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Sample records for economic analysis study

  1. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 2: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) cost uncertainties, (2) scenario analysis, (3) economic sensitivities, (4) mixed integer programming formulation of the space tug problem, and (5) critical parameters in the evaluation of a public expenditure.

  2. EMERGY ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our mission at USEPA is to protect human health and safeguard the natural environment. We aim to base our environmental regulations and policies on sound scientific and, where appropriate, economic analyses. Although EPA has conducted analysis of the impact of regulations on ...

  3. The Space Tug economic analysis study - What we learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. V.

    1975-01-01

    This paper summarizes the scope, analytical methods, and principal findings of a recently performed Space-Tug economic analysis. Both the Shuttle/Tug transportation system and its unmanned payloads were modeled in this study. A variety of upper-stage concepts capable of fulfilling the Tug mission were evaluated against this model, and the 'best' Tug concepts were identified for a range of economic measures.

  4. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The space tug is defined as any liquid propulsion stage under 100,000 pounds propellant loading that is flown from the space shuttle cargo bay. Two classes of vehicles are the orbit injection stages and reusable space tugs. The vehicle configurations, propellant combinations, and operating modes used for the study are reported. The summary contains data on the study approach, results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  5. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  6. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  7. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  8. [Economic studies and decision analysis as tools for decision making].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Leticia; Silva-Romo, Rodolfo; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Management implies decision-making and economics deals with efficiency which means to obtain the best possible results with the available resources, and to compare such results with those that were foreseen. The economic evaluation comprises a set of techniques aimed at comparing resource allocation on alternate courses of action and its consequences. In health care, these results are the overall well-being of the society. This paper summarizes the techniques that are customarily used in economic evaluation, and intends to serve as an introductory text to increasing the ability of the readers to grasp original articles in the field of health economics. PMID:17692169

  9. California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study: Phase 1 -- Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M.

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of two different renewable energy options for the California energy market between 2017 and 2020: 12,000 GWh per year from new California in-state renewable energy resources; and 12,000 GWh per year from Wyoming wind delivered to the California marketplace. Either option would add to the California resources already existing or under construction, theoretically providing the last measure of power needed to meet (or to slightly exceed) the state's 33% renewable portfolio standard. Both options have discretely measurable differences in transmission costs, capital costs (due to the enabling of different generation portfolios), capacity values, and production costs. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the two different options to provide additional insight for future planning.

  10. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Therefore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  11. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Threfore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  12. Transonic transport study: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Wilcox, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of advanced materials, increased aerodynamic and structural efficiencies, and cruise speed on advanced transport aircraft designed for cruise Mach numbers of .90, .98, and 1.15. A detailed weight statement was generated by an aircraft synthesis computer program called TRANSYN-TST; these weights were used to estimate the cost to develop and manufacture a fleet of aircraft of each configuration. The direct and indirect operating costs were estimated for each aircraft, and an average return on investment was calculated for various operating conditions. There was very little difference between the operating economics of the aircraft designed for Mach numbers .90 and .98. The Mach number 1.15 aircraft was economically marginal in comparison but showed significant improvements with the application of carbon/epoxy structural material. However, the Mach .90 and Mach .98 aircraft are the most economically attractive vehicles in the study.

  13. Economic feasibility study for wastewater treatment: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-09-15

    Water resource management should be made from a multidisciplinary perspective. In this sense, economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one of the more widely accepted economic instruments since it is a rational and systematic decision-making support tool. Moreover, the wastewater treatment process has significant associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often left uncalculated because they have no market value. In this paper, using the concept of shadow price, a quantification of the environmental benefits derived from wastewater treatment is made. Once the environmental benefits are estimated and the economic costs of the treatment processes are known, a CBA is made for each of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under study. In this way, a useful economic feasibility indicator is obtained for WWTP operation. PMID:20667582

  14. Economic analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This edition of the handbook provides revised guidance on the treatment of inflation in economic analysis, increased emphasis on the use of sensitivity analysis, additional guidance on the treatment of risk, and updates specific guidance for Navy programs. Especially those related to energy conservation. The purpose of this Economic Analysis Handbook is to provide offical NAVFAC guidance for the preparation of economic analyses for: (1) Proposed programs, projects and activities. (2) Program evaluation of ongoing activities. The methodologies demonstrated herein should be applied in comprehensive and continuous management reviews of the cost and effectiveness of both proposed and ongoing projects.

  15. ALMR deployment economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country`s future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment.

  16. Advanced Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  17. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  18. Economic impacts study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  19. INTEGRATING ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN WATERSHEDS: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH AND THREE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reports on a program of research to investigate the integration of ecological risk assessment (ERA) and economics, with an emphasis on the watershed as the scale for analysis. In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated watershed ERA (W-ERA) in five...

  20. Economic Analysis on the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) NASA Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performed the Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) to provide information to support end-of-the-decade decisions on possible near-term US Government (USG) investments in space transportation. To gain a clearer understanding of the costs and benefits of the broadest range of possible space transportation options, six teams, five from aerospace industry companies and one internal to NASA, were tasked to answer three primary questions: a) If the Space Shuttle system should be replaced; b) If so, when the replacement should take place and how the transition should be implemented; and c) If not, what is the upgrade strategy to continue safe and affordable flight of the Space Shuttle beyond 2010. The overall goal of the Study was "to develop investment options to be considered by the Administration for the President's FY2001 budget to meet NASA's future human space flight requirements with significant reductions in costs." This emphasis on government investment, coupled with the participation by commercial f'trms, required an unprecedented level of economic analysis of costs and benefits from both industry and government viewpoints. This paper will discuss the economic and market models developed by the in-house NASA Team to analyze space transportation architectures, the results of those analyses, and how those results were reflected in the conclusions and recommendations of the STAS NASA Team. Copyright 1999 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. No copyright is asserted in the United States under Title 17, U.$. Code. The U.S. Government has a royalty-free license to exercise all rights under the copyright claimed herein for Governmental purposes. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner.

  1. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs. PMID:27039331

  2. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-Elicited Craving for Tobacco: A Virtual Reality Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective craving is a prominent construct in the study of tobacco motivation; yet, the precise measurement of tobacco craving poses several difficulties. A behavioral economic approach to understanding drug motivation imports concepts and methods from economics to improve the assessment of craving. Methods: Using an immersive virtual reality (VR) cue reactivity paradigm, this study tested the hypothesis that, compared with neutral cues, tobacco cues would result in significant increases in subjective craving and diverse aspects of demand for tobacco in a community sample of 47 regular smokers. In addition, the study examined these motivational indices in relation to a dual-component delay and cigarette consumption self-administration paradigm. Results: In response to the VR tobacco cues, significant increases were observed for tobacco craving and the demand indices of Omax (i.e., maximum total expenditure toward cigarettes) and Breakpoint (i.e., price at which consumption is completely suppressed), whereas a significant decrease was observed for Elasticity (i.e., lower cigarette price sensitivity). Continuous analyses revealed trend-level inverse associations between Omax and Intensity in relation to delay duration and significant positive associations between subjective craving, Omax, and Elasticity in relation to the number of cigarettes purchased. Conclusions: The results from this study provide further evidence for the utility of behavioral economic concepts and methods in understanding smoking motivation. These data also reveal the incremental contribution of behavioral economic indices beyond subjective craving in predicting in vivo cigarette consumption. Relationships to previous studies and methodological considerations are discussed. PMID:23322768

  3. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Part 1: Overall approach and data generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of space tug operations is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) data base for orbit injection stages, (2) data base for reusable space tug, (3) performance equations, (4) data integration and interpretation, (5) tug performance and mission model accomodation, (6) total program cost, (7) payload analysis, (8) computer software, and (9) comparison of tug concepts.

  4. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 2: Tug concepts analysis. Appendix: Tug design and performance data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The tug design and performance data base for the economic analysis of space tug operation are presented. A compendium of the detailed design and performance information from the data base is developed. The design data are parametric across a range of reusable space tug sizes. The performance curves are generated for selected point designs of expendable orbit injection stages and reusable tugs. Data are presented in the form of graphs for various modes of operation.

  5. The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, George

    2008-01-01

    Most colleges and universities offer study abroad programs, and an increasing number of students participate in such programs. The cost of offering and promoting study abroad programs is often misunderstood and incorrectly assessed. This paper provides an analysis of study abroad costs that will be of general interest, but will be especially…

  6. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 5: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems are studied along with a variety of economic and programmatic issues relevant to their development and deployment. The costs, uncertainties and risks associated with the current photovoltaic Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) configuration, and issues affecting the development of an economically viable SSPS development program are addressed. In particular, the desirability of low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) test satellites is examined and critical technology areas are identified. The development of SSPS unit production (nth item), and operation and maintenance cost models suitable for incorporation into a risk assessment (Monte Carlo) model (RAM) are reported. The RAM was then used to evaluate the current SSPS configuration expected costs and cost-risk associated with this configuration. By examining differential costs and cost-risk as a function of postulated technology developments, the critical technologies, that is, those which drive costs and/or cost-risk, are identified. It is shown that the key technology area deals with productivity in space, that is, the ability to fabricate and assemble large structures in space, not, as might be expected, with some hardware component technology.

  7. Health economic analysis of screening

    PubMed Central

    Krauth, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article health economic implications of screening are analysed. First, requirements screening programmes should fulfil are derived, and methodical standards of health economic evaluation are outlined. Using the example of newborn hearing screening, it is then examined if empirical studies meet the methodical requirements of health economic evaluation. Some deficits are realised: Health economic studies of newborn hearing screening are not randomised, most studies are even not controlled. Therefore, most studies do not present incremental, but only average cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e. cost per case identified). Furthermore, evidence on long-term outcomes of screening and early interventions is insufficient. In conclusion, there is a need for controlled trials to examine differences in identified cases, but particularly to examine long-term effects. PMID:22073088

  8. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands I: epidemiological modelling to support economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis of control strategies for contagious diseases is a necessity in the development of contingency plans. Economic impacts arising from epidemics such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) consist of direct costs (DC), direct consequential costs (DCC), indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs (AC). Epidemiological models to support economic analysis need to provide adequate outputs for these critical economic parameters. Of particular importance for DCC, ICC and AC is the spatial production structure of a region. Spatial simulation models are therefore particularly suited for economic analysis; however, they often require a large number of parameters. The aims of this study are (i) to provide an economic rationale of epidemiological modelling in general, (ii) to provide a transparent description of the parameterization of a spatially based epidemiological model for the analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands and (iii) to discuss the validity and usefulness of this model for subsequent economic analysis. In the model, HPAI virus transmission occurs via local spread and animal movements. Control mechanisms include surveillance and tracing, movement restrictions and depopulation. Sensitivity analysis of key parameters indicated that the epidemiological outputs with the largest influence on the economic impacts (i.e. epidemic duration and number of farms in the movement restriction zone) were more robust than less influential indicators (i.e. number of infected farms). Economically relevant outputs for strategy comparison were most sensitive to the relative role of the different transmission parameters. The default simulation and results of the sensitivity analysis were consistent with the general outcomes of known HPAI models. Comparison was, however, limited due to the absence of some economically relevant outputs. It was concluded that the model creates economically relevant, adequate and credible output for subsequent use in

  9. Economic Analysis. Computer Simulation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This volume of the text discusses the simulation of behavioral relationships among variable elements in an economy and presents…

  10. Curious Georgia Studies Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, Anthony; Houck, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    District and school administrators are challenged to provide learning environments that help students attain and surpass set levels of academic and social learning. In times of economic strife, discussions often turn to the efficient use of financial and human resources to maximize school districts' capacity to fulfill those objectives. Most…

  11. An Economic Analysis of Textbook Pricing and Textbook Markets. ACSFA College Textbook Cost Study Plan Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1986 and 2004, textbook prices rose 186 percent in the United States, or slightly more than six percent per year. Meanwhile, other prices rose only about three percent per year. This paper examines the economic reasons why textbook prices have escalated so briskly and what reasonable alternatives are available that might slow down these…

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 7: SPS program plan and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The economic and programmatic requirements for a recommended SPS solar photovoltaic baseline concept were analyzed. Costs are determined for the DDT&E; initial capital investment (covers initial procurement and emplacement of each SPS plant and equipment); replacement capital investment (capital asset replacement over the SPS operating life); operations and maintenance (expendables, minor maintenance, repair crews); and taxes/insurance.

  13. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  14. Resource assessment and economic analysis: A study of mineral resources in the Altay Mountains area, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L.; Dorian, J.P.; Otto, J.M.; Johnson, C.J.; Bozich, L.G. ); Songguan, Chen; Jian, Zhao; Yongquan, Dong; Jianguo, Dai )

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an integrated resource assessment-development planning study conducted on the Altay Mountains area of Xinjiang Autonomous Uygur Region, China. The project was initiated by local Chinese government officials in order to more effectively plan future minerals exploration and development activities in this remote part of China. The study is comprised of four basic components: an initial resource assessment to estimate the type, quality, and quantity of mineral deposits that may occur in the area; a preliminary financial analysis based on the resource assessment estimates to determine which of the predicted deposits would be economic to develop if discovered and developed; a market analysis of the estimated commodities to assess which commodities would be desirable to develop for local, national, and international markets; and an integration of all these data into a comprehensive long-term development plan. The final results indicated that although the Altay Mountains area is richly endowed in synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel, felsic-intermediate massive sulfide, skarn, and stratiform lead-zinc deposits, only two of these deposit types may be economic to develop due to the lack of infrastructure and high capital investment and transportation costs.

  15. Study Guide in Health Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

    Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

  16. Energy-Systems Economic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, J.; Slonski, M. L.; Borden, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Energy Systems Economic Analysis (ESEA) program is flexible analytical tool for rank ordering of alternative energy systems. Basic ESEA approach derives an estimate of those costs incurred as result of purchasing, installing and operating an energy system. These costs, suitably aggregated into yearly costs over lifetime of system, are divided by expected yearly energy output to determine busbar energy costs. ESEA, developed in 1979, is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  17. Economic analysis in health care research.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Diaa E E

    2008-04-01

    There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles. PMID:19143119

  18. Multi-use botanochemical crops, an economic analysis and feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.; Otey, F.H.; Hamerstrand, G.E.

    1980-12-01

    Dwindling reserves and increasing costs of petroleum have brought the realization that agricultural production of substitutes may be both feasible and the best long-term alternative. Multi-use oil- and hydrocarbon-producing (botanochemical) crops, specially designed for an adaptive agricultural system, appear to offer potential for combining the production of both food and industrial raw materials with increased overall productivity. Processing methods are being developed for extraction of primary botanochemicals, i.e,. soluble polyphenols, whole-plant oils, and isoprene polymers that could serve as chemical feedstocks. The extractive-free residues are promising raw materials for papermaking fibers, animal feeds, fermentation substrates, chemical feedstocks, fuels, and soil amendments. Preliminary cost assessments of crop production, collection, and processing compared with projected produce values suggest that a new and radically different agricultural system would be economically attractive.

  19. Multi-use botanonchemical crops, an economic analysis and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, A. R.; Otey, F. H.; Hamerstrand, G. E.

    1980-12-01

    Dwindling reserves and increasing costs of petroleum have brought the realization that agricultural production of substitutes may be both feasible and the best long-term alternative. Multi-use oil- and hydrocarbon-producing (botanochemical) crops, specially designed for an adaptive agricultural system, appear to offer potential for combining the production of both food and industrial raw materials with increased overall productivity. Processing methods are being developed for extraction of primary botanochemicals, i.e,. soluble polyphenols, whole-plant oils, and isoprene polymers that could serve as chemical feedstocks. The extractive-free residues are promising raw materials for papermaking fibers, animal feeds, fermentation substrates, chemical feedstocks, fuels, and soil amendments. Preliminary cost assessments of crop production, collection, and processing compared with projected produce values suggest that a new and radically different agricultural system would be economically attractive.

  20. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  1. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 7: SPS program plan and economic analysis, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Three appendixes in support of Volume 7 are contained in this document. The three appendixes are: (1) Satellite Power System Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary; (2) SPS cost Estimating Relationships; and (3) Financial and Operational Concept. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are: Executive Summary; SPS Systems Requirements; SPS Concept Evolution; SPS Point Design Definition; Transportation and Operations Analysis; and SPS Technology Requirements and Verification.

  2. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix D: Cost and economic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The detailed cost estimate documentation for the designs prepared in this study are presented. The include: (1) Koppers-Totzek, (2) Texaco (3) Babcock and Wilcox, (4) BGC-Lurgi, and (5) Lurgi. The alternate product cost estimates include: (1) Koppers-Totzek and Texaco single product facilities (methane, methanol, gasoline, hydrogen), (2) Kopers-Totzek SNG and MBG, (3) Kopers-Totzek and Texaco SNG and MBG, and (4) Lurgi-methane and Lurgi-methane and methanol.

  3. Perspectives and Challenges for Water Desalination - A Socio-Economic Multi-Regional Analysis and a Case Study for Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Young, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water desalination is anticipated to become a prospective solution for mitigating future water shortages in Texas. As of 2010, 46 municipal brackish water desalination plants were operating in Texas with an estimated total desalination capacity of about 120 million gallons per day (2.3% of state water use) (TWDB 2010; TWDB 2013). In 2011, 99% of the State of Texas suffered extreme drought, with large portions suffering through exceptional drought. This event was classified as the one-year drought of record. Moreover, the growing population of Texas and the subsequent growing water demand create an immediate need for long-term planning for a reliable and efficient water supply. Desalination, even though acknowledged as a reliable option in many countries in the world, requires high investment costs and energy inputs. Current costs of desalinated water can range between US1.09/1,000 gallons and US3.7/1,000 gallons (Arroyo and Shirazi 2012), which are about two to three times higher than water costs from conventional sources (San Antonio Water System 2012; AustinTexas.gov 2013). Economic efficiency is still the main factor determining future developments of desalination investments in Texas, and the technology is still emerging. While currently only investment, maintenance and total capital costs per unit water are considered as factors determining viability of a desalination plant, this study aims at depicting a broader picture of socio-economic impacts related to the construction project itself, both in the immediate region and adjacent communities and interlinked sectors. This study presents an Input-Output model for the brackish water desalination plant in San Antonio, with the first stage expected to be completed in 2016. By using multi-regional and sectoral multipliers, the analysis shows that constructing the desalination plant can create 2,050 jobs in the San Antonio region, while it will add 316 more jobs in other regions in Texas by 2016. Construction will

  4. Perceived and actual wildfire danger: an economic and spatial analysis study in Colorado (USA).

    PubMed

    Kaval, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, costs for wildfire initial attack in the U.S. have increased significantly. The increased cost relates to wildfire suppression practices, as well as the growing number of homes in the wildland urban interface. Requiring wildland urban interface residents to pay an annual tax for their wildfire risk could lower costs to the general taxpayer. Willingness-to-pay for wildfire prevention, in relation to both perceived and actual wildfire danger, was the focus of this study. Surveyed Colorado wildland urban interface residents were found to have a high awareness of wildfire risk and were willing-to-pay over $400 annually to reduce this risk. Respondents' beliefs about wildfire frequency were comparable to the wildfire regimes of their areas' pre-European settlement. PMID:19155120

  5. Ohio Economics: K-12 Model Course of Study in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Economic Education.

    The K-12 Model Course of Study in Economics (MCSE) provides Ohio school district personnel with assistance in the development and implementation of economics courses of study for kindergarten through twelfth grade. The guide also offers information to help readers integrate economics into their curricula across disciplines. In addition to an…

  6. Economic and Environmental Analysis of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles Operated in Korea: A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, S.; Kim, B.; Youn, N.; Kim, Y. K.; Wee, D.

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) waste heat recovery from automotive exhaust streams is a potential technology that can significantly increase the overall efficiency of vehicles and subsequently reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. By reducing the consumption of fossil fuels, vehicular application of TE generators may also potentially reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air pollutants from the transportation sector. In this study, we analyse the economic benefit and feasibility of TE waste heat recovery systems in conventional vehicles operated in Korea by analytically modeling related vehicle systems and by analyzing driving patterns in urban environments. The economic effects of the associated efficiency improvement and the reduction of GHGs and air pollutants are simultaneously considered. Vehicular application of a TE generator may reduce 0.15 kL/year for a mid-size sedan and 1.04 kL/year for a medium-duty truck through fuel savings at a typical driving speed of 80 km/h. Based on the benefit-cost ratio analysis, it is shown that the economically acceptable costs of TE waste heat recovery systems are 744 /kW for the mid-size sedan and 2905 /kW for the medium-duty truck, respectively, when an operation period of 10 years is assumed. In terms of GHGs and air pollutants, the reduction annually amounts to 0.334 tCO2e of GHGs, 0.142 kg of CO, 0.00290 kg of VOC, 0.0150 kg of NO X , 0.198 kg of NH3, and 0.00006 kg of SO X for the mid-size sedan, while 2.65 tCO2e of GHGs, 1.974 kg of CO, 0.401 kg of VOC, 6.98 kg of NO X , 0.00034 kg of NH3, and 0.00229 kg of SO X can be annually reduced by applying a TE generator in the medium-duty truck.

  7. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  8. Social Studies: Introduction to Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William E.

    The course for grades 10 through 12 outlined in this guide provides a study of the American system of private enterprise and the basic economic principles upon which it is based. Among the course goals are that the student will: 1) discover that the American economy, as evidenced through the free enterprise system, exist for the individual; 2)…

  9. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    PubMed

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  10. Advancing school-based interventions through economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Tina M; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis within school-based prevention remains cursory. Largely, economic analyses of school-based prevention efforts are undertaken as secondary research. This limits these efforts to data that have been collected previously as part of epidemiological and outcomes research. Therefore, economic analyses suffer from gaps in the knowledge generated by these studies. This chapter addresses the importance of economic analysis for the future of school-based substance abuse prevention programs and highlights the role of prevention research in the development of knowledge that can be used for economic analysis. PMID:24753283

  11. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  12. Economic Analysis of Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of a branch campus on the individual college education decision and the economic welfare of a developing country. There are a single domestic college and a single branch campus established by a foreign university. A graduate from the branch campus has an opportunity to emigrate and work abroad, earning a higher…

  13. Land and Freedom--Economic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Ted; Rubenstein, Stan

    This series of 20 self-contained lessons in the study of economics, features activities that can be used with any high school economics instruction. The lessons included are: (1) Opportunity Costs; (2) Factors of Production; (3) Economic Systems; (4) Self Interest; (5) Class Struggle; (6) Economic Institutions; (7) Supply and Demand; (8) Markets…

  14. Austrian Economics: A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig von Mises Inst., Auburn, AL.

    This guide presents a 139-item bibliography of books and articles on the school of thought known as the Austrian school of economics. The first nine of the ten sections contain bibliographic entries, classified by topic. Part 1 is an introduction to Austrian economics, listing sources on the school in general and on three principal members. Each…

  15. Reservoir analysis study, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: Phase 3 report, economic development and production plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Jerry R. Bergeson and Associates, Inc. (Bergeson) has completed Phase 3 of the Reservoir Analysis, Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1, Elk Hills Oilfield, California. The objective of this phase of the study was to establish the economic potential for the field by determining the optimum economic plan for development and production. The optimum economic plan used net cash flow analysis to evaluate future expected Department of Energy revenues less expenses and investments for proved developed, proved undeveloped, probable, possible and possible-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) reserves assigned in the Phase 2 study. The results of the Phase 2 study were used to define future production flowstreams. Additional production scheduling was carried out to evaluate accelerated depletion of proved developed reserves in the 29R, 31 C/D Shale and Northwest Stevens T Sand/N Shale Reservoirs. Production, cost and investment schedules were developed for the enhanced oil recovery projects identified in Phase 2. Price forecasts were provided by the Department of Energy. Operating costs and investment requirements were estimated by Bergeson. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. Educational Media and Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, John

    1982-01-01

    Defines cost analysis and indicates how it may be used in decision making by educational planners, with emphasis upon a technique for the annualization of costs which enables planners to choose between instructional systems involving different educational media. Four figures accompany the text. (JL)

  17. Item Analysis in Introductory Economics Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)

  18. Payload design requirements analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3. Guideline analysis. [economic analysis of payloads for space shuttles and space tugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokari, T.

    1973-01-01

    Payloads to be launched on the space shuttle/space tug/sortie lab combinations are discussed. The payloads are of four types: (1) expendable, (2) ground refurbishable, (3) on-orbit maintainable, and (4) sortie. Economic comparisons are limited to the four types of payloads described. Additional system guidelines were developed by analyzing two payloads parameterically and demonstrating the results on an example satellite. In addition to analyzing the selected guidelines, emphasis was placed on providing economic tradeoff data and identifying payload parameters influencing the low cost approaches.

  19. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  20. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  1. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  2. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for providing an objective economic perspective to understand and evaluate the economic dimension of...

  3. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis in health economics.

    PubMed

    Baio, Gianluca; Dawid, A Philip

    2015-12-01

    Health economic evaluations have recently become an important part of the clinical and medical research process and have built upon more advanced statistical decision-theoretic foundations. In some contexts, it is officially required that uncertainty about both parameters and observable variables be properly taken into account, increasingly often by means of Bayesian methods. Among these, probabilistic sensitivity analysis has assumed a predominant role. The objective of this article is to review the problem of health economic assessment from the standpoint of Bayesian statistical decision theory with particular attention to the philosophy underlying the procedures for sensitivity analysis. PMID:21930515

  4. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  5. The Economic Utility of Foreign Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Tuman, Walter Vladimir; Critz, Mary Anne

    1998-01-01

    A study measured the economic utility of language study for 84 graduate students in international management by comparing their reasons for language study with several major economic indicators, including corporate job opportunities. The study, though limited in scope, yields insights into the real and perceived costs and benefits of language…

  6. 78 FR 59648 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, we are announcing a meeting of the Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee. The...

  7. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  8. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  9. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  10. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  11. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Directorate for Economic Analysis. 1000.28... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  12. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  15. Economical Analysis about Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Toshitaka

    NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration plant is attractive from each standpoint of electric power saving, non-fluorocarbon and energy saving. The plant can be the economic alternative of power compression refrigeration for evaporation temperature range from 0°C to -60°C, using suitable waste heat (co-generation system, waste incinerator), oil and natural gas. In the application of the plant, the equipment cost and the COP must be reasonable from economical standpoint. Therefore, the paper shows the following. 1) Necessary heating temparature analysis for absorption plant 2) Equipment cost analysis for heating temperature 3) Equipment cost analysis for COP 4) Number of trays in the rectifying column for COP 5) Equipment cost analysis and COP in two-stage absorption

  16. The different modes of hydro-economic analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harou, J. J.; Binions, O.; Erfani, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the face of growing water demands, climate change and spatial and temporal water access variability, accurately assessing the economic impacts of proposed water resource management changes is useful. The objective of this project funded by UK Water Industry Research was to present and demonstrate a framework for identifying and using the ';value of water' to enable water utilities and their regulators to make better decisions. A hydro-economic model can help evaluate water management options in terms of their hydrological and economic impact at different locations throughout a catchment over time. In this talk we discuss three modes in which hydro-economic models can be implemented: evaluative, behavioral and prescriptive. In evaluation mode economic water demand and benefit functions are used to post-process water resource management model results to assess the economic impacts (over space and time) of a policy under consideration. In behavioral hydro-economic models users are represented as agents and the economics is used to help predict their actions. In prescriptive mode optimization is used to find the most economically efficient management actions such as allocation patterns or source selection. These three types of hydro-economic analysis are demonstrated on a UK watershed (Great River Ouse) that includes 97 different water abstractors from amongst the public water supply, agriculture, industry and energy plant cooling sectors. The following issues under dry and normal historical conditions were investigated: Supply/demand investment planning, societal cost of environmental flows, water market prices, and scarcity-sensitive charges for water rights. The talk discusses which hydro-economic modeling mode is used to study each of these issues and why; example results are shown and discussed. The topic of how hydro-economic models can be built and deployed effectively is covered along with how existing water utility operational and planning tools can be

  17. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible for... Commission's regulatory oversight. It performs economic analyses of proposed rule changes, current...

  18. 77 FR 60965 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be...

  19. 76 FR 9743 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be...

  20. 76 FR 59111 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be...

  1. 75 FR 8922 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be...

  2. 77 FR 21081 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be...

  3. 75 FR 49890 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the Committee's...

  4. 78 FR 10599 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, ] and government. This will be...

  5. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  6. Policies on Private Education: An Economics Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengqiao, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Basic principles and analytical methods of economics are used to conduct a preliminary study of state policies for private education in China. It is evident that if public policy is to exert a positive effect on private education, the government must formulate policies at a higher level for private education and give equal attention to choice,…

  7. [HEALTH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND FAIR DECISION MAKING].

    PubMed

    Jeantet, Marine; Lopez, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Health technology assessment consists in evaluating the incremental cost-benefit ratio of a medicine, a medical device, a vaccine, a health strategy, in comparison to alternative health technologies. This form of socio-eoonomic evaluation aims at optimizing resource allocation within the health system. By setting the terms of valid alternatives, it is useful to highlight public choices, but it cannot in itself make the decision as regards the public funding of patient's access to the considered technology. The decision to include such technology in the basket of health goods and sercices covered, the levels and conditions of the coverage, also result from budget constraints, from economic situation and from a political vision about health policy, social protection and public expenditure. Accordingly, health economic analysis must be implemented on specific and targeted topics. The decision making process, with its health, economic and ethical stakes, calls for a public procedure and debate, based on shared information and argument. Otherwise, health system regulation, confronted with radical and costly innovations in the coming years, will become harder to handle. This requires the development of health economic research teams able to contribute to this assessment exercise. PMID:26619723

  8. Economic analysis of temperature reduction in a large river floodplain: An exploratory study of the WIllamette River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines ecosystem restoration practices that focus on water temperature reductions in the upper mainstem Willamette River, Oregon, for the benefit of endangered salmonids and other native cold-water species. The analysis integrates hydrologic, natural science and eco...

  9. Landslide Economics: Concepts and Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Landslide economics is vital for fundamental understanding of landslide risk as dealing with two important topics: (i) impact assessment, either as damage statistics or cost modeling, and (ii) vulnerability assessment, i.e., the study of exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to landslide damage, ideally from both sociotechnical and financial perspective (e.g., Crovelli and Coe, 2009; Wills et al., 2014). Many aspects addressed in landslide economics have direct influence on landslide risk, including: (i) human activity is often a major causative factor of landslides, not only by predisposing or triggering them, but also as a result of inadequate (low-cost) landslide mitigation; (ii) the level of tolerable or acceptable risk, a measure driving a large part of landslide costs in industrialized countries, is highly variable, differing between individuals, public or private organizations, and societies, with its nature being to change over time; and (iii) decision makers are faced with finding the right balance in landslide mitigation, thus need to weight diverse geological and socioeconomic factors that control its effectiveness in both technical and financial terms (e.g., Klose et al., 2014a). A large part of the complexity in assessing landslide risk as measured by economic costs is due to unique problems in understanding of (i) what types of landslide damage affect human activity and infrastructure in which way, (ii) how society contributes and responds to various kinds of damage, and (iii) how landslide damage is valued in monetary terms. Landslide economics shows the potential to take account of these sociocultural factors to the benefit of risk analysis (e.g., Klose et al., 2014b). The present contribution introduces local and regional case studies in which different economic issues of landslide risk are highlighted using the example of public infrastructures in NW Germany. A special focus is on the following topics: (i) risk culture and created risk, (ii

  10. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  11. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macomber, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  12. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

  13. Analysis of Prison Industries and Recommendations for Change. Study of the Economic and Rehabilitative Aspects of Prison Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This volume presents a study undertaken in Connecticut to identify short-term and long-term strategies for changing prison industries into self-supporting labor systems while simultaneously promoting the rehabilitation of prison inmates. Individual tasks performed as part of the study include a job market survey, an inmate manpower survey, and a…

  14. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  15. Preliminary design and economic analysis report on the Port of Morrow Ethanol Refinery. Volume III. Supplementary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of a study performed to determine the feasibility of constructing and operating a 20,000,000 gallon-per-year ethanol plant in eastern Oregon are presented in 5 volumes. Certain project alternatives that were of interest to Morrow Ag were investigated by Ultrasystems during the course of this study, and are discussed in this volume. These alternatives include: Cogeneration of electric power, use of wood fuel, production and sale of excess steam, use of potato waste as a feedstock, production of carbon dioxide, construction of a barge port and grain terminal, and construction of a feedlot and methane production unit.

  16. An Analysis of School Pupils' (with Low Social Economic Status) Perceptions of University, regarding Programmes of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moogan, Yvonne J.

    2011-01-01

    Through its "Aim Higher Project" and "Excellence Challenge Programmes", the UK government is investing large sums of money into widening participation so that more school leavers stay on to study for higher education (HE) courses, especially those from lower social classes and ethnic groups. Universities are increasingly developing links with…

  17. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE

  18. HTGR technology economic/ business analysis and trade studies impacts. Impacts of HTGR commericialization on the U.S. economy

    SciTech Connect

    Silady, Fred

    2013-12-07

    The approach to this task was to initially review the 2012 Business Plan and supporting analyses for the above impacts. With that understanding as a base, the Business Plan impacts are updated in terms of the GDP and job creation as a result of additional studies and inputs such as the revised market assessment from Task 1.1. For the impacts on U.S. competitiveness, the NGNP Industry Alliance team members have been utilized to provide inputs on supplier infrastructure development and on vendor capability.

  19. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  20. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  1. Montgomery College Economic Impact Study, FY 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William E.; Linthicum, Dorothy S.

    A study was conducted to assess the economic impact of Montgomery College (MC) on local business, local government, and the job market in the surrounding community for fiscal year 1981. Using linear cash-flow equations designed for the American Council on Education and adapted for MC, the study assessed monies coming into the college from students…

  2. Study of CETA Plans and Reservation Economic Development. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Ernest J., Jr.; Kelly, Patricia F.

    Field study and analysis of program documents were undertaken in the first phase of a multi-phased research effort to improve and strengthen the relationships between CETA programs and economic development activities on Indian reservations. Exploratory in nature, the study examined the approaches developed by 24 Indian reservations and Native…

  3. Basic relationships for LTA economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Operating costs based on data of actual and proposed airships for conventional lighter than air craft (LTA) are presented. An economic comparison of LTA with the B-47F is included, and possible LTA economic trends are discussed.

  4. A Readability Analysis of Selected Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney

    1981-01-01

    To aid secondary school and college level economics teachers as they select textbooks for introductory economics courses, this article recounts how teachers can use the Flesch Reading Ease Test to measure readability. Data are presented on application of the Flesch Reading Ease Test to 15 introductory economics textbooks. (Author/DB)

  5. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  6. Results of analysis of archive MSG data in the context of MCS prediction system development for economic decisions assistance - case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranek, K.; Jakubiak, B.; Lech, R.; Tomczuk, M.

    2012-04-01

    PROZA (Operational decision-making based on atmospheric conditions) is the project co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund. One of its tasks is to develop the operational forecast system, which is supposed to support different economies branches like forestry or fruit farming by reducing the risk of economic decisions with taking into consideration weather conditions. In the frame of this studies system of sudden convective phenomena (storms or tornados) prediction is going to be built. The main authors' purpose is to predict MCSs (Mezoscale Convective Systems) basing on MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) real-time data. Until now several tests were performed. The Meteosat satellite images in selected spectral channels collected for Central Europe Region for May and August 2010 were used to detect and track cloud systems related to MCSs. In proposed tracking method first the cloud objects are defined using the temperature threshold and next the selected cells are tracked using principle of overlapping position on consecutive images. The main benefit to use a temperature thresholding to define cells is its simplicity. During the tracking process the algorithm links the cells of the image at time t to the one of the following image at time t+dt that correspond to the same cloud system (Morel-Senesi algorithm). An automated detection and elimination of some instabilities presented in tracking algorithm was developed. The poster presents analysis of exemplary MCSs in the context of near real-time prediction system development.

  7. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  8. Migration Background and Participation in Continuing Education in Germany: An Empirical Analysis Based on Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Halit; Kaufmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Europe as an "immigration continent" is going to become an "integration continent". Within this context continuing education has acquired an increasing meaning. Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study data from 2001-04 the authors examine a broad spectrum of possible factors which may influence participation in continuing vocational…

  9. Unemployment in the Urban Core: An Analysis of Thirty Cities with Policy Recommendations. Praeger Special Studies in U.S. Economic, Social, and Political Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Stanley L.

    This study explores the determinants of urban unemployment in 30 major cities, particularly in the inner core slums among nonwhites and youth. Using data for 1960, a year of recession, and 1966, a year of prosperity, the author found that a factor which may be important under one set of economic conditions is not so in another cycle. Although…

  10. Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

  11. Quantitative analysis of the economically recoverable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pulle, C.V.; Seskus, A.P.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable gas in the Appalachian Basin. The estimates were obtained in terms of a probability distribution, which quantifies the inherent uncertainty associated with estimates where geologic and production uncertainties prevail. It is established that well productivity on a county and regional basis is lognormally distributed, and the total recoverable gas is Normally distributed. The expected (mean), total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well-spacing. From properties of the Normal distribution, it is seen that a 95 percent probability exists for the total recoverable gas to lie between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF. The estimates are sensitive to well spacings and the technology applied to a particular geologic environment. It is observed that with smaller well spacings - for example, at 80 acres - the estimate is substantially increased, and that advanced technology, such as foam fracturing, has the potential of significantly increasing gas recovery. However, the threshold and optimum conditions governing advanced exploitation technology, based on well spacing and other parameters, were not analyzed in this study. Their technological impact on gas recovery is mentioned in the text where relevant; and on the basis of a rough projection an additional 10 TCF could be expected with the use of foam fracturing on wells with initial open flows lower than 300 MCFD. From the exploration point of view, the lognormal distribution of well productivity suggests that even in smaller areas, such as a county basis, intense exploration might be appropriate. This is evident from the small tail probabilities of the lognormal distribution, which represent the small number of wells with relatively very high productivity.

  12. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  13. Economic analysis of aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellman, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The appropriateness of government intervention in the civilian market for aeronautics research and technology (R&T) is examined. The economic rationale for government intervention is examined. The conclusion is that the institutional role played by NASA in civilian aeronautics R&T markets is economically justified.

  14. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  15. UMASS/Boston: An Economic Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Barry

    This report assesses the economic impact of the University of Massachusetts at Boston (UMass/Boston) on the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with attention to three major economic contributions: (1) the additional income that UMass/Boston students generate within the state as a result of their university education; (2) the added state income and…

  16. Business Conditions and Economic Analysis: An Experiential Learning Program for Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert C.; Stevens, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the Business Conditions and Economic Analysis (BCEA) program developed at the University of Richmond. The BCEA program is an experiential learning format for economics students built on the success of student-managed investment funds (SMIF) in finance. In its initial implementation, the BCEA group conducts domestic and global…

  17. Behavioral economics: areas of cooperative research between economics and applied behavioral analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Kagel, John H.; Winkler, Robin C.

    1972-01-01

    The current research methods of behavioral economics are characterized by inadequate empirical foundations. Psychologists involved in the experimental analysis of behavior with their research strategies and their experimental technology, particularly that of the Token Economy, can assist in providing empirical foundations for behavioral economics. Cooperative research between economists and psychologists to this end should be immediately fruitful and mutually beneficial. PMID:16795356

  18. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  19. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  20. [Economic evaluation studies in diagnostic imaging: justification and critical reading].

    PubMed

    Rueda Martínez de Santos, J R

    2015-11-01

    First, this article describes the concepts and tools most widely used for economic evaluation in healthcare. Second, it discusses some elements that must be taken into account in the social decision about how much we are willing to spend to prolong a person's life by one year. Third, it describes the criteria recommended for the critical analysis of publications that evaluate the economic aspects of health interventions. Finally, several studies about ultrasound screening for aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are used as illustrative examples to show how these elements and criteria can be applied. PMID:26563613

  1. An Analysis of Contributions and Contributors in Economic Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, James W., Jr.; Durden, Garey C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 25 years of the content and contributors in economic education research. Finds that economic education has become a legitimate subfield within economics and has grown from mostly descriptive research to sophisticated mathematical and econometric models. (CFR)

  2. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  3. Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2016-04-01

    In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently. PMID:26859327

  4. Economic concepts for the analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the relationship between schedule of reinforcement, response rate, and choice suggests that certain unifying concepts from economics can contribute to a more complete science of behavior. Four points are made: 1) a behavioral experiment is an economic system and its characteristics—open or closed—can strongly determine the results; 2) reinforcers can be distinguished by a functional property called elasticity; 3) reinforcers may interact as complements as well as substitutes; 4) no simple choice rule, such as strict matching, can account for all choice behavior. PMID:16812188

  5. Thermo-economic analysis of a trigeneration HCPVT power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviaridis, Angelos; Burg, Brian R.; Wallerand, Anna Sophia; Maréchal, François; Michel, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The increasing need for electricity and heat in a growing global economy must be combined with CO2 emissions reduction, in order to limit the human influence on the environment. This calls for energy-efficient and cost-competitive renewable energy systems that are able to satisfy both pressing needs. A High-Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal (HCPVT) system is a cogeneration concept that shows promising potential in delivering electricity and heat in an efficient and cost-competitive manner. This study investigates the transient behavior of the HCPVT system and presents a thermo-economic analysis of a MW-scale trigeneration (electricity, heating and cooling) power plant. Transient simulations show a fast dynamic response of the system which results in short heat-up intervals, maximizing heat recuperation throughout the day. Despite suboptimal coupling between demand and supply, partial heat utilization throughout the year and low COP of commercially available devices for the conversion of heat into cooling, the thermo-economic analysis shows promising economic behavior, with a levelized cost of electricity close to current retail prices.

  6. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to the framework. In real life, however, such strong assumptions tend to be less than fully valid. Behavioral economics refers to the study and formalizing of theories regarding deviations from traditionally-modeled economic decision-making in the behavior of individuals. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has an interest in behavioral economics as one influence on energy demand.

  7. Advanced Cogeneration Technology Economic Optimization Study (ACTEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanda, P.; Ansu, Y.; Manuel, E. H., Jr.; Price, W. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced cogeneration technology economic optimization study (ACTEOS) was undertaken to extend the results of the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS). Cost comparisons were made between designs involving advanced cogeneration technologies and designs involving either conventional cogeneration technologies or not involving cogeneration. For the specific equipment cost and fuel price assumptions made, it was found that: (1) coal based cogeneration systems offered appreciable cost savings over the no cogeneration case, while systems using coal derived liquids offered no costs savings; and (2) the advanced cogeneration systems provided somewhat larger cost savings than the conventional systems. Among the issues considered in the study included: (1) temporal variations in steam and electric demands; (2) requirements for reliability/standby capacity; (3) availability of discrete equipment sizes; (4) regional variations in fuel and electricity prices; (5) off design system performance; and (6) separate demand and energy charges for purchased electricity.

  8. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  9. Integrating Economics into Water Resources Systems Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, R.

    2012-12-01

    The need to integrate economic and hydro-engineering models has been long recognized and is the subject of several articles and literature surveys. However difficulties of obtaining sufficient precision of economic data to span the significant differences in both spatial and temporal scales presents challenges, and opportunities for the use of new technologies. Most hydrologic models run on a daily time step, or at a minimum, monthly, whereas many economic models, particularly of agriculture, are estimated on an annual time step. The asymmetry in difficulty of downscaling versus aggregating is briefly reviewed, and an example of down-scaling irrigation water value functions to a monthly time step, using information from crop water use models is presented. Similarly, the spatial cell resolution of hydro-engineering models is usually much finer than economic models, which are usually aggregated at the level that prices or production quantities are reported. A method of downscaling regional measures of crop production and water use to the field level using the additional information from remote sensing measurements is demonstrated in the context of agricultural production in California's central valley. A problem that arises is that for spatial crop production the available data from Landsat measurements processed by NAAS in pixel form is very noisy when overlaid onto a field level boundary GIS layer. For complex cropping systems such as those found in California, it is not uncommon to have three different categories of pixel identification in the same field. The approach discussed uses a cross-entropy approach and additional data from locally measured sources, to estimate the most likely uniform crop in any given field. In addition, constraints on the combination of different sized fields and the total regional acreage measured by local county commissioners provides additional information and structure on the estimates. Initial results show significant noise in the

  10. Economic impact study of consumer product efficiencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-30

    The economic impact study of household appliance efficiencies is briefly reported. Task I, Direct Impact on Industry, contains 4 subtasks: materials, labor inputs, energy inputs, and investment. Task II, Direct Impact on Consumers, contains 3 subtasks: life-cycle cost to the consumer, usage patterns, and long-term demand forecast and analysis. The 2 subtasks in Task III, Energy Savings and Impact on Utilities, are residential energy savings and cost and impact on utility generating capacity.

  11. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  12. Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernández-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann M.; Fernández-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the existing economic literature, assesses the value of current data, and presents procedures that are the less costly and more effective options for the treatment of periprosthetic infections of knee and hip. Optimizing antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room, the detection and treatment of high-risk patient groups, as well as the rational management of the existing infection by using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow for improved outcomes and lead to the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the costeffectiveness of different interventions to treat periprosthetic infections remains unclear. PMID:23781163

  13. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  14. Online Courses, Instructional Quality, and Economics: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Craig H.; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of online courses in higher education in terms of the in- structional quality and economic costs. In our conceptual analysis, we point out problems in developing online courses with sufficient quality due to limited funds being made available for online course development. Moreover, economic costs exist…

  15. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

  17. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  18. Thermal-economic analysis of organic Rankine combined cycle cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-12-01

    An evaluation of organic rankine cycles (ORC) as combined with topping incorporating gas turbines or diesel engines, and with subsequent waste heat utilization is presented. It is found that the potential benefit of the proposed organic Rankine combined cycle cogeneration of useful heat and electricity is more flexible in meeting demands for the two products, by varying the mode of operation of the system. A thermal-economic analysis is developed and illustrated with cost and performance data for commercially available equipment, and with general economic parameters reflecting current regulations and market conditions. The performance of the ORC and of the entire combined cycle is described. Equations to evaluate the various thermodynamic and economic parameter, and the resultant case flows are presented. Criteria are developed to assess the addition of an ORC to a cogeneration system without ORC is viable based on rate of return on incremental investment. It is indicated that the proposed system is potentially viable, however, it is not viable under conditions prevailing in Chicago for the selected case studies.

  19. Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, P S; Waitzman, N J; Scheffler, R M; Pi, R D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to compare the economic costs and benefits of fortifying grain with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects. METHODS. A cost-benefit analysis based on the US population, using the human capital approach to estimate the costs associated with preventable neural tube defects, was conducted. RESULTS. Under a range of assumptions about discount rates, baseline folate intake, the effectiveness of folate in preventing neural tube defects, the threshold dose that minimizes risk, and the cost of surveillance, fortification would likely yield a net economic benefit. The best estimate of this benefit is $94 million with low-level (140 micrograms [mcg] per 100 g grain) fortification and $252 million with high-level (350 mcg/100 g) fortification. The benefit-to-cost ratio is estimated at 4.3:1 for low-level and 6.1:1 for high-level fortification. CONCLUSIONS. By averting costly birth defects, folic acid fortification of grain in the United States may yield a substantial economic benefit. We may have underestimated net benefits because of unmeasured costs of neural tube defects and unmeasured benefits of higher folate intake. We may have overestimated net benefits if the cost of neurologic sequelae related to delayed diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds our projection. PMID:7733427

  20. The MATHEMATICA economic analysis of the Space Shuttle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiss, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed economic analysis shows the Thrust Assisted Orbiter Space Shuttle System (TAOS) to be the most economic Space Shuttle configuration among the systems studied. The development of a TAOS Shuttle system is economically justified within a level of space activities between 300 and 360 Shuttle flights in the 1979-1990 period, or about 25 to 30 flights per year, well within the U.S. Space Program including NASA and DoD missions. If the NASA and DoD models are taken at face value (624 flights), the benefits of the Shuttle system are estimated to be $13.9 billion with a standard deviation of plus or minus $1.45 billion in 1970 dollars (at a 10% social rate of discount). If the expected program is modified to 514 flights (in the 1979-1990 period), the estimated benefits of the Shuttle system are $10.2 billion, with a standard deviation of $940 million (at a 10% social rate of discount).

  1. Economic evaluation study (CHEER-compliant): Cost-effectiveness analysis of RAS screening for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer based on the CALGB 80405 trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Rongce; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Pengfei; Tang, Ruilei; Chen, Hongdou; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Cetuximab (Cetux)/Bevacizumab (Bev) treatments have shown considerably survival benefits for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in the last decade. But they are costly. Currently, no data is available on the health economic implications of testing for extended RAS wild-type (wt) prior to Cetux/Bev treatments of patients with mCRC. This paper aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of predictive testing for extended RAS-wt status in mCRC in the context of targeting the use of Cetux/Bev.Markov model 1 was conducted to provide evidence evaluating the cost-effectiveness of predictive testing for KRAS-wt or extended RAS-wt status based on treatments of chemotherapy plus Cetux/Bev. Markov model 2 assessed the cost-effectiveness of FOLFOX plus Cetux/Bev or FOLFIRI plus Cetux/Bev in extended RAS-wt population. Primary base case data were identified from the CALGB 80405 trial and the literatures. Costs were estimated from West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China. Survival benefits were reported in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated.In analysis 1, the cost per QALY was $88,394.09 for KRAS-Cetux, $80,797.82 for KRAS-Bev, $82,590.72 for RAS-Cetux, and $75,358.42 for RAS-Bev. The ICER for RAS-Cetux versus RAS-Bev was $420,700.50 per QALY gained. In analysis 2, the cost per QALY was $81,572.61, $80,856.50, $80,592.22, and $66,794.96 for FOLFOX-Cetux, FOLFOX-Bev, FOLFIRI-Cetux, and FOLFIRI-Bev, respectively. The analyses showed that the extended RAS-wt testing was less costly and more effective versus KRAS-wt testing before chemotherapy plus Cetux/Bev. Furthermore, FOLFIRI plus Bev was the most cost-effective strategy compared with others in extended RAS-wt population.It was economically favorable to identify patients with extended RAS-wt status. Furthermore, FOLFIRI plus Bev was the preferred strategy in extended RAS-wt patients. PMID:27399059

  2. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  3. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Reetz, Manfred T; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  4. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Reetz, Manfred T.; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  5. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  6. An Economic Analysis of Clean Water Act Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Randolph M.; Farrow, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of the incremental benefits and costs of clean water programs. Benefit estimates are principally based on contingent valuation research on willingness to pay for clean freshwater. These data are supplemented with estimated benefits for municipal and industrial water withdrawals and saltwater fishing. Cost estimates are largely based on Environmental Protection Agency "needs" data and on studies of nonpoint source pollution control practices. The analysis suggests that Clean Water Act programs, as currently planned, may have incremental costs that exceed their incremental benefits. Several alternative scenarios, with different benefit and cost assumptions, support this conclusion. Importantly, the policy options examined in this study generally are not the least cost approach for attaining water quality goals. The analysis suggests that the focus on municipal treatment facilities, as opposed to nonpoint source practices, is unlikely to be cost effective as a national strategy. The analysis also suggests that the concept of "needs" has limitations when viewed in a benefit-cost context. Finally, better information linking planned expenditures (costs) to expected ambient quality improvements (benefits) appears necessary to plan efficient programs.

  7. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  8. [Methodological aspects of a political-economic analysis of population].

    PubMed

    Lisina, N V; Ruzavina, E I

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine the role of political and economic factors in the study of population issues, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and the standard of living of a society. Attention is paid to the division of the population into the economically active and the inactive. PMID:12342147

  9. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  10. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  11. Home Economics. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1990, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This course of study provides the framework for the content of a program in home economics. It presents an organization for home economics courses in the middle and high school grades. An introduction describes the four components of home economics programs that focus on the individual, home, society, and jobs. A conceptual framework recommends a…

  12. Economic Analysis of Vaccination Strategies for PRRS Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure) and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI) is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 2.1 years. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv. PMID:26673898

  13. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  14. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  15. Chaotic time series analysis in economics: Balance and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Faggini, Marisa

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the paper is not to review the large body of work concerning nonlinear time series analysis in economics, about which much has been written, but rather to focus on the new techniques developed to detect chaotic behaviours in economic data. More specifically, our attention will be devoted to reviewing some of these techniques and their application to economic and financial data in order to understand why chaos theory, after a period of growing interest, appears now not to be such an interesting and promising research area.

  16. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  17. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  18. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  19. Economic analysis of life cycle costing irrigation pipe network design

    SciTech Connect

    Bliesner, R.D.; Keller, J.; Watters, G.Z.; Cone, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Three irrigation systems (solid set sprinkle, trickle and center pivot) were designed using a computerized life cycle costing irrigation pipe network design program for economic life cycles of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years with irrigation demand, interest plus profit, initial energy cost and energy inflation held constant. A comparative economic analysis was made of the designs to determine the impact of economic life cycle on energy usage, capital cost, total annual cost over the system life and annual cost over loan period for the three system types. Since farmers can rarely borrow money for the full economic life of the system, the annual cost over the loan term of a more expensive, energy efficient system may not be affordable. A procedure for examining the extra cash flow required and energy saved by designing for the full economic life as opposed to designing for the shorter loan term is presented as well as one possible method of determining a tax incentive program to encourage the design of more energy efficient systems. For the economic parameters used, a relatively small tax incentive produces a significant energy savings. However, different values for the economic parameters could significantly change the results.

  20. Economic analysis of vertical wells for coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Previous economic studies of the recovery and utilization of methane from coalbeds using vertical wells were based on drainage in advance of mining where a single seam is drained with well spacing designed for rapid predrainage. This study extends the earlier work and shows that methane recovery costs can be reduced significantly by increasing well spacing and draining multiple coalbeds. A favorable return on investment can be realized in many geologic settings using this method. Sensitivity of recovery economics to certain development costs and parametric variations are also examined as are the economics of three methane utilization options.

  1. Assessment of secondary residues. Engineering and economic analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Ashare, E.

    1981-08-01

    Secondary agricultural residues are defined as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, and residues from pulp and paper processing. The analyses consist of specific case studies investigating the costs of converting liquid and/or solid residue streams to methane and/or ethanol. Several economically feasible examples were found: methane production from potato processing liquid residues, ethanol from potato processing solid residues, methane from cheese processing wastes, and methane from poultry processing liquid wastes. In facilities which operate year round, energy recovery is often feasible, whereas in seasonal operations, economic feasibility is not possible. Economic feasibility of energy production from secondary residues is strongly dependent on the current use of the solid and liquid residue. If the solid residue is sold as an animal feed, energy production is usually not economical. High solid and liquid residue disposal costs often make energy conversion economically feasible.

  2. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  3. Economic Analysis of a Living Wage Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter

    A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of contractors,…

  4. Who Chooses to Study Home Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances M.

    1995-01-01

    One university's survey of 3,791 home economics freshmen in a 10-year period revealed the following: 87% were female; 70% of males enrolled in hotel/restaurant management; 10% were over age 23; 26% were majoring in textiles/clothing; more were choosing business over service/caring areas; 69% believed college increases earning power; and, for 70%,…

  5. Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

  6. Sumatriptan: economic evidence for its use in the treatment of migraine, the Canadian comparative economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Caro, G; Getsios, D; Caro, J J; Raggio, G; Burrows, M; Black, L

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate economic and health effects of sumatriptan relative to customary therapy in Canada. The relationship between treatment and functionality was established based on analysis of existing data from a multinational study. A Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 1 year for each of customary therapy and six sumatriptan formulations. Costs are expressed in 1998 Canadian dollars. Sumatriptan is expected to reduce the time spent with migraine symptoms and resulting time lost. Under customary therapy, the annual cost of lost time is estimated at pound908 ($1973). With sumatriptan, these costs ranged from pound406 ($882) with subcutaneous sumatriptan to pound577 ($1254) with nasal sumatriptan 10 mg, saving pound331-502 ($719-1091) in the annual cost of time lost. All these benefits are expected to be obtained at an additional drug cost ranging from pound869 ($1889) for subcutaneous sumatriptan to pound278 ($605) for sumatriptan suppository. The cost of sumatriptan treatment is significantly offset by a substantial reduction of costs associated with time lost due to migraine symptoms. PMID:11298658

  7. Public Service Employment: An Analysis of its History, Problems, and Prospects. Praeger Special Studies in U. S. Economic, Social, and Political Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    Content of this book include the following papers: (1) "Can Services Be Humane in This Society? Can Work Be Meaningful?," F. Riessman; (2) "The Historical Development of the Conception and Implementation of Full Employment as Economic Policy," R. A. Nixon; (3) "How Many Jobs for Whom?," B. Gross and S. Moss; (4) "A note on Public Jobs and Full…

  8. The Economics of Information: A Guide to Economic and Cost-Benefit Analysis for Information Professionals. Library and Information Science Text Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Bruce R.

    This book provides readers with an introduction to economics and cost-benefit analysis and will be particularly valuable to individuals who are, or plan to be, managers of information services in academic, public, or special libraries. Part 1 provides a rational for economic studies in librarianship, specifically, gaining understanding of consumer…

  9. End-of-Life Care Interventions: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, B; Krahn, M

    2014-01-01

    Background The annual cost of providing care for patients in their last year of life is estimated to account for approximately 9% of the Ontario health care budget. Access to integrated, comprehensive support and pain/symptom management appears to be inadequate and inequitable. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care interventions included in the EoL care mega-analysis. Data Sources Multiple sources were used, including systematic reviews, linked health administration databases, survey data, planning documents, expert input, and additional literature searches. Review Methods We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies to inform the primary economic analysis. We conducted the primary economic analysis and budget impact analysis for an Ontario cohort of decedents and their families and included interventions pertaining to team-based models of care, patient care planning discussions, educational interventions for patients and caregivers, and supportive interventions for informal caregivers. The time horizon was the last year of life. Costs were in 2013 Canadian dollars. Effectiveness measures included days at home, percentage dying at home, and quality-adjusted life-days. We developed a Markov model; model inputs were obtained from a cohort of Ontario decedents assembled from Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences databases and published literature. Results In-home palliative team care was cost-effective; it increased the chance of dying at home by 10%, increased the average number of days at home (6 days) and quality-adjusted life-days (0.5 days), and it reduced costs by approximately $4,400 per patient. Expanding in-home palliative team care to those currently not receiving such services (approximately 45,000 per year, at an annual cost of $76–108 million) is likely to improve quality of life, reduce the use of acute care resources, and save $191–$385 million in health care costs. Results for the other

  10. Synthesis of major economic studies of residential photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Six studies that analyze the cost effectiveness of grid connected residential photovoltaic systems are reviewed. These six studies were selected based on two criteria. First, the reports share common emphases on developing photovoltaic systems with certain engineering design goals in mind, and on performing economic analyses to assess the long term economic potential of the system design. The economic analyses presented are performed from the consumer's perspective.

  11. Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun

    2011-12-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

  12. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 3: Economic analysis of space-based solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of economic and programmatic issues are discussed concerning the development and deployment of a fleet of space-based solar power satellites (SSPS). The costs, uncertainties and risks associated with the current photovoltaic SSPS configuration, and with issues affecting the development of an economically viable SSPS development program are analyzed. The desirability of a low earth orbit (LEO) demonstration satellite and a geosynchronous (GEO) pilot satellite is examined and critical technology areas are identified. In addition, a preliminary examination of utility interface issues is reported. The main focus of the effort reported is the development of SSPS unit production, and operation and maintenance cost models suitable for incorporation into a risk assessment (Monte Carlo) model (RAM). It is shown that the key technology area deals with the productivity of man in space, not, as might be expected, with some hardware component technology.

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  15. An Economic Analysis of a Change in an Excise Tax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Blanchard, Kelly Hunt; Umbeck, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an example of the effect a change in the excise tax can have on retail gasoline prices. The findings provide support for standard economic theory, as well as provide a vehicle for illustrating some of the subtleties of the analysis, including the implicit assumptions regarding the implications for the buying and selling prices…

  16. PRELIMINARY ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A LIME SPRAY DRYER FGD SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a preliminary economic analysis of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes (one dry and one wet) for a new 500-MW power plant burning Western coal having 0.7% sulfur, 9.7% ash, and a heating value of 9700 Btu/lb and meeting current new source perf...

  17. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WET VERSUS DRY ASH DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of the economics of both wet and dry methods of coal ash disposal, under a specific series of assumptions. It indicates trends in ash disposal costs and includes an evaluation of system components including: in-plant handling systems (vacuu...

  18. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  19. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  20. Economic Analysis. Volume V. Course Segments 65-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    The fifth volume of the multimedia, individualized course in economic analysis produced for the United States Naval Academy covers segments 65-79 of the course. Included in the volume are discussions of monopoly markets, monopolistic competition, oligopoly markets, and the theory of factor demand and supply. Other segments of the course, the…

  1. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  2. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  3. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  4. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  5. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology. PMID:18409652

  6. Ex-ante economic analysis of animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tambi, E N; Maina, O W; Mariner, J C

    2004-12-01

    This paper provides an ex-ante economic analysis comparing four alternative intervention strategies for the control and eradication of rinderpest against a scenario of no intervention in a cattle population similar in size to that of Ethiopia. The interventions were three different coverage levels of mass vaccination and one surveillance-based programme where vaccination targeted infected sub-populations. For each scenario, the disease impact was estimated using an open-population, state-transition SEIR ('susceptible', 'exposed', 'infectious', 'recovered') disease transmission model with parameter estimates developed for lineage 1 rinderpest virus. Projected economic surplus gains and costs estimated from the rinderpest eradication programme in Ethiopia were analysed using benefit-cost methods. Social net present values (NPVs) and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) were calculated. Although the economic model found that BCRs were greater than one for all interventions examined, the scenarios of intensive mass vaccination (75% vaccination coverage) and surveillance with targeted vaccination were economically preferable. The BCRs for these strategies were 5.08 and 3.68, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that an increase in market prices for beef and milk increased the value of economic loss, the economic surplus and returns to investments in terms of NPVs and BCRs. An increase in demand and supply elasticities for beef and milk decreased the value of economic losses. This also had a negative effect on economic surplus and NPVs. The effect of an increase in the discount rate reduced returns to investments, with lower NPVs and BCRs. The authors note that 75% mass vaccination coverage was attempted in Ethiopia in the early 1990s, but failed to eradicate rinderpest because the approach was logistically too difficult to implement in practice. Subsequently, an effective surveillance and epidemiologically targeted vaccination programme was developed and has apparently

  7. Economical Analysis on Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Periprosthetic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fairen, Mariano; Torres, Ana; Menzie, Ann; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernandez-Carreira, José Manuel; Murcia-Mazon, Antonio; Guerado, Enrique; Merzthal, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The economic burden of periprosthetic infections is enormous, but the number of economic studies dealing with this issue is very scarce. This review tries to know the economic literature existing, assess the value of current data, and recognize the less costly and more effective procedures for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic infections. Forty five studies meeting the inclusion criteria and adhering to the quality criteria used were carefully analyzed to extract the economic data of relevance in evaluating the magnitude of problem and the more cost-effective solutions. However, because the heterogeneity and the low-quality of most of these studies meta-analytical technique has not been possible. Instead, the studies have been reviewed descriptively. Optimizing the antibiotic use in the prevention and treatment of periprosthetic infection, combined with systemic and behavioral changes in the operating room; detecting and treating the high-risk groups; a quick, simple, reliable, safe, and cost-effective diagnosis, and the rationale management of the instituted infection, specifically using the different procedures according to each particular case, could allow to improve outcomes and produce the highest quality of life for patients and the lowest economic impact. Nevertheless, the cost effectiveness of different interventions to prevent and to treat the periprosthetic infection remains unclear. PMID:24082966

  8. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  9. Socio-Economic Differences in the Association between Self-Reported and Clinically Present Diabetes and Hypertension: Secondary Analysis of a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Gerald; Forrest, Lynne F.; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension are key risk factors for coronary heart disease. Prevalence of both conditions is socio-economically patterned. Awareness of presence of the conditions may influence risk behaviour and use of preventative services. Our aim was to examine whether there were socio-economic differences in awareness of hypertension and diabetes in a UK population. Method Data from the Scottish Health Survey was used to compare self-reported awareness of hypertension and diabetes amongst those found on examination to have these conditions, by socioeconomic position (SEP) (measured by occupation, education and income). Odds ratios of self-reported awareness against presence, and the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of self-reporting as a measure of the presence of the condition, were calculated. Results Presence and self-reported awareness of both conditions increased as SEP decreased, on most measures. There was only one significant difference in awareness by SEP once other factors had been taken into account. Sensitivity showed that those in the most disadvantaged groups were most likely to self-report awareness of their hypertension, and specificity showed that those in the least disadvantaged groups were most likely to self-report awareness of its absence. There were few differences of note for diabetes. Conclusion We found no consistent pattern in the associations between SEP and the presence and self-reported awareness of hypertension and diabetes amongst those with these conditions. Without evidence of differences, it is important that universal approaches continue to be applied to the identification and management of those at risk of these and other conditions that underpin cardiovascular disease. PMID:26466384

  10. Principles of Economics: Course Administrative Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, G. Jeffrey

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in principles of economics designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Economics Today" (San Francisco, CA: Canfield Press, 1975), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, 14 audiotapes, and a…

  11. Economic impact analysis of proposed effluent standards and limitations for the coil coating industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The report provides an identification and analysis of the economic impacts which are likely to result from the promulgation of EPA's effluent regulations on the Coil Coating Industry. The primary economic impact variables assessed in the study include the costs of the proposed regulations and potential for these regulations to cause plant closures, price changes, unemployment, changes in industry profitability, structure and competition, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, new source impacts, and impacts on small businesses.

  12. Economic Impact of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian Regions

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic impact of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic regions: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden

  13. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  14. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  15. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  17. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. Aim: This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Conclusions: Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops. PMID:26605201

  18. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  19. Competition in the economic crisis: Analysis of procurement auctions

    PubMed Central

    Gugler, Klaus; Weichselbaumer, Michael; Zulehner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of the recent economic crisis on firms׳ bidding behavior and markups in sealed bid auctions. Using data from Austrian construction procurements, we estimate bidders׳ construction costs within a private value auction model. We find that markups of all bids submitted decrease by 1.5 percentage points in the recent economic crisis, markups of winning bids decrease by 3.3 percentage points. We also find that without the government stimulus package this decrease would have been larger. These two pieces of evidence point to pro-cyclical markups. PMID:25673884

  20. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II. Strategies for Teaching Economics: World Studies (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.

    Part of the Master Curriculum Guide Project, this guide presents concept-based activities in economics for use with students in grades nine through 12. The activities are related to global aspects of economic development. The objective is to provide detailed classroom lessons illustrating ways of applying economic analysis to world history and to…

  1. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  2. Economic Evaluation in Global Perspective: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Catherine; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara

    2016-02-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of recently published full economic evaluations of health interventions and reflect critically on the implications of our findings for this growing field. We created a database drawing on 14 health, economic, and/or general literature databases for articles published between 1 January 2012 and 3 May 2014 and identified 2844 economic evaluations meeting our criteria. We present findings regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and added value of searches in the different databases. We examine the distribution of publications between countries, regions, and health areas studied and compare the relative volume of research with disease burden. We analyse authors' country and institutional affiliations, journals and journal type, language, and type of economic evaluation conducted. More than 1200 economic evaluations were published annually, of which 4% addressed low-income countries, 4% lower-middle-income countries, 14% upper-middle-income countries, and 83% high-income countries. Across country income levels, 53, 54, 86, and 100% of articles, respectively, included an author based in a country within the income level studied. Biomedical journals published 74% of economic evaluations. The volume of research across health areas correlates more closely with disease burden in high-income than in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings provide an empirical basis for further study on methods, research prioritization, and capacity development in health economic evaluation. PMID:26804359

  3. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  4. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  5. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  6. The Economics of Inequality in Education. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the various economic facets of inequality in education in India. The specific focus is on inter-group inequalities, such as inequality between males and females and between backward and advanced castes. It is hypothesized that returns to education accrue differently to different groups of population and…

  7. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  8. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  9. An economic analysis of fertility determinants in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ananta, A

    1986-06-01

    The determinants of fertility in Indonesia are explored using a synthesis approach to economic modeling developed by Easterlin and others, which reconciles and uses both the supply and demand factors affecting fertility. The developments suggested include the use of a statistical approach called the Linear Structural Relationships (LISREL), which permits the author to deal with unobservable variables, provides greater specificity for the analysis of natural fertility, and facilitates the development of a sequential interpretation of fertility. The method is applied to data from the 1976 Indonesian World Fertility Survey. The author concludes that the method successfully explains how an increase in contraceptive usage can be consistent with a rise in fertility, particularly if economic development occurs at a rapid pace and creates a climate encouraging people to have more children PMID:12268200

  10. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  11. Analysis of the economics of typical business applications of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    An economic analysis is provided of flat plate collector systems in industrial, commercial, and agricultural business applications in a variety of locations. A key element of the analysis is the federal solar investment tax credit. The SOLCOST Solar Energy Design Program is used for the study. The differences between industrial/agricultural and commercial applications are considered, as are finance and tax data and fuel data. The rate of return and payback are the criteria used to compare the economic viability of systems. Market penetration estimates for process steam were derived for seven southwestern states where direct solar radiation is highest. (LEW)

  12. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  13. Economic, Social and Policy Aspects of Child Care: A Quantitative Analysis of Child Care Arrangements of Working Mothers. Report of a Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angrist, Shirley S.; Lave, Judith R.

    To determine what child care arrangements are made by employed mothers, how much they spend for child care, and their potential use of other arrangements including day care, a study was conducted in the Pittsburgh area early in 1973. Included were four work settings which employ women in a variety of occupations. A structured questionnaire was…

  14. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  15. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-elicited Craving for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; O’Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A.; Murphy, James G.; Ray, Lara A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug’s value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. Method Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Findings Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (Omax), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized Pmax). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from .21 – .43. Conclusions These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving. PMID:20626376

  16. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: An analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  17. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  18. Study of the use of truck tire beads as drainage pipe and analysis of the economics of tire disposal in Oklahoma. Part 1. Culverts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.W.; Gattis, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    In an attempt to find alternate ways of dealing with waste truck tires, a private tire recycling company developed a pipe from the tire bead and sidewall. The tire-pipe has seen limited use as a roadway drainage culvert. To encourage wider use of this product, an evaluation of pipe performance was performed. The evaluation consisted of (1) inspections of existing installations; (2) structural tests; and (3) leakage tests. The study found that the majority of installations were performing well. Compared with corrugated steel and fiberglass pipes, the tire-pipe exhibited favorable structural performance. An individual tire-pipe section was found to be watertight. However, when tested in the open-air (not in the ground), the tire-pipe joints were found to leak. Development of an improved end connection would improve the utility of the tire-pipe.

  19. Savings obtained using an oxygen economizer device: a cost-minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Neri, M; Fedi, L; Spanevello, A; Mazzucchelli, G; Grandi, M; Ambrosetti, M; Conti, S; Migliori, G B

    1999-08-01

    As liquid oxygen represents a relevant burden on healthcare systems, different methods have been developed to reduce oxygen consumption, including economizers. The aims of the study were: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of an economizer device (Companion 5 Oxygen Saver) in a significant sample of patients, and 2) to perform cost-minimization analysis of the possible savings to be obtained using the device. The study was designed as an open, prospective clinical trial in which equivalence in haemoglobin saturation with and without the economizer device was demonstrated, preliminary to cost-minimization analysis in patients affected by restrictive and obstructive lung disease. Patients were to use their usual O2 flow, provided it was able to guarantee a saturation of > or = 90% and an arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) of > or = 8.0 kPa (60 mmHg) during rest, sleep and exercise with and without the economizer (mean value and different saturation ranges compared by means of parametric or nonparametric tests where appropriate). The average unit cost was calculated with and without the economizer, based on the average unit O2 consumption, and cost-minimization analysis was performed. In 29 patients enrolled, the mean (+/- SD) O2 flow in L.min-1 was 1.5 +/- 0.6 during sleep, 1.4 +/- 0.6 during rest and 2.3 +/- 1.1 during exercise. The mean oxygen saturation during sleep was 91.2 +/- 19.5% without and 97.2 +/- 3.9% with the economizer device (p = 0.09), the mean saturation during rest was 88.8 +/- 22.7% without and 92.1 +/- 14.9% with the economizer device (p = 0.42), and the mean saturation during exercise was 84.7 +/- 19.3% without and 91.8 +/- 15.9% with the economizer device (p = 0.04). The total daily O2 consumption was significantly lower using the economizer device (2,384 +/- 950.3 versus 93.0 +/- 482.9 L, p < 0.001). The potential savings, estimated per patient per year, were 530,114 +/- 184,233 L, corresponding to US$2,492 +/- 866. During the first year the total unit

  20. Energy/economic model analysis. Livermore energy policy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. B.

    1980-06-01

    The results of a study done by the Energy and Resources Planning Group of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) using the LLL Economic Modeling System (EMS) are described. The purpose was to allow GRl to evaluate the appropriateness of their continued use of an energy model and, at the same time, for them to gain a better understanding of the consequences of current or proposed GRI supported research and development.

  1. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  2. Socio-economic analysis of forest-wood use and resource stock depletion in developing countries: A case study of Saint Lucia

    SciTech Connect

    Nzeogwu, O.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid depletion of forest-wood resources by households in developing countries to meet their energy needs has aroused the concerns of many private and international organizations. Privatization of communal forests to restrict open access, reforestation of forest, and population control are the often-suggested solutions. The Island of Saint Lucia in the Caribbean has partially in existence most of these suggested solutions, however rapid depletion (non-optimal) of forest-wood resource stock continues to exist. On the microlevel, Saint Lucian households are exposed to five competing energy forms. Many households use two or more competing alternatives simultaneously: electricity and kerosene for lighting; LPG, charcoal, and firewood for cooking. This is to minimize the risks associated with uncertainties of quantity supply and price fluctuations. Two key factors were found to determine energy adoption behavior, the geographical location (a proxy for urbanization) and living environment (if household was a farming or fishing household). The study suggests that laissez faire policy posture towards the declining forest-wood stock may not constitute a non-optimal solution if prices move in the direction of long-run equilibrium and the halting of continuous stock depletion.

  3. Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

    2013-12-01

    Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  4. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants. PMID:25459861

  5. Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

    2013-10-01

    Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery. PMID:23614394

  6. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  7. Study protocol: differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes—individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying medical conditions is not clear. Our individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised trials will assess the differential effect of diet- and physical activity-based interventions on maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in clinically relevant subgroups of women. Methods/design Randomised trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy will be identified by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, LILACS, Pascal, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database. Primary researchers of the identified trials are invited to join the International Weight Management in Pregnancy Collaborative Network and share their individual patient data. We will reanalyse each study separately and confirm the findings with the original authors. Then, for each intervention type and outcome, we will perform as appropriate either a one-step or a two-step IPD meta-analysis to obtain summary estimates of effects and 95% confidence intervals, for all women combined and for each subgroup of interest. The primary outcomes are gestational weight gain and composite adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The difference in effects between subgroups will be estimated and between-study heterogeneity suitably quantified and explored. The potential for publication bias and availability bias in the IPD obtained will be investigated. We will conduct a model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost effectiveness of the interventions to manage

  8. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  9. Energy performance standards for new buildings: economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This assessment determines the major economic impacts of the implementation of the standards on affected groups, and evaluates the effectiveness of the standards as an investment in energy conservation. The analyses examine the impacts on individual owners, construction industry, and the Nation. Chapter 2, Summary, briefly displays the results of the analysis. Chapter 3, Approach, describes the methodology used to evaluate the standards for the various building types and perspectives. The basis and structure for evaluating the standards' impacts on occupants and the Nation are described. Chapter 4, Building Microeconomics, evaluates the net economic effects of changes in building cost and energy use for three categories of buildings: single family residential, commercial and multifamily residential, and mobile homes. Chapter 5, Primary National Impacts, develops forecasts of energy savings and national costs and benefits both with and without implementation of the standards. Chapter 6, Impacts on Selected Building Industries, estimates changes in labor and material use in building construction and assesses the importance of these changes. Chapter 7, Net National Impacts, assesses the effects of changes in energy consumption and construction of new buildings on the national economy, including such factors as national income, investment, employment, and balance of trade. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendixes A through I. (MCW)

  10. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. PMID:26514312

  11. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to investigate if additional allied health services for rehabilitation reduce length of stay without compromising patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    controlled trial. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for the first fully powered randomised controlled trial incorporating a health economic analysis to establish if additional Saturday allied health services for rehabilitation inpatients reduces length of stay without compromising discharge outcomes. If successful, this trial will have substantial health benefits for the patients and for organizations delivering rehabilitation services. Clinical trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000973213 PMID:21073703

  12. Technological and economic study of ship recycling in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Abdel Naby, Maged M.; Tadros, Mina Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ship recycling industry is growing rapidly. It is estimated that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) decision to phase-out single hull tankers by 2015 will result in hundreds of ships requiring disposal. At present, the ship recycling industry is predominantly based in South Asia. Due to the bad practice of current scrapping procedure, the paper will highlight the harm occurring to health, safety and environment. The efforts of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which led to the signing of the Hong Kong International Convention are also reviewed. The criteria and standards required to reduce the risk and damage to the environment are discussed and a proposed plan for the safe scrapping of ships is then presented. A technological and economic study for the ship recycling in Egypt is carried out as a case study. This includes the ship recycling facility size and layout. The equipment and staff required to operate the facility are also evaluated. A cost analysis is then carried out. This includes site development, human resources, machineries and equipment. A fuzzy logic approach is used to assess the benefits of the ship breaking yard. The use of the fuzzy logic approach is found suitable to make decisions for the ship breaking industry. Based on given constraints, the proposed model has proved capable of assessing the profit and the internal rate of return.

  13. Home Economics/Social Studies Cross-Credit Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellino, Claire; And Others

    This curriculum guide outlines two one-semester home economics courses that students can take to fulfill requirements in social studies or vocational education. The courses, Money and Your Future and Consumer Skills, contain the academic competencies from the Connecticut Common Core of Learning required for credit in social studies. The curriculum…

  14. An Economic Analysis of the Iowa Rural Renewal Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Economic trends in the 1960's in the Iowa rural renewal area, Appanoose and Monroe counties, show that the level of economic activity increased in the area but was clearly below the level for the state. Economic trends suggest that to provide economic opportunities in the area, by 1980, comparable to those available on the average to all residents…

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  16. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a 900 MW ultra-supercritical power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    łukowicz, Henryk; Dykas, Sławomir; Rulik, Sebastian; Stępczyńska, Katarzyna

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents a thermal-economic analysis of different variants of a hard coal-fired 900 MW ultra-supercritical power unit. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the parameters of live and reheated steam on the basic thermodynamic and economic indices of the thermal cycle. The subject of the study was the cycle configuration proposed as the "initial thermal cycle structure" during the completion of the project "Advanced Technologies for Energy Generation" with the live and reheated steam parameters of 650/670 °C. At the same time, a new concept of a thermal cycle for ultra-supercritical parameters with live and reheated steam temperature of 700/720 °C was suggested. The analysis of the ultra-supercritical unit concerned a variant with a single and double steam reheat. All solutions presented in the paper were subject to a detailed thermodynamic analysis, as well as an economic one which also included CO2emissions charges. The conducted economic analysis made it possible to determine the maximum value of investment expenditures at which given solutions are profitable.

  17. Economic Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Measures: Tribal Case Studies with the Yurok Tribe, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, and the Pascua Yaqui Tribe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Thomas L.; Auberle, William M.; Eastwood, John D.; Laroche, David R.; Slack, Robert P.; Smith, Dean H.; Ormond, Amanda S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of three energy-efficiency case studies conducted with three different Native American tribes in the western United States is presented. The case studies demonstrate that energy-efficiency is economically feasible and has the potential to reduce air pollution, and can potentially help tribes meet other important tribal objectives.

  18. Estimating the economic impacts of ecosystem restoration—Methods and case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Skrabis, Kristin; Sidon, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This analysis estimates the economic impacts of a wide variety of ecosystem restoration projects associated with U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) lands and programs. Specifically, the report provides estimated economic impacts for 21 DOI restoration projects associated with Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration cases and Bureau of Land Management lands. The study indicates that ecosystem restoration projects provide meaningful economic contributions to local economies and to broader regional and national economies, and, based on the case studies, we estimate that between 13 and 32 job-years4 and between $2.2 and $3.4 million in total economic output5 are contributed to the U.S. economy for every $1 million invested in ecosystem restoration. These results highlight the magnitude and variability in the economic impacts associated with ecosystem restoration projects and demonstrate how investments in ecosystem restoration support jobs and livelihoods, small businesses, and rural economies. In addition to providing improved information on the economic impacts of restoration, the case studies included with this report highlight DOI restoration efforts and tell personalized stories about each project and the communities that are positively affected by restoration activities. Individual case studies are provided in appendix 1 of this report and are available from an online database at https://www.fort.usgs.gov/economic-impacts-restoration.

  19. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  20. Indians in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ., Missoula. Bureau of Business and Economic Research.

    The three papers in this publication discuss American Indians in Montana. "Indian Poverty in Montana: Findings of the 1960 Census" examines data pertaining to the Indians' economic background. Income data, derived from 25 percent of the population, reports income received in 1959 from: (1) wages, salaries, commissions, and tips; (2) "own business,…

  1. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  2. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  3. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  4. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  5. Using the History of Economic Ideas to Teach Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnel, Margaret G.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates how the ideas of classical economists Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, David Ricardo, and John Stewart Mill are excellent sources for the contemporary social studies teacher. Suggests classroom applications to be used in conjunction with explanation of the economic principles of each of the above-named theorists. (AEM)

  6. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  7. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  8. Retirement In-Migration Study: Attractive Features, Economic & Social Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne; And Others

    This study helps local leaders to identify attractions that entice people to relocate upon retirement, and to estimate the potential economic and social impact of in-migrating retirees. A group of 249 retirees from communities in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and eastern Texas completed questionnaires between June 1992 and February 1993. Although income and…

  9. Writing Tutors in the Economics Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Bill; Misser, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that involved introducing writing tutors or writing fellows into a compulsory, third-year economics course with the intent of incorporating both writing across the curriculum and writing intensive elements. The connections and interrelationships between writing and writing intensive courses are set out briefly…

  10. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of the Global Economic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wen-Qi; Sun, Bo-Liang

    2009-09-01

    In the global economic system, each economy stimulates the growth of its gross domestic products (GDP) by increasing its international trade. Using a fluctuation analysis of the flux data of GDP and foreign trade, we find that both GDP and foreign trade are dominated by external force and driven by each other. By excluding the impact of the associated trade dependency degree, GDP and the total volume of foreign trade collapse well into a power-law function. The economy's total trade volume scales with the number of trade partners, and it is distributed among its trade partners in an exponential form. The model which incorporated these empirical results can integrate the growth dynamics of GDP and the interplay dynamics between GDP and weighted international trade networks simultaneously.