Science.gov

Sample records for economic benefits

  1. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  2. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  3. The Economic Benefits of Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    The recent growth of activities towards developing passenger space travel services is very promising; however there is a widespread but mistaken idea that space tourism will remain a small-scale activity of the very wealthy. The truth is that, having been delayed for over three decades by government space agencies' failure to develop more than a small fraction of the commercial potential of space, the start of space travel services is long overdue, and so they are capable of growing rapidly into a major new industry. That is, the technical and business know-how exists to enable space tourism to grow to a turnover of 100 billion Euros/year within a few decades if it receives public support of even 10% of space agencies budgets. This development would sharply reduce the cost of accessing the resources of space, which could prevent the spread of the “resource wars” which have begun so ominously. No activity therefore offers greater economic benefits than the rapid development of low-cost space tourism services. A range of government policies should be revised to reflect this.

  4. Energy and economic benefits of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farsaie, A.; Debarthe, J.V.; Lessley, B.V.; Waffle, R.W.; Wiebold, W.J.

    1982-12-01

    Management practices for three full season and four double cropping systems using sunflowers, peanuts, rapeseed and soybeans were studied. An economic analysis including investment, and annual cost (fixed and variable) for each of the seven cropping systems has been developed.

  5. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF RESOURCE CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The forces that determine prices of non-renewable natural resources are an important consideration in an evaluation of the social desirability of conservation through recycling. If prevailing market prices accord conservation benefits a value less than their true value to society...

  6. Economic benefits of supersonic overland operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1992-01-01

    Environmental concerns are likely to impose some restrictions on the next generation of supersonic commercial transport. There is a global concern over the effects of engine emissions on the ozone layer which protects life on Earth from ultraviolet radiation. There is also some concern over community noise. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) must meet at least the current subsonic noise certification standards to be compatible with the future subsonic fleet. Concerns over sonic boom represent another environmental and marketing challenge to the HSCT program. The most attractive feature of the supersonic transport is speed, which offers the traveling public significant time-savings on long range routes. The sonic boom issue represents a major environmental and economic challenge as well. Supersonic operation overland produces the most desirable economic results. However, unacceptable overland sonic boom raise levels may force HSCT to use subsonic speeds overland. These environmental and economic challenges are likely to impose some restrictions on supersonic operation, thus introducing major changes to existing route structures and future supersonic network composition. The current subsonic route structure may have to be altered for supersonic transports to avoid sensitive areas in the stratosphere or to minimize overland flight tracks. It is important to examine the alternative route structure and the impact of these restrictions on the economic viability of the overall supersonic operation. Future market potential for HSCT fleets must be large enough to enable engine and airframe manufacturers to build the plane at a cost that provides them with an attractive return on investment and to sell it at a price that allows the airlines to operate with a reasonable margin of profit. Subsonic overland operation of a supersonic aircraft hinders its economic viability. Ways to increase the market potential of supersonic operation are described.

  7. Assessment of the Economic Benefits from Reactive Power Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; Tolbert, Leon M; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. power industry is under great pressure to provide reactive power or Var support. Although it is generally known that there are technical benefits for utilities and industrial customers to provide local reactive power support, a thorough quantitative investigation of the economic benefit is greatly needed. This paper seeks to provide a quantitative approach to evaluate the benefits from local reactive power compensation. This paper investigates the benefits including reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer capability. These benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow. Tests are conducted on a system with seven buses in two areas. These simulations show that the economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payment to central generators or power factor penalties applied to utilities. This economic value may give utilities a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation. In addition, since the economic benefits are significant, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers.

  8. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  9. The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

    This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

  10. The Economic Benefits of Improving Literacy Skills in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Michael; Burrows, Marie; Lafleur, Brenda; Squires, Robert

    A Canadian study explored the economic benefits of improving literacy skills in the workplace from the perspective of both employers and employees. The Conference Board identified and measured these benefits by conducting a survey of 40 employers, as well as by analyzing data gathered in the International Adult Literacy Survey. The study found…

  11. Evaluation of the Industrial Economic Benefits Based on TOPSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Baolu; Dai, Feng; Liu, Jingxu

    At first, this article gives an introduction to the principle and evaluation procedures of TOPSIS. Secondly, Using TOPSIS method to assess 8 prefecture-level cities of a province of China based on the basis of statistical data. The evaluation results demonstrate that the application of TOPSIS method to Industrial economic benefits is Reasonable. TOPSIS has some practical value in the economic field, can provide scientific basis for the scientific management.

  12. Dutch Cycling: Quantifying the Health and Related Economic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Elliot; Schepers, Paul; Kamphuis, Carlijn Barbara Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Netherlands is well known for their high bicycle use. We used the Health Economic Assessment Tool and life table calculations to quantify the population-level health benefits from Dutch cycling levels. Cycling prevents about 6500 deaths each year, and Dutch people have half-a-year-longer life expectancy because of cycling. These health benefits correspond to more than 3% of the Dutch gross domestic product. Our study confirmed that investments in bicycle-promoting policies (e.g., improved bicycle infrastructure and facilities) will likely yield a high cost-benefit ratio in the long term. PMID:26066942

  13. The Economic Benefits of a Degree. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of tuition fees of up to 3,000 British Pounds a year for full-time undergraduates in England in 2006 has revitalised the debate about the benefits of a degree to the individual. As a contribution to this discussion Universities UK commissioned PricewaterhouseCoopers (in association with London Economics,) to produce a report on…

  14. Economic Costs and Benefits of Lifelong Learning in Livingston, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, John C.

    A Livingston, Montana, study on lifelong learning was conducted in two parts. The first part gathered data about the following: (1) what respondents had learned in the previous 12 months; (2) their sources of information and how they rated them; (3) why they initiated learning activities; (4) economic costs and benefits; (5) what they might like…

  15. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  16. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  17. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2006-01-01

    Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services (i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (~3,000 km2) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not. PMID:17076583

  18. Mapping the economic costs and benefits of conservation.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2006-10-01

    Resources for biodiversity conservation are severely limited, requiring strategic investment. Understanding both the economic benefits and costs of conserving ecosystems will help to allocate scarce dollars most efficiently. However, although cost-benefit analyses are common in many areas of policy, they are not typically used in conservation planning. We conducted a spatial evaluation of the costs and benefits of conservation for a landscape in the Atlantic forests of Paraguay. We considered five ecosystem services (i.e., sustainable bushmeat harvest, sustainable timber harvest, bioprospecting for pharmaceutical products, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates of the opportunity costs of conservation. We found a high degree of spatial variability in both costs and benefits over this relatively small (approximately 3,000 km(2)) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon storage dominating the ecosystem service values and swamping opportunity costs. Other benefits associated with conservation were more modest and exceeded costs only in protected areas and indigenous reserves. We used this cost-benefit information to show that one potential corridor between two large forest patches had net benefits that were three times greater than two otherwise similar alternatives. Spatial cost-benefit analysis can powerfully inform conservation planning, even though the availability of relevant data may be limited, as was the case in our study area. It can help us understand the synergies between biodiversity conservation and economic development when the two are indeed aligned and to clearly understand the trade-offs when they are not. PMID:17076583

  19. Economic benefit risk assessment of controlling land subsidence in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zuo; Tiezhu, Liu; Xinhong, Lin

    1993-08-01

    Land subsidence, a major and well-known geological hazard in Shanghai, has caused serious losses. Based on past studies, the cost and benefit of the Shanghai's land subsidence hazard control were assessed and forecasted by risk assessment. An economic benefit-risk assessment was taken in order to control completely land subsidence and make rational safety elevations of the flood control wall. The result of risk assessment shows that the present 6.9-m elevation of the floodwall is not sufficient for the standard of “occurring only once in a thousand years.∝ After 200 years, the spring tide hazardous risk losses caused by land subsidence would amount to 49.73 million yuan per year. The proportion of expense in thoroughly controlling land subsidence to the economic benefit is 1∶:41.44; to construct the flood control wall to an elevation that would prevent inundation from a flood event, to reach the standard of “occurring only once in a thousand years,∝ and to avoid tide losses, the ratio of the investment of reducing tide hazard to the economic benefit should be 1∶:53.24.

  20. Economic benefit of chemical dependency treatment to employers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Neil; Grissom, Grant; Alonzo, Gregory; Dietzen, Laura; Sangsland, Scott

    2008-04-01

    Using assessment data from the Substance Abuse Treatment Support System, we estimated the economic benefit of chemical dependency treatment to employers. A cohort of individuals (N = 498) treated at Kaiser Permanente's Addiction Medicine programs in Southern California completed assessments before and at least 30 days after treatment began. Compared to intake, subsequent assessments indicated substantial reduction in the number of patients who missed work, were late for work, were less productive than usual at work, and/or had conflict with coworkers or management. The net economic value of these improvements to their employers depended upon the utilization rate of the benefit and the salary level of the employees receiving treatment. For a utilization rate of 0.9% and a mean annual salary of US$45,000, the net benefit of treatment was US$1,538 for > or = 61 days of treatment. Based solely upon these employment-related measures, without factoring in the medical cost offset or indirect benefits of treatment that may help employees to maintain higher levels of productivity, employers break even on an investment of US$30 per member per year for a chemical dependency treatment benefit if the mean annual salary of the employees participating in treatment is US$36,565. PMID:17614238

  1. Dollars from Sense: The Economic Benefits of Renewable Energy

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1997-09-01

    This document illustrates direct economic benefits, including job creation, of renewable energy technologies. Examples of electricity generation from biomass, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, and geothermal energy are given, with emphasis on the impact of individual projects on the state and local community. Employment numbers at existing facilities are provided, including total national employment for each renewable industry where available. Renewable energy technologies offer economic advantages because they are more labor-intensive than conventional generation technologies, and they use primarily indigenous resources.

  2. Economic benefits of improved meteorological forecasts - The construction industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R. K.; Greenberg, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are made of the potential economic benefits accruing to particular industries from timely utilization of satellite-derived six-hour weather forecasts, and of economic penalties resulting from failure to utilize such forecasts in day-to-day planning. The cost estimate study is centered on the U.S. construction industry, with results simplified to yes/no 6-hr forecasts on thunderstorm activity and work/no work decisions. Effects of weather elements (thunderstorms, snow and sleet) on various construction operations are indicated. Potential dollar benefits for other industries, including air transportation and other forms of transportation, are diagrammed for comparison. Geosynchronous satellites such as STORMSAT, SEOS, and SMS/GOES are considered as sources of the forecast data.

  3. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    PubMed

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline. PMID:24870412

  4. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  5. The Economic Benefits of the GED: A Research Synthesis. NCSALL Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John H.

    The economic benefits of the General Educational Development certificate (GED) were examined through a review of four published papers and four unpublished working papers on the GED's benefits. Key findings were as follows: (1) a GED provides economic benefits only to low-skilled dropouts; (2) economic benefits of a GED appear over time--often…

  6. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology. PMID:18409652

  7. A study of the economic benefits of meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B. A.; Hinton, B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Satellite data, while most useful in data poor areas, serves to fine tune forecasts in data rich areas. It consequently has a resulting significant economic benefit because, as previously stated, even one improved forecast per client per year can save each client thousands of dollars. Multiply this by several hundred clients and the dollar savings are sizeable. The great educational value which experience with satellite data gives undoubtedly leads to improved forecasts. Any type of future satellite data delivery system should take into account the needs and facilities of the user community to make it most useful.

  8. 78 FR 15355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pilot Project Assessing Economic Benefits of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Project Assessing Economic Benefits of Marine Debris Removal AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... economic benefits to beach visitors of marine debris removal. The project will use a revealed preference... economic benefits, providing information about the types of marine debris that beach visitors are...

  9. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  10. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Economic Benefits of Nonresident Students. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edwin R.; Bissonnette, Kathleen K.

    The economic contribution of nonresident college students to West Virginia's economy was examined. Comparisons were also made to the economic costs and benefits to the state of visitors to the state's parks system. The economic benefits of nonresident students on the West Virginia economy was estimated by summing the approximated effects of three…

  12. Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed Fm; Qazi, Wajeeha A; Azam, Mohammed-Hasham; Mehmood, Umais A; Al-Mufragi, Ghithaa A; Alrawahi, Noor-Alhuda

    2016-08-01

    Municipal solid waste disposed in landfill sites decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces so-called landfill-gas, which contains 30%-40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50%-60% of methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2 Therefore, migration of landfill-gas from landfills to the surrounding environment can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine municipal solid waste generation in Oman over the years 1971-2030, to quantify annual CH4 emissions inventory that resulted from this waste over the same period of time, and to determine the economic and environmental benefits of capturing the CH4 gas for energy production. It is found that cumulative municipal solid waste landfilled in Oman reaches 3089 Giga gram (Gg) in the year 2030, of which approximately 85 Gg of CH4 emissions are produced in the year 2030. The study also found that capturing CH4 emissions between the years 2016 and 2030 could attract revenues of up to US$333 million and US$291 million from the carbon reduction and electricity generation, simultaneously. It is concluded that CH4 emissions from solid waste in Oman increases enormously with time, and capture of this gas for energy production could provide a sustainable waste management solution in Oman. PMID:26922087

  13. The Economic Benefits to Visitors of an Interpretive Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Ted T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Uses a travel cost method to quantify benefits received by visitors to Petawawa National Forestry Institute's public awareness facilities. Analysis of data from 697 visitors provided a basis for calculating benefits, which are reported in monetary terms. These benefits ranged from $2.89 to $6.64 in value (United States) per visit. (Author/JN)

  14. Buried Treasure: The Environmental, Economic, and Employment Benefits of Geothermal Energy (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    This new publication supplants older DOE publications regarding environmental impacts, providing updated and new information on environmental, economic, and employment benefits and impacts of geothermal energy.

  15. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  16. Widows Waiting to Wed?: (Re)Marriage and Economic Incentives in Social Security Widow Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien Michael J.; Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Weaver, David A.

    2004-01-01

    A widow(er) is only entitled to get the economic incentives benefits only after she/he attains the age of 60. The rate of remarriages before 60 for widow(er) is gradually going down resulting in marriages after the age of 60 to gain the economic benefits.

  17. The Costs and Benefits of SNOMED CT Implementation: An Economic Assessment Model.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Birov, Strahil; Piesche, Klaus; Højen, Anne Randorff; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Dewenter, Heike; Nejad, Reza Fathollah; Thun, Sylvia; Volkert, Pim; Kufrin, Vesna Kronstein; Stroetmann, Veli

    2016-01-01

    As part of its investigations, the EU-funded ASSESS CT project developed an Economic Assessment Model for assessing SNOMED CT's and other terminologies' socio-economic impact in a systematic approach. Methodology and key elements of the model are presented: cost and benefit indicators for assessing deployment, and a cost-benefit analysis tool to collect, estimate, and evaluate data. PMID:27577421

  18. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A

    2016-05-01

    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term. PMID:27102854

  19. Economic Benefits and Impacts from Public Libraries in the State of Florida. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; Fraser, Bruce T.; Nelson, Timothy W.; Robbins, Jane B.

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the economic impacts and benefits of Florida public libraries. The study objectives were to: describe the role of public libraries in economic development; identify and describe the range of specific activities and programs engaged in to support economic development; identify factors that…

  20. Increasing the Economic Development Benefits of Higher Education in Michigan. Working Paper No. 04-106

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development…

  1. Economic feasibility study for wastewater treatment: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-09-15

    Water resource management should be made from a multidisciplinary perspective. In this sense, economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one of the more widely accepted economic instruments since it is a rational and systematic decision-making support tool. Moreover, the wastewater treatment process has significant associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often left uncalculated because they have no market value. In this paper, using the concept of shadow price, a quantification of the environmental benefits derived from wastewater treatment is made. Once the environmental benefits are estimated and the economic costs of the treatment processes are known, a CBA is made for each of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under study. In this way, a useful economic feasibility indicator is obtained for WWTP operation. PMID:20667582

  2. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  3. Review of Soil Carbon Management: Economics, Environmental and Societal Benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book provides a “big picture” look at the processes and benefits of soil carbon (c) management. The book is targeted to policy makers and gives policy recommendations in addition to providing technical information. The first section of the book contains a summary of current programs that foste...

  4. Financial and Economic Irrigation Net Benefit Functions for Egypt's Northern Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, R. L.; Young, R. A.

    1985-09-01

    Estimates of financial and economic net benefits to irrigation water supply are shown for a case study area in the northern Nile delta region of Egypt. Linear programming models of representative farms in the study area are formulated with particular attention to the possibilities of using less water per crop as well as shifting crops in response to hypothetical reductions in water supply. Net benefits are defined as gross revenues minus costs of production, including an imputed charge for family labor. Model solutions are based on both 1980 government prices with production controls (financial net benefits) and hypothetical 1980 international market prices with relaxed controls (economic net benefits). Five different water supply scenarios are analyzed: from the current, adequate level of supply, down to a 40% reduction from that level. Total, average, and marginal net benefit functions are reported. Implications of the differences between the financial and economic benefit functions for farmers are discussed.

  5. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  6. The Economic Benefits of a Degree. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    One of the dominant contributory factors to a country's long-run productivity and economic growth is the education, training and skills possessed by its working-age population. Higher education qualifications are one of the key mechanisms in generating wealth for the students who attain them. The provision of education and skills also produces…

  7. Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil Carbon Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, soil has fueled the availability of abundant and safe food supplies, thus underpinning economic growth and development. In the future more vigilance will be needed in managing and renewing this precious resource by replacing the nutrients and life-sustaining matter that is rem...

  8. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  9. Economic valuation of urban forest benefits in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tyrväinen, L

    2001-05-01

    Urban development projects may cause loss of amenity values of green areas, which should be taken into consideration in planning. Therefore, quantitative information on residents' valuation concerning urban forests is needed for assessing urban land use. The purpose of this investigation was to study the valuation of urban forests in two different urban environments Joensuu and Salo, Finland. The aims were to study the attitudes towards and benefits related to the use of urban forests and, in particular, to measure the valuations in monetary terms using contingent valuation, i.e. measure the residents' willingness-to-pay for larger wooded recreation areas and for small forested parks. Urban forests were seen in both towns as clearly producing positive benefits rather than causing negative effects. The negative features of forests were related to the management of the areas rather than their existence. The main values were related to nature and social functions of forests. In contrast, timber production achieved a distinctively low priority in both study towns. The results stress the importance of defining urban forest policies for municipalities in Finland. More than two-thirds of the respondents were willing to pay for the use of recreation areas. Good location and active management raised the average WTP. Moreover, approximately half of the respondents were willing to pay for preventing construction in urban forests. The results also show that the monetary value of amenity benefits in recreation areas is much higher than the present maintenance costs. The examples concerning the advantageousness of construction on green areas suggest that a limit could be found where the infill of housing areas is not worthwhile from the point of view of society, if the losses of green space benefits are taken into account. PMID:11400466

  10. [Geriatric fracture centers. Improved patient care and economic benefits].

    PubMed

    Kates, S L

    2016-01-01

    The world's population is aging resulting in changes in the way we manage geriatric care. Furthermore, this population has a considerable risk of fragility fractures, most notably hip fractures. Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and have large economic consequences. It is due to these factors that the concept of an elderly trauma center was developed. These trauma centers utilize the expertise in orthopedic and geriatric disciplines to provide coordinated care to the elderly hip fracture patient. As a result, studies have demonstrated improvements in clinical outcomes within the hospital stay, a reduction in iatrogenic complications, and improvements in 1-year mortality rates compared to the usual care given at a similar facility. Furthermore, economic models have demonstrated that there is a role for regionalized hip fracture centers that can be both profitable and provide more efficient care to these patients. PMID:26658903

  11. The potential economic benefits of improvements in weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was initiated as a consequence of the increased use of weather satellites, electronic computers and other technological developments which have become a virtual necessity for solving the complex problems of the earth's atmosphere. Neither the economic emphasis, nor the monetary results of the study, are intended to imply their sole use as criteria for making decisions concerning the intrinsic value of technological improvements in meteorology.

  12. Economic impact of blood transfusions: balancing cost and benefits.

    PubMed

    Oge, Tufan; Kilic, Cemil Hakan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami

    2014-02-01

    Blood transfusions may be lifesaving, but they inherit their own risks. Risk of transfusion to benefit is a delicate balance. In addition, blood product transfusions purchases are one of the largest line items among the hospital and laboratory charges. In this review, we aimed to discuss the transfusion strategies and share our transfusion protocol as well as the steps for hospitals to build-up a blood management program while all these factors weight in. Moreover, we evaluate the financial burden to the health care system. PMID:25610294

  13. DC Microgrids Scoping Study. Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N.; Swift, Gregory William; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon; Tschudi, William; Glover, Steven; Starke, Michael; Wang, Jianhui; Yue, Meng; Hammerstrom, Donald

    2015-03-23

    Microgrid demonstrations and deployments are expanding in US power systems and around the world. Although goals are specific to each site, these microgrids have demonstrated the ability to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power transfer because this has been the traditionally dominant power delivery scheme. Independently, manufacturers, power system designers and researchers are demonstrating and deploying DC power distribution systems for applications where the end-use loads are natively DC, e.g., computers, solid-state lighting, and building networks. These early DC applications may provide higher efficiency, added flexibility, reduced capital costs over their AC counterparts. Further, when onsite renewable generation, electric vehicles and storage systems are present, DC-based microgrids may offer additional benefits. Early successes from these efforts raises a question - can a combination of microgrid concepts and DC distribution systems provide added benefits beyond what has been achieved individually?

  14. Sharing out NASA's spoils. [economic benefits of U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The economic benefits of NASA programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to an analysis of indirect economic benefits which estimates the effect of NASA programs on employment, personal income, corporate sales and profits, and government tax revenues in the U.S. and in each state. Data are presented that show that NASA programs have widely varying multipliers by industry and that illustrate the distribution of jobs by industry as well as the distribution of sales.

  15. A plan for the economic assessment of the benefits of improved meteorological forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1975-01-01

    Benefit-cost relationships for the development of meteorological satellites are outlined. The weather forecast capabilities of the various weather satellites (Tiros, SEOS, Nimbus) are discussed, and the development of additional satellite systems is examined. A rational approach is development that leads to the establishment of the economic benefits which may result from the utilization of meteorological satellite data. The economic and social impacts of improved weather forecasting for industries and resources management are discussed, and significant weather sensitive industries are listed.

  16. The economic benefits of wind turbine structural testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    Wind turbine systems are subjected to highly variable loading conditions as a result of the diverse meteorological conditions found in the field. While the wind energy resource available for extraction and the initial cost of the equipment are major factors in the cost of wind generated electricity, the economic value of any wind power station is ultimately related to the structural lifetime of the machinery located at the plant and to the costs associated with operations and maintenance of the facility. Field experience gained during the past decade has shown large variations in structural lifetime and maintenance costs for identical turbine designs located at dissimilar sites, with resulting dramatic differences in the overall cost of energy produced. Structural testing offers a method for reducing the incidence of wind turbine component failures at any given site by providing an accurate loading envelope for use in detailed equipment lifetime calculations. This paper will broadly discuss the technical issues which are important for turbine field testing and will identify the potential impacts on overall wind plant economics. Wind turbine testing plays a key role in reducing the risk of premature component failure, improving overall mechanical reliability, and enhancing turbine availability.

  17. Investing in children's health: what are the economic benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055

  18. Long-Term Economic Benefits of Preschool Services and the Potential Impact of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    This paper addresses the importance of a high quality preschool education for children living in poverty, the long-term effects of such an educational experience, the long-term economic benefits to the children enrolled and their families, and the potential impact of privatization on preschool services. The cost-effectiveness and cost-benefits of…

  19. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  20. Determining the Economic Benefits of Attending Community College. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jorge R., Ed.; Laanan, Frankie Santos, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This volume addresses the efforts in several states, including California, Florida, North Carolina, and Washington, to determine the economic gains of community college graduates by measuring their post-college earnings. Articles include: (1) "Economic Benefits of a Community College Education: Issues of Accountability and Performance Measures"…

  1. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Ander, G.D.

    1992-06-01

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  2. Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.

  3. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits. PMID:24117387

  4. A Framework to Quantify the Economic Benefit from Local VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Tolbert, Leon M; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2008-01-01

    Abstract It is generally accepted that reactive power (or Var) compensation will bring benefits for utilities and industrial customers by providing local voltage and power factor support. However, there is a lack of a systematic approach to quantitatively identify the economic benefit. In addition, with the deregulation and restructuring, it is important to indicate the amount of benefit that each market participant may potentially receive given the right price signals. If such information can be easily obtained and presented, it will be more convenient for decision-markers to determine the cost benefit sharing of installing a Var compensator. This vision of this paper is to lay out a possible method for quantitatively evaluating the benefits from local reactive power compensation. The approach is to quantify the benefits into several categories such as reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer. The calculation of these benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus power system model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow to calculate the benefits. Simulation on the more complex system is conducted with seven buses in two areas. The simulation results show that the possible economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payments to central generators or payment of power factor penalties applied by utilities. The potential economic value of local Var compensation may give various parties in electricity supply, delivery and end-use consumption a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation installation. Sensitivity analysis is also provided to illustrate that the benefits may not be monotonically increasing. Also, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers or other way to encourage load Var capability, since local Var benefit is significant.

  5. Effects of Special Use Airspace on Economic Benefits of Direct Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik; Barrington, Craig; Foster, John D. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of Special Use Airspace (SUA) on direct route flights is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on evaluating operating costs of aircraft and analyzing the different ground-track distances traveled by flights under different air traffic scenarios. Using this methodology the following objectives are evaluated: optimistic bias of studies that assume accessible SUAs the maximum economic benefit of dynamic use of SUAs and the marginal economic benefit of the dynamic use of individual SUAs.

  6. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. PMID:21871522

  7. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  8. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  9. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects. PMID:19903571

  10. Market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrazine and other triazine herbicides are widely used in US maize and sorghum production, yet the most recent market-level assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine is for market conditions prevalent in the early 1990s, before commercialization of transgenic crops. Grain markets have changed substantially since that time; for example, the size of the US maize market increased by 170% from 1990–1992 to 2007–2009. This paper reports a current assessment of the economic benefits of atrazine. RESULTS Yield increases and cost changes implied by triazine herbicides are projected to reduce maize prices by 7–8% and sorghum prices by 19–20%. Projected consumer benefits from lower prices range from $US 3.6 to 4.4 × 109 annually, with the net projected economic benefit for triazine herbicides to the US economy ranging from $US 2.9 to 3.4 × 109 annually because lower prices imply reduced producer income. Productivity gains from triazine herbicides maintain an estimated 270 000–390 000 ha of land in non-crop uses that generate environmental benefits not accounted for in this analysis. CONCLUSION Even in the current era, with transgenic varieties dominating crop production, atrazine and the other triazine herbicides continue to be a key part of maize and sorghum production and generate substantial economic benefits. © 2013 The Authors. PestManagement Science published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24318916

  11. Understanding Proximal-Distal Economic Projections of the Benefits of Childhood Preventive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Eric P.; Becker, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the steps and decisions involved in proximal-distal economic modeling, in which social, behavioral, and academic outcomes data for children may be used to inform projections of the economic consequences of interventions. Economic projections based on proximal-distal modeling techniques may be used in cost-benefit analyses when information is unavailable for certain long term outcomes data in adulthood or to build entire cost-benefit analyses. Although examples of proximal-distal economic analyses of preventive interventions exist in policy reports prepared for governmental agencies, such analyses have rarely been completed in conjunction with research trials. The modeling decisions on which these prediction models are based are often opaque to policymakers and other end-users. This paper aims to illuminate some of the key steps and considerations involved in constructing proximal-distal prediction models and to provide examples and suggestions that may help guide future proximal-distal analyses. PMID:24337979

  12. Understanding proximal-distal economic projections of the benefits of childhood preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eric P; Becker, Kimberly D

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses the steps and decisions involved in proximal-distal economic modeling, in which social, behavioral, and academic outcomes data for children may be used to inform projections of the economic consequences of interventions. Economic projections based on proximal-distal modeling techniques may be used in cost-benefit analyses when information is unavailable for certain long-term outcomes data in adulthood or to build entire cost-benefit analyses. Although examples of proximal-distal economic analyses of preventive interventions exist in policy reports prepared for governmental agencies, such analyses have rarely been completed in conjunction with research trials. The modeling decisions on which these prediction models are based are often opaque to policymakers and other end-users. This paper aims to illuminate some of the key steps and considerations involved in constructing proximal-distal prediction models and to provide examples and suggestions that may help guide future proximal-distal analyses. PMID:24337979

  13. BEN: A model to calculate the economic benefit of noncompliance. User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Agency developed the BEN computer model to calculate the economic benefit a violator derives from delaying or avoiding compliance with environmental statutes. In general, the Agency uses the BEN computer model to assist its own staff in developing settlement penalty figures. While the primary purpose of the BEN model is to calculate the economic benefit of noncompliance, the model may also be used to calculate the after tax net present value of a pollution prevention or mitigation project and to calculate 'cash outs' in Superfund cases. The document, the BEN User's Manual, contains all the formulas that make up the BEN computer model and is freely available to the public upon request.

  14. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 4: Ocean mining case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites for mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the weather sensitive features of near shore and deep water ocean mining industries are described. Problems with the evaluation of economic benefits for the deep water ocean mining industry are attributed to the relative immaturity and highly proprietary nature of the industry. Case studies on the gold industry, diamond industry, tin industry and sand and gravel industry are cited.

  15. Evaluating the economic costs, benefits and tradeoffs of dedicated biomass energy systems: The importance of scale

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    The economic and environmental costs, benefits and tradeoffs of bioenergy from dedicated biomass energy systems must be addressed in the context of the scale of interest. At different scales there are different economic and environmental features and processes to consider. The depth of our understanding of the processes and features that influence the potential of energy crops also varies with scale as do the quality and kinds of data that are needed and available. Finally, the appropriate models to use for predicting economic and environmental impacts change with the scale of the questions. This paper explores these issues at three scales - the individual firm, the community, and the nation.

  16. The benefits of energy recovery: Economic, environmental and social benefits in recovering energy from waste in the manufacture of cement

    SciTech Connect

    Susel, I.

    1997-12-31

    The Nation gains substantial energy, environmental, health and economic benefits when cement kilns recycle hazardous wastes by recovering their energy value through use as fuel. These benefits include: energy conservation, amounting to more than 20 billion Btu/year, more than twice the amount EPA saves through its Green Lights program; reduced SOx and NOx emissions that would have resulted from burning coal instead of HWDF, avoiding property damages of $120 million/year; reduced fatalities due to reduced coal mining and coal transportation, with these reductions far exceeding the local population risks that EPA addresses with MACT; and a low cost of combustion which provides incentives to small quantity generators to properly dispose of their hazardous materials. If promulgated in the form proposed in 1996, the hazardous waste combustor (HWC) MACT could cause kilns to recycle less HWDF, substantially reducing these benefits, with the Nation losing far more than it gains with the MACT rule. Even in the absence of these adverse consequences, the stringent levels in EPA`s 1996 proposal are not justified by the risks they address and are not cost-effective. 17 refs.

  17. The Use of Economic Analytical Tools in Quantifying and Measuring Educational Benefits and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, I. Thomas, Jr.

    The general objective of this study was to devise quantitative guidelines that school officials can accurately follow in using benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, ratio analysis, and other similar economic analytical tools in their particular local situations. Specifically, the objectives were to determine guidelines for the…

  18. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and…

  19. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis framework to link ecological change to economic benefits for multiple stakeholders requires several key components. First, since we aim to support policy decisions, the framework should link a factor that can be controlled or influenced by policy (discharge limit, ca...

  20. Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R S; Windsor, R H; Teran, M

    1992-06-16

    A trial was carried out in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) to determine the economic benefits of controlling both external and internal parasites by the use of ivermectin ("Ivomec," Merck Sharp & Dohme). After four months the treated male alpacas gained on average 3.1 kg more than the untreated males, and their fleece weighed 0.36 kg more. The treated female alpacas gained 1.9 kg more than the controls, but their fleece weighed 0.03 kg less. This treatment gave a net financial benefit to the farmer of U.S. $3.54 for each of his male alpacas and U.S. $1.36 for each of his female alpacas. The results for the llamas were not significant because there was great variation in the weight gains (and losses). Because the value of llama fleece is less, the economic benefits were also less. PMID:1626890

  1. The economic costs of partner violence and the cost-benefit of civil protective orders.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-04-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of costs of partner violence to be considered. This study is one of the first to examine a wide range of economic costs of partner violence and to examine the economic costs and cost-benefits of civil protective orders. Overall, including changes in quality of life, protective orders were estimated to have saved taxpayers in one small state US$85 million in a 1-year period. More generally, this study provides a framework to address more specific complexities associated with cost-benefit analyses of partner violence and the impact of justice system interventions. PMID:22203629

  2. Health and Economic Benefits of Improved Injury Prevention and Trauma Care Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Kotagal, Meera; Agarwal-Harding, Kiran J.; Mock, Charles; Quansah, Robert; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Meara, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and often disproportionately affects younger, more productive members of society. While many have made the case for improved injury prevention and trauma care, health system development in low- and middle-income countries is often limited by resources. This study aims to determine the economic benefit of improved injury prevention and trauma care in low- and middle-income countries. Methods This study uses existing data on injury mortality worldwide from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate the number of lives that could be saved if injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries could be reduced to rates in high-income countries. Using economic modeling – through the human capital approach and the value of a statistical life approach – the study then demonstrates the associated economic benefit of these lives saved. Results 88 percent of injury-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. If injury mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries were reduced to rates in high-income countries, 2,117,500 lives could be saved per year. This would result in between 49 million and 52 million disability adjusted life years averted per year, with discounting and age weighting. Using the human capital approach, the associated economic benefit of reducing mortality rates ranges from $245 to $261 billion with discounting and age weighting. Using the value of a statistical life approach, the benefit is between 758 and 786 billion dollars per year. Conclusions Reducing injury mortality in low- and middle-income countries could save over 2 million lives per year and provide significant economic benefit globally. Further investments in trauma care and injury prevention are needed. PMID:24626472

  3. A critical analysis of work-site fitness programs and their postulated economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1992-03-01

    Many early work-site exercise programs had a unique fitness focus. More recently, modular programs have addressed many facets of lifestyle. Their stated objective has often been to boost corporate morale or employee health rather than to have direct economic benefits, and evaluation has frequently been in terms of process rather than a cost-benefit or a cost-effectiveness analysis. Nevertheless, a growing number of authors have claimed fiscal dividends from such programs. A full economic evaluation must consider such issues as the transfer of benefits between various sectors of the economy, opportunity costs to participants, marginal costs and benefits, inflation, discounting, and the choice between cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. Suggested benefits include an improvement of corporate image, a decrease of employee turnover, gains of productivity, reduced absenteeism and medical costs, an improved employee lifestyle, and a decrease of industrial injuries. In practice, the corporate impact of a program is greatly attenuated, depending on prevalence of need, participation rate, program response of recruits, and continued employment of such individuals within a company. Costs to the corporation include promotion, facilities, equipment, and professional leadership. However, such items are often small relative to the opportunity costs incurred by the participant. For this reason, activities that can be built into the normal day of the employee (for example, walking or cycling to and from work) may prove more acceptable and more cost-effective than formal work-site classes. PMID:1549031

  4. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  5. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  6. Community-based school feeding during Indonesia's economic crisis: implementation, benefits, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Studdert, Lisa J; Soekirman; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    The Indonesian Government initiated a community-based national school-feeding program in 1996. Implementation was decentralized and involved multiple participants. In 1998 we evaluated the implementation of the program and the perceived benefits for community stakeholders using a survey of principals in 143 randomly selected schools and follow-up with in-depth interviews and observations in a subsample of 16 communities. The evaluation covered the period of the 1998 Asian economic crisis, affording the opportunity to assess its impact on the program. The program was implemented in all targeted schools, with excellent community participation. Feeding was sustained through the crisis, in spite of a dramatic escalation in food costs. The families of schoolchildren, farmers, and those who prepared food received economic benefits. The snacks replaced those sold at schools and were of better nutritional value. The children benefited because the snacks compensated for losses in the home diet resulting from the economic crisis. Characteristics of the program that may be important in explaining its success include the involvement of a range of community stakeholders, engagement with existing village administrative structures, scope for local community adaptation and innovation, and the use of local foods that dispersed benefits and ensured sustained implementation during the crisis. PMID:15214261

  7. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  8. Asiatic cotton can generate similar economic benefits to Bt cotton under rainfed conditions.

    PubMed

    Romeu-Dalmau, Carla; Bonsall, Michael B; Willis, Katherine J; Dolan, Liam

    2015-01-01

    American cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry genes (Bt G. hirsutum) that confer resistance to lepidopteran pests, is extensively cultivated worldwide. In India, transgenic Bt G. hirsutum was commercially released in 2002 and by 2014 95% of farmers had adopted Bt G. hirsutum(1). The economic benefits of Bt G. hirsutum over non-Bt G. hirsutum are well documented and include increase in yields, increase in farmers' net revenue and reduction in pesticide application against lepidopteran pests(2-9). However, it is unclear to what extent irrigation influences the performance of Bt G. hirsutum on smallholder farming in India, and if, in the absence of irrigation, growing Bt G. hirsutum provides greater economic benefits for Indian smallholder farmers compared with growing the Asiatic cotton Gossypium arboreum L. Here, we compare the economic impact of growing Bt G. hirsutum with growing G. arboreum under rainfed conditions in the Indian state of Maharashtra, and show that G. arboreum can generate similar net revenue, and thus similar economic benefits for smallholder farmers compared with growing Bt G. hirsutum. We also compare the economic impact of growing Bt G. hirsutum under rainfed conditions with growing Bt G. hirsutum under irrigated conditions and show that even though Bt G. hirsutum yields increase with irrigation, the net revenue does not significantly increase because farmers using irrigation spend significantly more than farmers growing Bt G. hirsutum without irrigation. We conclude that our data provide a broader insight into how socio-economic data needs to be incorporated into agro-ecological data when planning strategies to improve cotton farming in India. PMID:27250007

  9. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  10. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits. PMID:26858374

  11. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  12. Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

    2007-08-01

    Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may

  13. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary. PMID:23604726

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs. PMID:26387347

  15. Further limiting bisphenol a in food uses could provide health and economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food uses-that is, uses in metal-based food and beverage containers. This article quantifies the potential social costs of childhood obesity and adult coronary heart disease attributable to BPA exposure in the United States in 2008 and models the potential health and economic benefits associated with replacing BPA in all food uses. BPA exposure was estimated to be associated with 12,404 cases of childhood obesity and 33,863 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease, with estimated social costs of $2.98 billion in 2008. Removing BPA from food uses might prevent 6,236 cases of childhood obesity and 22,350 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease per year, with potential annual economic benefits of $1.74 billion (sensitivity analysis: $889 million-$13.8 billion per year). Although more data are needed, these potentially large health and economic benefits could outweigh the costs of using a safer substitute for BPA. PMID:24452104

  16. Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

    2005-11-15

    Economic research on biodiversity conservation has focused on the costs of conservation reserves and the benefits of intact ecosystems; however, no study has simultaneously considered the costs and benefits of species diversity, a fundamental component of biodiversity. We quantified the costs and benefits of avian biodiversity at a rainforest reserve in Uganda through a combination of economic surveys of tourists, spatial land-use analyses, and species-area relationships. Our results show that revising entrance fees and redistributing ecotourism revenues would protect 114 of 143 forest bird species (80%) under current market conditions. This total would increase to 131 species (approximately 90%) if entrance fees were optimized to capture the tourist's willingness to pay for forest visits and the chance of seeing increased numbers of bird species. In contrast, the cost of purchasing agricultural land for ecological rehabilitation of the avian habitat would be economically prohibitive. These results suggest that local biodiversity markets could play a positive role in tropical conservation strategies if the appropriate institutions for redistribution can be developed. PMID:16267131

  17. Economic and environmental benefits of product substitution for organic solvents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, S.C.

    1991-05-01

    U.S. Army installations require solvents for effective maintenance and equipment refurbishing operations. Spent solvent generation has become a significant environmental and economic concern. Of increasing concern are toxic air emissions, threshold limit values, and increasing restriction on land disposal. Coupled with these environmental issues is the rising cost of both waste disposal and new solvent purchase. This manuscript evaluates the environmental protection and economic benefits of substituting aqueous terpene-based cleaners for petroleum-based Stoddard solvent, currently used in parts cleaning. With characteristics such as low volatility, biodegradability, and reduction of land disposal, terpene cleaners have become the favored substitution alternative. This research showed that implementing terpene cleaner substitution for Stoddard solvent requires a site-specific study of each installation which will include waste recycling, disposal of sludge and rinse water, landfills, contamination of soils and economic analysis.

  18. Restructuring the Indian power sector with energy conservation as the motive for economic and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Palanichamy, C.; Chelvan, R.K.; Babu, N.S.; Nadarajan, C.

    1999-12-01

    India's strong economic performance of recent years requires continuing effort from the newly formed Government to widen the ambit of economic reform. Though the Government has given higher priority for the power development projects, the Indian Power sector is struggling with formidable difficulties of meeting the heavy demands of electricity due to higher amount of power losses and energy thefts. To give a supporting hand to the Government, this paper suggests restructuring of the Power sector with energy conservation as the main motive to achieve economical and environmental benefits. The capabilities of the Energy Conservation Policies developed are illustrated via tests by three distinct ways on a State Grid alike Test System and the test results confirm the suitability of the proposed policies for real-time implementation on the Indian Power Sector.

  19. Emergency use of groundwater as a backup supply: Quantifying hydraulic impacts and economic benefits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Li, Zhen; Hermans, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater can play an important role in water-supply emergency planning. A framework is presented for assessing the hydraulic impacts and associated costs of using groundwater as a backup supply when imported-water deliveries are disrupted, and for quantifying the emergency benefits of groundwater management strategies that enable better response to such disruptions. Response functions are derived, which relate additional groundwater pumpage during water-supply emergencies to impacts such as increased pumping costs, subsidence, and seawater intrusion. Monte Carlo analysis is employed to estimate the incremental costs of using groundwater as a backup supply. The emergency benefits of alternative groundwater management strategies are computed for different expected durations of imported water disruption, percentages of imported water replaced by groundwater, and threshold drawdowns for subsidence impacts. The methodology is applied to the coastal Los Angeles Basin. For this case study, emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies are dominated by reduction of potential subsidence costs. The variance of the results also is primarily due to subsidence effects. Incorporation of probability distributions reflecting a larger expected use of groundwater during the imported-water disruption results in higher estimated emergency benefits of artificial recharge strategies. The framework presented for quantifying incremental costs and economic benefits of using groundwater as a backup supply could be applied to a broad range of water emergency planning decisions.

  20. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica: Ecosystem services identification and economic evaluation of goods and benefits.

    PubMed

    Campagne, Carole Sylvie; Salles, Jean-Michel; Boissery, Pierre; Deter, Julie

    2015-08-15

    Posidonia oceanica is a marine angiosperm endemic from the Mediterranean. Despite their protection, its meadows are regressing. The economic valuation of ecosystem services (ES) assesses the contribution of ecosystems to human well-being and may provide local policy makers help in territorial development. To estimate the economic value of P. oceanica seagrass and the meadows that it forms to better account its presence in coastal development, identification and assessment of ES provided are first performed. Then goods and benefits (GB) and their economical values are estimated. In total, 25ES are identified and 7GB are economically evaluated. The economic value of GB provided by P. oceanica ranges between 25.3 million and 45.9 million€/year which means 283-513€/ha/year. Because of the lack of existing available data, only 7GB linked to 11/25ES have been estimated. Despite this overall undervaluation, this study offers a value for coastal development policies to take into account. PMID:26028167

  1. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. Methods This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978–1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998–2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. Results While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. Conclusions This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level. PMID:22839351

  2. Measuring the patient health, societal and economic benefits of US pediatric therapeutics legislation.

    PubMed

    Vernon, John A; Shortenhaus, Scott H; Mayer, Mark H; Allen, Albert J; Golec, Joseph H

    2012-10-01

    Through at least the mid-1990s, children were often referred to as 'therapeutic orphans' for whom many treatments were administered without the benefit of appropriate studies to guide drug labeling for dosing and other critical therapeutic decisions. At that time, there were no incentives for manufacturers to pursue such work, nor regulatory requirements to compel these studies. Congress addressed this by including an important provision titled the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) in the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization and Accountability Act. This was complemented by another key piece of legislation, the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) in 2003. The former Act and its successors created an incentive for firms to study on-patent drugs in pediatric populations by extending the market exclusivity of a medicine by 6 months. The latter was a requirement that provided the US FDA with the authority to require studies of drugs in children if an adult indication also occurs in children. In the current paper, we consider the effects of both pieces of legislation in terms of the health, societal, and economic benefits they have likely imparted and will continue to provide in the future. We conclude that the gains have been substantial - both in terms of safer and more effective use of medicines in children and in terms of new research that has been incentivized by the BPCA exclusivity provision. We estimate the gross economic benefits from the latter alone to be approximately $US360 billion. PMID:22775493

  3. The economic costs and benefits of dental education: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Gary L; Nourzad, Farrokh; Lobb, William K; Beall, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    The rising costs associated with obtaining a dental education have caused some to question the financial benefit of pursuing a dental degree. There is a concern that recent graduates may have difficulty finding professional opportunities that provide the income necessary to service their accumulated educational debt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends in educational costs to aid in making an accurate appraisal of the financial benefit of a dental education. Adjusted into constant dollar terms, data from a variety of sources were collected for economic variables such as tuition, fees, student indebtedness, and dentists' earnings. These variables were then analyzed to determine the true costs and benefits of obtaining a dental education. The results showed that, over the course of the last decade, educational costs increased faster than the real net income of practicing dentists, which led to a decline in the return on investment in dental education. However, regardless of an applicant's choice of public or private dental school, there continues to be a positive economic return on students' commitment of both financial resources and time to receive a dental education. PMID:25362690

  4. Who benefits most from college? Evidence for negative selection in heterogeneous economic returns to higher education *

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Xie, Yu

    2009-01-01

    We consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, positive selection is commonly presumed, i.e., individuals who are most likely to select into college benefit most from college. Net of observed economic and non-economic factors influencing college attendance, we conjecture that individuals who are least likely to obtain a college education benefit most from college. We call this theory the negative selection hypothesis. To adjudicate between the two hypotheses, we study the effects of completing college on earnings by propensity score strata using an innovative hierarchical linear model with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. For both data sources, for men and for women, and for every observed stage of the life course, we find evidence suggesting negative selection. Results from auxiliary analyses lend further support to the negative selection interpretation of the results. PMID:20454549

  5. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  6. Determining economic benefits of satellite data in short-range forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, D.; Auvine, B.; Hinton, B.

    1981-01-01

    The chances of enhanced short term weather predictions and economic benefits from the use of GOES satellite data were examined. Results for a meteorological consulting firm before and after the introduction of GOES data were chosen as the method, and monetary benefits were selected as the measure. Services were provided for use by road and street departments, commodities dealers, and marine clients of the consulting firm. The Man-computer Interactive Data Access Program (McIDAS) was employed to furnish 1/2 hour visual or IR imagery for remote access. The commodities clients reconnected the GOES real-time imagery once the study was completed, while the consulting firm, which was personnel and not equipment intensive, did not. Further development of the flexibility of access to the GOES data and improvements in the projected grids are indicated.

  7. The potential health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis through quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Forhan, Sara E; Gottlieb, Sami L; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2008-08-18

    We estimated the health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) through quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We applied a simple mathematical model to estimate the averted costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved by preventing RRP in children whose mothers had been vaccinated at age 12 years. Under base case assumptions, the prevention of RRP would avert an estimated USD 31 (range: USD 2-178) in medical costs (2006 US dollars) and save 0.00016 QALYs (range: 0.00001-0.00152) per 12-year-old girl vaccinated. Including the benefits of RRP reduced the estimated cost per QALY gained by HPV vaccination by roughly 14-21% in the base case and by <2% to >100% in the sensitivity analyses. More precise estimates of the incidence of RRP are needed, however, to quantify this impact more reliably. PMID:18598734

  8. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Witt, Adam M.; Stewart, Kevin M.; Bonnet Acosta, Marisol; Mobley, Miles

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  9. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  10. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  11. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both

  12. The Economics of Information: A Guide to Economic and Cost-Benefit Analysis for Information Professionals. Library and Information Science Text Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Bruce R.

    This book provides readers with an introduction to economics and cost-benefit analysis and will be particularly valuable to individuals who are, or plan to be, managers of information services in academic, public, or special libraries. Part 1 provides a rational for economic studies in librarianship, specifically, gaining understanding of consumer…

  13. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  14. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  15. Realizing the Potential of Ecosystem Services: A Framework for Relating Ecological Changes to Economic Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa; Mazzotta, Marisa

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly government agencies are seeking to quantify the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits, yet conflicting definitions and ad hoc approaches to measuring ecosystem services have created confusion regarding how to rigorously link ecological change to changes in human well-being. Here, we describe a step-by-step framework for producing ecological models and metrics that can effectively serve an economic-benefits assessment of a proposed change in policy or management. A focus of the framework is developing comparable units of ecosystem goods and services to support decision-making, even if outcomes cannot be monetized. Because the challenges to translating ecological changes to outcomes appropriate for economic analyses are many, we discuss examples that demonstrate practical methods and approaches to overcoming data limitations. The numerous difficult decisions that government agencies must make to fairly use and allocate natural resources provides ample opportunity for interdisciplinary teams of natural and social scientists to improve methods for quantifying changes in ecosystem services and their effects on human well-being. This framework is offered with the intent of promoting the success of such teams as they support managers in evaluating the equivalency of ecosystem service offsets and trades, establishing restoration and preservation priorities, and more generally, in developing environmental policy that effectively balances multiple perspectives.

  16. The Long-Term Economic Benefits of Natural Mentoring Relationships for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Timpe, Zach C.; Lunkenheimer, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Natural mentors have been shown to help improve psychological and educational outcomes of youth, and may serve an important role for youth experiencing risk in the home. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we investigated the associations between natural mentors during youth and income during early adulthood, including how these relations were moderated by the absence of a father figure and race. We also estimated the lifetime economic benefits to having a natural mentor. The presence of a natural mentor alone did not have a significant impact on annual earnings during adulthood. However, youth without a father but who had a male mentor earned significantly more, on average, than those without a male mentor. These effects were more pronounced in a sub-sample of African American youth. The net present value of total lifetime benefits to having a male natural mentor was approximately $190,000 for all fatherless youth and $458,000 for African American fatherless youth. These results suggest that natural mentors play a crucial role in economic outcomes for youth, which may vary by sociodemographic factors. PMID:26148978

  17. Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the social and economic costs of poor adult literacy and numeracy skills, and the benefits of investing in such skills, is largely unchartered territory in Australia. This feasibility study explores the frameworks and methodologies available for determining and measuring such benefits and costs across a number of life domains, including…

  18. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  19. A Survey of Residents' Perceptions of the Effect of Large-Scale Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Anthony; Geller, Ruth; Bazaco, Michael; Bear, Todd M.; Foulds, Abigail L.; Duell, Jessica; Sharma, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents' perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates. PMID:26273310

  20. Persuasion and economic efficiency. The cost-benefit analysis of banning abortion.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J

    1993-10-01

    A simple cost-benefit approach to the abortion debate is unlikely to be persuasive if efficiency arguments conflict with widely held concepts of justice or rely on improbable notions of consent. Illustrative of the limitations of economic analyses are the models proposed by Meeks and Posner to make a case against abortion on demand. Meeks posits a tradeoff between the consumer surplus women gain from access to abortion and the expected loss of earnings that would have accrued to the aborted conceptuses. From here, Meeks derives the critical price elasticity that equates welfare gains and losses and argues that a ban on abortion represents a Kaldor-Hicks improvement in welfare if the price elasticity of demand falls above the critical level. Basic to his model are several questionable assumptions: an independence of ability to pay for an abortion and income, all women who select abortion have the same linear demand for the procedure, an abortion ban would eliminate the practice of abortion, economic efficiency generally requires slavery, and the morally relevant population includes the unborn. Posner, on the other hand, argues that an abortion ban would be efficient if the average surplus lost by a woman who chooses not to break the law is less than half the average value of the fetus saved. He assumes that it takes 1.83 abortions avoided to increase the population by 1 individual and favors reducing the current abortion rate by 30% rather than banning the procedure. Although Posner's model does not require specification of any particular value for the fetus, it neglects the increased health risk for pregnant women of illegal abortion. Moreover, Posner assumes that all women obey the law if it is in their economic interest to do so. Detrimental to both models is an assumption that sound normative judgments can be made on the basis of average values for observable data and the goal of maximizing wealth is logically prior to the specification of individual rights. It

  1. Estimated economic benefits during the 'decade of vaccines' include treatment savings, gains in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Stack, Meghan L; Ozawa, Sachiko; Bishai, David M; Mirelman, Andrew; Tam, Yvonne; Niessen, Louis; Walker, Damian G; Levine, Orin S

    2011-06-01

    In 2010 the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced a $10 billion commitment over the next ten years to increase access to childhood vaccines in the world's poorest countries. The effort was labeled the "Decade of Vaccines." This study estimates both the short- and long-term economic benefits from the introduction and increased use of six vaccines in seventy-two of the world's poorest countries from 2011 to 2020. Increased rates of vaccination against pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia and meningitis, rotavirus, pertussis, measles, and malaria over the next ten years would save 6.4 million lives and avert 426 million cases of illness, $6.2 billion in treatment costs, and $145 billion in productivity losses. Monetary estimates based on this type of analysis can be used to determine the return on investment in immunization from both the international community and local governments, and they should be considered in policy making. PMID:21653952

  2. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management. PMID:21565384

  3. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. |; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Tiffany, D.

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. The authors use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3% and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  4. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  5. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  6. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  7. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Ohio (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Ohio. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Ohio to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,343 million gallons.

  8. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nebraska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nebraska. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nebraska to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.1 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,840 million gallons.

  9. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Idaho (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Idaho. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Idaho to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 906 million gallons.

  10. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Utah (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Utah. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Utah to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 828 million gallons.

  11. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nevada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nevada. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nevada to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 944 million gallons.

  13. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Virginia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Virginia to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,600 million gallons.

  14. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Michigan to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,542 million gallons.

  15. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  16. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maryland to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,581 million gallons.

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Kansas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Kansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Kansas to be $1.08 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,816 million gallons.

  18. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

  19. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Indiana. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Indiana to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,684 million gallons.

  20. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New York. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New York to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,230 million gallons.

  1. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. PMID:16837571

  2. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  3. An economic benefit deriving from space activities: Integration between science institutions and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; D'Amore, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    1993-09-01

    A lively debate is taking place in Italy on the assessment of the economic benefits deriving from the national expenditure in space programmes. Specific studies have been recently committed by the Italian Space Agency on this subject. This paper aims at providing an original insight in this debate by focusing on the often underestimated effect that the development of space programmes has on the process of integration of university, research centres and industry. In fact, the economic analysis of the technology innovation evidences that the integration of research institutions and industry represents a key issue in the establishment of an effective national innovation system towards a higher industrial competitiveness. It is widely recognized that the initiation and promotion of the process of integration of industry and research institutions is primarily dependent on their cooperation within large public funded programmes in the field of high technology. Do space programmes show any peculiarity which make them especially suitable to generate an effective cooperation between industry and science institutions? The major goal of this paper will be to give an answer to this question through the analysis of the main characteristics of space programmes as far as the integration process is concerned. Space programmes will then be analysed identifying the critical aspects related to the process of research and technology development. Following, it will be demonstrated to which extent cooperation between industry and science institutions has been helpful in solving the identified critical aspects. The analysis will also address the organizational issues in order to identify the cooperation modes. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to assess the benefits deriving from the identified forms of cooperation in view of an increasing integration between industry and science institutions. The analysis will then be focused on the microgravity field; in fact, on the basis of the

  4. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 9: Ports and harbors case study and generalization. [economic benefits of SEASAT satellites to harbors and shipping industries through improved weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This case study and generalization quantify benefits made possible through improved weather forecasting resulting from the integration of SEASAT data into local weather forecasts. The major source of avoidable economic losses to shipping from inadequate weather forecasting data is shown to be dependent on local precipitation forecasting. The ports of Philadelphia and Boston were selected for study.

  5. Economic benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet consumption in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M.H.; Jones, Jason P.H.; Jones, Peter J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. Design A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1) identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2) assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3) impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. Results Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0–62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the ‘very-pessimistic’ through ‘ideal’ scenarios. Conclusions Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world. PMID:26111965

  6. Aggregation rules for cost-benefit analysis: a health economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine

    2008-07-01

    Few willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies in the health sector have used their results within a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an essential step to informing resource allocation decisions. This paper provides an overview of aggregation methods, reviews current evidence of practice in the health sector, and presents estimates of the total economic value of a women's group programme to improve mother and newborn health using different aggregation rules. A contingent valuation survey was conducted with 93 women's group members, 70 female non-members and 33 husbands. Aggregation was conducted with and without the values of non-users, and with different units of aggregation. The unadjusted mean, median and a weighted mean transfer were used to aggregate values. Equity weights were introduced to adjust WTP for income. Total WTP more than doubled when the values of husbands were added to that of women, and increased over 10-fold when the values of women who were not members of the group were added. The inclusion of non-use values, and the unit of aggregation, had the greatest effect on results. Researchers must reach agreement on the most acceptable method of aggregating WTP values to promote the use of WTP in resource allocation decisions in the health sector. PMID:17992709

  7. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  8. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL TO ASSESS THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH INVESTMENTS IN PRECISION DAIRY FARMING TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a modern dairy enterprise was developed to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with investments in Precision Dairy Farming (PDF) technologies. The model was designed to represent the biological and economic complexities of a dairy system ...

  10. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options, volume 2, technical. Book 3: Economic benefits, costs and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The economic benefits, cost analysis, and industrial uses of the manned space station are investigated. Mission payload costs are examined in relation to alternative architectures and projected technological evolution. Various approaches to industrial involvement for financing, development, and marketing of space station resources are described.

  11. The Dilemma of the Contribution of African Women Toward and the Benefits They Derive from Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuge, Immaculate Mary

    1986-01-01

    Africa and Third World countries do not include women in economic development projects. Women have benefited little from the minimum development done so far. These governments' lack of recognition and expansion of women's critical activities in producing and distributing food and cash crops will perpetuate underdevelopment and poverty. (PS)

  12. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  13. Tiny stowaways: analyzing the economic benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permit regulating ballast water discharges.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Sabrina J; Drake, Lisa A

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges--a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately $706,000 (2006$). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships' ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges. PMID:18853223

  14. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  15. The societal benefits of reducing six behavioural risk factors: an economic modelling study from Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A large proportion of disease burden is attributed to behavioural risk factors. However, funding for public health programs in Australia remains limited. Government and non-government organisations are interested in the productivity effects on society from reducing chronic diseases. We aimed to estimate the potential health status and economic benefits to society following a feasible reduction in the prevalence of six behavioural risk factors: tobacco smoking; inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; high risk alcohol consumption; high body mass index; physical inactivity; and intimate partner violence. Methods Simulation models were developed for the 2008 Australian population. A realistic reduction in current risk factor prevalence using best available evidence with expert consensus was determined. Avoidable disease, deaths, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and health sector costs were estimated. Productivity gains included workforce (friction cost method), household production and leisure time. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and correction for the joint effects of risk factors on health status were undertaken. Consistent methods and data sources were used. Results Over the lifetime of the 2008 Australian adult population, total opportunity cost savings of AUD2,334 million (95% Uncertainty Interval AUD1,395 to AUD3,347; 64% in the health sector) were found if feasible reductions in the risk factors were achieved. There would be 95,000 fewer DALYs (a reduction of about 3.6% in total DALYs for Australia); 161,000 less new cases of disease; 6,000 fewer deaths; a reduction of 5 million days in workforce absenteeism; and 529,000 increased days of leisure time. Conclusions Reductions in common behavioural risk factors may provide substantial benefits to society. For example, the total potential annual cost savings in the health sector represent approximately 2% of total annual health expenditure in Australia. Our findings contribute important

  16. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions by 65 Mt, and

  17. Implications of an SSRI generic step therapy pharmacy benefit design: an economic model in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Pat Ellen; Regan, Timothy S; Chiao, Evelyn; Sarnes, Matthew W

    2005-10-01

    As the antidepressant market continues to expand, it is important for healthcare decision makers to develop clinically and economically sound drug benefit designs. As such, the purpose of this study was to determine the economic implications of a generic step therapy (GST) formulary compared with an open formulary for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with anxiety disorders. A model simulating the SSRI treatment patterns of patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in a hypothetical health plan with 1 million members was developed. Treatment options were generic SSRI agents (ie, fluoxetine, paroxetine immediate release, and citalopram) and branded SSRI agents (ie, sertraline, paroxetine controlled release, and escitalopram). After treatment initiation, patients could achieve 180 days or more of continuous therapy with no evidence of therapy change, achieve less than 180 days of therapy with no evidence of therapy change, or have a change in therapy. Consequently, patients incurred differential average annual medical and prescription costs. Model probabilities and costs were estimated from published literature and database analyses. The GST formulary resulted in a greater frequency of therapy change than the open formulary (41.3% vs 36.8%) and a lower frequency of continuous therapy for at least 6 months (25.3% vs 29.8%). Costs of SSRI medication were lower for the GST formulary than for the open formulary (11.6 million US dollars vs 14.8 million US dollars ). Medical costs were considerably greater for the GST formulary than for the open formulary, however (178.7 US dollars million vs 174.9 million US dollars, respectively), with a total cost of 190.3 US dollars million for the GST formulary versus 189.6 US dollars million for the open formulary. The incremental cost of implementing a GST formulary over 1 year was 684 360 US dollars , or 0.06 US dollars per member per month. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the model was most

  18. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  19. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  20. A Framework for Assessing the Economic Benefits and Costs of Workplace Literacy Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin

    The relative costs and benefits of workplace literacy training were analyzed. An analysis based on eight benefits/costs (training costs; higher productivity; high wages; nonwage compensation; less worker turnover; safer workplace; higher taxes; and improved self-esteem) established that workplace literacy training offers net benefits for workers,…

  1. The efficacy and economical benefits of blood patch pleurodesis in secondary spontaneous pneumothorax patients

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Levent; Metin, Serda; Kıral, Hakan; Demir, Mine; Yalçinsoy, Murat; Baysungur, Volkan; Yalçinkaya, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged air leak in secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) patients remains one of the biggest challenges for thoracic surgeons. This study investigates the feasibility, effectiveness, clinical outcomes, and economical benefits of the autologous blood patch pleurodesis method in SSP. Material and methods First-episode SSP patients undergoing autologous blood patch pleurodesis for resistant air leak following underwater-seal thoracostomy, between January 2010 and June 2013 were taken into the study. Timing and success rate of pleurodesis, recurrence, additional intervention, hospital length of stay, and complications that occurred during follow-up were examined from medical records, retrospectively. Results Thirty-one (27 male, 4 female) SSP patients with expanded lungs on chest X-ray and resistant air leak on the 3rd post-interventional day were enrolled. Mean age was 53.7 ± 18.9 years (range: 23-81). Twenty-four patients were treated with tube thoracostomy, 2 with pezzer drain, and 5 with 8 F pleural catheter. 96.8% success was achieved; air leak in 29 of 31 patients (93.5%) ceased within the first 24 hours. No procedure-related complication such as fever, pain or empyema was seen. Late pneumothorax recurrence occurred in 4 (12.9%) patients; 1 treated with talc pleurodesis where the other 3 necessitated surgical intervention. Conclusions Autologous blood patch pleurodesis is a safe, effective, and easily performed procedure with no need of any additional equipment or extra cost. This method can be applied to all patients with radiologically expanded lungs and continuous air leak after 48 hours following water-seal drainage thoracostomy, to reduce hospital stay duration, unnecessary surgical interventions, and the expenses. PMID:27212974

  2. Lesson Learned from Technical and Economic Performance Assessment and Benefit Evaluation of CHP-FCS

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Brooks, Kriston P.; Srivastava, Viraj; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-22

    Recent efforts and interest in combined heat and power (CHP) have increased with the momentum provided by the federal government support for penetration of CHP systems. Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and utilize the heat normally wasted in power generation for useful heating or cooling with lower emissions compared to alternative sources. A recent study investigated the utilization of CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50KWe in various commercial building types and geographic locations. Electricity, heating, and water heating demands were obtained from simulation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial reference building models for various building types. Utility rates, cost of equipment, and system efficiency were used to examine economic payback in different scenarios. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, CHP-FCSs are more expensive than alternative technologies, and the high capital cost of the CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than is typically acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, the installation of these units as on-site power generators also provide several other benefits that make them attractive to building owners and operators. The business case for CHP-FCSs can be made more financially attractive through the provision of government incentives and when installed to support strategic infrastructure, such as military installations or data centers. The results presented in this paper intend to provide policy makers with information to define more customized incentives and tax credits based on a sample of building types and geographic locations in order to attract more business investment in this new technology.

  3. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  4. Environmental and economic benefits of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zone.

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin; Cammarano, Davide; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Marinello, Francesco; Sartori, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefficient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-specific N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site specific N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental benefits of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6 ha field near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005-2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at specific zones in the field based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50 kg N ha(-1) applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350 kg N ha(-1) applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were defined. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efficacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a field and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher profit and reduce nitrate leaching. PMID:26747986

  5. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  6. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Massachusetts. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Massachusetts to be $1.4 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,293 million gallons.

  7. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Tennessee (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Tennessee. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Tennessee to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,321 million gallons.

  8. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  9. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Wisconsin (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Wisconsin. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Wisconsin to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,476 million gallons.

  10. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Montana (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Montana. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Montana to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,207 million gallons.

  11. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Pennsylvania. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Pennsylvania to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.4 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,837 million gallons.

  13. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

  14. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New Mexico. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New Mexico to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,117 million gallons.

  15. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in South Dakota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in South Dakota. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in South Dakota to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,795 million gallons.

  16. An economic model to assess the cost-benefit of BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kulvik, Martti; Hermans, Raine; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Shalowitz, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a formal model on cost-benefit of new technology in health care, and apply it on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We assume that the patient health benefit from getting cured in acute treatment is always higher than the patient utility resulting from any long term treatment or death. This assumption makes it possible to evaluate the monetary cost impacts of a new technology and relate these measures to the patient health benefit. PMID:26365901

  17. Incentive Matters!--The Benefit of Reminding Students about Their Academic Standing in Introductory Economics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qihui; Okediji, Tade O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors illustrate how incentives can improve student performance in introductory economics courses. They implemented a policy experiment in a large introductory economics class in which they reminded students who scored below an announced cutoff score on the midterm exam about the risk of failing the course. The authors…

  18. The economic benefits of reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near primary schools: The case of London.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Carla; Chatzidiakou, Lia; Cairns, John; Mumovic, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    Providing a healthy school environment is a priority for child health. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that allows quantification of the potential economic benefit of reducing indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in children attending primary schools. Using environmental and health data collected in primary schools in London, this study estimates that, on average, 82 asthma exacerbations per school can be averted each year by reducing outdoor NO2 concentrations. The study expands upon previous analyses in two ways: first it assesses the health benefits of reducing children's exposure to indoor NO2 while at school, second it considers the children's perspective in the economic evaluation. Using a willingness to pay approach, the study quantifies that the monetary benefits of reducing children's indoor NO2 exposure while at school would range between £2.5 k per school if a child's perspective based on child's budget is adopted up to £60 k if a parent's perspective is considered. This study highlights that designers, engineers, policymakers and stakeholders need to consider the reduction of outdoor pollution, and particularly NO2 levels, near primary schools as there may be substantial health and monetary benefits. PMID:27451292

  19. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  20. Multifunctional benefits of SuDS: techno-economic evaluation of decentralised solutions for urban water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, Ana; Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Smith, Karl M.

    2016-04-01

    The increased frequency of extreme weather events associated with climate change poses a significant threat to the integrity and function of critical urban infrastructure - rail, road, telecommunications, power and water supply/sewerage networks. A key threat within the United Kingdom (UK) is the increased risk of pluvial flooding; the conventional approach of channeling runoff to an outfall has proven to be unsustainable during severe storm events. Green infrastructure, in the form of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS), has been proposed as a means of minimising the risk of pluvial flooding. However, despite their technical performance, SuDS uptake in the UK has not reached its full capacity yet, mostly due to reasons that go beyong the engineering realm. This work investigated the strategic role of SuDS retrofit in managing environmental risks to urban infrastructure in London at a catchment level, through an economic appraisal of multifunctional benefits. It was found that by including the multifunctional benefits of SuDS, the economic feasibility of the project improves considerably. The case study has also shown a mechanism towards achieving wider-scale SuDS retrofit, whereby the investments are split amongst multiple stakeholder groups by highlighting the additional benefits each group derives. Groups include water utilities and their users, local government and critical infrastructure owners. Finally, limitations to the existing cost-benefit methdology in the UK were identified, and recommendations made regarding incentives and governmental regulations to enhance the uptake of SuDS in London. The proposed methodology provides compelling and robust, cost-benefit based evidence of SUDS' effectiveness within the flood risk management planning framework, but also with regard to the additional benefits of Nature Based Solutions in urban environments.

  1. Scaling of economic benefits from Green Roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, H.; Clark, C. E.; Zhou, J.; Adriaens, P.; Environmental Science Division; Dalian Univ. of Technology; Univ. of Michigan

    2010-06-01

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft{sup 2} by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NOx uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and

  2. Scaling of economic benefits from green roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hao; Clark, Corrie; Zhou, Jiti; Adriaens, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft(2) by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NO(x) uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and

  3. The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Barth, Jannette M

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

  4. Instream flow assessment and economic valuation: a survey of nonmarket benefits research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Instream flow benefits for United States streams and rivers have recently been investigated by a number of resource economists. These valuation efforts differ in scope, method, and quantitative results. An assessment and review of these valuation efforts is presented. The various sources of differences in non‐market values produced by these studies are explored in some detail. The considerable difficulty of producing estimates of instream flow benefits values that consider all of the pertinent policy and technical issues is delineated in various policy contexts. Evidence is presented that indicates that the considerable policy impact of recent research on this topic is justified despite considerable variation in the magnitude of the estimates.

  5. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  6. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. PMID:23747556

  7. Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. Occasional pub

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The expected future benefits of advanced supply technologies are identified using a competitive market model of gas supply and demand. The results show the relative value of the major components of GRI's supply R D program and the sensitivity of the results to changes in key technology and market assumptions.

  8. Navajo Electrification for Sustainable Development: The Potential Economic and Social Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballentine, Crystal; DeSouza, Anil; Bain, Craig; Majure, Lisa; Smith, Dean Howard; Turek, Jill

    2004-01-01

    The concomitant secondary consequences of an electrification program and the potential long-term benefits of such a program are described. An electrification program can stimulate a move toward true self-determination and self-sufficiency for the Navajo nation.

  9. Costs and Benefits of Education: Annual Volume of the Department of Economics. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Robert D., Ed.

    Cost and benefits of education are studied by this collection of eight papers by economists in relation to issues of the genetic component of variation in intelligence, differences between integration and desegregation, and diminishing returns in educational expenditures. Silver's paper challenges the idea that better schools cannot be obtained by…

  10. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production. PMID:26571661

  11. The Economic Costs of Partner Violence and the Cost-Benefit of Civil Protective Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-01-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of…

  12. Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil Carbon Management: Cropland and Grazing Land Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides both a historic perspective of US land use as well as to address the role of agricultural technologies for enhanced soil carbon management and how these are economically and environmentally beneficial. Increasingly soil C sequestration is linked to its role in helping to ...

  13. Economic Evaluation as a Component of Quality Effectiveness Research: Methodological and Practical Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As research moves from questions of efficacy (can an intervention work) to questions of effectiveness (does an intervention work in practice), questions of efficiency (what are the costs and consequences of the intervention) become increasingly important. The incorporation of economic evaluation into the planning and execution of…

  14. Career Guidance in Unstable Times: Linking Economic, Social and Individual Benefits. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis that peaked in 2009 sent shockwaves that will be felt for years to come. It affected businesses, increased social risk for many and destabilised job and career prospects. Young people, particularly, have been badly affected. They are suffering the highest unemployment rates and their prospects have been damaged most. But,…

  15. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  16. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  17. User benefits and funding strategies. [technology assessment and economic analysis of the space shuttles and NASA Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.; Day, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The justification, economic and technological benefits of NASA Space Programs (aside from pure scientific objectives), in improving the quality of life in the United States is discussed and outlined. Specifically, a three-step, systematic method is described for selecting relevant and highly beneficial payloads and instruments for the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) that will be used with the space shuttle until the space tug becomes available. Viable Government and private industry cost-sharing strategies which would maximize the number of IUS payloads, and the benefits obtainable under a limited NASA budget were also determined. Charts are shown which list the payload instruments, and their relevance in contributing to such areas as earth resources management, agriculture, weather forecasting, and many others.

  18. The grain of spatially referenced economic cost and biodiversity benefit data and the effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy.

    PubMed

    Sutton, N J; Armsworth, P R

    2014-12-01

    Facing tight resource constraints, conservation organizations must allocate funds available for habitat protection as effectively as possible. Often, they combine spatially referenced economic and biodiversity data to prioritize land for protection. We tested how sensitive these prioritizations could be to differences in the spatial grain of these data by demonstrating how the conclusion of a classic debate in conservation planning between cost and benefit targeting was altered based on the available information. As a case study, we determined parcel-level acquisition costs and biodiversity benefits of land transactions recently undertaken by a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to protect forests in the eastern United States. Then, we used hypothetical conservation plans to simulate the types of ex ante priorities that an organization could use to prioritize areas for protection. We found the apparent effectiveness of cost and benefit targeting depended on the spatial grain of the data used when prioritizing parcels based on local species richness. However, when accounting for complementarity, benefit targeting consistently was more efficient than a cost targeting strategy regardless of the spatial grain of the data involved. More pertinently for other studies, we found that combining data collected over different spatial grains inflated the apparent effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy and led to overestimation of the efficiency gain offered by adopting a more integrative return-on-investment approach. PMID:25381868

  19. [Economical situation of public payer and financing of medical benefits during the years of 1999 - 2010].

    PubMed

    Tarhoni, Mariusz; Kuszewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The authors of the publication analyse financial effects which are the result of applying division algorithms concerning public payer organizational units during the years of 1999 - 2010. Unpublished financial data illustrating the division of financial resources in public health insurance in Poland in the years 1999 - 2009 and accepted plan for 2010 are presented. This data has been aggregated in such a way that the system of the 17 "Kasa Chorych" introduced on the 1st of January 1999, working until the 31st of March 2003 could be compared with the introduced on the 1st of April 2003 system of Voivodship Branches of NFZ (National Health Fund). Perpetual increase of expenses for benefits and medical services financed from public resources forces the necessity of rationalizing costs and financing system of these benefits. In 10 years perspective the changing tendencies of partition in the accepted algorithms of financial leveling can be seen. The obtained results allow drawing conclusions according to the rise of the level of medical benefits financing in each voivodship. There is no way of saying unmistakably whether substantial increase in financing of health care units is proportional to increased accessibility and quality of medical benefits. The changes of diversity of financial resources flow from voivodships which give away to those which take, frequent changes inside one and the same voivodship from giving away to taking can be helpful in the evaluation of rational level of financing of e.g. hospitals and helpful in forming rules of financial"sensitivity" (optimal and possible to finance) for the insured population in question. The result of the conducted analysis shows that flow of the amount of financial resources between the NFZ Voivod Branches resulting from leveling algorithms in the whole country is bigger than the planned lowering of income from premium in NFZ for the year 2010. PMID:20499670

  20. Tradeoff between environmental impacts and economic benefits?: A case study of the Finnish and British pulp and paper industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Mikko

    2001-02-01

    Due to the increased used paper collection rates in Western Europe, more recycled fibre will be used in the manufacture of paper. This will affect both the environmental and economic performance of the pulp and paper industry. The potential for the increase of the collection rate varies significantly in different countries in western Europe. In some countries the collection rate is already close to 70% (Austria, Germany; in others it is around 45% (Italy, United Kingdom). With the increased demand for recycled fibre also the collection will increase. When the collection of waste paper is increased something has to be done with the collected paper. Different utilisation modes results in different emission profiles. They also have different economic consequences. In this article the environmental and economic impacts of an increased paper collection rate are studied with three alternative scenarios. These scenarios are drawn using a dynamic material flow modelling such as Joined Time Projection (JTP). The results show, that a clear trade off between harmful environmental impacts and economic benefits exists.

  1. Economic Development Benefits from Wind Energy in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on the economic development impacts estimated from building and operating 7,800 MW of new wind power in Nebraska. This level of development is on the scale envisioned in the Department of Energy (DOE) report 20% Wind Energy by 2030. A practical first step to building 7,800 of wind is completing 1,000 MW. We also include the estimated economic impacts to Nebraska from building 1,000 MW of wind power. Our primary analysis indicates that the development and construction of approximately 7,800 MW of wind energy in Nebraska by 2030 will support 20,600 to 36,500 annual full-time equivalents (AFTE). In addition, operating the full 7,800 MW of wind energy could support roughly 2,000 to 4,000 full-time workers throughout the operating life of the wind facilities (LFTE). Nebraska's economy is estimated to see an average annual boost in economic activity ranging from $140 million to $260 million solely from construction and development related activities between 2011 and 2030. An additional boost of $250 - $442 million annually is estimated from operating 7,800 MW of wind capacity.

  2. Economic and safety benefits of pharmaceutical interventions by community and hospital pharmacists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Daiki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Asakawa, Takashige; Horio, Ikuo; Miyauchi, Yoshiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Background Pharmaceutical interventions by community and hospital pharmacists can improve medication safety and result in financial savings. Their effect has not been fully explored in Japan. Objective To evaluate the economic and safety contributions of various pharmaceutical interventions by community and hospital pharmacists in Japan. Setting Two hospitals and eight community pharmacies in Ehime Prefecture, Japan, in 2014-2015. Method Pharmacists entered data about pharmaceutical interventions via the internet, and the data were divided into 11 types of interventions. The economic impact was estimated based on the rate of avoidance of serious adverse drug reactions and the monetary cost of these reactions in the Japanese compensation system. The cost saving from adjusting prescriptions to take account of unused prescription drugs was calculated using drug prices from the national health insurance scheme. Main outcome measure The number of pharmaceutical interventions and their economic impact. Results The total cost savings from 500 to 509 pharmaceutical interventions by community and hospital pharmacists were US$207,126.6 and US$592,840, respectively. Community pharmacists mainly intervened to correct prescription errors. They also adjusted 135 prescriptions to take account of unused prescription drugs. This potentially improved patients' adherence and contributed to effective use of medication. Pharmaceutical interventions by hospital pharmacists facilitated avoidance of 10 serious adverse drug reactions, and included 42 transvenous antimicrobial therapy interventions, 88 interventions in cancer chemotherapy, and 47 monitoring recommendations. Hospital pharmacists helped improve patients' quality of life using more aggressive interventions besides correcting prescription errors. Over half of pharmaceutical interventions by community and hospital pharmacists contributed to avoidance of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion These results suggest the importance of

  3. Container recycling: Environmental and economic benefits. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning efforts to reduce solid waste generation through the used glass or plastics recycling. Topics include the design of refillable containers, recycling processes which convert post-consumer glass or plastic into useful products, and potential markets for these products. The citations compare the economics of recycling with the costs of waste collection and landfill disposal. Successful municipal and industrial recycling programs are detailed, and the relative merits of voluntary and mandatory recycling programs are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 169 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. The economics of vocational and technical education: Do the benefits outweigh the costs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Walter J.

    1988-06-01

    This is an economic analysis of education that is specific to a particular profession or vocation, but not to a particular firm. It is therefore new in relation to Becker's analysis, which distinguished only between firm-specific training and general training without addressing this in-between case. The basic issue is the optimum degree of vocationalization of the curriculum. The evidence is that a properblance between vocational and general curricula is efficient. But there are growthrelated criteria for different rates of expansion for each. Criteria for the most efficient mixture of vocational schooling and on-the-job training are considered, as are the implications for policy and equity of overexpanding separately tracked schools.

  5. The economic benefits of fertility control: a critical analysis of the investment approach.

    PubMed

    Badari, V S

    1977-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth, which hinders development of economic planning. There are 2 ways to determine the gain to the economy resulting from preventing a birth: a macro-economic growth approach, which establishes a comparison of the income per capita of a country with and without fertility control, and the investment approach which weighs the advantages and disadvantages of additional births in terms of the anticipated future production and consumption of these births, compared with the gain of preventing them. If decrease of population growth helps development planning, it makes sense to establish incentive payments for preventing a birth. Arguments against the investment approach are: the amount spent for bonuses could be higher than the amount saved; it could be used for new investment. In the discounting procedure, consumption has been exagerated while reducing the value of production. Leibenstein's contention is that family programs are followed more by middle class families, whose children won't become marginal workers. These critics have been refuted. Enke, main contributor to this approach, states that the incentive payment should not exceede the value of preventing a birth. Also, to avoid the cost of resources the bonus could be given in services and productive goods. The discounting procedure has been considered valid in those cases in which present consumption is more relevant than future consumption and investible funds, in which case discounting is unavoidable. On the other hand, if incentives are offered, more participation of the poorer classes can be expected. Based on the investment approach, some economists, like Enke and Badari, analized the worth of an averted birth in India and agreed that the gains were substantial. This indicated that the investment approach is a useful guide for developing countries. PMID:12261074

  6. The Economics of Education: Public Benefits of High-Quality Preschool Education for Low-Income Children. Building Communities for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo

    Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…

  7. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36). Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management (“no ban”, n = 17/36). On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown (“ban”, n = 19/36). The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites. Fishery Income in Implementing Villages In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing

  8. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  9. Clinical and economic benefits of extended treatment with apixaban for the treatment and prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in Canada.

    PubMed

    Quon, Peter; Le, Hoa H; Raymond, Vincent; Mtibaa, Mondher; Moshyk, Andriy

    2016-06-01

    Background and objective Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with long-term clinical and economic burden. Clinical guidelines generally recommend at least 3 months of anticoagulation, but, in clinical practice, concerns over bleeding risk often limit extended treatment. Apixaban was studied for extended VTE treatment in the AMPLIFY-EXT trial, demonstrating superiority to placebo in VTE reduction without increasing risk of major bleeding. This study assessed the long-term clinical and economic benefits of extending treatment with apixaban when clinical equipoise exists compared to standard of care with enoxaparin/warfarin and other novel oral anti-coagulants (NOACs) for the treatment and prevention of recurrent VTE in Canada. Methods A Markov model was developed to follow patients with VTE over their lifetimes. Efficacy and safety for apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin were based on AMPLIFY and AMPLIFY-EXT, while relative efficacy to other NOACs was synthesized by network meta-analysis (NMA). Dosages for NOACs and enoxaparin/warfarin were based on their respective trials and were given up to 18 months and up to 6 months, followed by no treatment, respectively. Patient quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were based on published studies, and costs for resource utilization were from a Ministry of Health perspective, expressed as 2014 CAD ($). Results Extended treatment with apixaban compared to enoxaparin/warfarin resulted in fewer recurrent VTEs, VTE-related deaths, and bleeding events, but at slightly increased cost. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $4828 per QALY gained. Compared to other NOACs, apixaban had the fewest bleeding events, similar recurrent VTE events, and the lowest overall cost, which was driven by the strong bleeding profile. In scenario analyses of acute and lifetime treatments, apixaban was cost-effective against all strategies. Conclusions Extended treatment with apixaban can offer substantial clinical benefits and is a cost

  10. Economic Effects of Legislations and Policies to Expand Mental Health and Substance Abuse Benefits in Health Insurance Plans: A Community Guide Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. Aims of the Study This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. Methods The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. Results The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. Discussion and Limitations This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expand MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when

  11. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

    2012-06-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation. PMID:21929615

  12. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  13. The economic benefits of disease triggered early harvest: A case study of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Norway.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Rich, K M; Jensen, B Bang; Aunsmo, A

    2015-10-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is an important viral disease in Norwegian, Scottish and Irish aquaculture causing biological losses in terms of reduced growth, mortality, increased feed conversion ratio, and carcass downgrading. We developed a bio-economic model to investigate the economic benefits of a disease triggered early harvesting strategy to control PD losses. In this strategy, the salmon farm adopts a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) diagnostic screening program to monitor the virus levels in stocks. Virus levels are used to forecast a clinical outbreak of pancreas disease, which then initiates a prescheduled harvest of the stock to avoid disease losses. The model is based on data inputs from national statistics, literature, company data, and an expert panel, and use stochastic simulations to account for the variation and/or uncertainty associated with disease effects and selected production expenditures. With the model, we compared the impacts of a salmon farm undergoing prescheduled harvest versus the salmon farm going through a PD outbreak. We also estimated the direct costs of a PD outbreak as the sum of biological losses, treatment costs, prevention costs, and other additional costs, less the costs of insurance pay-outs. Simulation results suggests that the economic benefit from a prescheduled harvest is positive once the average salmon weight at the farm has reached 3.2kg or more for an average Norwegian salmon farm stocked with 1,000,000smolts and using average salmon sales prices for 2013. The direct costs from a PD outbreak occurring nine months (average salmon weight 1.91kg) after sea transfer and using 2013 sales prices was on average estimated at NOK 55.4 million (5%, 50% and 90% percentile: 38.0, 55.8 and 72.4) (NOK=€0.128 in 2013). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the losses from a PD outbreak are sensitive to feed- and salmon sales prices, and that high 2013 sales prices contributed to substantial losses associated with a PD outbreak. PMID

  14. [Does telemonitoring lead to health and economic benefits in patients with chronic heart failure? - a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Augustin, U; Henschke, C

    2012-12-01

    Chronic heart failure is a severe and common disease combined with high costs for the German health care system. Deficiencies in standard therapy and limited financial capacities of the German health care system necessitate new approaches in the care of chronic heart failure patients.The present study aims to analyse the scientific level of knowledge of clinical, economic and other outcomes of telemonitoring compared with standard therapy for patients with chronic heart failure. Results should provide an evidence base for health-care decision makers.To determine the outcomes, a systematic review was carried out by using the database MEDLINE. In accordance with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 randomized controlled trials remained. Furthermore, 4 studies of a hand research and the recently published results of one of the largest national studies were included.As a result of the systematic review, there is currently no evidence for the benefits of telemonitoring compared with standard therapy. National studies identified significant improvements or a tendency for improvements in terms of quality of life and costs/cost-effectiveness as well as partly in mortality, hospital duration and medication adherence. International studies diverged in their results. The comparability and validity of the investigated studies are limited due to a low number of national studies, different settings of the telemonitoring programmes, the inclusion of different NYHA classes, the heterogeneity of study endpoints and endpoint-related causes, short observation periods of some studies as well as questionable transferability of international cost-results to the German health care system. Furthermore, differences in standard therapy between national and international studies were identified. None of the international studies performed a comparison between clinical and economic outcomes.With regard to the future prospects of telemonitoring in Germany there is still a need for

  15. Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

    2004-06-01

    's certification activities. Media events organized by CECP have greatly improved the country's awareness of standby power loss. Reducing standby power loss has been formally incorporated into China's energy efficiency policy portfolio and in China's collaboration with the international community on the subject of energy efficiency (IEA, 2001). In phase II of the program, CECP's main task was to assess the market for DVD/VCD (Digital Versatile/Video Disc and Video Compact Disc) players and copiers to analyze the economic and technical benefits of energy conservation potential, and to develop technical specifications for DVD/VCD players and copiers, with technical assistance from LBNL. Having built on the success of Phase I, CECP paid great attention to the appraisal of market conditions and the economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power loss in DVD/VCD players and copiers, and solicited inputs from stakeholders before finalizing the product certification requirements. This paper summarizes the expected energy conservation and environmental benefits due to the implementation of certification programs for DVD/VCD players and copiers in China.

  16. The private sector economic and employment benefits to the nation and to each state of proposed FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The private sector economic and employment benefits (disaggregated among 80 industries and 475 occupations) of the proposed FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures to the nation and to each state are estimated. Nationwide, it is found that FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures of $11.3 billion will have an economic multiplier of 2.1 and will create, directly and indirectly, 237,000 jobs, $23.2 billion in total industry sales, $2.4 billion in corporate profits, and $7.4 billion in Federal, state, and local government tax revenues. These benefits are widely dispersed throughout the United States and are significant in many states not normally considered to be major beneficiaries of NASA spending. The indirect economic benefits are identified for each state resulting from the second-, third-, and fourth rounds of industry purchases generated by NASA procurement expenditures. Each state is ranked on the basis of several criteria, including the total benefits, indirect benefits, and per capita benefits received from NASA spending. The estimates developed are important for maintaining a viable U.S. Space Program through the remainder of this century.

  17. [Safe wintering and economic and ecological benefit of winter rapeseed in dry and cold areas of northern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-qing; Sun, Wan-cang; Liu, Zi-gang; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Jun-yan; Li, Xue-cai; Fang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to realize the security of safe wintering of winter rapeseed in dry and cold regions of northern China. Experiments were conducted with 18 winter rapeseed (Brassica campestris) varieties at 57 sites from 2008 to 2013 to statistically analyze the wintering rate variation of different varieties in dry and cold regions of northern China. The results showed that, the wintering rate varied from 70% to 90% during the study period in different regions, which had no significant difference between different years and varieties, and had high stability and remarkable economic benefit. With Tianshui as a starting point of winter rapeseed planting, the wintering-safe regions included all Gansu Province , the south of Lasa and Linzhi of Xizang, the east of Minhe of Qinghai, up to Urumqi and Baicheng, and the south of Aletai, Tacheng, the east of Kashi of Xinjiang, it also included the regions along Yellow River eastward to Ningxia, the south of Linhe of Inner Mongolia, the north of Shaanxi, the vicinage of Qixian in Shanxi, Daming in Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing, the north of Weifang of Shandong, the south of Huludao of Liaoning and Yanbian of Jilin. Longyou 6, Longyou 7, Longyou 8 and Longyou 9 were the wintering-safe B. rapa varieties. PMID:26995911

  18. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  19. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, H B; Jeong, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y; Kwon, H; Kim, Y Y

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc) with an initial body weight (BW) 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12%) in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05) of BW and average daily gain (ADG) were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F) tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08). Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05). Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08) at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09). Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9% (3.07

  20. Health and economic benefits of scaling up a home-based neonatal care package in rural India: a modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Colson, Abigail R; Verma, Amit; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 900 000 newborn children die every year in India, accounting for 28% of neonatal deaths globally. In 2011, India introduced a home-based newborn care (HBNC) package to be delivered by community health workers across rural areas. We estimate the disease and economic burden that could be averted by scaling up the HBNC in rural India using IndiaSim, an agent-based simulation model, to examine two interventions. In the first intervention, the existing community health worker network begins providing HBNC for rural households without access to home- or facility-based newborn care, as introduced by India's recent programme. In the second intervention, we consider increased coverage of HBNC across India so that total coverage of neonatal care (HBNC or otherwise) in the rural areas of each state reaches at least 90%. We find that compared with a baseline of no coverage, providing the care package through the existing network of community health workers could avert 48 [95% uncertainty range (UR) 34-63] incident cases of severe neonatal morbidity and 5 (95% UR 4-7) related deaths, save $4411 (95% UR $3088-$5735) in out-of-pocket treatment costs, and provide $285 (95% UR $200-$371) in value of insurance per 1000 live births in rural India. Increasing the coverage of HBNC to 90% will avert an additional 9 (95% UR 7-12) incident cases, 1 death (95% UR 0.72-1.33), and $613 (95% UR $430-$797) in out-of-pocket expenditures, and provide $55 (95% UR $39-$72) in incremental value of insurance per 1000 live births. Intervention benefits are greater for lower socioeconomic groups and in the poorer states of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. PMID:26561440

  1. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  2. Planning water supply under uncertainty - benefits and limitations of RDM, Info-Gap, economic optimization and many-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, E.; Padula, S.; Huskova, I.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    companies and generates the least-economic cost annual plan. The RDM application uses stochastic simulation under a weekly time-step and regret analysis to choose a candidate strategy. We then use a statistical cluster algorithm to identify future states of the world under which the strategy is vulnerable. The method explicitly considers the effects of uncertainty in supply, demands and energy price on multiple performance criteria. The Info-gap approach produces robustness and opportuneness plots that show the performance of different plans under the most dire and favorable sets of future conditions. The same simulator, supply and demand options and uncertainties are considered as in the RDM application. The MOEO application considers many more combinations of supply and demand options while still employing a simulator that enables a more realistic representation of the physical system and operating rules. A computer cluster is employed to ease the computational burden. Visualization software allows decision makers to interactively view tradeoffs in many dimensions. Benefits and limitations of each framework are discussed and recommendations for future planning in the basin are provided.

  3. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  4. Economic Benefits of Improved Information on Worldwide Crop Production: An Optimal Decision Model of Production and Distribution with Application to Wheat, Corn, and Soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision model of crop production, trade, and storage was developed for use in estimating the economic consequences of improved forecasts and estimates of worldwide crop production. The model extends earlier distribution benefits models to include production effects as well. Application to improved information systems meeting the goals set in the large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) indicates annual benefits to the United States of $200 to $250 million for wheat, $50 to $100 million for corn, and $6 to $11 million for soybeans, using conservative assumptions on expected LANDSAT system performance.

  5. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  6. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-14

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment.

  7. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  8. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and mitigation of emissions of carbon

  9. Do health benefits outweigh the costs of mass recreational programs? An economic analysis of four Ciclovía programs.

    PubMed

    Montes, Felipe; Sarmiento, Olga L; Zarama, Roberto; Pratt, Michael; Wang, Guijing; Jacoby, Enrique; Schmid, Thomas L; Ramos, Mauricio; Ruiz, Oscar; Vargas, Olga; Michel, Gabriel; Zieff, Susan G; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Cavill, Nick; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    One promising public health intervention for promoting physical activity is the Ciclovía program. The Ciclovía is a regular multisectorial community-based program in which streets are temporarily closed for motorized transport, allowing exclusive access to individuals for recreational activities and physical activity. The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cost-benefit ratios of physical activity of the Ciclovía programs of Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia, Guadalajara in México, and San Francisco in the U.S.A. The data of the four programs were obtained from program directors and local surveys. The annual cost per capita of the programs was: U.S. $6.0 for Bogotá, U.S. $23.4 for Medellín, U.S. $6.5 for Guadalajara, and U.S. $70.5 for San Francisco. The cost-benefit ratio for health benefit from physical activity was 3.23-4.26 for Bogotá, 1.83 for Medellín, 1.02-1.23 for Guadalajara, and 2.32 for San Francisco. For the program of Bogotá, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to the prevalence of physically active bicyclists; for Guadalajara, the cost-benefit ratio was more sensitive to user costs; and for the programs of Medellín and San Francisco, the cost-benefit ratios were more sensitive to operational costs. From a public health perspective for promoting physical activity, these Ciclovía programs are cost beneficial. PMID:22170324

  10. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Climate Change in Agriculture and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Quiroga, S.; Garrote, L.; Cunningham, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides monetary estimates of the effects of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Europe. The model computes spatial crop productivity changes as a response to climate change linking biophysical and socioeconomic components. It combines available data sets of crop productivity changes under climate change (Iglesias et al 2011, Ciscar et al 2011), statistical functions of productivity response to water and nitrogen inputs, catchment level water availability, and environmental policy scenarios. Future global change scenarios are derived from several socio-economic futures of representative concentration pathways and regional climate models. The economic valuation is conducted by using GTAP general equilibrium model. The marginal productivity changes has been used as an input for the economic general equilibrium model in order to analyse the economic impact of the agricultural changes induced by climate change in the world. The study also includes the analysis of an adaptive capacity index computed by using the socio-economic results of GTAP. The results are combined to prioritize agricultural adaptation policy needs in Europe.

  11. Estimating multi-scalar ecosystem impacts and socio-economic value benefits of freshwater withdrawals using Water Footprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mubako, S. T.; Mayer, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Like most natural ecosystems that are open and capable of undergoing self regulation, watersheds are complex and need to be broken down into simplified systems to better understand them. This study interprets a Great Lakes Basin watershed as a hierarchy of spatial scales, and applies a water withdrawal ecosystem impact methodology in combination with Water Footprinting methods and economic data to estimate the environmental impacts of freshwater withdrawals and compare these impacts with socio-economic values generated by the withdrawals. Environmental impacts and effective water footprints are shown to vary with the spatial scale of the analysis, and therefore the optimal water withdrawal level at which environmental, economic and social values are optimized also varies with the spatial and temporal scale of analysis. This analysis is important because it explains the relationship between spatio-temporal scale, Water Footprinting methods, and the production of value in a Watershed, and the results can help inform integrated water resources management approaches.

  12. Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  13. COST-RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Moores, B Michael

    2016-06-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost-benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: [Formula: see text] This article presents a theoretical cost-risk-benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. PMID:26705358

  14. Private Economic Benefit/Cost Ratios of a College Investment for Men and Women, 1967 to 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue analyzed the income/cost ratios of a college investment decision for individuals. The analysis for men and women was done separately, because men and women have very different incomes at similar levels of educational attainment. Calculations were performed for each year from 1967 through 1999. Benefit (income) data were derived from the…

  15. COST–RISK–BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT

    PubMed Central

    Moores, B. Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost–benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: B=V−(P+X+Y). This article presents a theoretical cost–risk–benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. PMID:26705358

  16. The Economic Benefits from Halving the Dropout Rate: A Boom to Businesses in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Few people realize the impact that high school dropouts have on a community's economic, social, and civic health. Business owners and residents--in particular, those without school-aged children--may not be aware that they have much at stake in the success of their local high schools. Indeed, everyone--from car dealers and realtors to bank…

  17. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  18. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME I. EXPERIMENTS IN THE ECONOMICS OF AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume employs the analytical and empirical methods of economics to develop hypotheses on disease etiologies and to value labor productivity and consumer losses due to air pollution-induced mortality and morbidity. In the mortality work, 1970 city-wide mortality rates for maj...

  19. Economic gains and health benefits from a new cigarette tax scheme in Taiwan: a simulation using the CGE model

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Jie-Min; Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2006-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the impact of an increase in cigarette tax in Taiwan in terms of the effects it has on the overall economy and the health benefits that it brings. Methods The multisector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to simulate the impact of reduced cigarette consumption resulting from a new tax scheme on the entire economy gains and on health benefits. Results The results predict that because of the new tax scheme, there should be a marked reduction in cigarette consumption but a notable increase in health benefits that include saving between 28,125 and 56,250 lives. This could save NT$1.222~2.445 billion (where US$1 = NT$34.6) annually in life-threatening, cigarette-related health insurance expenses which exceeds the projected decrease of NT$1.275 billion in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) because of reduced consumption and therefore tax revenue. Conclusion Overall, the increased cigarette excise tax will be beneficial in terms of both the health of the general public and the economy as a whole. PMID:16529653

  20. [Effects of dicyandiamide combined with nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emission and economic benefit in winter wheat and summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-qun; Li, Ying-chun; Peng, Zheng-ping; Wang, Chao-dong; Liu, Ya-nan

    2015-07-01

    Aiming at the problems of excessive and unreasonable fertilizer application, lower nitrogen use efficiency, increasing N2O emission from soil and fertilizer in current intensified agricultural productions, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of dicyandiamide (DCD) combined with nitrogen fertilizer application at different levels, i.e., 150, 225, 300 kg . hm-2, on N20 emission and relevant economic benefit in a typical winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in North China Plain. The results showed that DCD application decreased N2O emission fluxes and cumulative emissions by 25.6%-32.1% and 23.1%-31.1% in the year-round. There was a significant positive exponential correlation between N2O flux and soil surface temperature or soil moisture content. The effect of soil moisture on N2O emission was stronger in wheat season than in maize season, while the effect of temperature on N2O emission was on the contrary. The yields of winter wheat and summer maize with DCD addition were increased by 16.7%-24.6% and 29.8%-34.5%, respectively, and the average economic income of two seasons was increased by 7973.2 yuan . hm-2. Therefore, appropriate rate of N fertilizer combined with DCD could not only increase crop yield and economic income, but also reduce N2O emission. Considering environmental and economic benefit under this experimental condition, DCD combined with nitrogen of moderate level (total N amount 225 kg . hm-2) was a good nitrogen management mode in North China. PMID:26710625

  1. Local and Regional Economic Benefits from Forest Products Production Activities at the Savannah River Site: 1955-Present

    SciTech Connect

    Teeter, L.; Blake, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    SRS was established in 1951 as a nuclear materials production facility; however, decline in the defense mission budget at SRS has created a major economic impact on the community in the Central Savannah River Area. SRS has been offsetting these effects by producing revenue (80 million dollars to date) from the sale of forest products since 1955 primarily trees, but also pine straw. Revenue has been re-invested into the infrastructure development, restoration and management of natural resources. Total asset value of the forest-land has increased from 21 million to over 500 million dollars in the same period.

  2. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Juan C.; Lacey, Michael J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. Methods: A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Conclusions: Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates

  3. The need for better evidence to evaluate the health & economic benefits of India's Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arindam; Holtzman, E. Phoebe; Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    In this review the existing evidence on the impact of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) is discussed in the context of international literature available on health insurance. We describe potential pathways through which health insurance can affect health and economic outcomes, discuss evidence from other developing countries, and identify potential biases and inconsistencies in existing studies on RSBY impact. Given the relatively recent introduction of RSBY, lack of quality, verifiable data on utilization patterns, and the absence of reliable evaluation studies, there is a need to exercise caution while assessing the merits of the programme. Considering the enormous potential and cost of the programme, we emphasize the need for a rigorous impact evaluation of RSBY. It will not only help capture the real impact of the scheme, but may also be able to estimate the extent of systemic inefficiencies at the level of the consumer. PMID:26609029

  4. Oral health promotion: the economic benefits to the NHS of increased use of sugarfree gum in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L.; Taylor, M.; Kay, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of sugarfree gum (SFG) on the prevention of dental caries has been established for some time. With increased constraints placed on healthcare budgets, the importance of economic considerations in decision-making about oral health interventions has increased. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential cost savings in dental care associated with increased levels of SFG usage. Methods The analysis examined the amount of money which would hypothetically be saved if the UK 12-year-old population chewed more SFG. The number of sticks chewed per year and the caries risk reduction were modelled to create a dose response curve. The costs of tooth restoration, tooth extraction in primary care settings and under general anaesthetic were considered, and the effects of caries reduction on these costs calculated. Results If all members of the UK 12-year-old population chewed SFG frequently (twice a day), the potential cost savings for the cohort over the course of one year were estimated to range from £1.2 to £3.3 million and if they chewed three times a day, £8.2 million could be saved each year. Sensitivity analyses of the key parameters demonstrated that cost savings would still be likely to be observed even in scenarios with less significant increases in SFG use. Conclusion This study shows that if levels of SFG usage in the teenage population in the UK could be increased, substantial cost savings might be achieved. PMID:26868801

  5. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  6. Economic analysis of the first 20 years of universal hepatitis B vaccination program in Italy: an a posteriori evaluation and forecast of future benefits.

    PubMed

    Boccalini, Sara; Taddei, Cristina; Ceccherini, Vega; Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Bartolozzi, Dario; Bonanni, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Italy was one of the first countries in the world to introduce a routine vaccination program against HBV for newborns and 12-y-old children. From a clinical point of view, such strategy was clearly successful. The objective of our study was to verify whether, at 20 y from its implementation, hepatitis B universal vaccination had positive effects also from an economic point of view. An a posteriori analysis evaluated the impact that the hepatitis B immunization program had up to the present day. The implementation of vaccination brought an extensive reduction of the burden of hepatitis B-related diseases in the Italian population. As a consequence, the past and future savings due to clinical costs avoided are particularly high. We obtained a return on investment nearly equal to 1 from the National Health Service perspective, and a benefit-to-cost ratio slightly less than 1 for the Societal perspective, considering only the first 20 y from the start of the program. In the longer-time horizon, ROI and BCR values were positive (2.78 and 2.46, respectively). The break-even point was already achieved few years ago for the NHS and for the Society, and since then more and more money is progressively saved. The implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination was very favorable during the first 20 y of adoption, and further benefits will be increasingly evident in the future. The hepatitis B vaccination program in Italy is a clear example of the great impact that universal immunization is able to provide in the medium-long-term when health care authorities are so wise as to invest in prevention. PMID:23376840

  7. Economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation compared with other ablation techniques in women with menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff-Everding, Christoph; Soeder, Ruediger; Neukirch, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA) compared with other ablation techniques for the treatment of menorrhagia. Methods Using German health claims data, women meeting defined inclusion criteria for the intervention group (RFA) were selected. A comparable control group (other endometrial ablations) was established using propensity score matching. These two groups were compared during the quarter of treatment (QoT) and a follow-up of 2 years for the following outcomes: costs during QoT and during follow-up, repeated menorrhagia diagnoses during follow-up and necessary retreatments during follow-up. Results After performing propensity score matching, 50 cases could be allocated to the intervention group, while 38 were identified as control cases. Patients in the RFA group had 5% fewer repeat menorrhagia diagnoses (40% vs 45%; not significant) and 5% fewer treatments associated with recurrent menorrhagia (6% vs 11%; not significant) than cases in the control group. During the QoT, the RFA group incurred €578 additional costs (€2,068 vs €1,490; ns). However, during follow-up, the control group incurred €1,254 additional costs (€4,561 vs €5,815; ns), with medication, outpatient physician consultations, and hospitals costs being the main cost drivers. However, none of the results were statistically significant. Conclusion Although RFA was more cost-intensive in the QoT compared with other endometrial ablation techniques, an average total savings of €676 was generated during the follow-up period. While having evidence that RFA is clinically equivalent to other endometrial ablation procedures, we generated indications that RFA is non-inferior and favorable with regard to economic outcomes. PMID:26848277

  8. Veteran Students Received Similar Amounts of Title IV Aid as Nonveterans but More Total Aid with GI Benefits. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives. GAO-08-741

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported that veteran students were awarded similar amounts of Title IV aid as nonveteran students, and veterans' total federal aid was greater when Chapter 30 GI benefits were included. This report responds to request from the Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity, Committee on Veterans' Affairs…

  9. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Christopher A; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W

    2010-01-01

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha(-1), which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone. PMID:20927377

  10. The Market Triumph of Ecotourism: An Economic Investigation of the Private and Social Benefits of Competing Land Uses in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Christopher A.; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×1012, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha−1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000–5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone. PMID:20927377

  11. Assessing the clinical or pharmaco-economical benefit of target controlled desflurane delivery in surgical patients using the Zeus anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Lortat-Jacob, B; Billard, V; Buschke, W; Servin, F

    2009-11-01

    The Zeus anaesthesia machine includes an auto-control mode which allows targeting of end-tidal volatile and inspired oxygen concentrations. We assessed the clinical benefits and economic impact of this target-controlled anaesthesia compared with conventional manually controlled anaesthesia. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive desflurane either with a fresh gas flow set by the anaesthetist or in auto-control mode. Drug delivery was adjusted to maintain bispectral index between 40-60 units and systolic arterial pressure under 15 mmHg above its pre-induction value (upper limit) and over 90 mmHg (lower limit). Blood pressure was maintained in the desired range for 89% and 91% of the maintenance period for auto-control and manual control respectively (p = 0.49). Bispectral index was in the desired range for 82% and 79% of the maintenance period, for auto-control and manual control respectively (p = 0.46). Oxygen consumption was more than halved by the use of auto-control mode, and mean (SD) desflurane consumption during surgery was 0.07 (0.04) vs 0.2 (0.07) ml.min(-1) in auto-control and manual control respectively (p < 0.0001). The number of drug delivery adjustments per hour was significantly lower in auto-control mode (mean (SD) 7 (2) vs 15 (12); p < 0.0001). Thus, the auto-control mode provided similar haemodynamic stability and bispectral control as did conventional manually controlled anaesthesia, but led to a reduction in gas and vapour consumption with a more clinically acceptable workload. PMID:19825059

  12. The efficacy and economic benefits of Paracox, a live attenuated anticoccidial vaccine, in commercial trials with standard broiler chickens in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B; Carlyle, W W; Bond, D R; Brown, I A

    1999-02-01

    The first large-scale broiler trials under modern commercial conditions of Paracox, a live attenuated anticoccidial vaccine administered in the drinking-water, are reported from the United Kingdom. The vaccine, comprising all seven of the species of Eimeria that parasitise the domesticated fowl, was compared with anticoccidial drug shuttles (halofuginone then salinomycin, or nicarbazin then monensin) in nine trials comprising over 936000 chickens, all of which also received the digestive enhancer virginiamycin. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in vaccinated birds in any of the trials. Necrotic enteritis occurred in the medicated controls (anticoccidial drug shuttles) of 2/9 trials and coccidiosis occurred concurrently with one of these outbreaks. Using additional criteria that particularly reflected economic benefits, the vaccine performed overall at least as well as the drug shuttles. The crucial results for vaccinated and medicated birds were: feeding costs (pence per kg liveweight of birds that were processed), 33.9 pence (vaccinated) and 33.7 pence (medicated) (P=0.549); feed conversion ratios, 2.01 (vaccinated) and 1.96 (medicated) (P=0.025); coefficient of variation in mean bird weight before processing, 9.3% (vaccinated) and 9.0% (medicated) (P=0.300); birds found dead, 3.0% (vaccinated) and 3.8% (medicated) (P<0.001); culled birds 4.0% (vaccinated) and 3.8% (medicated) (P=0.483); birds rejected during processing, 1.1% (vaccinated) and 1.2% (medicated) (P=0.271). In addition, the mean total water consumptions per chick were 7.82 L (vaccinated) and 7.76 L (medicated) (P=0.611), whilst the mean percentages of dry matter in the litter were 76.2% (vaccinated) and 75.2% (medicated) (P=0.195). Accumulation of oocysts in the litter of chicks vaccinated at 5 days of age peaked at 21 and 35 days, compared with medicated controls which showed a single higher peak at 35 days. Hence, the use of Paracox vaccine may control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and also

  13. Cost Benefit Model Development. Cost Benefit Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Arthur A.; And Others

    Through an analysis of the economic costs and benefits of five vocational-technical programs, it was shown that the benefits of a vocational-technical education outweigh the costs. Four programs showing greater benefits than costs were auto body (courses at two technical institutes), materials management, and electronic servicing. Clothing…

  14. Review department programs related to intellectual property and technology transfer to ensure department resources are leveraged to the economic benefit of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    Review domestic and international policy, US Intellectual Property (IP) and Technology Transfer (TT) legislation, and related Department of Energy (DOE) programs to ensure Department resources are leveraged to the benefit of the US economy. Mapping such processes should determine if/how foreign governments and/or foreign owned or controlled enterprises, specifically Japanese and to a lessor extent other Pacific Rim nations, are able to access and at times leverage US technology to their benefit. This process will also generate lessons learned that should be useful to government and industry alike in the area of TT. The review will concentrate on technology innovations developed or funded by the Department.

  15. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RETRAINING THE UNEMPLOYED, A STUDY OF THE BENEFITS AND COSTS OF RETRAINING THE UNEMPLOYED BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF WORKERS IN CONNECTICUT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BORUS, MICHAEL E.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF RETRAINING PROGRAMS IN FOUR LABOR MARKETS IN CONNECTICUT, UNDER BOTH THE AREA REDEVELOPMENT ACT AND STATE SPONSORSHIP. THE PURPOSE WAS TO DETERMINE THE BENEFITS AND COSTS TO WORKERS, THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE ECONOMY. THE STATE HAD PIONEERED SUCH PROGRAMS SO A SAMPLE COULD BE STUDIED OF THOSE WHO HAD LONG WORK-HISTORIES AFTER…

  16. An economic model demonstrating the long-term cost benefits of incorporating fertility control into wild horse (Equus caballus) management programs on public lands in the United States.

    PubMed

    de Seve, Charles W; Griffin, Stephanie L Boyles

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Wild Horse and Burro Management program costs have increased dramatically due to a rise in the number of animals removed from public lands coupled with significantly decreased adoption rates. To assist with development and implementation of effective, cost-containing management programs, a robust economic model to project the costs and optimize outcomes of various management scenarios was created. For example, preliminary demonstration model runs show that by gradually replacing "removal-only" programs with contraception-and-removal programs on one hypothetical Herd Management Area (HMA), the BLM could save about US$8 million over 12 years while maintaining an area target population of 874 horses. Because the BLM estimates that more than 38,000 wild horses roam on 179 HMAs in the United States, the use of this economic model could result in a cost-savings of tens of millions of dollars if applied broadly across all HMAs. PMID:24437083

  17. The Potential Economic Benefits of Improved Postfracture Care: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Fracture Liaison Service in the US Health-Care System

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Daniel H; Patrick, Amanda R; Schousboe, John; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Fractures related to osteoporosis are associated with $20 billion in cost in the United States, with the majority of cost born by federal health-care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Despite the proven fracture reduction benefits of several osteoporosis treatments, less than one-quarter of patients older than 65 years of age who fracture receive such care. A postfracture liaison service (FLS) has been developed in many health systems but has not been widely implemented in the United States. We developed a Markov state-transition computer simulation model to assess the cost-effectiveness of an FLS using a health-care system perspective. Using the model, we projected the lifetime costs and benefits of FLS, with or without a bone mineral density test, in men and women who had experienced a hip fracture. We estimated the costs and benefits of an FLS, the probabilities of refracture while on osteoporosis treatment, as well as the utilities associated with various health states from published literature. We used multi-way sensitivity analyses to examine impact of uncertainty in input parameters on cost-effectiveness of FLS. The model estimates that an FLS would result in 153 fewer fractures (109 hip, 5 wrist, 21 spine, 17 other), 37.43 more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and save $66,879 compared with typical postfracture care per every 10,000 postfracture patients. Doubling the cost of the FLS resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $22,993 per QALY. The sensitivity analyses showed that results were robust to plausible ranges of input parameters; assuming the least favorable values of each of the major input parameters results in an ICER of $112,877 per QALY. An FLS targeting patients post-hip fracture should result in cost savings and reduced fractures under most scenarios. PMID:24443384

  18. Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project. [Economic costs and benefits of a new natural gas pipeline project

    SciTech Connect

    Cajueiro Costa, A.S. )

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options.

  19. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  20. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  1. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  2. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  3. National assessment of environmental and economic benefits from methane control and utilization technologies at US underground coal mines. Final report, April 1994-April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Masemore, S.; Piccot, S.; Lanning, J.

    1997-12-01

    The report gives results of EPA research into the emission processes and control strategies associated with underground coal mines in the U.S. Goals of the EPA program have been to assess the economic performance and emissions reductions of methane control strategies for underground coal mines, and to develop modeling tools and data bases that miners can use to conduct their own site-specific methane control analyses. To this end, nine standard or model mines were designed to closely simulate existing mines in the major coal producing regions. Cost performance and methane reductions were then calculated for a number of methane recovery and utilization combinations at these model mines. Algorithms were developed using site-specific mine designs, geologic parameters, and costs, with the assistance of mine operators, mining consultants, degasification system consultants, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  4. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  5. Longer-term clinical and economic benefits of offering acupuncture to patients with chronic low back pain assessed as suitable for primary care management.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K J; Fitter, M; Brazier, J; MacPherson, H; Campbell, M; Nicholl, J P; Roman, M

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the research protocol for a pragmatic study of the benefits of providing an acupuncture service to patients in primary care with chronic low back pain. The proposal was written in response to a call for bids from the NHS Executive's centrally funded research programme for Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The research question posed was 'Does acupuncture have long-term effectiveness in the management of pain in primary care?' The present study was designed as a collaboration between an interdisciplinary team drawn from health services researchers at the University of Sheffield, acupuncture researchers from the Foundation for Traditional Chinese Medicine in York, and practitioners from general practice and acupuncture in York. The proposal presented here was submitted in response to an invitation from the Commissioning Board following a successful outline bid. It is reproduced here, largely as submitted in January 1998, using the headings under which information was requested. We also present an appendix describing methodological alterations made to the design in response the Commissioning Board's comments on the proposal. We present it in this format to give an idea of the evolution of the design and the process by which the research proposal was shaped. The final working protocol comprises a combination of these two elements. PMID:10444912

  6. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  7. Medicaid Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Eligibility Benefits Cost Sharing Waivers Long Term Services and Supports Delivery Systems Quality of Care Data and Systems Enrollment Strategies Access to Care Program Integrity Financing and ... type, amount, duration, and scope of services within broad federal guidelines. States are required to ...

  8. SEASAT economic assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, K.; Steele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The SEASAT program will provide scientific and economic benefits from global remote sensing of the ocean's dynamic and physical characteristics. The program as presently envisioned consists of: (1) SEASAT A; (2) SEASAT B; and (3) Operational SEASAT. This economic assessment was to identify, rationalize, quantify and validate the economic benefits evolving from SEASAT. These benefits will arise from improvements in the operating efficiency of systems that interface with the ocean. SEASAT data will be combined with data from other ocean and atmospheric sampling systems and then processed through analytical models of the interaction between oceans and atmosphere to yield accurate global measurements and global long range forecasts of ocean conditions and weather.

  9. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities including materials processing in space and satellite communications. Spacehab, a commercially developed and manufactured pressurized metal cylinder which fits in the Shuttle payload bay and connects to the crew compartment is examined along with potential uses of the Shuttle external tank. Private sector upper stage development, the privatization of expendable launch vehicles, and the transfer of NASA technology are discussed.

  10. Infrared radiation industrial application and economic benefits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IR heating has been accepted to be one of the important means for cooking, drying, roasting, baking, blanching and pasteurization of food and agricultural products. This chapter reviews the scientific developments in IR applications, demonstrates the status of selected industrial and pilot scale IR ...

  11. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  12. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  13. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  14. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  15. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  16. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks. PMID:22329051

  17. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  18. Non-monetary benefit indicators for prioritizing wetlands restoration projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological restoration of wetlands can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Explicitly characterizing these benefits can help managers better allocate scarce resources among potential restoration projects. Economic valuation stud...

  19. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chollet, Deborah J.

    The report presents a cost-benefit analysis on the removal of architectural barriers from residential and nonresidential buildings according to specifications being developed for approval by the American National Standards Institute. Economic benefits and costs are discussed for the following types of buildings: residential housing (highrise…

  20. OSWER RISK COST/BENEFIT METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current status of project: Based on the economic literature, EPA internal economic guidance, and interviews with OSWER managers and staff, OSWER first developed a comprehensive list of attributes that identifies a broad range of potential types of benefits, costs, and other im...

  1. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Therefore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  2. Satellite servicing economic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that satellite servicing is cost effective; however, all of these studies were of different formats, dollar year, learning rates, availability, etc. Threfore, it was difficult to correlate any useful trends from these studies. The reviewed study was initiated to correlate the economic data into a common data base, using a common set of assumptions. A selected set of existed funded programs was then analyzed to provide an independent analysis of the servicing options and potential economic benefits.

  3. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  4. Green Economics: Counting the Earth In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Economics should be taught at the vital core of environmental education. Discusses common economic fallacies shared by educators. Presents activities on ecological limits and external cost or benefits not captured in market pricing. (YDS)

  5. [Cancer and health economics].

    PubMed

    Koinuma, N

    1996-01-01

    Health economics on cancer medicine is a supportive tool of cancer care and is becoming one of the essential weapons against cancer. Its principal roles are to enhance the quality and efficacy and to secure the finance necessary to the cancer care. The economic aspects of cancer medicine and the methods of economic evaluation are overviewed with emphasis on cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The operational and interpretational checkpoints are introduced, and the problems and prospects of the practical use of the methods on clinical settings such as cancer chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:8546457

  6. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  7. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING Your breath, clothes, and hair will ... about $1,800 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  8. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clean energy provides multiple benefits. The Multiple Benefits Guide provides an overview of the environmental, energy system and economic benefits of clean energy, specifically energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean distributed generation, and why it is important to thin...

  9. A Realistic International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Criticizes college textbooks for adopting a "party line" of laissez-faire economic doctrine which asserts the benefits of free trade. Offers an alternative interpretation of international trade, covering such topics as the effect of unregulated international trade on wage levels, and international lending. (JDH)

  10. Crossing the Economic Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinstein, David

    1998-01-01

    A teacher who has taught in two Chicago high schools chronicled in Jonathan Kozol's "Savage Inequalities"--an alternative Westside high school and an affluent, suburban Eastside school--ponders benefits of teaching on both sides of the economic chasm. Although inner-city problems often stem from parents lacking power and expectations, suburban…

  11. Economics for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This economics unit of study consists of 10 lessons. Each lesson sets out key terms (such as demand, scarcity, monetary costs, property rights, and cost/benefit analysis); outlines the national content standards addressed; lists objectives; provides teaching and discussion ideas; suggests sample interactive discussion problems and sample small…

  12. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  13. Business Process Modeling: Perceived Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indulska, Marta; Green, Peter; Recker, Jan; Rosemann, Michael

    The process-centered design of organizations and information systems is globally seen as an appropriate response to the increased economic pressure on organizations. At the methodological core of process-centered management is process modeling. However, business process modeling in large initiatives can be a time-consuming and costly exercise, making it potentially difficult to convince executive management of its benefits. To date, and despite substantial interest and research in the area of process modeling, the understanding of the actual benefits of process modeling in academia and practice is limited. To address this gap, this paper explores the perception of benefits derived from process modeling initiatives, as reported through a global Delphi study. The study incorporates the views of three groups of stakeholders - academics, practitioners and vendors. Our findings lead to the first identification and ranking of 19 unique benefits associated with process modeling. The study in particular found that process modeling benefits vary significantly between practitioners and academics. We argue that the variations may point to a disconnect between research projects and practical demands.

  14. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs--A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Serge; Body, Jean-Jacques; Bruyère, Olivier; Bergmann, Pierre; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cooper, Cyrus; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Gielen, Evelien; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Rizzoli, René; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes with a dairy-free diet. Despite the established benefits for bone health, some people avoid dairy in their diet due to beliefs that dairy may be detrimental to health, especially in those with weight management issues, lactose intolerance, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or trying to avoid cardiovascular disease. This review provides information for health professionals to enable them to help their patients make informed decisions about consuming dairy products as part of a balanced diet. There may be a weak association between dairy consumption and a possible small weight reduction, with decreases in fat mass and waist circumference and increases in lean body mass. Lactose intolerant individuals may not need to completely eliminate dairy products from their diet, as both yogurt and hard cheese are well tolerated. Among people with arthritis, there is no evidence for a benefit to avoid dairy consumption. Dairy products do not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if low fat. Intake of up to three servings of dairy products per day appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health. PMID:26445771

  15. Conceptual Framework for Conducting Cost Benefit Studies in Wisconsin VTAE and Cost Benefit Studies--VTAE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Robert I.; And Others

    The step-by-step cost benefit study, confined to measuring and comparing economic costs with economic benefits, is based on the 1971, 1972, and 1973 classes graduating from the Agribusiness-Machinery Partsman-Salesman Program at District One Technical Institute in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Numerous tables throughout the report contain cost benefit…

  16. The Economic Benefits of Personnel Selection Using Ability Tests: A State of the Art Review Including a Detailed Analysis of the Dollar Benefit of U.S. Employment Service Placements and a Critique of the Low-Cutoff Method of Test Use. USES Test Research Report No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John E.

    The economic impact of optimal selection using ability tests is far higher than is commonly known. For small organizations, dollar savings from higher productivity can run into millions of dollars a year. This report estimates the potential savings to the Federal Government as an employer as being 15.61 billion dollars per year if tests were given…

  17. Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

  18. Benefits of hydrogen production research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.; Rossen, W.; Jacobs, C.

    1976-01-01

    An economic analysis of total monetary benefits arising from increased volume and efficiency of hydrogen production from various primary energy sources is carried out. The analysis is based on NASA's projections of future hydrogen demand in terms of both established industrial-chemical uses and new energy system applications, along with the mix of primary energy sources needed to meet this demand. A cost methodology model is worked out with the basic cost elements being plant construction costs, feedstock and energy costs, and operating and labor-related costs. A computer simulation technique was developed and a set of model calculations was performed. Some representative outputs of the computer analysis are displayed and conclusions are drawn on major factors determining the overall savings possible in hydrogen production and on its technological and economic impact.

  19. Benefits Outgrow Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses employee benefits offered to various manufacturing industry workers, especially for chemical professionals. Indicates that in the chemicals and allied products industry, such benefits averaged more than 30 percent of payroll in 1971. (CC)

  20. Economic value of global weather measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.; Butterworth, J.

    1999-02-19

    Global sensor networks could support increased activity in a number of economic sectors. Potential benefits and the predicted time scales required to realize them are estimated. Benefits are particular compelling for fundamental reasons for aviation, hotels and restaurants, natural disasters, construction, agriculture, and apparel. These benefits can be captured by simple logistic approximations.

  1. Public benefits of public power. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The principal characteristics and benefits of public power are described using a question and answer format. The book begins by defining public power, describing its history, and confirming that people have a right to choose. The answers to questions about the benefits of public power are grouped under three major headings: rates, local control; economic and political benefits; and power supply and consumption. Establishing community public systems is hard work, requiring a progression through local government authorization, legal and financial analyses, public persuasion, voter approval, and a bond issue. Electric utility statistics show that local public systems outnumber all other types of ownership. (DCK)

  2. The National Map: Benefits at what cost?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, D.L.; Theissen, K.M.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cost-benefit analysis of The National Map, and determined that, during its 30-year projected lifespan, the project will likely bring a net present value of benefits to society of $2.05 billion. Such a survey enhances the United States' ability to access, integrate, and apply geospatial data at global, national, and local scales. This paper gives an overview on the underlying economic model for evaluating program benefits and presents the primary findings as well as a sensitivity analysis assessing the robustness of the results.

  3. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  4. Institutional Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  5. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  6. High School Economics: The New Reasoning Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Donald, R.; Western, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates an inquiry perspective in high school economics rather than concentrating on economic theory. Describes the assumptions for such an approach and discusses ways to apply them to problematic cases. Benefits of this approach would stimulate interest in economics and increase students' ability to analyze problematic situations. (GG)

  7. Economics of Information in Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farid, Mona

    This digest on the economics of information in education argues that the production, organization, analysis, evaluation, and dissemination of information in education constitute major economic activities, with associated costs and benefits. The document comprises sections on: the value of information; information as an "economic good"; the…

  8. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  9. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  10. Benefit assessment of NASA space technology goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The socio-economic benefits to be derived from system applications of space technology goals developed by NASA were assessed. Specific studies include: electronic mail; personal telephone communications; weather and climate monitoring, prediction, and control; crop production forecasting and water availability; planetary engineering of the planet Venus; and planetary exploration.

  11. Projected Benefits of EERE's Portfolio - FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-17

    This collection of data tables and charts shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  12. University-Industry Relationships: Benefits and Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandelin, Jon

    2010-01-01

    University-industry relationships can bring significant benefits to the university, the company and the individual researcher, but there is also the potential for risks to all parties. This paper presents the potential rewards and risks from university-industry relationships and the related opportunities for economic growth and job creation. The…

  13. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  14. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  15. Economic Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Alstyne, Carol

    Concerns relating to the economics of higher education, including inflation, are considered. It is suggested that future sources of rising costs are energy, equipment, books, and federal requirements, and that another major economic concern involves trends in enrollments and in tuition revenues. Projections of declining enrollments should be…

  16. Economic viability of biogas technology

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, S.C.; Agrawal, S.; Khare, O.P.

    1983-12-01

    Biogas has emerged as a suitable technology for providing alternative and additional sources of energy, especially for rural areas of developing countries. Although the experience gained in China and India established its technological success, social scientists are still involved in the controversial issue of its economic viability. The available literature presents very contradictory situations, ranging between the two extreme poles of high economic viability and nonviability. Such contradictory conclusions are derived since economic benefits from the technology are influenced by a number of factors. A review of the literature reveals that various factors are either not considered, or that the economics have been worked out assuming a very ideal situation, while biogas plants are operating under very different conditions. Using the coal replacement method even as coal is seldom used by villages is only a single example of this approach. In most of the developing countries, rural populations depend mainly on non-commercial fuels like firewood, dungcakes, agricultural wastes and leaves for cooking and heating purposes. Under the present technological limitations, biogas can most commonly be used for cooking and lighting. For testing the economic viability of biogas systems, a number of authors have considered the benefits in terms of savings in traditional fuels. But considering the actual thermal efficiency of different non-commercial fuel items, as well as biogas, it has still be be decided at what point of the market prices of fuel items that the biogas system becomes economically viable and remains viable. The present paper thus reviews different approaches adopted and suggested for working out the economics or the cost-benefit ratio of the biogas technology at the first stage, and then spells out the factors influencing the economic benefits of the technology under various situations, with the help of empirical

  17. Producer-level benefits of sustainability certification.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Allen; Rivera, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Initiatives certifying that producers of goods and services adhere to defined environmental and social-welfare production standards are increasingly popular. According to proponents, these initiatives create financial incentives for producers to improve their environmental, social, and economic performance. We reviewed the evidence on whether these initiatives have such benefits. We identified peer-reviewed, ex post, producer-level studies in economic sectors in which certification is particularly prevalent (bananas, coffee, fish products, forest products, and tourism operations), classified these studies on the basis of whether their design and methods likely generated credible results, summarized findings from the studies with credible results, and considered how these findings might guide future research. We found 46 relevant studies, most of which focused on coffee and forest products and examined fair-trade and Forest Stewardship Council certification. The methods used in 11 studies likely generated credible results. Of these 11 studies, nine examined the economic effects and two the environmental effects of certification. The results of four of the 11 studies, all of which examined economic effects, showed that certification has producer-level benefits. Hence, the evidence to support the hypothesis that certification benefits the environment or producers is limited. More evidence could be generated by incorporating rigorous, independent evaluation into the design and implementation of projects promoting certification. PMID:22070273

  18. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  19. ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIALECONOMIC BENEFITS OF RESTORING AND-IMPAIRED STREAMS: EMERGY-BASED VALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sound environmental decisions require an integrated, systemic method of valuation that accurately accounts for environmental and social, as well as economic, costs and benefits. More inclusive methods are particularly needed for assessing ecological benefits because these are so...

  20. Remediation, restoration, revitalization (R2R2R): How Great Lakes communities benefit from AOC delisting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Great Lakes, remediation and restoration activities in areas of concern (AOC) are providing economic and social benefits (“revitalization”) to coastal communities. However, there is a general lack of documentation and evaluation of benefits that have co...

  1. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L. ); Trocki, L.K. )

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica.

  2. Dynamic operating benefits of energy storage: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fancher, R.B.; Jabbour, S.J.; Spelman, J.R.

    1986-10-01

    The use of energy storage power plants to enhance power system operational flexibility (spinning reserve, load following, reduced minimum loading of power plants, etc.) yields substantive economic benefits due to reduced fuel use, lower operating and maintenance costs, and extended life of power plants. Inclusion of these benefits in generation expansion studies could increase the economic incentives of installing storage and fuel cell power plants. The objective of this project is to identify the benefits of energy storage due to the enhanced system operational flexibility, or simply called dynamic operating benefits (DOB). The results of an international symposium on DOB and three case studies in the US are reported. The results produce strong evidence of the reality and significance of dynamic operating benefits of energy storage and the importance of including that benefit in generation expansion studies.

  3. 75 FR 20314 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... economic impact on a substantial number of small entities because the regulation only affects health... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Parts 890 and 892 RIN 3206-AL95 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Miscellaneous... Health Benefits (FEHB) coverage for certain former Senate Restaurant employees who transferred...

  4. Top Benefits Challenges Facing School Business Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohling, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    What's the main factor coloring employee satisfaction? Many organizations' leaders think the answer is salary, yet in reality, employee benefits packages are one of the biggest incentives an employer can offer. Educational institutions have done well in providing benefits to employees. However, with an unpredictable economic climate and a complex…

  5. Education Finance Policy: Financing the Nonmarket and Social Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    This article complements the one written by George Psacharopoulos. It builds on the market returns to education that are measured by increments to earnings and to pure economic growth. It considers the additional nonmarket private returns to education, but it also considers the social benefits of education that benefit others in the community and…

  6. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  7. On Separating Defensible Benefit Transfers From ``Smoke and Mirrors''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, V. Kerry

    1992-03-01

    Benefit transfer methods increasingly are being applied to value nonmarketed resources for both policy evaluation and natural resource damage litigation. This paper illustrates the need for guidelines for deciding when benefit transfer methods can be used to value changes in environmental resources. It begins by discussing applied economic modeling perspectives and relating them to benefit transfers as tools for evaluating policy. It reviews the history of benefit transfers and summarizes how they are typically undertaken, including the influence of the analyst's judgments on their outcome, by comparing the development of two different analyses that use benefit transfers to consider the same issue: estimating the benefits from limiting industrial effluents discharged into specific rivers. It proposes an agenda for future benefit transfer research: devising strategies for extending available benefit transfer theory, learning from existing research, and formulating transferable versus "portable" modeling strategies.

  8. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  9. Swarm Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

    The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

  10. The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Loomis, John; Kroeger, Timm; Casey, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The demand for timely monetary estimates of the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem goods and services has steadily increased over the last few decades. This article describes the use of benefit transfer to generate monetary value estimates of ecosystem services specifically. The article provides guidance for conducting such benefit transfers and summarizes advancements in benefit transfer methods, databases and analysis tools designed to facilitate its application.

  11. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K.; Abram, P.; Braen, C.; Givens, S.; Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Fish, R.; Clyne, F.; Sand, F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are present for a study of the economic benefits attributed to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation. Part 1 gives a general description of the ag-air industry and discusses the information used in the data base to estimate the potential benefits from technological improvements. Part 2 presents the benefit estimates and provides a quantitative basis for the estimates in each area study. Part 3 is a bibliography of references relating to this study.

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  13. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  14. Valuing the Future: Should Educational Benefits Be Discounted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2015-01-01

    The practice of assigning a lesser value to benefits the further they are into the future, or, in economic terms, discounting, has long played a significant role in shaping public policy. Recently, due to the growing influence of economic modes of thinking on the educational realm, the concept of discounting is also starting to have an influence…

  15. Behavioral economics

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitution versus complementarity. Changes in absolute response rate are analyzed in relation to elasticity and intensity of demand. The economic concepts of substitution and complementarity are related to traditional behavioral studies of choice and to the matching relation. The economic approach has many implications for the future of behavioral research and theory. In general, economic concepts are grounded on a dynamic view of reinforcement. The closed-economy methodology extends the generality of behavioral principles to situations in which response rate and obtained rate of reinforcement are interdependent. Analysis of results in terms of elasticity and intensity of demand promises to provide a more direct method for characterizing the effects of “motivational” variables. Future studies of choice should arrange heterogeneous reinforcers with varying elasticities, use closed economies, and modulate scarcity or income. The economic analysis can be extended to the study of performances that involve subtle discriminations or skilled movements that vary in accuracy or quality as opposed to rate or quantity, and thus permit examination of time/accuracy trade-offs. PMID:16812401

  16. Ecological Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  17. Valuing Benefits in Benefit-Cost Studies of Social Programs. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the state of the art of the measurement and use of estimated economic value, or "shadow prices," in applying benefit-cost analysis (BCA) to social program evaluation. It reviews 39 effective social programs whose effects have been evaluated using scientifically rigorous methods and documents outcomes affected by the programs.…

  18. Societal Economic Costs and Benefits from Death: Another Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2007-01-01

    B. Yang and D. Lester (2007) have produced an innovative contribution to the relevant literature. Unlike previous studies, they incorporate estimates of cost savings from suicide. Their argument could be strengthened in 3 ways. First, they may have underestimated some of the cost savings by relying on inflated estimates of mental health usage by…

  19. Potential for ag residue collection, economics and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettenhaus, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    Removing excess corn stover and cereal straws after erosion requirements have been satisfied offers much potential as a renewable feedstock for initial biorefineries, producing fuels, chemicals and materials while reducing crop inputs, increasing farm income and offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. Two biorefinery site studies are presented for the production of fuel ethanol: SW Nebraska and Western Oklahoma. Results include excess available, delivered cost, net income to the farmer, improved SOM from move to no-till and GHG reduction from fossil fuel offset

  20. Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil Carbon Management (Chapter 1).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many papers and books on soil carbon management have addressed specific ecosystems such as agricultural lands, rangelands, forestlands, etc. This paper introduces a book within which each chapter begins by addressing a particular concern and potential options to manage it, along with their real and...

  1. The economics of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank

    2007-01-01

    It is often claimed that atrazine is of great economic benefit to corn growers, but support for this claim is limited. Some cost-benefit studies have assumed that atrazine boosts corn yields by 6%; an extensive review found a 3%-4% average yield increase; other research suggests only a 1% yield effect. Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, also makes mesotrione, an alternative herbicide that does about the same amount for corn yields as atrazine. Italy and Germany both banned atrazine in 1991, with no decrease in corn yields or harvested area. Even if atrazine leads to 6% more corn production, it is not certain that this would justify its continued use; a 1%, or perhaps zero, change does not warrant large-scale exposure of humans and the environment to this potentially hazardous chemical. PMID:18085057

  2. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  3. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  4. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large. PMID:26075950

  5. Caregiving and women's Social Security benefits: a comment on Kingson and O'Grady-LeShane.

    PubMed

    Sandell, S H; Iams, H

    1994-10-01

    This article re-examines the effects of caregiving on women's Social Security benefits using the New Beneficiary Survey. Total (husband and wife) Social Security benefits to the family, rather than only the women's own benefits, is the appropriate measure for married couples. We find family benefits and family income to be invariant to the number of children. The reduction in own retirement benefits associated with married women's raising children is made up by higher benefits received by their husbands and higher spouse benefits. Furthermore, adjusting Social Security benefits for caregiving dropout years is not an efficient means to improve the economic well-being of poor elderly women. PMID:7959137

  6. Is Payment a Benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Wertheimer, Alan

    2011-01-01

    What I call “the standard view” claims that IRBs should not regard financial payment as a benefit to subjects for the purpose of risk/benefit assessment. Although the standard view is universally accepted, there is little defense of that view in the canonical documents of research ethics or the scholarly literature. This article claims that insofar as IRBs should be concerned with the interests and autonomy of research subjects, they should reject the standard view and adopt “the incorporation view.” The incorporation view is more consistent with the underlying soft-paternalist justification for risk-benefit assessment and demonstrates respect for the autonomy of prospective subjects. Adoption of the standard view precludes protocols that advance the interests of subjects, investigators, and society. After considering several objections to the argument, I consider several arguments for the standard view that do not appeal to the interests and autonomy of research subjects. PMID:21726261

  7. Airship economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

  8. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  9. Academic Libraries and Regional Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscella, Joan B.; Ringel, Joan D.

    Academic libraries should follow the practice adopted by some academic institutions during recent periods of economic scarcity and develop economic and political ties with the business community, a partnership that could provide genuine benefits for members of the business community, elected officials, and academia. An example of such cooperation…

  10. The Economic Impact of Organized Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    1982-01-01

    Organized camping for youth and adults has demonstrated economic benefits for many communities. A questionnaire was sent to various agencies and private individuals to collect information on the economic feasibility of organized camps. The data indicated that 300 organized camps in Wisconsin contributed approximately $51 million to the state's…

  11. Economic savings from invasive plant prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevention programs are often assumed to be the most cost-effective method for managing invasive plants. However, there is very little information about economic and biological factors that determine the forage benefits resulting from prevention programs. We developed a simple economic model to asse...

  12. The Economic Utility of Foreign Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Tuman, Walter Vladimir; Critz, Mary Anne

    1998-01-01

    A study measured the economic utility of language study for 84 graduate students in international management by comparing their reasons for language study with several major economic indicators, including corporate job opportunities. The study, though limited in scope, yields insights into the real and perceived costs and benefits of language…

  13. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  14. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the mode ling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  15. Health economics--concepts and conceptual problems.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, S K; Bansal, R D

    1982-01-01

    Awareness of the economic manifestation of health and diseases and the limited resources allocated to health care services has brought to the focus a new discipline - health economics. Cost accounting, cost benefit, cost effectiveness methods etc. are increasingly becoming an integral part of the health management and evaluation of health programmes. Various concepts and problems relating to health economics are discussed in the present paper. More efforts should be made to conduct health economic studies in hospitals and health centres by which the process of standardisation of the concepts, would be easier. Health economics should also find its due place in the medical curriculum. PMID:10310083

  16. On the Economics of Space Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. J.

    An economic model of the future colonisation of Mars is developed, which, for simplicity, is assumed to be a one-off transplantation of capital and population to Mars. The model demonstrates that compound growth of output and population, and diminishing natural resources on Earth eventually create sufficiently intense economic pressures that the colonisation of Mars (and by implication of space generally) confers a net economic benefit on humanity. The model illustrates that the colonisation of space is likely to occur because economic forces will ultimately compel it to occur. The model is highly counter-intuitive because it has traditionally been believed by many that the colonisation of space could only be done at a net economic cost to humanity and would not result in a net economic benefit to mankind.

  17. Cable Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

  18. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  19. Economic Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2005-01-01

    The signals had been there for years. Task force reports and researchers all predicted it. Then, in the late 1990s, the economic collapse in this blue-collar region of central Maine began. First, the Cascade Co. closed its textile mill. Then the C.F. Hathaway Co. shut down, and Dumont Industries followed suit soon after. Several stores and other…

  20. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  1. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This presentation of suggested layouts and specifications for home economics facilities has been prepared to be of service to school boards, architects, teachers, and administrators who are planning new schools or making renovations to existing structures. Room layouts are shown for a foods and nutrition room, or the foods and nutrition area of a…

  2. Non-Monetary Benefits Without Apology: The Economic Theory and Practice of Ecosystem Service Benefit Indicators.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Values for changes in ecosystem services (ES) are required or desired in many policy and management decision contexts, although appropriate monetary values often are not available or are infeasible to estimate. Fortunately, in many contexts—e.g., cost-effectiveness analysis...

  3. Non-Monetary Benefits Without Apology: The Economic Theory and Practice of Ecosystem Service Benefit Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Values for changes in ecosystem services (ES) are required or desired in many policy and management contexts. Often, appropriate monetary values are not available or are infeasible to estimate. Fortunately, in many contexts—e.g., cost-effectiveness analysis of programmatic ...

  4. Space for Mankind's Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Puttkamer, Jesco, Ed.; McCullough, Thomas J., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of the first international Congress on "Space for Mankind's Benefit" organized by the Huntsville Association of Technical Societies and held November 15-19, 1971, at Huntsville, Alabama. Following introductory statements, a total of 45 articles read in 10 sessions are incorporated. The session headings are: Man in…

  5. GIO benefits the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) benefits the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by providing access to and delivery of USGS information and services, safety and security of USGS data and information, support for USGS science, and coordination of partnerships through Federal interagency data committees.

  6. Teacher Retirement Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert; Podgursky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis is forcing many employers, from General Motors to local general stores, to take a hard look at the costs of the compensation packages they offer employees. For public school systems, this will entail a consideration of fringe benefit costs, which in recent years have become an increasingly important component of…

  7. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  8. [Economic crime].

    PubMed

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control. PMID:1030807

  9. Democracy and economic development.

    PubMed

    Rao, V

    1985-01-01

    This discussion explains why democracy as is generally understood may not be suitable to meet the challenges of a developing economy and how democratic institutions generally fail to respond to the immediate demands of a population impatient to raise its level of living. It defines the terms economic development and democracy, reviews some theoretical models of democracy which have been proposed in economic theory, proposes an approach to the process of economic development, and considers problems of development. Economic development is a process which calls for huge investments in personnel and material. Such investment programs imply cuts in current consumption that would be painful at the low levels of living that exist in almost all developing societies. Governments need to resort to strong measures, and they must enforce them vigorously in order to marshal the surpluses required for investment. If such measures were put to a popular vote, they would certainly be defeated. Mainstream economic theory assumes the virtues of a market system and the decisions arrived at by the interaction of market forces. This is the economic equivalent of democracy. Yet, mainstream economic theory devotes little attention to the conditions under which a market system generates a just solution. The democratic developing countries have all inherited a class society, with a highly skewed distribution of income. The wealthy minority often seeks to preserve its privileged position and to enjoy the benefits of development. It even seeks the help of the judiciary to preserve the sanctity of private property and to assure that its patterns of conspicuous consumption can continue. This is done in the name of democratic rights. Many developing societies are burdened with outmoded traditions and value systems that are incompatible with the production relations of the new society they hope to achieve. The international exchange of resources is believed by some to be an attempt to control the

  10. Economic Reasoning in Hypothetical vs. Nonhypothetical Time-Allocation Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, James D.

    This study involved the use of "economic reasoning," which refers to the application of the concept of cost-benefit analysis to personal decision making. The study examined the degree of economic reasoning employed by high school seniors who had received instruction in cost benefit analysis. The main purpose of the study was to compare the…

  11. THE ECONOMICS OF COVER CROP BIOMASS FOR CORN AND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inclusion of cover crops into cropping systems brings both direct and indirect costs and benefits to the farm. A myriad of studies have examined the economic benefits of cover crops in multiple cropping systems by comparing them to systems without cover crops. To date, economic research pertaini...

  12. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  13. Economic and environmental implications of sensor-based N management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active-light reflectance sensors are currently being studied as a tool to guide inseason “reactive” N application. A recent study evaluated the potential economic benefit and environmental implications for sensor-based N application in corn. Economic benefits and N savings were found for most fields...

  14. The benefits of biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, N.D.

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses the economic, environmental, and national security advantages of using biofuels instead of petroleum products in vehicles. Smog and carbon monoxide, two of the most trouble-some urban air pollutants, are largely caused by combustion of conventional petroleum based fuels. Topics include sustainable transportation fuels, emphasis on ethanol, the process of producing biofuels, and the growing market for biofuels. 1 tab.

  15. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  16. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of Vocational-Occupational Training at Selected Illinois Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    This benefit-cost analysis of occupational-vocational training offered at five selected junior colleges in Illinois compares the economic benefits of occupational-vocational training (primarily income) to the economic costs of such training. Both the view of the private individual and the view of society are taken. The results indicate that…

  17. Benefits of Vocational Education and Training in Europe for People, Organisations and Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Giovanni; Bainbridge, Steve; Dunkel, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    People, organisations and governments invest in vocational education and training (VET) because of its positive outcomes, such as higher wages, improved productivity and economic growth. But VET also brings non-economic benefits, such as lower absenteeism and less crime. Research on VET's benefits has focused on specific relationships, such its…

  18. Ecosystem Services in Conservation Planning: Targeted Benefits vs. Co-Benefits or Costs?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A.; Hoshizaki, Lara; Klinkenberg, Brian

    2011-01-01

    There is growing support for characterizing ecosystem services in order to link conservation and human well-being. However, few studies have explicitly included ecosystem services within systematic conservation planning, and those that have follow two fundamentally different approaches: ecosystem services as intrinsically-important targeted benefits vs. substitutable co-benefits. We present a first comparison of these two approaches in a case study in the Central Interior of British Columbia. We calculated and mapped economic values for carbon storage, timber production, and recreational angling using a geographical information system (GIS). These ‘marginal’ values represent the difference in service-provision between conservation and managed forestry as land uses. We compared two approaches to including ecosystem services in the site-selection software Marxan: as Targeted Benefits, and as Co-Benefits/Costs (in Marxan's cost function); we also compared these approaches with a Hybrid approach (carbon and angling as targeted benefits, timber as an opportunity cost). For this analysis, the Co-Benefit/Cost approach yielded a less costly reserve network than the Hybrid approach (1.6% cheaper). Including timber harvest as an opportunity cost in the cost function resulted in a reserve network that achieved targets equivalently, but at 15% lower total cost. We found counter-intuitive results for conservation: conservation-compatible services (carbon, angling) were positively correlated with each other and biodiversity, whereas the conservation-incompatible service (timber) was negatively correlated with all other networks. Our findings suggest that including ecosystem services within a conservation plan may be most cost-effective when they are represented as substitutable co-benefits/costs, rather than as targeted benefits. By explicitly valuing the costs and benefits associated with services, we may be able to achieve meaningful biodiversity conservation at lower cost

  19. The Evolution of a More Rigorous Approach to Benefit Transfer: Benefit Function Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1992-03-01

    The desire for economic values of recreation for unstudied recreation resources dates back to the water resource development benefit-cost analyses of the early 1960s. Rather than simply applying existing estimates of benefits per trip to the study site, a fairly rigorous approach was developed by a number of economists. This approach involves application of travel cost demand equations and contingent valuation benefit functions from existing sites to the new site. In this way the spatial market of the new site (i.e., its differing own price, substitute prices and population distribution) is accounted for in the new estimate of total recreation benefits. The assumptions of benefit transfer from recreation sites in one state to another state for the same recreation activity is empirically tested. The equality of demand coefficients for ocean sport salmon fishing in Oregon versus Washington and for freshwater steelhead fishing in Oregon versus Idaho is rejected. Thus transfer of either demand equations or average benefits per trip are likely to be in error. Using the Oregon steelhead equation, benefit transfers to rivers within the state are shown to be accurate to within 5-15%.

  20. Predicted costs and benefits of eradicating BVDV from Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes an economically important endemic disease (BVD) of cattle in Ireland and worldwide. Systematic eradication by detection and removal of infectious (BVDV carrier) cattle has been successful in several regions. We therefore assessed the benefits (disease losses avoided) and costs (testing and culling regime) of a potential eradication programme in Ireland. Published bio-economic models of BVDV spread in beef suckler herds and dairy herds were adapted to estimate potential benefits of eradication in Ireland. A simple model of BVDV spread in beef finisher herds was devised to estimate the benefits of eradication in this sector. A six year eradication programme consisting of 5 inter-related virological and serological testing programmes is outlined and costed. We found that the annualised benefits of BVDV eradication in Ireland exceeded the costs by a factor of 5 in the beef suckler sector and a factor of 14 in the dairy sector. Corresponding payback periods were 1.2 and 0.5 years respectively. These results highlight the significant economic impact of BVDV on the Irish cattle industry and suggest a clear economic benefit to eradication using the proposed approach. This type of cost-benefit analysis is considered an essential prerequisite prior to undertaking an eradication campaign of this magnitude. PMID:22748235

  1. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  2. Perceptions of Community Benefits from Two Wild and Scenic Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

    2011-05-01

    Wild and Scenic Rivers provide a host of psychological, social, ecological, and economic benefits to local communities. In this study, we use data collected from recreational users of two Wild and Scenic Rivers to examine perceptions of the benefits provided by the rivers to local communities. Our purposes are (1) to determine if similar perceptions of community benefits exist across the two rivers, (2) to determine if individuals' proximity to the rivers are related to the benefits they perceive, (3) to determine if individuals' prior recreation experience on the river is related to variations in perceived benefits, (4) to determine if users' sociodemographic characteristics are related to perceived community benefits, and (5) to determine if the influence of these characteristics on perceived community benefits is similar across the two resource areas. Perceived benefits were found to be analogous across both rivers as individuals consistently ranked ecological/affective benefits as well as tangible benefits similarly. Recreationists living further from the river ranked ecological and affective benefits as significantly less important than those individuals living closer to the river. Women perceived the community benefits produced by the resource areas to be significantly more important when compared to men. Significant relationships were also found between perceived benefits and recreationists' previous use of the river, their age, and their level of education. With the exception of resource proximity and prior use history, the effects of user characteristics on perceived community benefits were not statistically different across the two rivers. These findings imply similar patterns of perceived community benefits exist across distinct resource areas and that the relationships between user characteristics and perceived benefits are also similar across the study rivers.

  3. Low temperature benefits discussed.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    At a recent educational workshop event hosted by Advanced Sterilization Products, expert speakers including Authorising Engineers, and delegates, discussed some of their experiences of low temperature sterilisation of 'hi-tech' medical devices, and highlighted the benefits of a process which allows decontamination of instruments and, for example, parts of robotic surgery systems, that cannot be decontaminated using standard methods. Also examined,and reported on here in an article that first appeared in HEJ's sister publication, The Clinical Services Journal, were some of the disadvantages of low temperature sterilisation, the key considerations and options when choosing such a system, and a focus on how the technology's use had benefited a major London-based NHS Trust. PMID:27132304

  4. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  5. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers. PMID:23678661

  6. Health benefits of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the claims of health benefits derived from the use of probiotics. A brief history of probiotics and the types of probiotics currently used and the criteria for the selection of probiotics is discussed. The ability of probiotics to enhance the nutritional content and bioavailability of nutrients and the scientific evidence for the usefulness of probiotics in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance and in enhancing growth development is examined. The remainder of the review focuses on studies of a specific probiotic, Lactobacillus GG which has been extensively investigated for its health benefits in humans and animals. These studies severe as a model for the potential benefits of probiotics. The ability of Lactobacillus GG to treat or prevent diarrhoeal disease, to serve as an adjuvant for vaccines, to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea, to prevent milk-based allergic reactions, alcohol-induced liver disease and colon cancer are presented. The review concludes with a discussion of the data supporting the safety of probiotics. PMID:9924285

  7. Benefits of NSF work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Ted

    This fall I will leave my rotatorship as Associate Director for Chemical Oceanography at the National Science Foundation. I have very much enjoyed my duty and want to outline for those who may become “rotators” some of the job's benefits, since NSF is now seeking applicants to replace me. Batiza, Rea and Rumble [Eos, 69, 801, 1988] have discussed the rotator's experience; my comments supplement their points.The most important benefit in working at NSF is the breadth of vision you acquire. This is important for researchers, because it pulls you away from your narrowly focused subfield and forces you to review again, as you did as a graduate student, your entire field. For teachers, this benefit is equally important, because you will keep up with current research even while away from teaching your up-to-date balanced courses. During my stay here I have reviewed proposals to study trace metals scavenging, gas exchange, sediment traps, biochemical cycling, stable and unstable isotopes, lipid biomarkers, sediment diagenesis, anoxic redox processes, and many other exciting topics. Some research areas, such as the vent and seep studies, had not been conceived when I was a graduate student in the sixties, so my experience here has been, in fact, a real sabbatical.

  8. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Reuben P.; Lodge, David M.; Finnoff, David C.

    2007-01-01

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10–500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits. PMID:17190819

  9. The Benefits of Corporate-University Partnerships. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Anne M.

    The benefits of relationships between corporations and universities are examined, noting the economic benefit to both. Corporations like to see research and graduates that will increase company earnings, and this notion of benefits is often acknowledged by universities and corporations alike. However, there is much more involved. The tension…

  10. The Socioeconomic Benefits Generated by 39 Community College Districts in Illinois. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Kjell A.; Robison, M. Henry

    This report summary presents several economic benefits that the state of Illinois receives from its 39 community college districts. The benefits are witnessed at the state, student, and taxpayer level and can be classified into four categories: contribution to local jobs, increased earning by graduates, widespread social benefits, and financial…

  11. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8528857

  12. Waste-to-energy: Benefits beyond waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, M.A.; Kiser, J.V.L. )

    1995-01-01

    More than 125 waste-to-energy plants operate in North America, providing dependable waste disposal for thousands of communities. But the benefits of waste-to-energy plants go beyond getting rid of the garbage. Here's a look at some of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits that waste-to-energy projects have brought to their communities. The reasons vary considerably as to why communities have selected waste-to-energy as a part of their waste management systems. Common on the lists in many communities are a variety of benefits beyond dependable waste disposal. A look at experiences in four communities reveals environmental, economic, energy, and societal benefits that the projects provide to the communities they serve.

  13. Economic Support for Education in Rural School Districts. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig

    This ERIC digest synthesizes research characterizing the economic climate in which rural schools operate and reports on the traditional strategies used to create greater economic support for rural school districts. The benefits of steady urban economic growth have not been shared, generally, by rural areas; this has led to inadequate financial…

  14. Economic analysis of the space shuttle system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of the space shuttle system is presented. The analysis is based on economic benefits, recurring costs, non-recurring costs, and ecomomic tradeoff functions. The most economic space shuttle configuration is determined on the basis of: (1) objectives of reusable space transportation system, (2) various space transportation systems considered and (3) alternative space shuttle systems.

  15. Stem cell research and economic promises.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    In the context of stem cell research, the promise of economic growth has become a common policy argument for adoption of permissive policies and increased government funding. However, declarations of economic and commercial benefit, which can be found in policy reports, the scientific literature, public funding policies, and the popular press, have arguably created a great deal of expectation. Can stem cell research deliver on the economic promise? And what are the implications of this economic ethos for the researchers who must work under its shadow? PMID:20579253

  16. Star wars: The economic fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Nimroody, R.; Warnke, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present evidence on the proliferating network of contracts and corporate involvement, analyze the emerging market for strategic defense research, and examine how SDI will affect the labor pool of engineers, computer scientists, university professors, and other specialists. They also look at the possible benefits of SDI - will it bolster technological productivity. revitalize technology through commercial spinoffs. - and discuss the economics of potential Soviet responses to SDI.

  17. Outline of cost-benefit analysis and a case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellizy, A.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of cost-benefit analysis is reviewed and a case study involving solar cell technology is presented. Emphasis is placed on simplifying the technique in order to permit a technical person not trained in economics to undertake a cost-benefit study comparing alternative approaches to a given problem. The role of economic analysis in management decision making is discussed. In simplifying the methodology it was necessary to restrict the scope and applicability of this report. Additional considerations and constraints are outlined. Examples are worked out to demonstrate the principles. A computer program which performs the computational aspects appears in the appendix.

  18. Developing a competitive benefits program.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Offering your employees the right fringe benefits can help staff morale soar, foster loyalty, and increase the chances that a top-notch job applicant will say yes to your job offer. This article suggests practical ways to offer a competitive benefits program without breaking the bank. It includes guidance about specific benefits and suggests a dozen more extra benefits employees value and a sample cafeteria-style fringe benefits plan. Finally, the article includes guidelines about creating and using your own benefits statement with your staff; along with a model statement form you can use or adapt to your needs. PMID:15779518

  19. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources. PMID:12295970

  20. School Choice: Economic and Fiscal Perspectives. Policy Report PR-B12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Michael

    This paper applies economic concepts to several school choice issues, identifying various market and public school choice proposals as alternative mechanisms for generating and distributing the economic benefits of education. Private benefits redound directly to those educated or their parents; external, or public, benefits redound to other…

  1. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  2. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  3. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  4. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  5. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  6. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  7. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment. PMID:19088902

  8. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B.; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C.; Nemeth, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  9. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  10. Refactoring and Its Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Veerraju, R. P. S. P.; Rao, A. Srinivasa; Murali, G.

    2010-10-26

    Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. It improves internal code structure without altering its external functionality by transforming functions and rethinking algorithms. It is an iterative process. Refactoring include reducing scope, replacing complex instructions with simpler or built-in instructions, and combining multiple statements into one statement. By transforming the code with refactoring techniques it will be faster to change, execute, and download. It is an excellent best practice to adopt for programmers wanting to improve their productivity. Refactoring is similar to things like performance optimizations, which are also behavior- preserving transformations. It also helps us find bugs when we are trying to fix a bug in difficult-to-understand code. By cleaning things up, we make it easier to expose the bug. Refactoring improves the quality of application design and implementation. In general, three cases concerning refactoring. Iterative refactoring, Refactoring when is necessary, Not refactor.Mr. Martin Fowler identifies four key reasons to refractor. Refactoring improves the design of software, makes software easier to understand, helps us find bugs and also helps in executing the program faster. There is an additional benefit of refactoring. It changes the way a developer thinks about the implementation when not refactoring. There are the three types of refactorings. 1) Code refactoring: It often referred to simply as refactoring. This is the refactoring of programming source code. 2) Database refactoring: It is a simple change to a database schema that improves its design while retaining both its behavioral and informational semantics. 3) User interface (UI) refactoring: It is a simple change to the UI which retains its semantics. Finally, we conclude the benefits of Refactoring are: Improves the design of software, Makes software

  11. College and University Fringe Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleditch, Leigh B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    As the number and level of fringe benefits increases, particularly in the retirement sphere, institutions must keep in mind that today's commitment will be felt in tomorrow's budget. The range of employee benefits available are analyzed with regard to cost: unfunded benefits (vacations, leave), government programs, insurance, retirement plans, and…

  12. Societal benefits of space technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnik, Kiran

    The introduction of any new technology inevitably leads to a number of benefits. Space technology has provided such benefits in fair abundance, and in a number of fields. In assessing benefits, however, it is necessary to differentiate between individual or corporate/commercial benefits and social benefits, since the two may not always by synonymous. This paper aims to examine the benefits derived through applications of space technology from this point of view. It takes India as a case-study and describes the benefits that have accrued from the use of space technology, beginning with the Indo-U.S. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE, 1975-1976). It discusses the various gains from the on-going, operational multi-purpose INSAT system, and examines in-depth the issues like: what are the benefits, who benefits (i.e. which section of society) and how much. While the paper focuses mainly on the areas of broadcasting and telecommunications, it also touches on benefits from remote sensing and meteorology. It covers, in particular, the benefits expected to be derived from the Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS), the first of which was launched in March 1988. In the final section, the paper seeks to analyse the Indian experience from the view point of a more generalized perspective: the use of space technology in a developing country environment. Based on this, it draws certain conclusions about the benefits from space technology that may be generally applicable to most developing countries.

  13. Technical Note: Ethical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, J.

    Ethical economics is inspirational, expanding our vision beyond the narrow self-interest of the theoretical economic man. Ethical economics sees more value in space settlement than conventional economic calculations that can inappropriately discount the value of the future.

  14. What are the Benefits of Interacting with Nature?

    PubMed Central

    Keniger, Lucy E.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Irvine, Katherine N.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting empirical evidence that interacting with nature delivers measurable benefits to people. Reviews of this topic have generally focused on a specific type of benefit, been limited to a single discipline, or covered the benefits delivered from a particular type of interaction. Here we construct novel typologies of the settings, interactions and potential benefits of people-nature experiences, and use these to organise an assessment of the benefits of interacting with nature. We discover that evidence for the benefits of interacting with nature is geographically biased towards high latitudes and Western societies, potentially contributing to a focus on certain types of settings and benefits. Social scientists have been the most active researchers in this field. Contributions from ecologists are few in number, perhaps hindering the identification of key ecological features of the natural environment that deliver human benefits. Although many types of benefits have been studied, benefits to physical health, cognitive performance and psychological well-being have received much more attention than the social or spiritual benefits of interacting with nature, despite the potential for important consequences arising from the latter. The evidence for most benefits is correlational, and although there are several experimental studies, little as yet is known about the mechanisms that are important for delivering these benefits. For example, we do not know which characteristics of natural settings (e.g., biodiversity, level of disturbance, proximity, accessibility) are most important for triggering a beneficial interaction, and how these characteristics vary in importance among cultures, geographic regions and socio-economic groups. These are key directions for future research if we are to design landscapes that promote high quality interactions between people and nature in a rapidly urbanising world. PMID:23466828

  15. Arctic Economics Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-01

    AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery,more » costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.« less

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  17. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, G. E.; Daellenbach, K. K.; Hughes, K. R.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps. The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a 'supply side' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a 'demand side' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research; and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  18. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G E; Daellenbach, K K; Hughes, K R; Brown, D R; Drost, M K

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a supply side'' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a demand side'' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  19. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE`s thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a ``supply side`` limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a ``demand side`` limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  20. Economic Value of Weather and Climate Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Richard W.; Murphy, Allan H.

    1997-06-01

    Weather and climate extremes can significantly impact the economics of a region. This book examines how weather and climate forecasts can be used to mitigate the impact of the weather on the economy. Interdisciplinary in scope, it explores the meteorological, economic, psychological, and statistical aspects of weather prediction. Chapters by area specialists provide a comprehensive view of this timely topic. They encompass forecasts over a wide range of temporal scales, from weather over the next few hours to the climate months or seasons ahead, and address the impact of these forecasts on human behavior. Economic Value of Weather and Climate Forecasts seeks to determine the economic benefits of existing weather forecasting systems and the incremental benefits of improving these systems, and will be an interesting and essential text for economists, statisticians, and meteorologists.

  1. The Economic Case for Combating Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Mark; Robinson, Matthew; Wei, Kuangyi; Rublin, David

    2013-01-01

    To date, existing studies focus largely on the economic detriments of malaria. However, if we are to create suitable incentives for larger-scale, more sustained anti-malaria efforts from a wider group of stakeholders, we need a much better understanding of the economic benefits of malaria reduction and elimination. Our report seeks to rectify this disjuncture by showing how attaining the funding needed to meet internationally agreed targets for malaria elimination would, on conservative assumptions, generate enormous economic improvements. We use a cost-benefit analysis anchored in Global Malaria Action Plan projections of malaria eradication based on fully met funding goals. By calculating the value of economic output accrued caused by work years saved and subtracting the costs of intervention, we find that malaria reduction and elimination during 2013–2035 has a 2013 net present value of US $208.6 billion. PMID:24197172

  2. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

  3. The economic case for combating malaria.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Mark; Robinson, Matthew; Wei, Kuangyi; Rublin, David

    2013-11-01

    To date, existing studies focus largely on the economic detriments of malaria. However, if we are to create suitable incentives for larger-scale, more sustained anti-malaria efforts from a wider group of stakeholders, we need a much better understanding of the economic benefits of malaria reduction and elimination. Our report seeks to rectify this disjuncture by showing how attaining the funding needed to meet internationally agreed targets for malaria elimination would, on conservative assumptions, generate enormous economic improvements. We use a cost-benefit analysis anchored in Global Malaria Action Plan projections of malaria eradication based on fully met funding goals. By calculating the value of economic output accrued caused by work years saved and subtracting the costs of intervention, we find that malaria reduction and elimination during 2013-2035 has a 2013 net present value of US $208.6 billion. PMID:24197172

  4. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  5. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  6. Essays in public economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  7. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  8. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shashi K

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) wrote "in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise." Plato (427-347 BC) referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129-217 AD) penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22807642

  9. Economic analysis in health care research.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Diaa E E

    2008-04-01

    There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles. PMID:19143119

  10. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  11. Model confirmation in climate economics.

    PubMed

    Millner, Antony; McDermott, Thomas K J

    2016-08-01

    Benefit-cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world. To the extent that BC-IAMs are used as inputs to policy selection, our confidence in their quantitative outputs must depend on the empirical validity of their modeling assumptions. We have a degree of confidence in climate models both because they have been tested on historical data in hindcasting experiments and because the physical principles they are based on have been empirically confirmed in closely related applications. By contrast, the economic components of BC-IAMs often rely on untestable scenarios, or on structural models that are comparatively untested on relevant time scales. Where possible, an approach to model confirmation similar to that used in climate science could help to build confidence in the economic components of BC-IAMs, or focus attention on which components might need refinement for policy applications. We illustrate the potential benefits of model confirmation exercises by performing a long-run hindcasting experiment with one of the leading BC-IAMs. We show that its model of long-run economic growth-one of its most important economic components-had questionable predictive power over the 20th century. PMID:27432964

  12. EERE Portfolio. Primary Benefits Metrics for FY09

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for both the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies as well as the individual technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  13. Projected Benefits of EERE’s Portfolio. FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-11-17

    This collection of data tables and charts shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  14. Program Benefits of Individual EERE Programs. FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-11-01

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for individual renewable energy technologies in the EERE portfolio. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  15. Projected Benefits of Individual EERE Programs (primary and secondary)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for individual renewable energy technologies in the EERE portfolio. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  16. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  17. On the Fringe of Benefits: Child Care and Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.

    The traditional separation of the worlds of work and family, reflected in the sociologies of Parson and Weber, is changing due to alterations in demographic, economic, and corporate conditions. Corporate interest and involvement in providing various family support benefits to employees has recently increased. Day care is being discussed in…

  18. 26 CFR 53.4958-4 - Excess benefit transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contemporaneous evidence may be used to demonstrate that the appropriate decision-making body or an officer... a significant business purpose or exempt purpose of its own. (iv) Examples. The following examples... economic benefits to or for the use of F, H acted with a significant business purpose or exempt purpose...

  19. Environmental benefits of growing perennial legumes in cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa offers several environmental benefits to farmers and society. Reduced nitrate leaching due to slower water flow and excellent nitrate removal are valuable in farm fields and at remediation sites. Improved N supply to following crops reduces energy use, economic costs, and greenhouse gas emis...

  20. Intellectual Property Issues: Technology Licensing--Costs versus Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gering, Thomas; Schmied, Helwig

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of patent policies of universities in France, Great Britain, Germany, and the United States suggests that, although U.S. institutions' policies are far better developed, the European universities are capable of the same success, even within existing administrative frameworks. Economic, scientific, and national development benefits are…

  1. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  2. The Economics of Malnourished Children: An Example of Disinvestment in Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selowsky, Marcelo; Taylor, Lance

    1973-01-01

    Report of a set of tentative estimates of the economic impact of infant malnutrition in Santiago, Chile. The economic costs and benefits of alleviating malnutrition are discussed in terms of their policy implications. (EH)

  3. Economic measurement of environment damages

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  4. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market of allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  5. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section 102-75.900 Public Contracts and Property... negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means... community's economic benefit. This type of negotiated sale is acceptable where the expected public...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.900 - What is a negotiated sale for economic development purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sale for economic development purposes? 102-75.900 Section 102-75.900 Public Contracts and Property... negotiated sale for economic development purposes? A negotiated sale for economic development purposes means... community's economic benefit. This type of negotiated sale is acceptable where the expected public...

  8. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

  9. 26 CFR 1.419-1T - Treatment of welfare benefit funds. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... year for which section 461(h) is effective, pursuant to the authority under section 461(h)(2), economic performance occurs as contributions to the welfare benefit fund are made. Solely for purposes of section...

  10. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  11. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  12. Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Rich

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the role technology plays in a school district, district personnel should know the costs associated with technology, understand the consequences of technology purchases, and be able to measure the benefits of technology, so they can make more informed decisions. However, determining costs and benefits of current technology or…

  13. Fringe Benefits. SPEC Kit 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Based on analyses of 91 documents on fringe benefits received from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in 1978, a concise summary presents observations and statistics on sabbatical leaves, insurance, retirement, education and campus-related benefits, trends, and needs. It is concluded that pressures for improving fringe…

  14. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  15. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... rewrite in plain language its regulations that govern entitlement to monetary burial benefits, which... published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2008 (73 FR 19,021), VA proposed to reorganize and rewrite in plain language provisions applicable to burial benefits. This proposed rule would build upon...

  16. The Economic Impacts of Maryland Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linthicum, Dorothy S.

    The problem addressed in this study is the identification of economic benefits generated by the 17 Maryland community colleges, and their associated costs. Figures for fiscal year 1977 are used to assess the statewide impact of the community colleges on the business sector, in terms of total impact of expenditures by the colleges and their staffs,…

  17. Economic Evaluation of Home Visiting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    Reviews important factors relevant to measuring the costs and outcomes of home visiting programs and examines six cost-benefit studies of such programs. Concludes that these studies demonstrate the feasibility of economic evaluation of home visiting and the importance of the insights it can produce. (MDM)

  18. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  19. Item Analysis in Introductory Economics Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinari, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)

  20. The Economic Impact of Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.; Sanderson, Allen R.; McHenry, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This essay describes methodological approaches and pitfalls common to studies of the economic impact of colleges and universities. Such studies often claim local benefits that imply annualized rates of return on local investment exceeding 100 percent. We address problems in these studies pertaining to the specification of the counterfactual, the…

  1. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  2. Highway noise barrier perceived benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. N.; Osman, M. M.

    1980-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed in which 82 subjects judged the benefit of a noise barrier by listening to tape recordings of before-barrier and after-barrier traffic noise. These perceived benefit judgments were related by regression analysis to the barrier attenuation, the before-barrier traffic sound level, and a music background level, all of which were varied over the course of the experiment. Prediction equations were developed for barrier benefit in terms of these sound levels, their purpose being to provide a model for barrier benefit that can be used in barrier site selection and design. An unexpected finding was that barrier benefit was highest when before-barrier sound levels were lowest: i.e., subjects preferred a noise barrier that solved a moderate noise problem over an equally-attenuating barrier that only partially solved a more severe noise problem.

  3. Quantifying the benefits to the national economy from secondary applications of NASA technology, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of systematically quantifying the economic benefits of secondary applications of NASA related R and D was investigated. Based upon the tools of economic theory and econometric analysis, a set of empirical methods was developed and selected applications were made to demonstrate their workability. Analyses of the technological developments related to integrated circuits, cryogenic insulation, gas turbines, and computer programs for structural analysis indicated substantial secondary benefits accruing from NASA's R and D in these areas.

  4. Quantifying the benefits to the national economy from secondary applications of NASA technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of systematically quantifying the economic benefits of secondary applications of NASA related R and D is investigated. Based upon the tools of economic theory and econometric analysis, it develops a set of empirical methods and makes selected applications to demonstrate their workability. Analyses of the technological developments related to integrated circuits, cryogenic insulation, gas turbines, and computer programs for structural analysis indicated substantial secondary benefits accruing from NASA's R and D in these areas.

  5. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  6. Benefits of mercury controls for the United States

    PubMed Central

    Selin, Noelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury pollution poses risks for both human and ecosystem health. As a consequence, controlling mercury pollution has become a policy goal on both global and national scales. We developed an assessment method linking global-scale atmospheric chemical transport modeling to regional-scale economic modeling to consistently evaluate the potential benefits to the United States of global (UN Minamata Convention on Mercury) and domestic [Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)] policies, framed as economic gains from avoiding mercury-related adverse health endpoints. This method attempts to trace the policies-to-impacts path while taking into account uncertainties and knowledge gaps with policy-appropriate bounding assumptions. We project that cumulative lifetime benefits from the Minamata Convention for individuals affected by 2050 are $339 billion (2005 USD), with a range from $1.4 billion to $575 billion in our sensitivity scenarios. Cumulative economy-wide benefits to the United States, realized by 2050, are $104 billion, with a range from $6 million to $171 billion. Projected Minamata benefits are more than twice those projected from the domestic policy. This relative benefit is robust to several uncertainties and variabilities, with the ratio of benefits (Minamata/MATS) ranging from ≈1.4 to 3. However, we find that for those consuming locally caught freshwater fish from the United States, rather than marine and estuarine fish from the global market, benefits are larger from US than global action, suggesting domestic policies are important for protecting these populations. Per megagram of prevented emissions, our domestic policy scenario results in US benefits about an order of magnitude higher than from our global scenario, further highlighting the importance of domestic action. PMID:26712021

  7. Benefits of mercury controls for the United States.

    PubMed

    Giang, Amanda; Selin, Noelle E

    2016-01-12

    Mercury pollution poses risks for both human and ecosystem health. As a consequence, controlling mercury pollution has become a policy goal on both global and national scales. We developed an assessment method linking global-scale atmospheric chemical transport modeling to regional-scale economic modeling to consistently evaluate the potential benefits to the United States of global (UN Minamata Convention on Mercury) and domestic [Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)] policies, framed as economic gains from avoiding mercury-related adverse health endpoints. This method attempts to trace the policies-to-impacts path while taking into account uncertainties and knowledge gaps with policy-appropriate bounding assumptions. We project that cumulative lifetime benefits from the Minamata Convention for individuals affected by 2050 are $339 billion (2005 USD), with a range from $1.4 billion to $575 billion in our sensitivity scenarios. Cumulative economy-wide benefits to the United States, realized by 2050, are $104 billion, with a range from $6 million to $171 billion. Projected Minamata benefits are more than twice those projected from the domestic policy. This relative benefit is robust to several uncertainties and variabilities, with the ratio of benefits (Minamata/MATS) ranging from ≈1.4 to 3. However, we find that for those consuming locally caught freshwater fish from the United States, rather than marine and estuarine fish from the global market, benefits are larger from US than global action, suggesting domestic policies are important for protecting these populations. Per megagram of prevented emissions, our domestic policy scenario results in US benefits about an order of magnitude higher than from our global scenario, further highlighting the importance of domestic action. PMID:26712021

  8. The behavioral economics of violence.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  9. Health economic evaluation in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, James

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 National Health Service Constitution for England specified rights and responsibilities, including health economic evaluation for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations. The National Screening Committee and the Health Protection Agency also provide advice to the Government based on health economic evaluation. Each agency largely follows the methods specified by NICE. To distinguish the methods from neoclassical economics they have been termed "extra-welfarist". Key differences include measurement and valuation of both benefits (QALYs) and costs (healthcare related). Policy on discounting has also changed over time and by agency. The debate over having NICE's methods align more closely with neoclassical economics has been prominent in the ongoing development of "value based pricing". The political unacceptability of some decisions has led to special funding for technologies not recommended by NICE. These include the 2002 Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme and the 2010 Cancer Drugs Fund as well as special arrangements for technologies linked to the end of life and for innovation. Since 2009 Patient Access Schemes have made price reductions possible which sometimes enables drugs to meet NICE's cost-effectiveness thresholds. As a result, the National Health Service in England has denied few technologies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25444294

  10. Economic Evaluation of Health IT.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Daniela; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Tamburis, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in health care supports decision makers in prioritizing interventions and maximizing the available limited resources for social benefits. Health Information Technology (health IT) constitutes a promising strategy to improve the quality and delivery of health care. However, to determine whether the appropriate health IT solution has been selected in a specific health context, its impact on the clinical and organizational process, on costs, on user satisfaction as well as on patient outcomes, a rigorous and multidimensional evaluation analysis is necessary. Starting from the principles of evaluation introduced since the mid-1980s within the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines, this contribution provides an overview of the main challenging issues related to the complex task of performing an economic evaluation of health IT. A set of necessary key principles to deliver a proper design and implementation of a multidimensional economic evaluation study is described, focusing in particular on the classification of costs and outcomes as well as on the type of economic analysis to be performed. A case study is eventually described to show how the key principles introduced are applied. PMID:27198101

  11. Social and Economic Consequences of Indian Gaming in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kenneth W., II; Spilde, Katherine A.; Taylor, Jonathan B.

    2004-01-01

    The balancing framework of Indian gaming as it operates in Oklahoma constrains Oklahoma Indian nations from operating facilities according to the dictates of the marketplace on a large-scale Class III basis. Indian gaming actually brings substantial net economic benefits to the state, contrary to claims that Oklahoma Indian gaming benefits come at…

  12. Contributions and Shortfalls: Economic Analysis and Non-Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John M.

    Education in general and specific educational projects fit into the construct of the allocation of investment resources that is basic to economic theory. Two techniques of computing returns to education and education projects are benefit-cost ratios and rates of return, which both rely on measuring costs and benefits. While measuring costs is…

  13. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume. PMID:21679738

  14. 29 CFR 4022.24 - Benefit increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit increases. 4022.24 Section 4022.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Limitations on Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.24 Benefit...

  15. 29 CFR 4022.24 - Benefit increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benefit increases. 4022.24 Section 4022.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Limitations on Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.24 Benefit...

  16. 29 CFR 4022.24 - Benefit increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benefit increases. 4022.24 Section 4022.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Limitations on Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.24 Benefit...

  17. 29 CFR 4022.24 - Benefit increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benefit increases. 4022.24 Section 4022.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Limitations on Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.24 Benefit...

  18. 29 CFR 4022.24 - Benefit increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benefit increases. 4022.24 Section 4022.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Limitations on Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.24 Benefit...

  19. Researching the Benefits of Learning: The Persuasive Power of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed considerable growth of research on the benefits of adult learning. Much of this is UK-based, and draws on evidence from large scale longitudinal data sets. Overwhelmingly, these studies have found clear evidence of economic, social and individual benefits as a result of participating in adult learning. While these…

  20. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  1. Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and…

  2. The Dollars and Cents of Investing Early: Cost-Benefit Analysis in Early Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, James; Grunewald, Rob; Reynolds, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Heckman et al. discuss how cost-benefit analysis of prekindergarten education programs demonstrates that the highest per child benefits stem from programs that focus on economically disadvantaged children. Indeed, studies have shown that these children make significant gains in cognition, social-emotional development, and educational performance…

  3. Acid deposition control benefits as problematic

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    The author argues that the government's mistaken beliefs downgrade the benefits of acid deposition control, and may misdirect research of the effects of acid rain upon natural and human systems. It can be argued as to whether or not the factors (generally existing prices and yield changes from current standing stocks of environmental goods) upon which the $5 billion estimate for control was built have a major or minor influence upon the true economic consequences of acid deposition. As the application of Bayes' rule demonstrates, any lessening in arbitrariness of numerical assignments to the factors could lead to a major revision in the estimate. Assessment stories probably contribute to the paralysis of political will even though their truth value is small.

  4. Employment benefits of urban synfuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; McCarthy, K.; Nagle, J.; South, D.

    1982-06-01

    The construction and operation of a synthetic fuel plant could significantly reduce local unemployment. Two synfuel technologies and two urban areas are studied in this report. HYGAS coal gasification and SRC-II coal liquefaction were used since they are near commercial development and have detailed work force estimates. Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, were chosen for their similar economic structures and their proximity to coal supplies. The employment benefits of a synfuel facility in an urban area are influenced by several assumptions. The level of occupational mobility between specific jobs affects the proportion of local to in-migrant workers. Also, estimates of total employment depend on the multiplier chosen to estimate secondary employment. In general, however, a gasification plant reduces unemployment more than a liquefaction plant, and either type of plant brings about a greater drop in the local unemployment rate in Buffalo than in Cleveland. As unemployment drops, public expenditures and unemployment compensation are proportionately reduced.

  5. Teaching Economics Using Historical Novels: Jonathan Harr's "The Lost Painting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotti, Chad; Johnson, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students are often interested in and benefit greatly from applications of economic principles. Historical novels drawn from real-world situations can engage students with economic concepts in new ways and provide a useful tool to help enhance instruction. In this article, the authors discuss the use of historical novels generally in…

  6. The Economic Payoff to Investing in Educational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The quest for educational equity is a moral imperative for a society in which education is a crucial determinant of life chances. Yet whether there is an economic return to the taxpayer for investing in educational justice is often not considered. It is possible that the economic benefits of reducing inadequate education exceed the costs,…

  7. Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    2003-01-01

    Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

  8. The Economics of Education Tax Credits. Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, E. G.

    Based on the view that tuition tax credits will benefit all taxpayers, this report examines the history and economics of educational financing to furnish a background for an explanation of current proposals to provide tuition tax credits. The author begins with five theoretical economic models of school finance designed to explain the logic of…

  9. Economic Education: Making the Most of the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourilsky, Marilyn

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that economic literacy will be fostered if economic concepts such as scarcity, cost-benefit analysis, supply and demand, production, consumption, and money and barter are introduced to elementary school children and included in the social studies curriculum in increasingly complex fashion throughout high school. Ways of helping teachers…

  10. Economic analysis of new space transportation systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    An economic analysis of alternative space transportation systems is presented. Results indicate that the expendable systems represent modest investments, but the recurring costs of operation would remain high. The space shuttle and tug system requires a substantial investment, but would substantially reduce the recurring costs of operation. Economic benefits and costs of the different systems are also analyzed. Findings are summarized.

  11. Application of Economic Indicators to Asses the Bridges of Rehablitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitoňák, Martin; Valuch, Milan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to point out the advantage of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and its economic indicators to assess a rehabilitation of bridges. The paper includes short example of assessment of the project economic efficiency in which economic indicators are applied in order to evaluate of two technology project variants of bridge object rehabilitation. It quantifies and compares the economic results of alternative 1 with the monolithic prestress construction and alternative 2, with the composite steel - concrete bridge. The contribution reflects the current practice of economic analysis recommended by the Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development.

  12. 76 FR 27889 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  13. 76 FR 21252 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  14. 76 FR 2578 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  15. 75 FR 63380 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  16. 78 FR 49682 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  17. 76 FR 70639 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  18. 77 FR 41270 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  19. 77 FR 22215 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...

  20. 77 FR 68685 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in...