleoid formation in vitro is a multistep process initiated by TFAM aggregation and cross-strand binding. Superresolution microscopy of cultivated cells showed that increased mtDNA copy number increases nucleoid numbers without altering their sizes. Electron cryo-tomography visualized nucleoids at high resolution in isolated mammalian mitochondria and confirmed the sizes observed by superresolution microscopy of cell lines. We conclude that the fundamental organizational unit of the mitochondrial nucleoid is a single copy of mtDNA compacted by TFAM, and we suggest a packaging mechanism. PMID:26305956

  10. Utility of Y-STR haplotype and mtDNA sequence in personal identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroyoshi; Iwasa, Mineo; Tsuchimochi, Tsukasa; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nagao, Masataka

    2002-06-01

    The utility of Y-STR haplotype and mtDNA sequence in personal identification from human remains is demonstrated. In five cases, severely damaged human remains were identified by Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) (Y-STR) haplotyping and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. DNA was extracted from highly adipoceratous tissues using the phenol-chloroform method and polymerase chain reaction amplified for Y-STR haplotyping and sequencing of two hypervariable regions, HV1 and HV2, of the mtDNA. The authors also profiled the Y-STR haplotype and mtDNA sequence of a blood sample that was obtained from the presumptive brother of the decedent. Y-STR haplotyping and mtDNA sequencing results were compared with one another and with the Anderson sequence. It was concluded from these data that the lower part of the body (Case 1), the human head (Case 2), the upper part of the body (Case 3), and the right arm (Case 4) were from the same individual, whereas another lower part of a body (Case 5) was from a relative of the presumptive brother. A novel descriptive way of a statistical characteristic, gene or haplotype diversity, is shown. PMID:12040265

  11. A Phenotype-Driven Approach to Generate Mouse Models with Pathogenic mtDNA Mutations Causing Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, Johanna H K; Baines, Holly L; Bratic, Ana; Simard, Marie-Lune; Freyer, Christoph; Mourier, Arnaud; Stamp, Craig; Filograna, Roberta; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Greaves, Laura C; Stewart, James B

    2016-09-13

    Mutations of mtDNA are an important cause of human disease, but few animal models exist. Because mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected, the development of mice with pathogenic mtDNA mutations has been challenging, and the main strategy has therefore been to introduce mutations found in cell lines into mouse embryos. Here, we describe a phenotype-driven strategy that is based on detecting clonal expansion of pathogenic mtDNA mutations in colonic crypts of founder mice derived from heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice. As proof of concept, we report the generation of a mouse line transmitting a heteroplasmic pathogenic mutation in the alanine tRNA gene of mtDNA displaying typical characteristics of classic mitochondrial disease. In summary, we describe a straightforward and technically simple strategy based on mouse breeding and histology to generate animal models of mtDNA-mutation disease, which will be of great importance for studies of disease pathophysiology and preclinical treatment trials. PMID:27626666

  12. Identity of the mtDNA haplotype(s) of Phytophthora infestans in historical specimens from the Irish potato famine.

    PubMed

    May, Kimberley Jane; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2004-05-01

    The mtDNA haplotypes of the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans present in dried potato and tomato leaves from herbarium specimens collected during the Irish potato famine and later in the 19th and early 20th century were identified. A 100 bp fragment of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) specific for P. infestans was amplified from 90% of the specimens (n = 186), confirming infection by P. infestans. Primers were designed that distinguish the extant mtDNA haplotypes. 86% percent of the herbarium specimens from historic epidemics were infected with the Ia mtDNA haplotype. Two mid-20th century potato leaves from Ecuador (1967) and Bolivia (1944) were infected with the Ib mtDNA haplotype of the pathogen. Both the Ia and IIb haplotypes were found in specimens collected in Nicaragua in the 1950s. The data suggest that the Ia haplotype of P. infestans was responsible for the historic epidemics during the 19th century in the UK, Europe, and the USA. The Ib mtDNA haplotype of the pathogen was dispersed later in the early 20th century from Bolivia and Ecuador. Multiple haplotypes were present outside Mexico in the 1940s-60s, indicating that pathogen diversity was greater than previously believed. PMID:15229999

  13. Genetic Diversity of mtDNA D-loop Polymorphisms in Laotian Native Fowl Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, K.; Worawut, R.; Taura, S.; Shimogiri, T.; Nishida, T.; Okamoto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we studied the genetic diversity of native fowls in Laos by analyzing a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphism. A 546-bp fragment of the mtDNA D-loop region was sequenced in 129 chickens from the areas of Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Pakse. In total, 29 haplotypes were identified and formed five clades. Haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of the native fowls in Laos were 0.85536±0.0172 and 0.010158±0.005555, respectively. Although the Laotian native fowls were distributed across five clades, most of them were clustered in two main clades (A and B), which were originated in China. The other haplotypes were contained in clades D, F, and I, which originated from continental southeast Asia. These results suggest that multiple maternal lineages were involved in the origin of domestic chicken in Laos. Moreover, there appear to be at least two maternal lineages, one from China and the other from the southeast Asian continent. PMID:25049921

  14. mtDNA analysis of 174 Eurasian populations using a new iterative rank correlation method.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Zoltán; Fehér, Tibor; Németh, Endre; Pamjav, Horolma

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyse 27-dimensional mtDNA haplogroup distributions of 174 Eurasian, North-African and American populations, including numerous ancient data as well. The main contribution of this work was the description of the haplogroup distribution of recent and ancient populations as compounds of certain hypothetic ancient core populations immediately or indirectly determining the migration processes in Eurasia for a long time. To identify these core populations, we developed a new iterative algorithm determining clusters of the 27 mtDNA haplogroups studied having strong rank correlation among each other within a definite subset of the populations. Based on this study, the current Eurasian populations can be considered as compounds of three early core populations regarding to maternal lineages. We wanted to show that a simultaneous analysis of ancient and recent data using a new iterative rank correlation algorithm and the weighted SOC learning technique may reveal the most important and deterministic migration processes in the past. This technique allowed us to determine geographically, historically and linguistically well-interpretable clusters of our dataset having a very specific, hardly classifiable structure. The method was validated using a 2-dimensional stepping stone model. PMID:26142878

  15. The genetic structure of the Kuwaiti population: mtDNA Inter- and intra-population variation.

    PubMed

    Theyab, Jasem B; Al-Bustan, Suzanne; Crawford, Michael H

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated: (1) the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation in 116 unrelated individuals who originated from the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, or were of Bedouin ethnicity and (2) the genetic structure of Kuwaiti populations and compared it to their neighboring populations. These subpopulations were tested for genetic homogeneity and shown to be heterogeneous. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mtDNA sequencing analyses of HVRI were used to reconstruct the genetic structure of Kuwait. The results indicated that the combined Kuwaiti population has a high frequency of haplogroup R0 (17%), J (12%), and U (12%) similar to other Arabian populations. In addition, contemporary African gene flow was detected through the presence of sub-haplogroup L (L1 and L2) (2%) and the absence of L3 which is reflective of an earlier migration. Furthermore, the multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot showed that the Kuwaiti population clusters with neighboring populations, including Iran and Saudi Arabia indicating gene flow into Kuwait. According to this study, the Kuwaiti population may be undergoing an expansion in a relatively short period of time, and the maternal genetic structure of Kuwait resembles both Saudi Arabia and Iran. PMID:23249314

  16. Severity of cardiomyopathy associated with adenine nucleotide translocator-1 deficiency correlates with mtDNA haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; DuBiner, Lauren; Simon, Mariella; Zaragoza, Michael; Sengupta, Partho P; Li, Peng; Narula, Navneet; Dreike, Sandra; Platt, Julia; Procaccio, Vincent; Ortiz-González, Xilma R; Puffenberger, Erik G; Kelley, Richard I; Morton, D Holmes; Narula, Jagat; Wallace, Douglas C

    2013-02-26

    Mutations of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded mitochondrial proteins can cause cardiomyopathy associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Hence, the cardiac phenotype of nuclear DNA mitochondrial mutations might be modulated by mtDNA variation. We studied a 13-generation Mennonite pedigree with autosomal recessive myopathy and cardiomyopathy due to an SLC25A4 frameshift null mutation (c.523delC, p.Q175RfsX38), which codes for the heart-muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator-1. Ten homozygous null (adenine nucleotide translocator-1(-/-)) patients monitored over a median of 6 years had a phenotype of progressive myocardial thickening, hyperalaninemia, lactic acidosis, exercise intolerance, and persistent adrenergic activation. Electrocardiography and echocardiography with velocity vector imaging revealed abnormal contractile mechanics, myocardial repolarization abnormalities, and impaired left ventricular relaxation. End-stage heart disease was characterized by massive, symmetric, concentric cardiac hypertrophy; widespread cardiomyocyte degeneration; overabundant and structurally abnormal mitochondria; extensive subendocardial interstitial fibrosis; and marked hypertrophy of arteriolar smooth muscle. Substantial variability in the progression and severity of heart disease segregated with maternal lineage, and sequencing of mtDNA from five maternal lineages revealed two major European haplogroups, U and H. Patients with the haplogroup U mtDNAs had more rapid and severe cardiomyopathy than those with haplogroup H. PMID:23401503

  17. Investigation of the genetic diversity among native Turkish sheep breeds using mtDNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Oner, Yasemin; Calvo, Jorge Hugo; Elmaci, Cengiz

    2013-04-01

    A total of 135 unrelated sheep from nine Turkish native sheep breeds (Daglıc, Kivircik, Imroz, Chios, Morkaraman, Ivesi, Hemsin, Karayaka and Akkaraman) were investigated to determinate the maternal genetic diversity using a sequence of a 531-bp segment of the mtDNA control region. Analysis of the mtDNA control region sequence revealed 63 haplotypes and 53 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences were estimated to be 0.9496 ± 0.011, 0.01407 ± 0.00060 and 7.456, respectively. The sequence analysis also revealed high level of genetic diversity among the native Turkish breeds. These breeds were grouped into three major maternal haplogroups: A, B and C, with one animal belonging from the Akkaraman breed to the rare haplogroup E. Irregular shape of mismatch distribution of haplogroup C could be an indicator that haplogroup C may represent different haplogroups. Contrarily to previous studies carried out on Turkish native breeds, majority of animals grouped in haplogroup A in the present study. This result and the irregular shape of mismatch curve of haplogroup C indicate that genetic structure of Turkish native sheep breeds could be more complicated than it is thought. PMID:23135986

  18. Comparison of mitotyper rules and phylogenetic-based mtDNA nomenclature systems.

    PubMed

    Polanskey, Deborah; Den Hartog, Bobi K; Elling, John W; Fisher, Constance L; Kepler, Russell B; Budowle, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    A consistent nomenclature scheme is necessary to characterize a forensic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype. A standard nomenclature, called the Mitotyper Rules™, has been developed that applies typing rules in a hierarchical manner reflecting the forensic practitioner's nomenclature preferences. In this work, an empirical comparison between the revised hierarchical nomenclature rules and the phylogenetic approach to mtDNA type description has been conducted on 5173 samples from the phylogenetically typed European Mitochondrial DNA Population database (EMPOP) to identify the degree and significance of any differences. The comparison of the original EMPOP types and the results of retyping these sequences using the Mitotyper Rules demonstrates a high degree of concordance between the two alignment schemes. Differences in types resulted mainly because the Mitotyper Rules selected an alignment with the fewest number of differences compared with the rCRS. In addition, several identical regions were described in more than one way in the EMPOP dataset, demonstrating a limitation of a solely phylogenetic approach in that it may not consistently type nonhaplogroup-specific sites. Using a rule-based approach, commonly occurring as well as private variants are subjected to the same rules for naming, which is particularly advantageous when typing partial sequence data. PMID:20666918

  19. Sequences From First Settlers Reveal Rapid Evolution in Icelandic mtDNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Helgason, Agnar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Ghosh, Shyamali; Sigurðardóttir, Sigrún; Sampietro, Maria Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Baker, Adam; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Árnadóttir, Lilja; Þorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kári

    2009-01-01

    A major task in human genetics is to understand the nature of the evolutionary processes that have shaped the gene pools of contemporary populations. Ancient DNA studies have great potential to shed light on the evolution of populations because they provide the opportunity to sample from the same population at different points in time. Here, we show that a sample of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 68 early medieval Icelandic skeletal remains is more closely related to sequences from contemporary inhabitants of Scotland, Ireland, and Scandinavia than to those from the modern Icelandic population. Due to a faster rate of genetic drift in the Icelandic mtDNA pool during the last 1,100 years, the sequences carried by the first settlers were better preserved in their ancestral gene pools than among their descendants in Iceland. These results demonstrate the inferential power gained in ancient DNA studies through the application of population genetics analyses to relatively large samples. PMID:19148284

  20. Depression-like episodes in mice harboring mtDNA deletions in paraventricular thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, T; Takata, A; Kato, T M; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Sawada, T; Kakita, A; Mizukami, H; Kaneda, D; Ozawa, K; Kato, T

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common debilitating human disease whose etiology has defied decades of research. A critical bottleneck is the difficulty in modeling depressive episodes in animals. Here, we show that a transgenic mouse with chronic forebrain expression of a dominant negative mutant of Polg1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase, exhibits lethargic behavioral changes, which are associated with emotional, vegetative and psychomotor disturbances, and response to antidepression drug treatment. The results suggested a symptomatic similarity between the lethargic behavioral change that was recurrently and spontaneously experienced by the mutant mice and major depressive episode as defined by DSM-5. A comprehensive screen of mutant brain revealed a hotspot for mtDNA deletions and mitochondrial dysfunction in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) with similar defects observed in postmortem brains of patients with mitochondrial disease with mood symptoms. Remarkably, the genetic inhibition of PVT synaptic output by Cre-loxP-dependent expression of tetanus toxin triggered de novo depression-like episodes. These findings identify a novel preclinical mouse model and brain area for major depressive episodes with mitochondrial dysfunction as its cellular mechanism. PMID:26481320

  1. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Głażewska, Iwona; Wysocka, Anna; Gralak, Barbara; Prus, Renata; Sell, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares. PMID:17897600

  2. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Charles E.; Yousif, Ibrahim A.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Musa, Hassan H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm = 4.622). PMID:25535590

  3. mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Schurr, T.G.; Cabell, M.F.; Wallace, D.C. ); Sukernik, R.I.; Starikovskaya, Y.B. ); Crawford, M.H.; Comuzzie, A.G. )

    1993-09-01

    The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analysis and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. These findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. 61 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. An autosomal locus predisposing to multiple deletions of mtDNA on chromosome 3p

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukonen, J.A.; Suomalainen, A.; Peltonen, L.; Amati, P.; Zeviani, M.

    1996-04-01

    Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a disorder characterized by ptosis, progressive weakness of the external eye muscles, and general muscle weakness. The patients have multiple deletions of mtDNA on Southern blots or in PCR analysis of muscle DNA and a mild deficiency of one or more respiratory-chain enzymes carrying mtDNA-encoded subunits. The pattern of inheritance indicates a nuclear gene defect predisposing to secondary mtDNA deletions. Recently, in one Finnish family, we assigned an adPEO locus to chromosome 10q23.3-24.3 but also excluded linkage to this same locus in two Italian adPEO families with a phenotype closely resembling the Finnish one. We applied a random mapping approach to informative non-10q-linked Italian families to assign the second locus for adPEO and found strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 3p14.1-21.2 in three Italian families, with a maximum two-point lod score of 4.62 at a recombination fraction of .0. However, in three additional families, linkage to the same chromosomal region was clearly absent, indicating further genetic complexity of the adPEO trait. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A discordance between mtDNA diversity and blood-protein heterozygosity in Northern Siberian populations

    SciTech Connect

    Malyarchuk, B.A.

    1996-11-01

    Jorde et al. reported a discordance between mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequence diversities among Africans, Asians, and Europeans. These authors noted that the degree of relatedness estimated for these groups, as displayed in neighbor-joining trees, differs depending on whether mtDNA or nDNA data are used. A similar discordance is observed between northern Siberian aboriginal populations. Among northern Asian peoples, the greatest degree of heterozygosity in blood-protein genes is found in the northernmost groups, with decreasing nDNA diversity at these loci in the more southerly groups. Thus, of 35 loci examined in Asiatic Eskimo, Chukchi, and Koryak individuals, 12 were found to be polymorphic: AcP*1, PGM*1, PGD, GPT, GLO*1 EsD, Hp, Pp, E*2 Gc, ABO, and PTC. The average heterozygosity of these groups, from northernmost to southernmost, is as follows: Eskimo (n =402), .333 {+-} .003; coastal Chukchi (n = 1,776), .329 {+-} .004; reindeer Chukchi (n = 559), .306 {+-} .007; and Kamchatkan Koryak (n = 675), .259 {+-} .006. These differences in heterozygosity value are significant (P < .01), except for the comparison of the Eskimo and coastal Chukchi data (P < .1). 7 refs.

  6. mtDNA analysis reveals a major late Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A; Bandelt, H J; D'Urbano, L; Lahermo, P; Moral, P; Sellitto, D; Rengo, C; Forster, P; Savontaus, M L; Bonné-Tamir, B; Scozzari, R

    1998-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 419 individuals from nine Eurasian populations, by high-resolution RFLP analysis, and it was followed by sequencing of the control region of a subset of these mtDNAs and a detailed survey of previously published data from numerous other European populations. This analysis revealed that a major Paleolithic population expansion from the "Atlantic zone" (southwestern Europe) occurred 10,000-15,000 years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum. As an mtDNA marker for this expansion we identified haplogroup V, an autochthonous European haplogroup, which most likely originated in the northern Iberian peninsula or southwestern France at about the time of the Younger Dryas. Its sister haplogroup, H, which is distributed throughout the entire range of Caucasoid populations and which originated in the Near East approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, also took part in this expansion, thus rendering it by far the most frequent (40%-60%) haplogroup in western Europe. Subsequent migrations after the Younger Dryas eventually carried those "Atlantic" mtDNAs into central and northern Europe. This scenario, already implied by archaeological records, is given overwhelming support from both the distribution of the autochthonous European Y chromosome type 15, as detected by the probes 49a/f, and the synthetic maps of nuclear data. PMID:9545392

  7. Shipwrecks and founder effects: divergent demographic histories reflected in Caribbean mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Silva, Sandra; Matamoros, Mireya; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Angel

    2005-12-01

    During the period of the Atlantic slave trade (15th-19th centuries), millions of people were forced to move from Africa to many American destinations, changing dramatically the human landscape of the Americas. Here, we analyze mitochondrial DNA from two different American populations with African ancestry, with hitherto unknown European and Native American components. On the basis of historical records, African-Americans from Chocó (Colombia) and the Garífunas (or "Black Carib") of Honduras are likely to have had very different demographic histories, with a significant founder effect in the formation of the latter. Both the common features and differences are reflected in their mtDNA composition. Both show a minor component (approximately 16%) from Native Central/South Americans and a larger component (approximately 84%) from sub-Saharan Africans. The latter component is very diverse in the African-Americans from Chocó, similar to that of sub-Saharan Africans, but much less so in the Garífunas, with several mtDNA types elevated to high frequency, suggesting the action of genetic drift. PMID:16047324

  8. Complete mtDNA genomes reveal similar penetrances of maternally inherited type 2 diabetes in two Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhou, Taicheng; Peng, Minsheng; Liu, Yongying; Li, Yiping; Wang, Huawei; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Yaping

    2016-05-01

    Previous work suggests that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from the maternal genome has a close affinity with type 2 diabetes. This would support a familial pattern for type 2 diabetes. Thereby, we analyzed complete mtDNA genomes from two families, A and B, from Southwest China that demonstrated maternally inherited type 2 diabetes. Our data support that mtDNA lineages from families A and B belong to haplogroups A4 and D4h1, respectively. This suggests that maternally inherited type 2 diabetes with similar penetrances can arise in Chinese individuals with strikingly different maternal genetic backgrounds. Two private coding region mutations (G13759A in MT-ND5 and G15930A in tRNA-Thr) were identified in family B. Further evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses suggest that both these mutations have multiple origins and are unlikely to be disease causing. PMID:25469813

  9. [Disturbances of mitochondrial energetic processes and mt-DNA and their role in the etiology of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Paweł; Warowicka, Alicja; Gozdzicka-Józefiak, Anna; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-08-01

    Apart from the theory of local inflammation in etiopathogenesis of the arteriosclerosis, hypotheses concerning the role of mitochondria in this process arise growing interest. Some proteins of the respiratory chain (OXPHOS) are coded on mitochondrial DNA. Their damage leads to interruption of oxidative phosphorylation, what in turns raises the free oxygen radicals (ROS) generation. The relationship of insufficient mechanism of mitochondrial ROS elimination with the initiation of the atherosclerosis was confirmed in experimental data. The mutagenesis of mitochondrial DNA is tied with the etiology of coronary artery disease (CAD). Some disturbances of the structure of mt-DNA are primal. The second group is probably determined by the effect of CAD influence on the structure of mt-DNA in cardiomyocytes. The mitochondrial energetic transformations are described in the article, with special regard on their potential influence on the process of mt-DNA mutagenesis and secondarily on the formation of CAD. PMID:20730733

  10. Comparative mtDNA analyses of three sympatric macropodids from a conservation area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), New Guinea pademelon (Thylogale browni), and small dorcopsis (Dorcopsulus vanheurni) are sympatric macropodid taxa, of conservation concern, that inhabit the Yopno-Urawa-Som (YUS) Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from the three taxa to (i) investigate network structure; and (ii) identify conservation units within the YUS Conservation Area. All three taxa displayed a similar pattern in the spatial distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes and the Urawa and Som rivers on the Huon may have acted as a barrier to maternal gene flow. Matschie's tree kangaroo and New Guinea pademelon within the YUS Conservation Area should be managed as single conservation units because mtDNA nucleotides were not fixed for a given geographic area. However, two distinct conservation units were identified for small dorcopsis from the two different mountain ranges within the YUS Conservation Area. PMID:26006282

  11. Genotypic stability, segregation and selection in heteroplasmic human cell lines containing np 3243 mutant mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, S K; Hance, N; El Meziane, A; Juhola, M K; Juhola, K M; Karhu, R; Spelbrink, J N; Holt, I J; Jacobs, H T

    2000-01-01

    The mitochondrial genotype of heteroplasmic human cell lines containing the pathological np 3243 mtDNA mutation, plus or minus its suppressor at np 12300, has been followed over long periods in culture. Cell lines containing various different proportions of mutant mtDNA remained generally at a consistent, average heteroplasmy value over at least 30 wk of culture in nonselective media and exhibited minimal mitotic segregation, with a segregation number comparable with mtDNA copy number (>/=1000). Growth in selective medium of cells at 99% np 3243 mutant mtDNA did, however, allow the isolation of clones with lower levels of the mutation, against a background of massive cell death. As a rare event, cell lines exhibited a sudden and dramatic diversification of heteroplasmy levels, accompanied by a shift in the average heteroplasmy level over a short period (<8 wk), indicating selection. One such episode was associated with a gain of chromosome 9. Analysis of respiratory phenotype and mitochondrial genotype of cell clones from such cultures revealed that stable heteroplasmy values were generally reestablished within a few weeks, in a reproducible but clone-specific fashion. This occurred independently of any straightforward phenotypic selection at the individual cell-clone level. Our findings are consistent with several alternate views of mtDNA organization in mammalian cells. One model that is supported by our data is that mtDNA is found in nucleoids containing many copies of the genome, which can themselves be heteroplasmic, and which are faithfully replicated. We interpret diversification and shifts of heteroplasmy level as resulting from a reorganization of such nucleoids, under nuclear genetic control. Abrupt remodeling of nucleoids in vivo would have major implications for understanding the developmental consequences of heteroplasmy, including mitochondrial disease phenotype and progression. PMID:10628996

  12. Increased retinal mtDNA damage in the CFH variant associated with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ferrington, Deborah A; Kapphahn, Rebecca J; Leary, Michaela M; Atilano, Shari R; Terluk, Marcia R; Karunadharma, Pabalu; Chen, George Kuei-Jie; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Swaroop, Anand; Montezuma, Sandra R; Kenney, M Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness among the elderly in the developed world. Genetic analysis of AMD has identified 34 high-risk loci associated with AMD. The genes at these high risk loci belong to diverse biological pathways, suggesting different mechanisms leading to AMD pathogenesis. Thus, therapies targeting a single pathway for all AMD patients will likely not be universally effective. Recent evidence suggests defects in mitochondria (mt) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may constitute a key pathogenic event in some AMD patients. The purpose of this study is to determine if individuals with a specific genetic background have a greater propensity for mtDNA damage. We used human eyebank tissues from 76 donors with AMD and 42 age-matched controls to determine the extent of mtDNA damage in the RPE that was harvested from the macula using a long extension polymerase chain reaction assay. Genotype analyses were performed for ten common AMD-associated nuclear risk alleles (ARMS2, TNFRSF10A, CFH, C2, C3, APOE, CETP, LIPC, VEGF and COL10A1) and mtDNA haplogroups. Sufficient samples were available for genotype association with mtDNA damage for TNFRSF10A, CFH, CETP, VEGFA, and COL10A1. Our results show that AMD donors carrying the high risk allele for CFH (C) had significantly more mtDNA damage compared with donors having the wild-type genetic profile. The data from an additional 39 donors (12 controls and 27 AMD) genotyped for CFH alleles further supported these findings. Taken together, these studies provide the rationale for a more personalized approach for treating AMD by uncovering a significant correlation between the CFH high risk allele and accelerated mtDNA damage. Patients harboring this genetic risk factor may benefit from therapies that stabilize and protect the mt in the RPE. PMID:26854823

  13. MtDNA haplogroup analysis of black Brazilian and sub-Saharan populations: implications for the Atlantic slave trade.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wilson Araújo; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Marrero, Andrea; Elion, Jacques; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Zago, Marco Antonio

    2006-02-01

    Seventy individuals from two African and four black Brazilian populations were studied for the first hypervariable segment of mtDNA. To delineate a more complete phylogeographic scenario of the African mtDNA haplogroups in Brazil and to provide additional information on the nature of the Atlantic slave trade, we analyzed our data together with previously published data. The results indicate different sources of African slaves for the four major Brazilian regions. In addition, the data revealed patterns that differ from those expected on the basis of historical registers, thus suggesting the role of ethnic sex differences in the slave trade. PMID:16900880

  14. Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparisons of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally-inherited non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation have provided important insights into the impact of sex-biased processes (such as migration, residence pattern, and so on) on human genetic variation. However, such comparisons have been limited by the different molecular methods typically used to assay mtDNA and NRY variation (for example, sequencing hypervariable segments of the control region for mtDNA vs. genotyping SNPs and/or STR loci for the NRY). Here, we report a simple capture array method to enrich Illumina sequencing libraries for approximately 500 kb of NRY sequence, which we use to generate NRY sequences from 623 males from 51 populations in the CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP). We also obtained complete mtDNA genome sequences from the same individuals, allowing us to compare maternal and paternal histories free of any ascertainment bias. Results We identified 2,228 SNPs in the NRY sequences and 2,163 SNPs in the mtDNA sequences. Our results confirm the controversial assertion that genetic differences between human populations on a global scale are bigger for the NRY than for mtDNA, although the differences are not as large as previously suggested. More importantly, we find substantial regional variation in patterns of mtDNA versus NRY variation. Model-based simulations indicate very small ancestral effective population sizes (<100) for the out-of-Africa migration as well as for many human populations. We also find that the ratio of female effective population size to male effective population size (Nf/Nm) has been greater than one throughout the history of modern humans, and has recently increased due to faster growth in Nf than Nm. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA sequences provide new insights into the paternal and maternal histories of human populations, and the methods we introduce here should be widely applicable for further such studies. PMID

  15. A role for MHR1, a gene required for mitochondrial genetic recombination, in the repair of damage spontaneously introduced in yeast mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Feng; Morioka, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Eiko; Shibata, Takehiko

    2000-01-01

    A nuclear recessive mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mhr1-1, is defective in mitochondrial genetic recombination at 30°C and shows extensive vegetative petite induction by UV irradiation at 30°C or when cultivated at a higher temperature (37°C). It has been postulated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is oxidatively damaged by by-products of oxidative respiration. Since genetic recombination plays a critical role in DNA repair in various organisms, we tested the possibility that MHR1 plays a role in the repair of oxidatively damaged mtDNA using an enzyme assay. mtDNA isolated from cells grown under standard (aerobic) conditions contained a much higher level of DNA lesions compared with mtDNA isolated from anaerobically grown cells. Soon after a temperature shift from 30 to 37°C the number of mtDNA lesions increased 2-fold in mhr1-1 mutant cells but not in MHR1 cells. Malonic acid, which decreased the oxidative stress in mitochondria, partially suppressed both petite induction and the temperature-induced increase in the amount of mtDNA damage in mhr1-1 cells at 37°C. Thus, functional mitochondria require active MHR1, which keeps the extent of spontaneous oxidative damage in mtDNA within a tolerable level. These observations are consistent with MHR1 having a possible role in mtDNA repair. PMID:11121487

  16. A new mtDNA mutation associated with Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Huoponen, K; Vilkki, J; Aula, P; Nikoskelainen, E K; Savontaus, M L

    1991-01-01

    A single base mutation at nucleotide position 3460 (nt 3460) in the ND1 gene in human mtDNA was found to be associated with Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON). The G-to-A mutation converts an alanine to a threonine at the 52d codon of the gene. The mutation also abolishes an AhaII restriction site and thus can be detected easily by RFLP analysis. The mutation was found in three independent Finnish LHON families but in none of the 60 controls. None of the families with the nt 3460 mutation in ND1 had the previously reported nt 11778 mutation in the ND4 gene. The G-to-A change at nt 3460 is the second mutation so far detected in LHON. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1674640

  17. mtDNA Deletion in an Iranian Infant with Pearson Marrow Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi; Eghbali, Aziz; Karimzade, Parvaneh; Ahmadi, Mitra; Houshmand, Massoud; Rezaei, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Background Pearson syndrome (PS) is a rare multisystem mitochondrial disorder of hematopoietic system, characterized by refractory sideroblastic anemia, pancytopenia, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and variable neurologic, hepatic, renal, and endocrine failure. Case Presentation We describe a six-month-old female infant with Pearson marrow syndrome who presented with neurological manifestations. She had several episodes of seizures. Hematopoietic abnormalities were macrocytic anemia and neutropenia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a cellular marrow with marked vacuolization of erythroid and myeloid precursors. Analysis of mtDNA in peripheral blood showed 8.5 kb deletion that was compatible with the diagnosis of PS. Conclusion PS should be considered in infants with neurologic diseases, in patients with cytopenias, and also in patients with acidosis or refractory anemia. PMID:23056691

  18. MtDNA analysis of global populations support that major population expansions began before Neolithic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Yan, Shi; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Jin, Li

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture resulted in extensive population growths and human activities. However, whether major human expansions started after Neolithic Time still remained controversial. With the benefit of 1000 Genome Project, we were able to analyze a total of 910 samples from 11 populations in Africa, Europe and Americas. From these random samples, we identified the expansion lineages and reconstructed the historical demographic variations. In all the three continents, we found that most major lineage expansions (11 out of 15 star lineages in Africa, all autochthonous lineages in Europe and America) coalesced before the first appearance of agriculture. Furthermore, major population expansions were estimated after Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic Time, also corresponding to the result of major lineage expansions. Considering results in current and previous study, global mtDNA evidence showed that rising temperature after Last Glacial Maximum offered amiable environments and might be the most important factor for prehistorical human expansions.

  19. Variability of the honey bee mite Varroa destructor in Serbia, based on mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajic, Bojan; Radulovic, Zeljko; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Kulisic, Zoran; Vucicevic, Milos; Simeunovic, Predrag; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Only two mitochondrial haplotypes (Korea and Japan) of Varroa destructor, the ectoparasitic honey bee mite, are known to be capable of infesting and successfully reproducing in Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Varroa destructor (then called Varroa jacobsoni) was observed in Serbia for the first time in 1976. In order to obtain insight into the genetic variability of the mites parasitizing A. mellifera we analyzed 45 adult female mites sampled from nine localities dispersed throughout Serbia. Four fragments within cox1, atp6, cox3 and cytb mtDNA genes were sequenced. The Korea haplotype of V. destructor was found to be present at all localities, but also two new haplotypes (Serbia 1 and Peshter 1) were revealed, based on cox1 and cytb sequence variability. The simultaneous occurrence of Korea and Serbia 1 haplotypes was observed at five localities, whereas Peshter 1 haplotype was identifed at only one place. PMID:23471517

  20. HVSI polymorphism indicates multiple origins of mtDNA in the Hazarewal population of Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akbar, N; Ahmad, H; Nadeem, M S; Hemphill, B E; Muhammad, K; Ahmad, W; Ilyas, M

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important tool used to explore ethnogenetics and the evolutionary history of human populations. In this study, hypervariable segment I (HVSI) from mtDNA was analyzed to establish the genetic lineage of the Hazarewal populations residing in the Mansehra and Abbottabad districts of Northern Pakistan. HVSI was extracted from genetic specimens obtained from 225 unrelated male and female individuals belonging to seven distinct Pakistani ethnic groups (31 Abbassis, 44 Awans, 38 Gujars, 16 Jadoons, 23 Karlals, 33 Syeds, and 40 Tanolis). Eighty-three haplogroups, 39 of which were unique, were identified; haplogroup H was predominantly represented (in 40% of the people), followed by haplogroups M (21.78%), R (16.89%), N (15.56%), L (3.11%), and HV (2.67%). The results revealed a sex-biased genetic contribution from putative West Eurasian, South Asian, and Sub-Saharan populations to the genetic lineage of Hazarewal ancestry, with the effect of Eurasians being predominant. The HVSI nucleotide sequences exhibited some characteristic deletion mutations between 16,022 and 16,193 bp, which is characteristic of specific ethnic groups. HVSI sequence homology showed that Hazarewal populations fall into three major clusters: Syeds and Awans sorted out into cluster I; Tanolis, Gujars, and Karlals segregated in cluster II; and Abbassis and Jadoons in cluster III. Here, we have reported the firsthand genetic information and evolutionary sketch of the selected populations residing alongside the historical Silk Route, which provides a baseline for collating the origin, route of migration, and phylogenetics of the population. PMID:27420957

  1. Mating patterns amongst Siberian reindeer herders: inferences from mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses.

    PubMed

    Pakendorf, Brigitte; Novgorodov, Innokentij N; Osakovskij, Vladimir L; Stoneking, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The Evenks and Evens, who speak closely related languages belonging to the Northern Tungusic branch of the Tungusic family, are nomadic reindeer herders and hunters. They are spread over an immense territory in northeastern Siberia, and consequently different subgroups are in contact with diverse peoples speaking Samoyedic, Turkic, Mongolic, Chukotka-Kamchatkan, and Yukaghir languages. Nevertheless, the languages and culture of the Evenks and Evens are similar enough for them to have been classified as a single ethnic group in the past. This linguistic and cultural similarity indicates that they may have spread over their current area of habitation relatively recently, and thus may be closely related genetically. On the other hand, the great distances that separate individual groups of Evens and Evenks from each other might have led to preferential mating with geographic neighbors rather than with linguistically related peoples. In this study, we assess the correlation between linguistic and genetic relationship in three different subgroups of Evenks and Evens, respectively, via mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses. The results show that there is some evidence of a common origin based on shared mtDNA lineages and relatively similar Y-haplogroup frequencies amongst most of the Evenk and Even subgroups. However, there is little sharing of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes, indicating that males within Evenk and Even subgroups have remained relatively isolated. There is further evidence of some female admixture in different Even subgroups with their respective geographic neighbors. However, the Tungusic groups, and especially the Evenks, show signs of genetic drift, making inferences about their prehistory difficult. PMID:17492671

  2. A melting pot of multicontinental mtDNA lineages in admixed Venezuelans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Ignacio-Veiga, Ana; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pastoriza-Mourelle, Ana; Ruíz, Yarimar; Pineda, Lennie; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arrival of Europeans in Colonial and post-Colonial times coupled with the forced introduction of sub-Saharan Africans have dramatically changed the genetic background of Venezuela. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate, through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, the extent of admixture and the characterization of the most likely continental ancestral sources of present-day urban Venezuelans. We analyzed two admixed populations that have experienced different demographic histories, namely, Caracas (n = 131) and Pueblo Llano (n = 219). The native American component of admixed Venezuelans accounted for 80% (46% haplogroup [hg] A2, 7% hg B2, 21% hg C1, and 6% hg D1) of all mtDNAs; while the sub-Saharan and European contributions made up ∼10% each, indicating that Trans-Atlantic immigrants have only partially erased the native American nature of Venezuelans. A Bayesian-based model allowed the different contributions of European countries to admixed Venezuelans to be disentangled (Spain: ∼38.4%, Portugal: ∼35.5%, Italy: ∼27.0%), in good agreement with the documented history. Seventeen entire mtDNA genomes were sequenced, which allowed five new native American branches to be discovered. B2j and B2k, are supported by two different haplotypes and control region data, and their coalescence ages are 3.9 k.y. (95% C.I. 0-7.8) and 2.6 k.y. (95% C.I. 0.1-5.2), respectively. The other clades were exclusively observed in Pueblo Llano and they show the fingerprint of strong recent genetic drift coupled with severe historical consanguinity episodes that might explain the high prevalence of certain Mendelian and complex multi-factorial diseases in this region. PMID:22120584

  3. Origins and dispersals of Pacific peoples: Evidence from mtDNA phylogenies of the Pacific rat

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, E.; Robins, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The human settlement of the Pacific in general, and the origin of the Polynesians in particular, have been topics of debate for over two centuries. Polynesian origins are most immediately traced to people who arrived in the Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa region ≈3,000 B.P. and are clearly associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex. Although this scenario of the immediate origins of the Polynesians is generally accepted, the debate on the ultimate origin of the Polynesians and the Lapita cultural complex continues. Our previous research has shown that analyses of mtDNA variation in the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), often transported as a food item in the colonizing canoes, are valuable for tracing prehistoric human migration within Polynesia. Here we present mtDNA phylogenies based on ≈240 base pairs of the d-loop from both archaeological and modern samples collected from Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific. We identify three major haplogroups, two of which occur in the Pacific. Comparing our results with Lapita models of Oceanic settlement, we are able to reject two often cited but simplistic models, finding support instead for multifaceted models incorporating a more complex view of the Lapita intrusion. This study is unique and valuable in that R. exulans is the only organism associated with the Lapita dispersal for which there are sufficient ancient and extant populations available for genetic analysis. By tracking population changes through time, we can understand more fully the settlement process and population interactions in both Near and Remote Oceania. PMID:15184658

  4. A Signal, from Human mtDNA, of Postglacial Recolonization in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin; Cruciani, Fulvio; Rengo, Chiara; Martinez-Cabrera, Vicente; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Parik, Jüri; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Tambets, Kristiina; Forster, Peter; Karger, Bernd; Francalacci, Paolo; Rudan, Pavao; Janicijevic, Branka; Rickards, Olga; Savontaus, Marja-Liisa; Huoponen, Kirsi; Laitinen, Virpi; Koivumäki, Satu; Sykes, Bryan; Hickey, Eileen; Novelletto, Andrea; Moral, Pedro; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Al-Zaheri, Nadia; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial HVS-I sequences from 10,365 subjects belonging to 56 populations/geographical regions of western Eurasia and northern Africa were first surveyed for the presence of the T→C transition at nucleotide position 16298, a mutation which has previously been shown to characterize haplogroup V mtDNAs. All mtDNAs with this mutation were then screened for a number of diagnostic RFLP sites, revealing two major subsets of mtDNAs. One is haplogroup V proper, and the other has been termed “pre*V,” since it predates V phylogenetically. The rather uncommon pre*V tends to be scattered throughout Europe (and northwestern Africa), whereas V attains two peaks of frequency: one situated in southwestern Europe and one in the Saami of northern Scandinavia. Geographical distributions and ages support the scenario that pre*V originated in Europe before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), whereas the more recently derived haplogroup V arose in a southwestern European refugium soon after the LGM. The arrival of V in eastern/central Europe, however, occurred much later, possibly with (post-)Neolithic contacts. The distribution of haplogroup V mtDNAs in modern European populations would thus, at least in part, reflect the pattern of postglacial human recolonization from that refugium, affecting even the Saami. Overall, the present study shows that the dissection of mtDNA variation into small and well-defined evolutionary units is an essential step in the identification of spatial frequency patterns. Mass screening of a few markers identified using complete mtDNA sequences promises to be an efficient strategy for inferring features of human prehistory. PMID:11517423

  5. Kinetic properties of mutant deoxyguanosine kinase in a case of reversible hepatic mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Mousson de camaret, Bénédicte; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Padet, Sylvie; Chassagne, Maïté; Mayençon, Martine; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Mandon, Ginette; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Lachaux, Alain; Bozon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    DGUOK [dG (deoxyguanosine) kinase] is one of the two mitochondrial deoxynucleoside salvage pathway enzymes involved in precursor synthesis for mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) replication. DGUOK is responsible for the initial rate-limiting phosphorylation of the purine deoxynucleosides, using a nucleoside triphosphate as phosphate donor. Mutations in the DGUOK gene are associated with the hepato-specific and hepatocerebral forms of MDS (mtDNA depletion syndrome). We identified two missense mutations (N46S and L266R) in the DGUOK gene of a previously reported child, now 10 years old, who presented with an unusual revertant phenotype of liver MDS. The kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK were studied in mitochondrial preparations from cultured skin fibroblasts, using an optimized methodology. The N46S/L266R DGUOK showed 14 and 10% residual activity as compared with controls with dG and deoxyadenosine as phosphate acceptors respectively. Similar apparent negative co-operativity in the binding of the phosphate acceptors to the wild-type enzyme was found for the mutant. In contrast, abnormal bimodal kinetics were shown with ATP as the phosphate donor, suggesting an impairment of the ATP binding mode at the phosphate donor site. No kinetic behaviours were found for two other patients with splicing defects or premature stop codon. The present study represents the first characterization of the enzymatic kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK in organello and our optimized protocol allowed us to demonstrate a residual activity in skin fibroblast mitochondria from a patient with a revertant phenotype of MDS. The residual DGUOK activity may play a crucial role in the phenotype reversal. PMID:17073823

  6. Kinetic properties of mutant deoxyguanosine kinase in a case of reversible hepatic mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Padet, Sylvie; Chassagne, Maïté; Mayençon, Martine; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Mandon, Ginette; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Lachaux, Alain; Bozon, Dominique

    2007-03-01

    DGUOK [dG (deoxyguanosine) kinase] is one of the two mitochondrial deoxynucleoside salvage pathway enzymes involved in precursor synthesis for mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) replication. DGUOK is responsible for the initial rate-limiting phosphorylation of the purine deoxynucleosides, using a nucleoside triphosphate as phosphate donor. Mutations in the DGUOK gene are associated with the hepato-specific and hepatocerebral forms of MDS (mtDNA depletion syndrome). We identified two missense mutations (N46S and L266R) in the DGUOK gene of a previously reported child, now 10 years old, who presented with an unusual revertant phenotype of liver MDS. The kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK were studied in mitochondrial preparations from cultured skin fibroblasts, using an optimized methodology. The N46S/L266R DGUOK showed 14 and 10% residual activity as compared with controls with dG and deoxyadenosine as phosphate acceptors respectively. Similar apparent negative co-operativity in the binding of the phosphate acceptors to the wild-type enzyme was found for the mutant. In contrast, abnormal bimodal kinetics were shown with ATP as the phosphate donor, suggesting an impairment of the ATP binding mode at the phosphate donor site. No kinetic behaviours were found for two other patients with splicing defects or premature stop codon. The present study represents the first characterization of the enzymatic kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK in organello and our optimized protocol allowed us to demonstrate a residual activity in skin fibroblast mitochondria from a patient with a revertant phenotype of MDS. The residual DGUOK activity may play a crucial role in the phenotype reversal. PMID:17073823

  7. Mitochondrial Genome Rearrangements in Glomus Species Triggered by Homologous Recombination between Distinct mtDNA Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Denis; Terrat, Yves; Halary, Sébastien; de la Providencia, Ivan Enrique; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Comparative mitochondrial genomics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide new avenues to overcome long-lasting obstacles that have hampered studies aimed at understanding the community structure, diversity, and evolution of these multinucleated and genetically polymorphic organisms. AMF mitochondrial (mt) genomes are homogeneous within isolates, and their intergenic regions harbor numerous mobile elements that have rapidly diverged, including homing endonuclease genes, small inverted repeats, and plasmid-related DNA polymerase genes (dpo), making them suitable targets for the development of reliable strain-specific markers. However, these elements may also lead to genome rearrangements through homologous recombination, although this has never previously been reported in this group of obligate symbiotic fungi. To investigate whether such rearrangements are present and caused by mobile elements in AMF, the mitochondrial genomes from two Glomeraceae members (i.e., Glomus cerebriforme and Glomus sp.) with substantial mtDNA synteny divergence, were sequenced and compared with available glomeromycotan mitochondrial genomes. We used an extensive nucleotide/protein similarity network-based approach to investigate dpo diversity in AMF as well as in other organisms for which sequences are publicly available. We provide strong evidence of dpo-induced inter-haplotype recombination, leading to a reshuffled mitochondrial genome in Glomus sp. These findings raise questions as to whether AMF single spore cultivations artificially underestimate mtDNA genetic diversity. We assessed potential dpo dispersal mechanisms in AMF and inferred a robust phylogenetic relationship with plant mitochondrial plasmids. Along with other indirect evidence, our analyses indicate that members of the Glomeromycota phylum are potential donors of mitochondrial plasmids to plants. PMID:23925788

  8. Geographic Distribution of mtDNA Clades in the Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae), is a polyphagous consumer of both crops and native plants. MtDNA sequences of the cox1 barcode region have revealed two clades separated by 3 nucleotide substitutions. While the species can be found throughout North America, it is mos...

  9. Extensive tissue-related and allele-related mtDNA heteroplasmy suggests positive selection for somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingkun; Schröder, Roland; Ni, Shengyu; Madea, Burkhard; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Heteroplasmy in human mtDNA may play a role in cancer, other diseases, and aging, but patterns of heteroplasmy variation across different tissues have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we analyzed complete mtDNA genome sequences at ∼3,500× average coverage from each of 12 tissues obtained at autopsy from each of 152 individuals. We identified 4,577 heteroplasmies (with an alternative allele frequency of at least 0.5%) at 393 positions across the mtDNA genome. Surprisingly, different nucleotide positions (nps) exhibit high frequencies of heteroplasmy in different tissues, and, moreover, heteroplasmy is strongly dependent on the specific consensus allele at an np. All of these tissue-related and allele-related heteroplasmies show a significant age-related accumulation, suggesting positive selection for specific alleles at specific positions in specific tissues. We also find a highly significant excess of liver-specific heteroplasmies involving nonsynonymous changes, most of which are predicted to have an impact on protein function. This apparent positive selection for reduced mitochondrial function in the liver may reflect selection to decrease damaging byproducts of liver mitochondrial metabolism (i.e., “survival of the slowest”). Overall, our results provide compelling evidence for positive selection acting on some somatic mtDNA mutations. PMID:25675502

  10. Segregation of mtDNA Throughout Human Embryofetal Development: m.3243A > G as a Model System

    PubMed Central

    Monnot, Sophie; Gigarel, Nadine; Samuels, David C; Burlet, Philippe; Hesters, Laetitia; Frydman, Nelly; Frydman, René; Kerbrat, Violaine; Funalot, Benoit; Martinovic, Jelena; Benachi, Alexandra; Feingold, Josué; Munnich, Arnold; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Steffann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause a wide range of serious diseases with high transmission risk and maternal inheritance. Tissue heterogeneity of the heteroplasmy rate (“mutant load”) accounts for the wide phenotypic spectrum observed in carriers. Owing to the absence of therapy, couples at risk to transmit such disorders commonly ask for prenatal (PND) or preimplantation diagnosis (PGD). The lack of data regarding heteroplasmy distribution throughout intrauterine development, however, hampers the implementation of such procedures. We tracked the segregation of the m.3243A > G mutation (MT-TL1 gene) responsible for the MELAS syndrome in the developing embryo/fetus, using tissues and cells from eight carrier females, their 38 embryos and 12 fetuses. Mutant mtDNA segregation was found to be governed by random genetic drift, during oogenesis and somatic tissue development. The size of the bottleneck operating for m.3243A > G during oogenesis was shown to be individual-dependent. Comparison with data we achieved for the m.8993T > G mutation (MT-ATP6 gene), responsible for the NARP/Leigh syndrome, indicates that these mutations differentially influence mtDNA segregation during oogenesis, while their impact is similar in developing somatic tissues. These data have major consequences for PND and PGD procedures in mtDNA inherited disorders. Hum Mutat 32:116–125, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21120938

  11. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  12. The mitochondrial DNA makeup of Romanians: A forensic mtDNA control region database and phylogenetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Chiara; Stanciu, Florin; Paselli, Giorgia; Buscemi, Loredana; Parson, Walther; Tagliabracci, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of Romanian population from a mitochondrial perspective and to establish an appropriate mtDNA forensic database, we generated a high-quality mtDNA control region dataset from 407 Romanian subjects belonging to four major historical regions: Moldavia, Transylvania, Wallachia and Dobruja. The entire control region (CR) was analyzed by Sanger-type sequencing assays and the resulting 306 different haplotypes were classified into haplogroups according to the most updated mtDNA phylogeny. The Romanian gene pool is mainly composed of West Eurasian lineages H (31.7%), U (12.8%), J (10.8%), R (10.1%), T (9.1%), N (8.1%), HV (5.4%),K (3.7%), HV0 (4.2%), with exceptions of East Asian haplogroup M (3.4%) and African haplogroup L (0.7%). The pattern of mtDNA variation observed in this study indicates that the mitochondrial DNA pool is geographically homogeneous across Romania and that the haplogroup composition reveals signals of admixture of populations of different origin. The PCA scatterplot supported this scenario, with Romania located in southeastern Europe area, close to Bulgaria and Hungary, and as a borderland with respect to east Mediterranean and other eastern European countries. High haplotype diversity (0.993) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00838±0.00426), together with low random match probability (0.0087) suggest the usefulness of this control region dataset as a forensic database in routine forensic mtDNA analysis and in the investigation of maternal genetic lineages in the Romanian population. PMID:27414754

  13. MitoTALEN: A General Approach to Reduce Mutant mtDNA Loads and Restore Oxidative Phosphorylation Function in Mitochondrial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masami; Bacman, Sandra R; Peralta, Susana; Falk, Marni J; Chomyn, Anne; Chan, David C; Williams, Sion L; Moraes, Carlos T

    2015-10-01

    We have designed mitochondrially targeted transcription activator-like effector nucleases or mitoTALENs to cleave specific sequences in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with the goal of eliminating mtDNA carrying pathogenic point mutations. To test the generality of the approach, we designed mitoTALENs to target two relatively common pathogenic mtDNA point mutations associated with mitochondrial diseases: the m.8344A>G tRNA(Lys) gene mutation associated with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) and the m.13513G>A ND5 mutation associated with MELAS/Leigh syndrome. Transmitochondrial cybrid cells harbouring the respective heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations were transfected with the respective mitoTALEN and analyzed after different time periods. MitoTALENs efficiently reduced the levels of the targeted pathogenic mtDNAs in the respective cell lines. Functional assays showed that cells with heteroplasmic mutant mtDNA were able to recover respiratory capacity and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes activity after transfection with the mitoTALEN. To improve the design in the context of the low complexity of mtDNA, we designed shorter versions of the mitoTALEN specific for the MERRF m.8344A>G mutation. These shorter mitoTALENs also eliminated the mutant mtDNA. These reductions in size will improve our ability to package these large sequences into viral vectors, bringing the use of these genetic tools closer to clinical trials. PMID:26159306

  14. Conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies of a recent species radiation: what mtDNA reveals and conceals about modes of speciation in Hawaiian crickets.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kerry L

    2002-12-10

    It has been asserted that recent mtDNA phylogenies support the plausibility of sympatric speciation, long considered a controversial mechanism of the origin of species. If such inferences are reliable, mtDNA phylogenies should be congruent with phylogenies based on other data. In previous work, a mtDNA phylogeny suggested that diversification of the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala was initiated by single invasions into each of several Hawaiian islands, followed by multiple sympatric divergences within each island. In contrast, a systematic hypothesis based on morphology argues that speciation in Laupala has occurred primarily in allopatry, with two independent species radiations diversifying across the archipelago. In this study, I analyze nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from Laupala to compare with sequences from the mtDNA. The nDNA phylogeny corroborates the hypothesis of allopatric divergence and multiple invasions, and when compared with mtDNA patterns, suggests that interspecific hybridization is a persistent feature of the history of Laupala. The discrepancy between mtDNA and nDNA phylogenies reveals that speciation histories based on mtDNA alone can be extensively misleading. PMID:12451181

  15. PCA and clustering reveal alternate mtDNA phylogeny of N and M clades.

    PubMed

    Alexe, G; Satya, R Vijaya; Seiler, M; Platt, D; Bhanot, T; Hui, S; Tanaka, M; Levine, A J; Bhanot, G

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic trees based on mtDNA polymorphisms are often used to infer the history of recent human migrations. However, there is no consensus on which method to use. Most methods make strong assumptions which may bias the choice of polymorphisms and result in computational complexity which limits the analysis to a few samples/polymorphisms. For example, parsimony minimizes the number of mutations, which biases the results to minimizing homoplasy events. Such biases may miss the global structure of the polymorphisms altogether, with the risk of identifying a "common" polymorphism as ancient without an internal check on whether it either is homoplasic or is identified as ancient because of sampling bias (from oversampling the population with the polymorphism). A signature of this problem is that different methods applied to the same data or the same method applied to different datasets results in different tree topologies. When the results of such analyses are combined, the consensus trees have a low internal branch consensus. We determine human mtDNA phylogeny from 1737 complete sequences using a new, direct method based on principal component analysis (PCA) and unsupervised consensus ensemble clustering. PCA identifies polymorphisms representing robust variations in the data and consensus ensemble clustering creates stable haplogroup clusters. The tree is obtained from the bifurcating network obtained when the data are split into k = 2,3,4,...,kmax clusters, with equal sampling from each haplogroup. Our method assumes only that the data can be clustered into groups based on mutations, is fast, is stable to sample perturbation, uses all significant polymorphisms in the data, works for arbitrary sample sizes, and avoids sample choice and haplogroup size bias. The internal branches of our tree have a 90% consensus accuracy. In conclusion, our tree recreates the standard phylogeny of the N, M, L0/L1, L2, and L3 clades, confirming the African origin of modern humans

  16. MtDNA control region variation affirms diversity and deep sub-structure in populations from southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current San and Khoe populations are remnant groups of a much larger and widely dispersed population of hunter-gatherers and pastoralists, who had exclusive occupation of southern Africa before the influx of Bantu-speakers from 2 ka (ka = kilo annum [thousand years] old/ago) and sea-borne immigrants within the last 350 years. Here we use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to examine the population structure of various San and Khoe groups, including seven different Khoe-San groups (Ju/’hoansi, !Xun, /Gui+//Gana, Khwe, ≠Khomani, Nama and Karretjie People), three different Coloured groups and seven other comparative groups. MtDNA hyper variable segments I and II (HVS I and HVS II) together with selected mtDNA coding region SNPs were used to assign 538 individuals to 18 haplogroups encompassing 245 unique haplotypes. Data were further analyzed to assess haplogroup histories and the genetic affinities of the various San, Khoe and Coloured populations. Where possible, we tentatively contextualize the genetic trends through time against key trends known from the archaeological record. Results The most striking observation from this study was the high frequencies of the oldest mtDNA haplogroups (L0d and L0k) that can be traced back in time to ~100 ka, found at high frequencies in Khoe-San and sampled Coloured groups. Furthermore, the L0d/k sub-haplogroups were differentially distributed in the different Khoe-San and Coloured groups and had different signals of expansion, which suggested different associated demographic histories. When populations were compared to each other, San groups from the northern parts of southern Africa (Ju speaking: !Xun, Ju/’hoansi and Khoe-speaking: /Gui+//Gana) grouped together and southern groups (historically Tuu speaking: ≠Khomani and Karretjie People and some Coloured groups) grouped together. The Khoe group (Nama) clustered with the southern Khoe-San and Coloured groups. The Khwe mtDNA profile was very different from other

  17. Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroups in remains of Botocudo Amerindians from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vanessa Faria; Stenderup, Jesper; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Cláudia; Silva, Hilton P.; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Líryo, Andersen; Kivisild, Toomas; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Campos, Paula F.; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Pena, Sergio Danilo J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that modern humans arrived in the Americas 15,000–20,000 y ago during the Late Pleistocene, most probably from northeast Asia through Beringia. However, there is still debate about the time of entry and number of migratory waves, including apparent inconsistencies between genetic and morphological data on Paleoamericans. Here we report the identification of mitochondrial sequences belonging to haplogroups characteristic of Polynesians in DNA extracted from ancient skulls of the now extinct Botocudo Indians from Brazil. The identification of these two Polynesian haplogroups was confirmed in independent replications in Brazil and Denmark, ensuring reliability of the data. Parallel analysis of 12 other Botocudo individuals yielded only the well-known Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup C1. Potential scenarios to try to help understand these results are presented and discussed. The findings of this study may be relevant for the understanding of the pre-Columbian and/or post-Columbian peopling of the Americas. PMID:23576724

  18. Rampant Nuclear Insertion of mtDNA across Diverse Lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J.; Whiting, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  19. Genetic relationship of Chinese and Japanese gamecocks revealed by mtDNA sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Qing; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2006-02-01

    Cockfighting has a very long history dating back to as early as 2500 years ago in China. Cockfighting was intertwined with human cultural traditions, helped disperse chickens across the world, and influenced the subsequent breed selection. Therefore, tracing the origin of gamecocks could mirror the distribution of the cockfighting culture. In this study, we compared the available mtDNA control region sequences in Chinese and Japanese gamecocks to test the recently proposed hypothesis behind the dual origin of the Japanese cockfighting culture (from China and Southeast Asia independently). We assigned gamecock mtDNAs to different matrilineal components (or phylogenetic clades) that emerged from the phylogenetic tree and network profile, and compared the frequency differences between Chinese and Japanese gamecocks. Among the six clades (A-F) identified, Japanese gamecocks were most frequently found in clades C and D (74%, 32/43), whereas more than half of the Chinese gamecock samples (69%, 35/51) were grouped in clades A and B. Haplotypes in Japanese gamecocks assigned to clades A, B, and E were either shared with those of the Chinese samples or differed from the close Chinese types by no more than a three-mutation distance. This genetic pattern is in accordance with the proposed dual origin of Japanese gamecocks but has left room for single origin of Japanese gamecocks from China. The genetic structure of gamecocks in China and Japan might also be influenced by subsequent breed selection and conservation after the initial gamecock introduction. PMID:16648993

  20. Haplogroup Classification of Korean Cattle Breeds Based on Sequence Variations of mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Su; Kim, Seung Chang; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Su-Hyun; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Eun Sung; Choi, Young-Sun; Kim, Sung-Bok; Kim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Chang-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:26954229

  1. Ancestral Puebloan mtDNA in Context of the Greater Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Kathy R.; Smith, David Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) was extracted from the human remains of seventy-three individuals from the Tommy and Mine Canyon sites (dated to PI-II and PIII, respectively), located on the B-Square Ranch in the Middle San Juan region of New Mexico. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of forty-eight (65.7%) of these samples were identified, and their frequency distributions were compared with those of other prehistoric and modern populations from the Greater Southwest and Mexico. The haplogroup frequency distributions for the two sites were statistically significantly different from each other, with the Mine Canyon site exhibiting an unusually high frequency of haplogroup A for a Southwestern population, indicating the possible influence of migration or other evolutionary forces. However, both sites exhibited a relatively high frequency of haplogroup B, typical of Southwestern populations, suggesting continuity in the Southwest, as has been hypothesized by others (S. Carlyle 2003; Carlyle, et al. 2000; Kemp 2006; Malhi, et al. 2003; Smith, et al. 2000). The first hypervariable region of twenty-three individuals (31.5%) was also sequenced to confirm haplogroup assignments and compared with other sequences from the region. This comparison further strengthens the argument for population continuity in the Southwest without a detectable influence from Mesoamerica. PMID:20514346

  2. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  3. Mosaic gene conversion after a tandem duplication of mtDNA sequence in Diomedeidae (albatrosses).

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Kuro-o, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Koike, Hiroko

    2010-04-01

    Although the tandem duplication of mitochondrial (mt) sequences, especially those of the control region (CR), has been detected in metazoan species, few studies have focused on the features of the duplicated sequence itself, such as the gene conversion rate, distribution patterns of the variation, and relative rates of evolution between the copies. To investigate the features of duplicated mt sequences, we partially sequenced the mt genome of 16 Phoebastria albatrosses belonging to three species (P. albatrus, P. nigripes, and P. immutabilis). More than 2,300 base pairs of tandemly-duplicated sequence were shared by all three species. The observed gene arrangement was shared in the three Phoebastria albatrosses and suggests that the duplication event occurred in the common ancestor of the three species. Most of the copies in each individual were identical or nearly identical, and were maintained through frequent gene conversions. By contrast, portions of CR domains I and III had different phylogenetic signals, suggesting that gene conversion had not occurred in those sections after the speciation of the three species. Several lines of data, including the heterogeneity of the rate of molecular evolution, nucleotide differences, and putative secondary structures, suggests that the two sequences in CR domain I are maintained through selection; however, additional studies into the mechanisms of gene conversion and mtDNA synthesis are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:20558899

  4. Phylogeny of Trachylepis sp. (Reptilia) from Turkey inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Ozgür; Candan, Kamil; Kankiliç, Tolga; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Cetin

    2014-12-01

    The taxonomic status of the species included into the genus Trachylepis in Turkey are doubtful. So far, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus in Turkey; Trachylepis aurata. T. vittata, and T. septemtaeniata. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of the Turkish Trachylepis species by employing phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches and using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and 12 S rRNA). In total, 45 Trachylepis and 6 Mabuya specimens were used analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods. The phylogenetic relationships and the genetic distances retrieved, revealed that the Turkish species, which currently recognized as Trachylepis, are highly diversified, forming a distinct clade that shows closer phylogenetic affinity with the species of the genus Mabuya rather than the other Trachylepis species. In this clade, the three Turkish species are monophyletic with T. vittata to branch off first in late Miocene (10.54 Mya). The other two species (T. septemtaeniata and T. aurata) seem to have sister group relationship that diverged at the end of Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.27 Mya). As a whole, the examination of mtDNA lineages in the Turkish lizards of the genus Trachylepis may contribute substantially to the refining of their taxonomic status, since the three species of Turkey, although monophyletic, represent a distinct radiation that would could probably recognized as a different genus in Mabuya sensu lato. PMID:24004307

  5. Haplogroup Classification of Korean Cattle Breeds Based on Sequence Variations of mtDNA Control Region

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Su; Kim, Seung Chang; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Su-Hyun; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Eun Sung; Choi, Young-Sun; Kim, Sung-Bok; Kim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Chang-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:26954229

  6. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  7. Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5-kb mtDNA single deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Saiz, A.; Cardellach, F.; Volpini, V.; Solans, A.; Tolosa, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.; Estivill, X.; Nunes, V.

    1996-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and approximately 5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8651280

  8. Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5 kb mtDNA single deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Cardellach, F.

    1996-05-01

    Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and {approximately}5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Early Eurasian migration traces in the Tarim Basin revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Chunxiang; Gao, Shizhu; Xie, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of 58 samples from the Daheyan village located in the central Taklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin were determined in this study. Among the 58 samples, 29 haplotypes belonging to 18 different haplogroups were analyzed. Almost all the mtDNAs belong to a subset of either the defined Western or Eastern Eurasian pool. Extensive Eastern Eurasian lineages exist in the Daheyan population in which Northern-prevalent haplogroups present higher frequencies. In the limited existing Western Eurasian lineages, two sub-haplogroups, U3 and X2, that are rare in Central Asia were found in this study, which may be indicative of the remnants of an early immigrant population from the Near East and Caucasus regions preserved only in the Tarim Basin. The presence of U3 in modern and archeological samples in the Tarim Basin suggests that the immigration took place earlier than 2,000 years ago and points to human continuity in this area, with at least one Western lineage originating from the Near East and Caucasus regions. PMID:20091803

  10. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean – Adriatic – marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes. PMID:19284692

  11. Evaluation of cytochrome b mtDNA sequences in genetic diversity studies of Channa marulius (Channidae: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Habib, Maria; Lakra, W S; Mohindra, Vindhya; Khare, Praveen; Barman, A S; Singh, Akanksha; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Khan, Asif A

    2011-02-01

    Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. The present study evaluated partial Cytochrome b gene sequence of mtDNA for determining the genetic variation in wild populations of C. marulius. Genomic DNA extracted from C. marulius samples (n = 23) belonging to 3 distant rivers; Mahanadi, Teesta and Yamuna was analyzed. Sequencing of 307 bp Cytochrome b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 5 haplotypes with haplotype diversity value of 0.763 and nucleotide diversity value of 0.0128. Single population specific haplotype was observed in Mahanadi and Yamuna samples and 3 haplotypes in Teesta samples. The analysis of data demonstrated the suitability of partial Cytochrome b sequence in determining the genetic diversity in C. marulius population. PMID:20443065

  12. Extreme mtDNA divergences in a terrestrial slug (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae): accelerated evolution, allopatric divergence and secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Pinceel, J; Jordaens, K; Backeljau, T

    2005-09-01

    Extremely high levels of intraspecific mtDNA differences in pulmonate gastropods have been reported repeatedly and several hypotheses to explain them have been postulated. We studied the phylogeny and phylogeography of 51 populations (n = 843) of the highly polymorphic terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud, 1805) across its native distribution range in Western Europe. By combining the analysis of single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) and nucleotide sequencing, we obtained individual sequence data for a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and a fragment of the nuclear ITS1. Additionally, five polymorphic allozyme loci were scored. Based on the 16S rDNA phylogeny, five monophyletic haplotype groups with sequence divergences of 9-21% were found. Despite this deep mitochondrial divergence, the haplotype groups were not monophyletic for the nuclear ITS1 fragment and haplotype group-specific allozyme alleles were not found. Although there is evidence for an accelerated mtDNA clock, the divergence among the haplotype groups is older than the Pleistocene and their current allopatric ranges probably reflect allopatric divergence and glacial survival in separate refugia from which different post-glacial colonization routes were established. A range-overlap of two mtDNA groups (S1 and S2, 21% sequence divergence) stretched from Central France and Belgium up to the North of the British Isles. The nuclear data suggest that this secondary contact resulted in hybridization between the allopatrically diverged groups. Therefore, it seems that, at least for two of the groups, the deep mtDNA divergence was only partially accompanied by the formation of reproductive isolation. PMID:16135122

  13. A new subclade of mtDNA haplogroup C1 found in Icelanders: evidence of pre-Columbian contact?

    PubMed

    Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður Sunna; Sigurðsson, Asgeir; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Stefánsson, Kári; Helgason, Agnar

    2011-01-01

    Although most mtDNA lineages observed in contemporary Icelanders can be traced to neighboring populations in the British Isles and Scandinavia, one may have a more distant origin. This lineage belongs to haplogroup C1, one of a handful that was involved in the settlement of the Americas around 14,000 years ago. Contrary to an initial assumption that this lineage was a recent arrival, preliminary genealogical analyses revealed that the C1 lineage was present in the Icelandic mtDNA pool at least 300 years ago. This raised the intriguing possibility that the Icelandic C1 lineage could be traced to Viking voyages to the Americas that commenced in the 10th century. In an attempt to shed further light on the entry date of the C1 lineage into the Icelandic mtDNA pool and its geographical origin, we used the deCODE Genetics genealogical database to identify additional matrilineal ancestors that carry the C1 lineage and then sequenced the complete mtDNA genome of 11 contemporary C1 carriers from four different matrilines. Our results indicate a latest possible arrival date in Iceland of just prior to 1700 and a likely arrival date centuries earlier. Most surprisingly, we demonstrate that the Icelandic C1 lineage does not belong to any of the four known Native American (C1b, C1c, and C1d) or Asian (C1a) subclades of haplogroup C1. Rather, it is presently the only known member of a new subclade, C1e. While a Native American origin seems most likely for C1e, an Asian or European origin cannot be ruled out. PMID:21069749

  14. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation associated with maternally inherited Parkinson`s disease (PD) and deafness

    SciTech Connect

    Shoffner, J.M.; Brown, M.; Huoponen, K.

    1994-09-01

    A pedigree was characterized in which PD and deafness is expressed along the maternal lineage. The proband is 74 years old and has PD. Her mother and 3 of 7 siblings have PD and a maternal lineage cousin may have early signs of PD. The proband`s mother, a sibling, and all four of her daughters have premature deafness. Since manifestations of PD begin after 50 years of age, the 30-40 year old daughters have not reached an age where extrapyramidal symptoms are likely to appear. Although all 4 daughters have premature deafness, one daughter experienced a rapid reduction of her hearing after receiving a short course during childhood of the aminoglycoside streptomycin. Muscle biopsies from the proband who has PD and 3 daughters with deafness revealed normal histology. Oxidative phosphorylation biochemistry showed Complex I and IV defects in the proband and 2 daughters and a Complex I defect in the other daughter. The proband`s mtDNA was sequenced. Of the nucleotide variants observed, the only significant nucleotide change was a homoplasmic A-to-G point mutation in the 12S rRNA gene at position 1555 of the mtDNA. This site is homologous to the E. coli aminoglycoside binding site and has been found in a large Arab-Israeli pedigree with spontaneously occurring deafness and three Chinese pedigrees with aminoglycoside-induced deafness. Hence, this family shows a direct link between PD, deafness, Complex I and IV defects, and a mutation in a gene that functions in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Furthermore, the interaction between aminoglycosides and the mtDNA in a manner that augments the pathogenic effects of this mutation provides an excellent example of how environmental toxins and mtDNA mutations can interact to give a spectrum of clinical presentations.

  15. Extreme mitochondrial evolution in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: Insight from mtDNA and the nuclear genome.

    PubMed

    Pett, Walker; Ryan, Joseph F; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2011-08-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology have led to a rapid accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, which now represent the wide spectrum of animal diversity. However, one animal phylum--Ctenophora--has, to date, remained completely unsampled. Ctenophores, a small group of marine animals, are of interest due to their unusual biology, controversial phylogenetic position, and devastating impact as invasive species. Using data from the Mnemiopsis leidyi genome sequencing project, we Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplified and analyzed its complete mitochondrial (mt-) genome. At just over 10 kb, the mt-genome of M. leidyi is the smallest animal mtDNA ever reported and is among the most derived. It has lost at least 25 genes, including atp6 and all tRNA genes. We show that atp6 has been relocated to the nuclear genome and has acquired introns and a mitochondrial targeting presequence, while tRNA genes have been genuinely lost, along with nuclear-encoded mt-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The mt-genome of M. leidyi also displays extremely high rates of sequence evolution, which likely led to the degeneration of both protein and rRNA genes. In particular, encoded rRNA molecules possess little similarity with their homologs in other organisms and have highly reduced secondary structures. At the same time, nuclear encoded mt-ribosomal proteins have undergone expansions, likely to compensate for the reductions in mt-rRNA. The unusual features identified in M. leidyi mtDNA make this organism an interesting system for the study of various aspects of mitochondrial biology, particularly protein and tRNA import and mt-ribosome structures, and add to its value as an emerging model species. Furthermore, the fast-evolving M. leidyi mtDNA should be a convenient molecular marker for species- and population-level studies. PMID:21985407

  16. Cigarette toxicity triggers Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy by affecting mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation and ROS detoxification pathways

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, L; Deceglie, S; d'Adamo, P; Valentino, M L; La Morgia, C; Fracasso, F; Roberti, M; Cappellari, M; Petrosillo, G; Ciaravolo, S; Parente, D; Giordano, C; Maresca, A; Iommarini, L; Del Dotto, V; Ghelli, A M; Salomao, S R; Berezovsky, A; Belfort, R; Sadun, A A; Carelli, V; Loguercio Polosa, P; Cantatore, P

    2015-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), the most frequent mitochondrial disease, is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations affecting Complex I subunits, usually homoplasmic. This blinding disorder is characterized by incomplete penetrance, possibly related to several genetic modifying factors. We recently reported that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in unaffected mutation carriers is a compensatory mechanism, which reduces penetrance. Also, environmental factors such as cigarette smoking have been implicated as disease triggers. To investigate this issue further, we first assessed the relationship between cigarette smoke and mtDNA copy number in blood cells from large cohorts of LHON families, finding that smoking was significantly associated with the lowest mtDNA content in affected individuals. To unwrap the mechanism of tobacco toxicity in LHON, we exposed fibroblasts from affected individuals, unaffected mutation carriers and controls to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). CSC decreased mtDNA copy number in all cells; moreover, it caused significant reduction of ATP level only in mutated cells including carriers. This implies that the bioenergetic compensation in carriers is hampered by exposure to smoke derivatives. We also observed that in untreated cells the level of carbonylated proteins was highest in affected individuals, whereas the level of several detoxifying enzymes was highest in carriers. Thus, carriers are particularly successful in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity. After CSC exposure, the amount of detoxifying enzymes increased in all cells, but carbonylated proteins increased only in LHON mutant cells, mostly from affected individuals. All considered, it appears that exposure to smoke derivatives has a more deleterious effect in affected individuals, whereas carriers are the most efficient in mitigating ROS rather than recovering bioenergetics. Therefore, the identification of genetic modifiers that

  17. Extreme Mitochondrial Evolution in the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: Insights from mtDNA and the Nuclear Genome

    PubMed Central

    Pett, Walker; Ryan, Joseph F.; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology have led to a rapid accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, which now represent the wide spectrum of animal diversity. However, one animal phylum – Ctenophora – has, to date, remained completely unsampled. Ctenophores, a small group of marine animals, are of interest due to their unusual biology, controversial phylogenetic position, and devastating impact as an invasive species. Using data from the Mnemiopsis leidyi genome sequencing project, we PCR amplified and analyzed its complete mitochondrial (mt-) genome. At just over 10kb, the mt-genome of M. leidyi is the smallest animal mtDNA ever reported and is among the most derived. It has lost at least 25 genes, including atp6 and all tRNA genes. We show that atp6 has been relocated to the nuclear genome and has acquired introns and a mitochondrial targeting presequence, while tRNA genes have been genuinely lost, along with nuclear-encoded mt-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The mt-genome of M. leidyi also displays extremely high rates of sequence evolution, which likely led to the degeneration of both protein and rRNA genes. In particular, encoded rRNA molecules possess little similarity with their homologues in other organisms and have highly reduced secondary structures. At the same time, nuclear encoded mt-ribosomal proteins have undergone expansions, probably to compensate for the reductions in mt-rRNA. The unusual features identified in M. leidyi mtDNA make this organism an interesting system for the study of various aspects of mitochondrial biology, particularly protein and tRNA import and mt-ribosome structures, and add to its value as an emerging model species. Furthermore, the fast-evolving M. leidyi mtDNA should be a convenient molecular marker for species- and population-level studies. PMID:21985407

  18. Possible role of mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects in aristolochic acid I-induced acute nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhenzhou Bao, Qingli Sun, Lixin Huang, Xin Wang, Tao Zhang, Shuang Li, Han Zhang, Luyong

    2013-01-15

    This report describes an investigation of the pathological mechanism of acute renal failure caused by toxic tubular necrosis after treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were gavaged with AAI at 0, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The pathologic examination of the kidneys showed severe acute tubular degenerative changes primarily affecting the proximal tubules. Supporting these results, we detected significantly increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in the rats treated with AAI, indicating damage to the kidneys. Ultrastructural examination showed that proximal tubular mitochondria were extremely enlarged and dysmorphic with loss and disorientation of their cristae. Mitochondrial function analysis revealed that the two indicators for mitochondrial energy metabolism, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ATP content, were reduced in a dose-dependent manner after AAI treatment. The RCR in the presence of substrates for complex I was reduced more significantly than in the presence of substrates for complex II. In additional experiments, the activity of respiratory complex I, which is partly encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), was more significantly impaired than that of respiratory complex II, which is completely encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). A real-time PCR assay revealed a marked reduction of mtDNA in the kidneys treated with AAI. Taken together, these results suggested that mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by AAI, and that the same processes might contribute to aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► AAI-induced acute renal failure in rats and the proximal tubule was the target. ► Tubular mitochondria were morphologically aberrant in ultrastructural examination. ► AAI impair mitochondrial bioenergetic function and mtDNA replication.

  19. Anthropology. Comment on "Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans".

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias

    2015-02-20

    Chatters et al. (Reports, 16 May 2014, p. 750) reported the retrieval of DNA sequences from a 12,000- to 13,000-year-old human tooth discovered in an underwater cave in Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. They propose that this ancient human individual's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) belongs to haplogroup D1. However, our analysis of postmortem damage patterns finds no evidence for an ancient origin of these sequences. PMID:25700510

  20. Multiple hypothesis correction is vital and undermines reported mtDNA links to diseases including AIDS, cancer, and Huntingdon's.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Iain G

    2016-09-01

    The ability to sequence mitochondrial genomes quickly and cheaply has led to an explosion in available mtDNA data. As a result, an expanding literature is exploring links between mtDNA features and susceptibility to, or prevalence of, a range of diseases. Unfortunately, this great technological power has not always been accompanied by great statistical responsibility. I will focus on one aspect of statistical analysis, multiple hypothesis correction, that is absolutely required, yet often absolutely ignored, for responsible interpretation of this literature. Many existing studies perform comparisons between incidences of a large number (N) of different mtDNA features and a given disease, reporting all those yielding p values under 0.05 as significant links. But when many comparisons are performed, it is highly likely that several p values under 0.05 will emerge, by chance, in the absence of any underlying link. A suitable correction (for example, Bonferroni correction, requiring p < 0.05/N) must, therefore, be employed to avoid reporting false positive results. The absence of such corrections means that there is good reason to believe that many links reported between mtDNA features and various diseases are false; a state of affairs that is profoundly negative both for fundamental biology and for public health. I will show that statistics matching those claimed to illustrate significant links can arise, with a high probability, when no such link exists, and that these claims should thus be discarded until results of suitable statistical reliability are provided. I also discuss some strategies for responsible analysis and interpretation of this literature. PMID:25884427

  1. The genetic relationship between the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps): analysis of nuclear DNA and mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Lahermo, P.; Sajantila, A.; Sistonen, P.; Lukka, M.; Aula, P.; Peltonen, L.; Savontaus, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    The genetic relationships between two Finno-Ugric-speaking populations, the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps), were studied by using PCR for six nuclear-DNA marker loci, mitochondrial restriction-site polymorphism, and sequence variation of a 360-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region. The allele frequencies of each of the nuclear-DNA marker loci and the frequencies of mtDNA restriction haplotypes were significantly different between the populations. The Saami showed exceptionally low variation in their mtDNA restriction sites. The 9-bp deletion common in East Asian populations was not observed, nor did the haplotype data fit into the haplogroup categorization of Torroni et al. The average number of nucleotide substitutions from the mtDNA haplotype data indicated that the Finnish Saami may be closer to the Finns than to the other reference populations, whereas nuclear DNA suggested that the Finns are more closely related to the European reference populations than to the Finnish Saami. The similarity of the Finns to the other Europeans was even more pronounced according to the sequence data. We were unable to distinguish between the Finns and either the Swiss or Sardinian reference populations, whereas the Finnish Saami clearly stood apart. The Finnish Saami are distinct from other Circumarctic populations, although two of the lineages found among the Saami showed closer relationship to the Circumarctic than to the European lineages. The sequence data indicated an exceptionally high divergence for the Saami mtDNA control lineages. The distribution of the pairwise nucleotide differences in the Saami suggested that this population has not experienced an expansion similar to what was indicated for the Finns and the reference populations. Images Figure 1 PMID:8651309

  2. Circumpolar diversity and geographic differentiation of mtDNA in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia).

    PubMed

    Sremba, Angela L; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany; Branch, Trevor A; LeDuc, Rick L; Baker, C Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) was hunted to near extinction between 1904 and 1972, declining from an estimated initial abundance of more than 250,000 to fewer than 400. Here, we describe mtDNA control region diversity and geographic differentiation in the surviving population of the Antarctic blue whale, using 218 biopsy samples collected under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) during research cruises from 1990-2009. Microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA sequences identified 166 individuals among the 218 samples and documented movement of a small number of individuals, including a female that traveled at least 6,650 km or 131° longitude over four years. mtDNA sequences from the 166 individuals were aligned with published sequences from 17 additional individuals, resolving 52 unique haplotypes from a consensus length of 410 bp. From this minimum census, a rarefaction analysis predicted that only 72 haplotypes (95% CL, 64, 86) have survived in the contemporary population of Antarctic blue whales. However, haplotype diversity was relatively high (0.968±0.004), perhaps as a result of the longevity of blue whales and the relatively recent timing of the bottleneck. Despite the potential for circumpolar dispersal, we found significant differentiation in mtDNA diversity (F(ST) = 0.032, p<0.005) and microsatellite alleles (F(ST) = 0.005, p<0.05) among the six Antarctic Areas historically used by the IWC for management of blue whales. PMID:22412889

  3. Functional Characterization of Three Concomitant MtDNA LHON Mutations Shows No Synergistic Effect on Mitochondrial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Bermúdez, Alberto; Vicente-Blanco, Ramiro J.; Hernández-Sierra, Rosana; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier; González Manrique, Mar; Blázquez, Alberto; Martín, Miguel Angel; Ayuso, Carmen; Garesse, Rafael; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of more than one non-severe pathogenic mutation in the same mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule is very rare. Moreover, it is unclear whether their co-occurrence results in an additive impact on mitochondrial function relative to single mutation effects. Here we describe the first example of a mtDNA molecule harboring three Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-associated mutations (m.11778G>A, m.14484T>C, m.11253T>C) and the analysis of its genetic, biochemical and molecular characterization in transmitochondrial cells (cybrids). Extensive characterization of cybrid cell lines harboring either the 3 mutations or the single classic m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C mutations revealed no differences in mitochondrial function, demonstrating the absence of a synergistic effect in this model system. These molecular results are in agreement with the ophthalmological characteristics found in the triple mutant patient, which were similar to those carrying single mtDNA LHON mutations. PMID:26784702

  4. Transmission from centenarians to their offspring of mtDNA heteroplasmy revealed by ultra-deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Barbieri, Chiara; Li, Mingkun; Bucci, Laura; Monti, Daniela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The role that mtDNA heteroplasmy plays in healthy aging, familial longevity and the heritability patterns of low levels heteroplasmy in the elderly are largely unknown. We analyzed the low levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy in blood in a cohort of centenarians, their offspring and a group of offspring of non long-lived parents, characterized by a less favorable health phenotype. The aims of this study are to: (i) investigate the transmission of low level heteroplasmies in the elderly; (ii) explore the association of heteroplasmy with age and longevity and (iii) investigate heteroplasmy patterns in these three groups. We sequenced a 853 bp mtDNA fragment in 88 individuals to an average coverage of 49334-fold, using quality control filtering and triplicate PCR analysis to reduce any methodological bias, and we detected 119 heteroplasmic positions with a minor allele frequency ≥ 0.2%. The results indicate that low-level heteroplasmies are transmitted and maintained within families until extreme age. We did not find any heteroplasmic variant associated with longevity and healthy aging but we identified an unique heteroplasmy profile for each family, based on total level and positions. This familial profile suggests that heteroplasmy may contribute to familial longevity. PMID:25013208

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria. PMID:18222615

  6. Genetic Population Structure of Thunnus albacares in the Central Pacific Ocean Based on mtDNA COI Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwen; Chen, Xinjun; Xu, Qianghua; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Dai, Xiaojie; Xu, Liuxiong

    2015-04-01

    Thunnus albacares is an important fishery species throughout the world. Polymorphisms of sequence variations in mtDNA COI genes were assessed to explore the genetic differentiations among 11 populations of T. albacares sampled from the central Pacific Ocean. Sixty-one mtDNA haplotypes and 38 variable sites were detected. Analysis of mtDNA COI sequences revealed that tuna from the 11 localities were characterized by moderately high haplotype diversity (h = 0.650 ± 0.040), while sequence divergence between haplotypes was relatively low (π = 0.00364 ± 0.00044). Analyses of molecular variance and FST analysis supported that significant genetic differentiations existed between some of the sampled populations. Tests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that T. albacares might have experienced a population expansion, which possibly occurred within the last 0.82 million years. Our study unraveled the genetic structure of the extant population of T. albacares and addressed the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification and management. PMID:25854852

  7. TWINKLE is an essential mitochondrial helicase required for synthesis of nascent D-loop strands and complete mtDNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Dusanka; Matic, Stanka; Kühl, Inge; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Freyer, Christoph; Jemt, Elisabeth; Park, Chan Bae; Falkenberg, Maria; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Replication of the mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is dependent on the minimal replisome, consisting of the heterotrimeric mtDNA polymerase (POLG), the hexameric DNA helicase TWINKLE and the tetrameric single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB). TWINKLE has been shown to unwind DNA during the replication process and many disease-causing mutations have been mapped to its gene. Patients carrying Twinkle mutations develop multiple deletions of mtDNA, deficient respiratory chain function and neuromuscular symptoms. Despite its importance in human disease, it has been unclear whether TWINKLE is the only replicative DNA helicase in mammalian mitochondria. Furthermore, a substantial portion of mtDNA replication events is prematurely terminated at the end of mitochondrial control region (D-loop) and it is unknown whether TWINKLE also has a role in this abortive replication. Here, we present a conditional mouse knockout for Twinkle and demonstrate that TWINKLE is essential for mouse embryonic development and thus is the only replicative DNA helicase in mammalian mitochondria. Conditional knockout of Twinkle results in severe and rapid mtDNA depletion in heart and skeletal muscle. No replication intermediates or deleted mtDNA molecules are observed after Twinkle knockout, suggesting that TWINKLE once loaded is very processive. We also demonstrate that TWINKLE is essential for nascent H-strand synthesis in the D-loop, thus showing that there is no separate DNA helicase responsible for replication of this region. Our data thus suggest that the relative levels of abortive D-loop synthesis versus complete mtDNA replication are regulated and may provide a mechanism to control progression to complete mtDNA replication. PMID:23393161

  8. Age-related human mtDNA deletions: A heterogeneous set of deletions arising at a single pair of directly repeated sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Baumer, A.; Zhang, C.; Linnane, A.W.; Nagley, P. )

    1994-04-01

    Deletions in mtDNA accumulate during the human aging process, arising from either intramolecular illegitimate recombination or strand slippage during replication, which results in subgenomic mtDNA molecules. The authors identify here two classes of mtDNA deletions - class A deletions, which are homogeneous at the breakpoints, with all subgenomic molecules therefore being identical in size, and class B deletions, which arise from a less stringent process that gives rise to heterogeneity at the breakpoints, with the subgenomic molecules being of slightly different sizes. A novel approach is described that offers a global overview of the populations of different deletions in individual tissues. It is based on PCR cycle-sequencing reactions that are carried out directly on mtDNA segments, amplified by PCR from total cellular DNA. The results show a clear size homogeneity of the subgenomic mtDNA molecules representative of class A, which carry a commonly detected 4,977-bp deletion occurring at a pair of 13-bp directly repeated sequences. In this case, precisely one copy of the repeat is retained in the subgenomic molecules. The authors then describe a class B situation comprising a family of at least nine closely related 8.04-kb deletions involving the same pair of 5-bp direct repeats. In this situation, the breakpoints differ at the base-pair level (8,037-8.048-bp deletions); the subgenomic molecules retain >1 copy, 1 copy, or <1 copy of the 5-bp repeat. In different tissues from either the same individual or among different individuals, there is a widely variable occurrence of particular deletions in the subgenomic mtDNA population within this class B set. Class B deletions offer a new approach for studying the accumulation of mtDNA deletions, thereby providing insight into the independent somatic origin of mutated mtDNA molecules, both in aging and in mitochondrial diseases. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that mammalian mitochondrial nucleoids have a uniform size and frequently contain a single copy of mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Kukat, Christian; Wurm, Christian A.; Spåhr, Henrik; Falkenberg, Maria; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Jakobs, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian mtDNA is packaged in DNA-protein complexes denoted mitochondrial nucleoids. The organization of the nucleoid is a very fundamental question in mitochondrial biology and will determine tissue segregation and transmission of mtDNA. We have used a combination of stimulated emission depletion microscopy, enabling a resolution well below the diffraction barrier, and molecular biology to study nucleoids in a panel of mammalian tissue culture cells. We report that the nucleoids labeled with antibodies against DNA, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), or incorporated BrdU, have a defined, uniform mean size of ∼100 nm in mammals. Interestingly, the nucleoid frequently contains only a single copy of mtDNA (average ∼1.4 mtDNA molecules per nucleoid). Furthermore, we show by molecular modeling and volume calculations that TFAM is a main constituent of the nucleoid, besides mtDNA. These fundamental insights into the organization of mtDNA have broad implications for understanding mitochondrial dysfunction in disease and aging. PMID:21808029

  10. African origin for Madagascan dogs revealed by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; van Asch, Barbara; Rabakonandriania, Elisabeth; Savolainen, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Madagascar was one of the last major land masses to be inhabited by humans. It was initially colonized by Austronesian speaking Indonesians 1500-2000 years ago, but subsequent migration from Africa has resulted in approximately equal genetic contributions from Indonesia and Africa, and the material culture has mainly African influences. The dog, along with the pig and the chicken, was part of the Austronesian Neolithic culture, and was furthermore the only domestic animal to accompany humans to every continent in ancient times. To illuminate Madagascan cultural origins and track the initial worldwide dispersal of dogs, we here investigated the ancestry of Madagascan dogs. We analysed mtDNA control region sequences in dogs from Madagascar (n=145) and compared it with that from potential ancestral populations in Island Southeast Asia (n=219) and sub-Saharan Africa (n=493). We found that 90% of the Madagascan dogs carried a haplotype that was also present in sub-Saharan Africa and that the remaining lineages could all be attributed to a likely origin in Africa. By contrast, only 26% of Madagascan dogs shared haplotypes with Indonesian dogs, and one haplotype typical for Austronesian dogs, carried by more than 40% of Indonesian and Polynesian dogs, was absent among the Madagascan dogs. Thus, in contrast to the human population, Madagascan dogs seem to trace their origin entirely from Africa. These results suggest that dogs were not brought to Madagascar by the initial Austronesian speaking colonizers on their transoceanic voyage, but were introduced at a later stage, together with human migration and cultural influence from Africa. PMID:26064658

  11. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Laura D; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A; Driscoll, Carlos A; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Tumenta, Pricelia N; Jirmo, Tuqa H; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  12. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laura D.; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  13. mtDNA sequences suggest a recent evolutionary divergence for Beringian and Northern American populations

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.F.; Schmiechen, A.M.; Reed, J.K. ); Frazier, B.L.; Redd, A.; Ward, R.H. ); Voevoda, M.I. )

    1993-09-01

    Conventional descriptions of the pattern and process of human entry into the New World from Asia are incomplete and controversial. In order to gain an evolutionary insight into this process, the authors have sequenced the control region of mtDNA in samples of contemporary tribal populations of eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Greenland and have compared them with those of Amerind speakers of the Pacific Northwest and with those of the Altai of central Siberia. Specifically, they have analyzed sequence diversity in 33 mitochondiral lineages identified in 90 individuals belonging to five Circumpolar populations of Beringia, North America, and Greenland: Chukchi from Siberia, Inupiaq Eskimos and Athapaskans from Alaska, Eskimos from West Greenland, and Haida from Canada. Hereafter, these five populations are referred to as Circumarctic peoples'. These data were then compared with the sequence diversity in 47 mitochondrial lineages identified in a sample of 145 individuals from three Amerind-speaking tribes (Bella Coola, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, and Yakima) of the Pacific Northwest, plus 16 mitrochondrial lineages identified in a sample of 17 Altai from central Siberia. Sequence diversity within and among Circumarctic populations is considerably less than the sequence diversity observed within and among the three Amerind tribes. The similarity of sequences found among the geographically dispersed Circumarctic groups, plus the small values of mean pairwise sequence differences within Circumarctic populations, suggest a recent and rapid evolutionary radiation of these populations. In addition, Circumarctic populations lack the 9-bp deletion which has been used to trace various migrations out of Asia, while populations of southeastern Siberia possess this deletion. On the basis of these observations, while the evolutionary affinities of Native Americans extend west to the Circumarctic populations of eastern Siberia, they do not include the Altai of central Siberia.

  14. African origin for Madagascan dogs revealed by mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; van Asch, Barbara; Rabakonandriania, Elisabeth; Savolainen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Madagascar was one of the last major land masses to be inhabited by humans. It was initially colonized by Austronesian speaking Indonesians 1500–2000 years ago, but subsequent migration from Africa has resulted in approximately equal genetic contributions from Indonesia and Africa, and the material culture has mainly African influences. The dog, along with the pig and the chicken, was part of the Austronesian Neolithic culture, and was furthermore the only domestic animal to accompany humans to every continent in ancient times. To illuminate Madagascan cultural origins and track the initial worldwide dispersal of dogs, we here investigated the ancestry of Madagascan dogs. We analysed mtDNA control region sequences in dogs from Madagascar (n=145) and compared it with that from potential ancestral populations in Island Southeast Asia (n=219) and sub-Saharan Africa (n=493). We found that 90% of the Madagascan dogs carried a haplotype that was also present in sub-Saharan Africa and that the remaining lineages could all be attributed to a likely origin in Africa. By contrast, only 26% of Madagascan dogs shared haplotypes with Indonesian dogs, and one haplotype typical for Austronesian dogs, carried by more than 40% of Indonesian and Polynesian dogs, was absent among the Madagascan dogs. Thus, in contrast to the human population, Madagascan dogs seem to trace their origin entirely from Africa. These results suggest that dogs were not brought to Madagascar by the initial Austronesian speaking colonizers on their transoceanic voyage, but were introduced at a later stage, together with human migration and cultural influence from Africa. PMID:26064658

  15. Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Badro, Danielle A.; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Salloum, Angélique; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Johnsrud, Brian; Khazen, Georges; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Platt, Daniel E.; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of FST's, RST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations. PMID:23382925

  16. A comparative analysis of Y chromosome and mtDNA phylogenies of the Hylobates gibbons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary relationships of closely related species have long been of interest to biologists since these species experienced different evolutionary processes in a relatively short period of time. Comparison of phylogenies inferred from DNA sequences with differing inheritance patterns, such as mitochondrial, autosomal, and X and Y chromosomal loci, can provide more comprehensive inferences of the evolutionary histories of species. Gibbons, especially the genus Hylobates, are particularly intriguing as they consist of multiple closely related species which emerged rapidly and live in close geographic proximity. Our current understanding of relationships among Hylobates species is largely based on data from the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). Results To infer the paternal histories of gibbon taxa, we sequenced multiple Y chromosomal loci from 26 gibbons representing 10 species. As expected, we find levels of sequence variation some five times lower than observed for the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome). Although our Y chromosome phylogenetic tree shows relatively low resolution compared to the mtgenome tree, our results are consistent with the monophyly of gibbon genera suggested by the mtgenome tree. In a comparison of the molecular dating of divergences and on the branching patterns of phylogeny trees between mtgenome and Y chromosome data, we found: 1) the inferred divergence estimates were more recent for the Y chromosome than for the mtgenome, 2) the species H. lar and H. pileatus are monophyletic in the mtgenome phylogeny, respectively, but a H. pileatus individual falls into the H. lar Y chromosome clade. Conclusions Based on the ~6.4 kb of Y chromosomal DNA sequence data generated for each of the 26 individuals in this study, we provide molecular inferences on gibbon and particularly on Hylobates evolution complementary to those from mtDNA data. Overall, our results illustrate the utility of comparative studies of loci with

  17. Species phylogeny and diversification process of Northeast Asian Pungitius revealed by AFLP and mtDNA markers.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Møller, Peter R; Shedko, Sergei V; Ramatulla, Temirbekov; Joen, Sang-Rin; Zhang, Chun-Guang; Sideleva, Valentina G; Takata, Keisuke; Sakai, Harumi; Goto, Akira; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2016-06-01

    Pungitius is a highly diversified genus of sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae) occurring widely in northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Several ecologically and genetically divergent types that are largely isolated reproductively but occasionally hybridize in sympatry have been discovered in Northeast Asia, although the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships among them remain unclear. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to infer phylogenies among individuals collected from sympatric and allopatric populations, including the type localities of the described species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 2683 polymorphic AFLP loci confirmed seven species, each of which (except for one entirely allopatric species P. platygaster) was clearly differentiated from one or two other sympatric species and constituted a highly supported monophyletic clade with conspecific allopatric populations. The phylogeny showed that two lineages arose early; one gave rise to two species (circumpolar species P. pungitius and Paratethys species P. platygaster) and the other to five species endemic to Northeast Asia (P. sinensis, P. tymensis, P. polyakovi, P. kaibarae, and P. bussei). The brackish-water, freshwater, and Omono types previously discovered in Japan were reidentified as P. pungitius, P. sinensis, and P. kaibarae, respectively. A marked incongruence was noted between the phylogenies of AFLP and mtDNA markers, suggesting the occasional occurrence of hybridization and mtDNA introgression among distinct species. Our results highlight that the marginal seas of Northeast Asia played a key role as barriers to or facilitators of gene flow in the evolution of species diversity of Pungitius concentrated in this region. PMID:26997522

  18. Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Chatters, James C; Kennett, Douglas J; Asmerom, Yemane; Kemp, Brian M; Polyak, Victor; Blank, Alberto Nava; Beddows, Patricia A; Reinhardt, Eduard; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Bolnick, Deborah A; Malhi, Ripan S; Culleton, Brendan J; Erreguerena, Pilar Luna; Rissolo, Dominique; Morell-Hart, Shanti; Stafford, Thomas W

    2014-05-16

    Because of differences in craniofacial morphology and dentition between the earliest American skeletons and modern Native Americans, separate origins have been postulated for them, despite genetic evidence to the contrary. We describe a near-complete human skeleton with an intact cranium and preserved DNA found with extinct fauna in a submerged cave on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. This skeleton dates to between 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years ago and has Paleoamerican craniofacial characteristics and a Beringian-derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup (D1). Thus, the differences between Paleoamericans and Native Americans probably resulted from in situ evolution rather than separate ancestry. PMID:24833392

  19. Evolutionary Analyses of Entire Genomes Do Not Support the Association of mtDNA Mutations with Ras/MAPK Pathway Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, María; Balboa, Emilia; Heredia, Claudia; Castro-Feijóo, Lidia; Rica, Itxaso; Barreiro, Jesús; Eirís, Jesús; Cabanas, Paloma; Martínez-Soto, Isabel; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Pombo, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Barros, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background There are several known autosomal genes responsible for Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, including Noonan syndrome (NS) and related disorders (such as LEOPARD, neurofibromatosis type 1), although mutations of these genes do not explain all cases. Due to the important role played by the mitochondrion in the energetic metabolism of cardiac muscle, it was recently proposed that variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome could be a risk factor in the Noonan phenotype and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a common clinical feature in Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes. In order to test these hypotheses, we sequenced entire mtDNA genomes in the largest series of patients suffering from Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes analyzed to date (n = 45), most of them classified as NS patients (n = 42). Methods/Principal Findings The results indicate that the observed mtDNA lineages were mostly of European ancestry, reproducing in a nutshell the expected haplogroup (hg) patterns of a typical Iberian dataset (including hgs H, T, J, and U). Three new branches of the mtDNA phylogeny (H1j1, U5b1e, and L2a5) are described for the first time, but none of these are likely to be related to NS or Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes when observed under an evolutionary perspective. Patterns of variation in tRNA and protein genes, as well as redundant, private and heteroplasmic variants, in the mtDNA genomes of patients were as expected when compared with the patterns inferred from a worldwide mtDNA phylogeny based on more than 8700 entire genomes. Moreover, most of the mtDNA variants found in patients had already been reported in healthy individuals and constitute common polymorphisms in human population groups. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the observed mtDNA genome variation in the NS patients was difficult to reconcile with previous findings that indicated a pathogenic role of mtDNA variants in NS. PMID:21526175

  20. Heteroplasmy levels of mtDNA1555A>G mutation is positively associated with diverse phenotypes and mutation transmission in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shan-Shan; Liu, Chang; Xu, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Yu-Hua; Gao, Guo-Feng; Wang, Sha-Yan

    2012-04-20

    The mtDNA 1555A>G mutation was considered to be one of the most common causes of aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss. However, this mutation was always found in homoplasmy with high phenotypic heterogeneity. Recently this mutation in heteroplasmy has been reported in several studies. In the present study, we have collected a large Chinese family harboring heteroplasmic mtDNA 1555A>G mutation with diverse clinical phenotypes. To investigate the relationship between the mutation load and the severity of hearing loss under Eastern Asian background, we performed clinical, molecular, genetic and phylogenic analysis. This pedigree was characterized by coexistence of eight subjects with homoplasmic mutation and ten subjects with various degrees of heteroplasmy, and the results suggested that there was a strong correlation between the mutation load and the severity/age-onset of hearing loss (r=0.758, p<0.001). We noticed that the mutation level of offspring was associated with their mothers' in this pedigree, which indicated that maybe exist a regular pattern during the process of the heteroplasmic transmission. In addition, analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of this family revealed that it belonged to Eastern Asian haplogroup B4C1. In addition, a rare homoplasmic mtDNA 9128T>C variant was identified, it located at a strictly conserved site of mtDNA ATP6 gene. PMID:22475488

  1. Complete nucleotide sequences of the domestic cat (Felis catus) mitochondrial genome and a transposed mtDNA tandem repeat (Numt) in the nuclear genome

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J.V.; Cevario, S.; O`Brien, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    The complete 17,009-bp mitochondrial genome of the domestic cat, Felis catus, has been sequenced and conforms largely to the typical organization of previously characterized mammalian mtDNAs. Codon usage and base composition also followed canonical vertebrate patterns, except for an unusual ATC (non-AUG) codon initiating the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. Two distinct repetitive motifs at opposite ends of the control region contribute to the relatively large size (1559 bp) of this carnivore mtDNA. Alignment of the feline mtDNA genome to a homologous 7946-bp nuclear mtDNA tandem repeat DNA sequence in the cat, Numt, indicates simple repeat motifs associated with insertion/deletion mutations. Overall DNA sequence divergence between Numt and cytoplasmic mtDNA sequence was only 5.1%. Substitutions predominate at the third codon position of homologous feline protein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences confirms the recent transfer of the cytoplasmic mtDNA sequences to the domestic cat nucleus and recapitulates evolutionary relationships between mammal species. 86 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Sequence polymorphisms of mtDNA HV1, HV2, and HV3 regions in the Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nur Haslindawaty, Abd Rashid; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Edinur, Hisham Atan; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Zafarina, Zainuddin

    2010-09-01

    The uniparentally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is in the limelight for the past two decades, in studies relating to demographic history of mankind and in forensic kinship testing. In this study, human mtDNA hypervariable segments 1, 2, and 3 (HV1, HV2, and HV3) were analyzed in 248 unrelated Malay individuals in Peninsular Malaysia. Combined analyses of HV1, HV2, and HV3 revealed a total of 180 mtDNA haplotypes with 149 unique haplotypes and 31 haplotypes occurring in more than one individual. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 99.47%, and the probability of any two individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplotype was 0.93%. The most frequent mtDNA haplotype (73, 146, 150, 195, 263, 315.1C, 16140, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16217, 16274, and 16335) was shared by 11 (4.44%) individuals. The nucleotide diversity and mean of pair-wise differences were found to be 0.036063 ± 0.020101 and 12.544022 ± 6.230486, respectively. PMID:20502908

  3. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations. PMID:26853868

  4. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: Different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, M.G.; Nelson, I.; Sweeney, M.G.; Cooper, J.M.; Watkins, P.J.; Morgan-Hughes, J.A.; Harding, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Genetic evidence for the proto-Austronesian homeland in Asia: mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation in Taiwanese aboriginal tribes.

    PubMed Central

    Melton, T; Clifford, S; Martinson, J; Batzer, M; Stoneking, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of mtDNA variation in indigenous Taiwanese populations have suggested that they held an ancestral position in the spread of mtDNAs throughout Southeast Asia and Oceania (Melton et al. 1995; Sykes et al. 1995), but the question of an absolute proto-Austronesian homeland remains. To search for Asian roots for indigenous Taiwanese populations, 28 mtDNAs representative of variation in four tribal groups (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, and Paiwan) were sequenced and were compared with each other and with mtDNAs from 25 other populations from Asia and Oceania. In addition, eight polymorphic Alu insertion loci were analyzed, to determine if the pattern of mtDNA variation is concordant with nuclear DNA variation. Tribal groups shared considerable mtDNA sequence identity (P>.90), where gene flow is believed to have been low, arguing for a common source or sources for the tribes. mtDNAs with a 9-bp deletion have considerable mainland-Asian diversity and have spread to Southeast Asia and Oceania through a Taiwanese bottleneck. Only four Taiwanese mtDNA haplotypes without the 9-bp deletion were shared with any other populations, but these shared types were widely dispersed geographically throughout mainland Asia. Phylogenetic and principal-component analyses of Alu loci were concordant with conclusions from the mtDNA analyses; overall, the results suggest that the Taiwanese have temporally deep roots, probably in central or south China, and have been isolated from other Asian populations in recent history. PMID:9837834

  6. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, M G; Nelson, I; Sweeney, M G; Cooper, J M; Watkins, P J; Morgan-Hughes, J A; Harding, A E

    1995-01-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7726155

  7. Ancient Mtdna Sequences And Radiocarbon Dating Of Human Bones From The Chalcolithic Caves Of Wadi El-Makkukh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, M.; Tzur, S.; Arensburg, B.; Zias, J.; Nagar, Y.; Weiner, S.; Boaretto, E.

    DNA from fossil human bones can provide valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population relationships. Using the DNA preserved inside crystal aggregates from human fossil bones containing relatively large amounts of collagen, we demonstrate the presence of reproducible mtDNA control region sequences. Radiocarbon dates from each bone show that the burial caves were used for up to 600 years during the Chalcolithic period (5th-4th millennium BP). A comparison of the ancient DNA sequences with modern mtDNA databases indicates that all samples can most likely be assigned to the R haplogroup sub-clades, which are common in West-Eurasia. In four cases more precise and confident haplogroup identifications could be achieved (H, U3a and H6). The H haplogroup is present in three out of the four assigned ancient samples. This haplogroup is prevalent today in West - Eurasia. The results reported here tend to genetically link this Chalcolithic group of individuals to the current West Eurasian populations.

  8. Killer whale nuclear genome and mtDNA reveal widespread population bottleneck during the last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Moura, Andre E; Janse van Rensburg, Charlene; Pilot, Malgorzata; Tehrani, Arman; Best, Peter B; Thornton, Meredith; Plön, Stephanie; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hoelzel, Alan Rus

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystem function and resilience is determined by the interactions and independent contributions of individual species. Apex predators play a disproportionately determinant role through their influence and dependence on the dynamics of prey species. Their demographic fluctuations are thus likely to reflect changes in their respective ecological communities and habitat. Here, we investigate the historical population dynamics of the killer whale based on draft nuclear genome data for the Northern Hemisphere and mtDNA data worldwide. We infer a relatively stable population size throughout most of the Pleistocene, followed by an order of magnitude decline and bottleneck during the Weichselian glacial period. Global mtDNA data indicate that while most populations declined, at least one population retained diversity in a stable, productive ecosystem off southern Africa. We conclude that environmental changes during the last glacial period promoted the decline of a top ocean predator, that these events contributed to the pattern of diversity among extant populations, and that the relatively high diversity of a population currently in productive, stable habitat off South Africa suggests a role for ocean productivity in the widespread decline. PMID:24497033

  9. Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ∼1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

  10. Insights into the genetic history of Green-legged Partridgelike fowl: mtDNA and genome-wide SNP analysis

    PubMed Central

    Siwek, M; Wragg, D; Sławińska, A; Malek, M; Hanotte, O; Mwacharo, JM

    2013-01-01

    The Green-legged Partridgelike (GP) fowl, an old native Polish breed, is characterised by reseda green-coloured shanks rather than yellow, white, slate or black commonly observed across most domestic breeds of chicken. Here, we investigate the origin, genetic relationships and structure of the GP fowl using mtDNA D-loop sequencing and genome-wide SNP analysis. Genome-wide association analysis between breeds enables us to verify the genetic control of the reseda green shank phenotype, a defining trait for the breed. Two mtDNA D-loop haplogroups and three autosomal genetic backgrounds are revealed. Significant associations of SNPs on chromosomes GGA24 and GGAZ indicate that the reseda green leg phenotype is associated with recessive alleles linked to the W and Id loci. Our results provide new insights into the genetic history of European chicken, indicating an admixd origin of East European traditional breeds of chicken on the continent, as supported by the presence of the reseda green phenotype and the knowledge that the GP fowl as a breed was developed before the advent of commercial stocks. PMID:23611337

  11. More reliable estimates of divergence times in Pan using complete mtDNA sequences and accounting for population structure

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Anne C.; Battistuzzi, Fabia U.; Kubatko, Laura S.; Perry, George H.; Trudeau, Evan; Lin, Hsiuman; Kumar, Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of eight complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from each of the three established subspecies (P. t. troglodytes, P. t. schweinfurthii and P. t. verus) and the proposed fourth subspecies (P. t. ellioti). Our population genetic analyses are consistent with neutral patterns of evolution that have been shaped by demography. The high levels of mtDNA diversity in western chimpanzees are unlike those seen at nuclear loci, which may reflect a demographic history of greater female to male effective population sizes possibly owing to the characteristics of the founding population. By using relaxed-clock methods, we have inferred a timetree of chimpanzee species and subspecies. The absolute divergence times vary based on the methods and calibration used, but relative divergence times show extensive uniformity. Overall, mtDNA produces consistently older times than those known from nuclear markers, a discrepancy that is reduced significantly by explicitly accounting for chimpanzee population structures in time estimation. Assuming the human–chimpanzee split to be between 7 and 5 Ma, chimpanzee time estimates are 2.1–1.5, 1.1–0.76 and 0.25–0.18 Ma for the chimpanzee/bonobo, western/(eastern + central) and eastern/central chimpanzee divergences, respectively. PMID:20855302

  12. A 28,000 Years Old Cro-Magnon mtDNA Sequence Differs from All Potentially Contaminating Modern Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Caramelli, David; Milani, Lucio; Vai, Stefania; Modi, Alessandra; Pecchioli, Elena; Girardi, Matteo; Pilli, Elena; Lari, Martina; Lippi, Barbara; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Mallegni, Francesco; Casoli, Antonella; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Barbujani, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA sequences from ancient speciments may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal) and early modern (Cro-Magnoid) Europeans. Methodology/Principal Findings We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23) and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003. The Paglicci 23 sequence, determined through the analysis of 152 clones, is the Cambridge reference sequence, and cannot possibly reflect contamination because it differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences. Conclusions/Significance: The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neandertals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans. Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans. PMID:18628960

  13. Genetic characterization of Clupisoma garua (Hamilton 1822) from six Indian populations using mtDNA cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Darpan; Lakra, W S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Goswami, Mukunda; Shyamakant, Komal; Malakar, Abhishekh

    2014-02-01

    Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) is a commercially important freshwater fish and a potential candidate species for aquaculture. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of six Indian populations of C. garua using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We sequenced cyt b gene of 64 individuals collected from five distant rivers: Ganga, Gomti, Betwa, Gandak and Brahmaputra. Sequencing of 1054 bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 19 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 1.000 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.0258 ± 0.00164. The Gandak river fish population showed highest nucleotide diversity. The fixation index analysis indicated significant genetic divergence among populations from different geographical areas. Both the neighbor-joining tree and median-joining network analysis of the haplotype data showed distinct patterns of phylo-geographic structure. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed that intra-group variation among populations was highly significant. The results of this study suggest that C. garua populations, especially geographically isolated groups, have developed significant genetic structures within the population. In addition, tests of neutrality suggest that C. garua may have experienced a population expansion. The study results establish cyt b as polymorphic and a potential marker to determine the population structure of C. garua. Information of genetic variation and population structure generated from this study would be useful for planning effective strategies for the conservation and rehabilitation of Schilibid cat fishes. PMID:23676141

  14. Response to immunotherapy in a patient with adult onset Leigh syndrome and T9176C mtDNA mutation.

    PubMed

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Govindarajan, Raghav; Peck, Dawn; Font-Montgomery, Esperanza

    2016-09-01

    Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in different genes, including ATP6A for which no known therapy is available. We report a case of adult-onset Leigh syndrome with response to immunotherapy. A twenty year-old woman with baseline learning difficulties was admitted with progressive behavioral changes, diplopia, headaches, bladder incontinence, and incoordination. Brain MRI and PET scan showed T2 hyperintensity and increased uptake in bilateral basal ganglia, respectively. Autoimmune encephalitis was suspected and she received plasmapheresis with clinical improvement. She was readmitted 4 weeks later with dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia. Plasmapheresis was repeated with resolution of her symptoms. Given the multisystem involvement and suggestive MRI changes, genetic testing was done, revealing a homoplasmic T9176C ATPase 6 gene mtDNA mutation. Monthly IVIG provided clinical improvement with worsening when infusions were delayed. Leigh syndrome secondary to mtDNA T9176C mutations could have an autoimmune mechanism that responds to immunotherapy. PMID:27408822

  15. High prevalence of non-synonymous substitutions in mtDNA of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kazumasa; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Terai, Yohey; Okada, Norihiro; Tachida, Hidenori

    2014-12-01

    When a population size is reduced, genetic drift may fix slightly deleterious mutations, and an increase in nonsynonymous substitution is expected. It has been suggested that past aridity has seriously affected and decreased the populations of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria, while geographical studies have shown that the water levels in Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi have remained fairly constant. The comparably stable environments in the latter two lakes might have kept the populations of cichlid fishes large enough to remove slightly deleterious mutations. The difference in the stability of cichlid fish population sizes between Lake Victoria and the Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi is expected to have caused differences in the nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio, ω (=dN/dS), of the evolutionary rate. Here, we estimated ω and compared it between the cichlids of the three lakes for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes using maximum likelihood methods. We found that the lineages of the cichlids in Lake Victoria had a significantly higher ω for several mitochondrial loci. Moreover, positive selection was indicated for several codons in the mtDNA of the Lake Victoria cichlid lineage. Our results indicate that both adaptive and slightly deleterious molecular evolution has taken place in the Lake Victoria cichlids' mtDNA genes, whose nonsynonymous sites are generally conserved. PMID:25241383

  16. mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A; Sukernik, R I; Schurr, T G; Starikorskaya, Y B; Cabell, M F; Crawford, M H; Comuzzie, A G; Wallace, D C

    1993-01-01

    The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations. All mtDNAs were characterized by PCR amplification and restriction analysis, and a subset of them was characterized by control region sequencing. The resulting data were then compiled with previous mtDNA data from Native Americans and Asians and were used for phylogenetic analyses and sequence divergence estimations. Aboriginal Siberian populations exhibited mtDNAs from three (A, C, and D) of the four haplogroups observed in Native Americans. However, none of the Siberian populations showed mtDNAs from the fourth haplogroup, group B. The presence of group B deletion haplotypes in East Asian and Native American populations but their absence in Siberians raises the possibility that haplogroup B could represent a migratory event distinct from the one(s) which brought group A, C, and D mtDNAs to the Americas. Our findings support the hypothesis that the first humans to move from Siberia to the Americas carried with them a limited number of founding mtDNAs and that the initial migration occurred between 17,000-34,000 years before present. Images Figure 4 PMID:7688933

  17. Killer Whale Nuclear Genome and mtDNA Reveal Widespread Population Bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Andre E.; Janse van Rensburg, Charlene; Pilot, Malgorzata; Tehrani, Arman; Best, Peter B.; Thornton, Meredith; Plön, Stephanie; de Bruyn, P.J. Nico; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Dahlheim, Marilyn E.; Hoelzel, Alan Rus

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem function and resilience is determined by the interactions and independent contributions of individual species. Apex predators play a disproportionately determinant role through their influence and dependence on the dynamics of prey species. Their demographic fluctuations are thus likely to reflect changes in their respective ecological communities and habitat. Here, we investigate the historical population dynamics of the killer whale based on draft nuclear genome data for the Northern Hemisphere and mtDNA data worldwide. We infer a relatively stable population size throughout most of the Pleistocene, followed by an order of magnitude decline and bottleneck during the Weichselian glacial period. Global mtDNA data indicate that while most populations declined, at least one population retained diversity in a stable, productive ecosystem off southern Africa. We conclude that environmental changes during the last glacial period promoted the decline of a top ocean predator, that these events contributed to the pattern of diversity among extant populations, and that the relatively high diversity of a population currently in productive, stable habitat off South Africa suggests a role for ocean productivity in the widespread decline. PMID:24497033

  18. Transmission of human mtDNA heteroplasmy in the Genome of the Netherlands families: support for a variable-size bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingkun; Rothwell, Rebecca; Vermaat, Martijn; Wachsmuth, Manja; Schröder, Roland; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Oven, Mannis; de Bakker, Paul I W; Bovenberg, Jasper A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Slagboom, P Eline; Swertz, Morris A; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kayser, Manfred; Boomsma, Dorret I; Zöllner, Sebastian; de Knijff, Peter; Stoneking, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Although previous studies have documented a bottleneck in the transmission of mtDNA genomes from mothers to offspring, several aspects remain unclear, including the size and nature of the bottleneck. Here, we analyze the dynamics of mtDNA heteroplasmy transmission in the Genomes of the Netherlands (GoNL) data, which consists of complete mtDNA genome sequences from 228 trios, eight dizygotic (DZ) twin quartets, and 10 monozygotic (MZ) twin quartets. Using a minor allele frequency (MAF) threshold of 2%, we identified 189 heteroplasmies in the trio mothers, of which 59% were transmitted to offspring, and 159 heteroplasmies in the trio offspring, of which 70% were inherited from the mothers. MZ twin pairs exhibited greater similarity in MAF at heteroplasmic sites than DZ twin pairs, suggesting that the heteroplasmy MAF in the oocyte is the major determinant of the heteroplasmy MAF in the offspring. We used a likelihood method to estimate the effective number of mtDNA genomes transmitted to offspring under different bottleneck models; a variable bottleneck size model provided the best fit to the data, with an estimated mean of nine individual mtDNA genomes transmitted. We also found evidence for negative selection during transmission against novel heteroplasmies (in which the minor allele has never been observed in polymorphism data). These novel heteroplasmies are enhanced for tRNA and rRNA genes, and mutations associated with mtDNA diseases frequently occur in these genes. Our results thus suggest that the female germ line is able to recognize and select against deleterious heteroplasmies. PMID:26916109

  19. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Torrell, Helena; Salas, Antonio; Abasolo, Nerea; Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Costas, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia. PMID:25132006

  20. High regional genetic diversity and lack of host-specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) as revealed by mtDNA variation.

    PubMed

    Piwczyński, M; Pabijan, M; Grzywacz, A; Glinkowski, W; Bereś, P K; Buszko, J

    2016-08-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infests a wide array of host plants and is considered one of the most serious pests of maize in Europe. Recent studies suggest that individuals feeding on maize in Europe should be referred to O. nubilalis (sensu nov.), while those infesting dicots as Ostrinia scapulalis (sensu nov.). We test if the clear genetic distinctiveness among individuals of O. nubilalis living on maize vs. dicots is tracked by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used fragments of COI and COII genes of 32 individuals traditionally recognized as O. nubilalis collected on three host plants, maize, mugwort and hop, growing in different parts of Poland. In addition, we reconstructed the mtDNA phylogeny of Ostrinia species based on our data and sequences retrieved from GenBank to assess host and/or biogeographic patterns. We also compared haplotype variation found in Poland (east-central Europe) with other regions (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Far East, North America). Our study showed high mtDNA diversity of O. nubilalis in Poland in comparison with other regions and revealed rare haplotypes likely of Asian origin. We did not find distinct mtDNA haplotypes in larvae feeding on maize vs. dicotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analyses showed an apparent lack of mtDNA divergence among putatively distinct lineages belonging to the O. nubilalis group as identical haplotypes are shared by Asian and European individuals. We argue that human-mediated dispersal, hybridization and sporadic host jumps are likely responsible for the lack of a geographic pattern in mtDNA variation. PMID:27019346

  1. Evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationship between Auxis thazard and Auxis rochei inferred from COI sequences of mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girish; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Shyama, S K

    2013-01-01

    Tunas of the genus Auxis are cosmopolitan species and the smallest members of the tribe Thunnini, the true tunas. In the present study, COI sequences of mtDNA were employed to examine the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationship between A. thazard and A. rochei. A total of 29 COI sequences were retrieved from NCBI. Historic demographic analyses of sequence data showed that A. thazard has undergone sudden population expansion in the past while population size of A. rochei has been remain constant for long period. Non-significant value of Tajimas's D (P = 0.22400) and Fu's FS (P = 0.21400) test fail to reject the null hypothesis of neutral evolution for A. rochei. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences demonstrated separate clusters for both species and are strongly supported by 98% bootstrap value. The results of the present study suggest the recent founding of A. thazard in world ocean while A. rochei represents the ancestral species. PMID:24084241

  2. Minding the gap: Frequency of indels in mtDNA control region sequence data and influence on population genetic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) result in sequences of various lengths when homologous gene regions are compared among individuals or species. Although indels are typically phylogenetically informative, occurrence and incorporation of these characters as gaps in intraspecific population genetic data sets are rarely discussed. Moreover, the impact of gaps on estimates of fixation indices, such as FST, has not been reviewed. Here, I summarize the occurrence and population genetic signal of indels among 60 published studies that involved alignments of multiple sequences from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of vertebrate taxa. Among 30 studies observing indels, an average of 12% of both variable and parsimony-informative sites were composed of these sites. There was no consistent trend between levels of population differentiation and the number of gap characters in a data block. Across all studies, the average influence on estimates of ??ST was small, explaining only an additional 1.8% of among population variance (range 0.0-8.0%). Studies most likely to observe an increase in ??ST with the inclusion of gap characters were those with < 20 variable sites, but a near equal number of studies with few variable sites did not show an increase. In contrast to studies at interspecific levels, the influence of indels for intraspecific population genetic analyses of control region DNA appears small, dependent upon total number of variable sites in the data block, and related to species-specific characteristics and the spatial distribution of mtDNA lineages that contain indels. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Candela L; Soares, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean M; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan N; Rito, Teresa; Oliveira, Marisa; Melhaoui, Mohammed; Baali, Abdellatif; Pereira, Luisa; Calderón, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of "migratory routes" in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians--from Huelva and Granada provinces--and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia. PMID:26509580

  4. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Chiara; Vicente, Mário; Oliveira, Sandra; Bostoen, Koen; Rocha, Jorge; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses. PMID:24901532

  5. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Candela L.; Soares, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean M.; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Rito, Teresa; Oliveira, Marisa; Melhaoui, Mohammed; Baali, Abdellatif; Pereira, Luisa; Calderón, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of “migratory routes” in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians—from Huelva and Granada provinces—and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia. PMID:26509580

  6. Migration and Interaction in a Contact Zone: mtDNA Variation among Bantu-Speakers in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Chiara; Vicente, Mário; Oliveira, Sandra; Bostoen, Koen; Rocha, Jorge; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000–5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200–2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses. PMID:24901532

  7. The congruence between matrilineal genetic (mtDNA) and geographic diversity of Iranians and the territorial populations

    PubMed Central

    Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Eskandari, Ghafar; Nikmanesh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): From the ancient era, emergence of Agriculture in the connecting region of Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, made Iranian gene pool as an important source of populating the region. It has differentiated the population spread and different language groups. In order to trace the maternal genetic affinity between Iranians and other populations of the area and to establish the place of Iranians in a broad framework of ethnically and linguistically diverse groups of Middle Eastern and South Asian populations, a comparative study of territorial groups was designed and used in the population statistical analysis. Materials and Methods: Mix of 616 samples was sequenced for complete mtDNA or hyper variable regions in this study. A published dataset of neighboring populations was used as a comparison in the Iranian matrilineal lineage study based on mtDNA haplogroups. Results: Statistical analyses data, demonstrate a close genetic structure of all Iranian populations, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool and show that the diverse maternal genetic structure does not reflect population differentiation in the region in their language. Conclusion: In the aggregate of the eastward spreads of proto-Elamo-Dravidian language from the Southwest region of Iran, the Elam province, a reasonable degree of homogeneity has been observed among Iranians in this study. The approach will facilitate our perception of the more detailed relationship of the ethnic groups living in Iran with the other ancient peoples of the area, testing linguistic hypothesis and population movements. PMID:25810873

  8. Somatic Point Mutations in mtDNA Control Region Are Influenced by Genetic Background and Associated with Healthy Aging: A GEHA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Giuseppina; Romeo, Giuseppe; Dato, Serena; Crocco, Paolina; Bruni, Amalia C.; Hervonen, Antti; Majamaa, Kari; Sevini, Federica; Franceschi, Claudio; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Tissue specific somatic mutations occurring in the mtDNA control region have been proposed to provide a survival advantage. Data on twins and on relatives of long-lived subjects suggested that the occurrence/accumulation of these mutations may be genetically influenced. To further investigate control region somatic heteroplasmy in the elderly, we analyzed the segment surrounding the nt 150 position (previously reported as specific of Leukocytes) in various types of leukocytes obtained from 195 ultra-nonagenarians sib-pairs of Italian or Finnish origin collected in the frame of the GEHA Project. We found a significant correlation of the mtDNA control region heteroplasmy between sibs, confirming a genetic influence on this phenomenon. Furthermore, many subjects showed heteroplasmy due to mutations different from the C150T transition. In these cases heteroplasmy was correlated within sibpairs in Finnish and northern Italian samples, but not in southern Italians. This suggested that the genetic contribution to control region mutations may be population specific. Finally, we observed a possible correlation between heteroplasmy and Hand Grip strength, one of the best markers of physical performance and of mortality risk in the elderly. Our study provides new evidence on the relevance of mtDNA somatic mutations in aging and longevity and confirms that the occurrence of specific point mutations in the mtDNA control region may represent a strategy for the age-related remodelling of organismal functions. PMID:20976236

  9. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  10. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438